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Sample records for advanced plutonium processing

  1. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today's laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  2. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C.; Miller, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today's laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  3. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, George F. III; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  4. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  5. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  6. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-09-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeese, J.A.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  9. Design of plutonium processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, W.; Sills, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Five considerations for the design of plutonium processing facilities are identified. These are: Toxicity, Radiation, Criticality, Containment and Remote Operation. They are examined with reference to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and application is detailed both for liquid and dry processes. (author)

  10. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  11. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  12. Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L.; Reid, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

  13. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  14. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [fr

  15. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1995-01-01

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  16. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  17. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  18. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-06-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium

  19. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, S.; Beard, C.; Buksa, J.; Butt, D.; Chidester, K.; Havrilla, G.; Ramsey, K.

    1997-01-01

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium. (author)

  20. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph.; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J.P.; Guillet, J.L.; Poinot, Ch.; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-01-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1 . More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate

  1. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  2. PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION PROCESS EMPLOYING THORIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.L.

    1959-04-28

    The separation and purification of plutonium from the radioactive elements of lower atomic weight is described. The process of this invention comprises forming a 0.5 to 2 M aqueous acidffc solution containing plutonium fons in the tetravalent state and elements with which it is normally contaminated in neutron irradiated uranium, treating the solution with a double thorium compound and a soluble pyrophosphate compound (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) whereby a carrier precipitate of thorium A method is presented of reducing neptunium and - trite is advantageous since it destroys any hydrazine f so that they can be removed from solutions in which they are contained is described. In the carrier precipitation process for the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products including zirconium and columbium, the precipitated blsmuth phosphate carries some zirconium, columbium, and uranium impurities. According to the invention such impurities can be complexed and removed by dissolving the contaminated carrier precipitate in 10M nitric acid, followed by addition of fluosilicic acid to about 1M, diluting the solution to about 1M in nitric acid, and then adding phosphoric acid to re-precipitate bismuth phosphate carrying plutonium.

  3. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  4. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high 239 Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations

  5. Effect of compositional variation in plutonium on process shielding design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.H.

    1997-11-01

    Radiation dose rate from plutonium with high {sup 239}Pu content varies with initial nuclidic content, radioactive decay time, and impurity elemental content. The two idealized states of old plutonium and clean plutonium, whose initial compositions are given, provide approximate upper and lower bounds on dose rate variation. Whole-body dose rates were calculated for the two composition states, using unshielded and shielded plutonium spheres of varying density. The dose rates from these variable density spheres are similar to those from expanded plutonium configurations encountered during processing. The dose location of 40 cm from the sphere center is representative of operator standoff for direct handling of plutonium inside a glove box. The results have shielding implications for glove boxes with only structurally inherent shielding, especially for processing of old plutonium in an expanded configuration. Further reduction in total dose rate by using lead to reduce photon dose rate is shown for two density cases representing compact and expanded plutonium configurations.

  6. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  7. Nuclear fuel: modelling the advanced plutonium assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'kaoua, Th.; Lenain, R.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of modeling in the nuclear sector are illustrated by the example of the design study for a new plutonium fuel assembly, APA, capable of ensuring maximum consumption of this fuel in pressurized-water reactors. Beyond the physical design of the assembly and its integration into the reactor, this serves for the working out of a complete materials flow and assists in modeling production from the entire inventory of nuclear power stations. (authors)

  8. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  9. Method of processing plutonium and uranium solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Kondo, Isao; Suzuki, Toru.

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of plutonium nitrate solutions and uranyl nitrate recovered in the solvent extraction step in reprocessing plants and nuclear fuel production plants are applied with low temperature treatment by means of freeze-drying under vacuum into residues containing nitrates, which are denitrated under heating and calcined under reduction into powders. That is, since complicate processes of heating, concentration and dinitration conducted so far for the plutonium solution and uranyl solution are replaced with one step of freeze-drying under vacuum, the process can be simplified significantly. In addition, since the treatment is applied at low temperature, occurrence of corrosion for the material of evaporation, etc. can be prevented. Further, the number of operators can be saved by dividing the operations into recovery of solidification products, supply and sintering of the solutions and vacuum sublimation. Further, since nitrates processed at a low temperature are powderized by heating dinitration, the powderization step can be simplified. The specific surface area and the grain size distribution of the powder is made appropriate and it is possible to obtain oxide powders of physical property easily to be prepared into pellets. (N.H.)

  10. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.; Babcock, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  11. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  12. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  13. Continuous precipitation process of plutonium salts; Procede continu de precipitation des sels de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    This work concerns the continuous precipitation process of plutonium oxalate. Investigations about the solubility of different valence states in nitric-oxalic and in nitric-sulfuric-oxalic medium lead to select the precipitation process of tetravalent plutonium oxalate. Settling velocity and granulometry of tetravalent oxalate plutonium have been studied with variation of several precipitation parameters such as: temperature, acidity, excess of oxalic acid and aging time. Then are given test results of some laboratory continuous apparatus. Conditions of operation with adopted tubular apparatus are defined in conclusion. A flow-sheet is given for a process at industrial scale. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur la precipitation continue de l'oxalate de plutonium. L'etude de la solubilite des differentes valences du plutonium dans des milieux acides nitrique-oxalique, puis nitrique-sulfurique-oxalique conduit a choisir la precipitation de l'oxalate de plutonium tetravalent. L'etude porte ensuite sur la sedimentation et la granulometrie de l'oxalate de Pu{sup 4+} obtenue en faisant varier differents parametres de la precipitation : la temperature, l'acidite, l'exces oxalique et le temps de murissement. La derniere partie traite des resultats obtenus avec plusieurs types d'appareils continus essayes au laboratoire. En conclusion sont donnees les conditions de marche de l'appareil tubulaire adopte, ainsi qu'une extrapolation a l'echelle industrielle sous forme d'un flow-sheet. (auteur)

  14. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Gallegos, U.F.; McFarlan, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Several plutonium contaminated residues have been subjected to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. OGMS experiments on graphite and bomb reduction residues resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. Values for the bulk quantity rejected to the lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the lean fraction plutonium content was too high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. 6 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  15. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1989-03-01

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.) [de

  16. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Discovery of the neutron made it easy to create elements which do not exist in nature. One of these is plutonium, and its isotope with mass number 239 has nuclear properties which make it both a good fuel for nuclear power reactors and a good explosive for nuclear weapons. Since it was discovered during a war the latter characteristic was put to use, but it is now evident that use of plutonium in a particular kind of nuclear reactor, the fast breeder reactor, will allow the world's resources of uranium to last for millennia as a major source of energy. Plutonium is very radiotoxic, resembling radium in this respect. Therefore the widespread introduction of fast breeder reactors to meet energy demands can be contemplated only after assurances on two points; that adequate control of the radiological hazard resulting from the handling of very large amounts of plutonium can be guaranteed, and that diversion of plutonium to illicit use can be prevented. The problems exist to a lesser degree already, since all types of nuclear reactor produce some plutonium. Some plutonium has already been dispersed in the environment, the bulk of it from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. (author)

  17. Inert atmosphere system for plutonium processing gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, C.F.; Calkins, K.W.; Rogers, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce fire hazards in plutonium processing operations are described. In such operations, the major environmental controls are developed through various kinds of glovebox systems. In evaluating the air-atmosphere glovebox systems, formerly in use at Rocky Flats and many other plants, a decision was made to convert to a recirculating ''inert'' atmosphere. The inert atmosphere consists of nitrogen, supplied from an on-site generating plant, diluting oxygen content to one to 5 percent by volume. Problems encountered during the change over included: determination of all factors influencing air leakage into the system, and reducing leakage to the practical minimum; meeting all fire and safety standards on the filter plenum and exhaust systems; provision for converting portions of the system to an air atmosphere to conduct maintenance work; inclusion of oxygen analyzers throughout the system to check gas quality and monitor for leaks; and the use of automatic controls to protect against a variety of potential malfunctions. The current objectives to reduce fire hazards have been met and additional safeguards were added. The systems are operating satisfactorily. (U.S.)

  18. Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  19. An advanced purex process based on salt-free reductants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hui; Ye, Guoan; Tang, Hongbin; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Gaoliang; Lin, Rushan [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Dept. of Radiochemistry

    2014-04-01

    An advanced plutonium and uranium recovery process has been established based on two organic reductants, N,N-dimethylhydroxylamine (DMHAN) and methylhydrazine (MH), as U/Pu separation reagents. This Advanced Purex process based on Organic Reductants (APOR) is composed of three cycles, including U/Pu co-decontamination/separation cycle, uranium purification cycle and plutonium purification cycle. Using DMHAN and MH as plutonium stripping reagents in the U/Pu co-decontamination/separation cycle and plutonium purification cycle, the APOR process exhibits high performance with following highlights: (1) the process is much simpler because of the elimination of Tc scrubbing operation and the supplement extraction operation, (2) high efficiency of U/Pu separation can be achieved in the first cycle, (3) plutonium product solution of high concentration can be obtained in the Pu purification cycle with a simple extraction operation instead of circumfluent extraction or evaporation of the plutonium solution. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; Hammelman, J.E.; Miller, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator is developed to provide a means of predicting plutonium inventory on a continuous basis. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization equations, which describe nucleation and growth phenomena. The model parameters were obtained through the use of batch experimental data. The model has been used to study the approach to steady state, to investigate the response to input transients, and to simulate the control of the precipitation process. 12 refs

  1. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium, which was obtained and identified for the first time in 1941 by chemist Glenn Seaborg - through neutron irradiation of uranium 238 - is closely related to the history of nuclear energy. From the very beginning, because of the high radiotoxicity of plutonium, a tremendous amount of research work has been devoted to the study of the biological effects and the consequences on the environment. It can be said that plutonium is presently one of the elements, whose nuclear and physico-chemical characteristics are the best known. The first part of this issue is a survey of the knowledge acquired on the subject, which emphasizes the sanitary effects and transfer into the environment. Then the properties of plutonium related to energy generation are dealt with. Fissionable, like uranium 235, plutonium has proved a high-performance nuclear fuel. Originally used in breeder reactors, it is now being more and more widely recycled in light water reactors, in MOX fuel. Reprocessing, recycling and manufacturing of these new types of fuel, bound of become more and more widespread, are now part of a self-consistent series of operations, whose technical, economical, industrial and strategical aspects are reviewed. (author)

  2. Process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heremanns, R.H.; Vandersteene, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for recovery of plutonium from fabrication residues of mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide in the form of PuO 2 . Mixed fuels consisting of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide are being used more and more. The plants which prepare these mixed fuels have around 5% of the total mass of fuels as fabrication residue, either as waste or scrap. In view of the high cost of plutonium, it has been attempted to recover this plutonium from the fabrication residues by a process having a purchase price lower than the price of plutonium. The problem is essentially to separate the plutonium, the uranium and the impurities. The residues are fluorinated, the UF 6 and PuF 6 obtained are separated by selective absorption of the PuF 6 on NaF at a temperature of at least 400 0 C, the complex obtained by this absorption is dissolved in nitric acid solution, the plutonium is precipitated in the form of plutonium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, and the precipitated plutonium oxalate is calcined

  3. Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Christiansen, K.; Wollesen, M.

    1979-01-01

    As emotions and fear of plutonium are neither useful for the non-professionals nor for the political decision makers and the advantages and disadvantages of plutonium can only put against each other under difficulties, the paper wants to present the most essential scientific data of plutonium in a generally understandable way. Each of the individual sections is concluded and they try to give an answer to the most discussed questions. In order to make understanding easier, the scientific facts are only brought at points where it cannot be done without for the correctness of the presentation. Many details were left out knowingly. On the other hand, important details are dealt with several times if it seems necessary for making the presentation correct. The graphical presentations and the figures in many cases contain more than said in the text. They give the interested reader hints to scientific-technical coherences. The total material is to enable the reader to form his own opinion on plutonium problems which are being discussed in public. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Plutonium scrap processing at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.E.; McKerley, B.J.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory currently has the newest plutonium handling facility in the nation. Los Alamos has been active in the processing of plutonium almost since the discovery of this man-made element in 1941. One of the functions of the new facility is the processing of plutonium scrap generated at LASL and other sites. The feed for the scrap processing program is extremely varied, and a wide variety of contaminants are often encountered. Depending upon the scrap matrix and contaminants present, the majority of material receives a nitric acid/hydrofluoric acid or nitric acid/calcium fluoride leach. The plutonium nitrate solutions are then loaded onto an anion exchange column charged with DOWEX 1 x 4, 50 to 100 mesh, nitrate form resin. The column is eluted with 0.48 M hydroxyl amine nitrate. The Pu(NO 3 ) 3 is then precipitated as plutonium III oxalate which is calcined at 450 to 500 0 C to yield a purified PuO 2 product

  5. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    A horizontal, agitated film concentrator designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high solid content slurry is briefly described. The Rototherm unit is being studied for use at US Department of Energy facilities to handle large quantities of aqueous plutonium solutions. Capabilities for evaporating more than 98% of the water present in a single pass have been demonstrated. Decontamination factors of 10 6 to 10 7 are expected. The unit may also be useful for recycling aqueous waste treatment reagents from the decontamination of gaseous diffusion plants

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  7. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  8. A portable concentrator for processing plutonium containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a horizontal, compact agitated-film concentrator called a Rototherm, manufactured by Artisan Industries, Inc. which can be used to process aqueous solutions of radioactive wastes containing plutonium. The unit is designed to concentrate liquid streams to a high-solid content slurry

  9. Some plutonium IV polymers properties in Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoazec, H.; Pasquiou, J.Y.; Germain, M.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of plutonium polymers in fuel reprocessing using the Purex process with tributylphosphate as solvent, and its practical consequence in real operation conditions are examined. Precipitation with dibutylphosphoric acid, a solvent degradation product, occurs both in extraction and stripping units when polymers are present. (author)

  10. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  11. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  12. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  13. Impact of receipt of coprocessed uranium/plutonium on advanced accountability concepts and fabrication facilities. Addendum 1 to application of advanced accountability concepts in mixed oxide fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, J.J.; Jump, M.J.; Lange, R.A.; Randall, C.C.

    1977-11-01

    The Phase I study of the application of advanced accountability methods (DYMAC) in a uranium/plutonium mixed oxide facility was extended to assess the effect of coprocessed UO 2 --PuO 2 feed on the observations made in the original Phase I effort and on the proposed Phase II program. The retention of plutonium mixed with uranium throughout the process was also considered. This addendum reports that coprocessed feed would have minimal effect on the DYMAC program, except in the areas of material specifications, starting material delivery schedule, and labor requirements. Each of these areas is addressed, as are the impact of coprocessed feed at a large fuel fabrication facility and the changes needed in the dirty scrap recovery process to maintain the lower plutonium levels which may be required by future nonproliferation philosophy. An amended schedule for Phase II is included

  14. Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , PuCl 3 , AmCl 3 , PuO 2 , and Pu 0 . This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl 2 salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO 3 -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste

  15. Processing plutonium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, K.; Moroney, J. III; Turney, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a cleanup project to process plutonium- and americium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll for volume reduction. Thermo Analytical's (TMA's) segmented gate system (SGS) for this remedial operation has been in successful on-site operation since 1992. Topics covered include the basis for development, a description of the Johnston Atoll; the significance of results; the benefits of the technology; applicability to other radiologically contaminated sites. 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  17. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ''Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs

  18. The chemistry of plutonium in sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, M.H.; Haire, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of plutonium chemical behavior conducted in conjunction with plutonia sol-gel process development at ORNL are described. The colloidal solutions produced consist of 'Pu(IV) polymer,' and this is therefore the study of polymeric plutonium behavior. Spectrophotometric, electron diffraction, and electron microscopy studies, in addition to specific studies that were concerned with the colloidal behavior of Pu(IV) polymer, indicate several characteristics of polymer that are not generally recognized. The particle nature of Pu(IV) polymer indicated by electron microscopy, the amorphous-crystalline characteristics of primary polymer particles demonstrated by electron diffraction, and the reversible and irreversible aggregation of the primary particles shown by spectrophotometric techniques present a useful view of the nature of Pu(IV) polymer that has been helpful in solving or understanding various types of processing problems involving plutonium hydrolytic behavior. The colloidal characteristics of Pu(IV) polymer and crystallite growth of primary polymer particles by thermal denitration are also described. (orig.) [de

  19. Screw calciner mechanical direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souply, K.R.; Sperry, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a screw calciner direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The information should be used when making comparisons of alternative plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion processes or as a basis for further detailed studies. The report contains process flow sheets with a material balance; a process description; and a discussion of the process including history, advantages and disadvantages, and additional research required

  20. Incineration process for plutonium-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.J.; Longuet, T.; Cartier, R.; Chaudon, L.

    1992-01-01

    A reprocessing plant with an annual throughput of 1600 metric tons of fuel generates 50 m 3 of incinerable α-contaminated waste. The reference treatment currently adopted for these wastes is to embed them in cement grout, with a resulting conditioned waste volume of 260 m 3 . The expense of mandatory geological disposal of such volumes justifies examination of less costly alternative solutions. After several years of laboratory and inactive pilot-scale research and development, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has developed a two-step incineration process that is particularly suitable for α-contaminated chlorinated plastic waste. A 4 kg-h -1 pilot unit installed at the Marcoule Nuclear Center has now logged over 3500 hours in operation, during which the operating parameters have been optimized and process performance characteristics have been determined. Laboratory research during the same period has also determined the volatility of transuranic nuclides (U, Am and Pu) under simulated incineration conditions. A 100 g-h -1 laboratory prototype has been set up to obtain data for designing the industrial pilot facility

  1. Dry sample storage system for an analytical laboratory supporting plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treibs, H.A.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Griebenow, B.L.; Wade, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Special Isotope Separation (SIS) plant is designed to provide removal of undesirable isotopes in fuel grade plutonium by the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. The AVLIS process involves evaporation of plutonium metal, and passage of an intense beam of light from a laser through the plutonium vapor. The laser beam consists of several discrete wavelengths, tuned to the precise wavelength required to ionize the undesired isotopes. These ions are attracted to charged plates, leaving the bulk of the plutonium vapor enriched in the desired isotopes to be collected on a cold plate. Major portions of the process consist of pyrochemical processes, including direct reduction of the plutonium oxide feed material with calcium metal, and aqueous processes for purification of plutonium in residues. The analytical laboratory for the plant is called the Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL), and provides for the analysis of solid and liquid process samples

  2. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  3. Modelling of uranium/plutonium splitting in purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Baron, P.

    1987-06-01

    A mathematical model simulating the highly complex uranium/plutonium splitting operation in PUREX process has been achieved by the french ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique''. The development of such a model, which includes transfer and redox reactions kinetics for all the species involved, required an important experimental work in the field of basis chemical data acquisition. The model has been successfully validated by comparison of its results with those of specific trials achieved (at laboratory scale), and with the available results of the french reprocessing units operation. It has then been used for the design of french new plants splitting operations

  4. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  5. Treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes by electrogenerated Ag(II): a new, simple and efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Saulze, J.L.; Bourges, J.; Lecomte, M.; Koehly, G.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is a very attractive technique for managing plutonium contaminated solid wastes, allowing for large volume and mass reduction factors. After waste incineration, the plutonium is concentrated in the ashes and an efficient method must be designed for its recovery. To achieve this goal, a process based on the dissolution of plutonium in nitric solution under the agressive action of electrogenerated Ag(II) was developed. This process is very simple, requiring very few steps. Plutonium recovery yields up to 98% can be obtained and, in addition, the plutonium bearing solutions generated by the treatment can be processed by the PUREX technique for plutonium recovery. This process constitutes the basis for the development of industrial facilities: 1) a pilot facility is being built in MARCOULE (COGEMA, UP1 plant), to treat active ash in 1990; 2) an industrial facility will be built in the MELOX plant under construction at MARCOULE (COGEMA plant)

  6. The benefits of an advanced fast reactor fuel cycle for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; McFarlane, H.F.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The United States has no program to investigate advanced nuclear fuel cycles for the large-scale consumption of plutonium from military and civilian sources. The official U.S. position has been to focus on means to bury spent nuclear fuel from civilian reactors and to achieve the spent fuel standard for excess separated plutonium, which is considered by policy makers to be an urgent international priority. Recently, the National Research Council published a long awaited report on its study of potential separation and transmutation technologies (STATS), which concluded that in the nuclear energy phase-out scenario that they evaluated, transmutation of plutonium and long-lived radioisotopes would not be worth the cost. However, at the American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting in June, 1996, the STATS panelists endorsed further study of partitioning to achieve superior waste forms for burial, and suggested that any further consideration of transmutation should be in the context of energy production, not of waste management. 2048 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an active program for the short-term disposition of excess fissile material and a 'focus area' for safe, secure stabilization, storage and disposition of plutonium, but has no current programs for fast reactor development. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to identify the potential advantages of an advanced fast reactor metallic fuel cycle for the long-term management of plutonium. Advantages are discussed

  7. EXPECTED IMPACT OF HANFORD PROCESSING ORGANICS OF PLUTONIUM DURING TANK WASTE SLUDGE RETRIEVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.; WINTERS, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    This document evaluates the potential for extracting plutonium from Hanford waste tanks into residual organic solvents and how this process may have an impact on criticality specifications during the retrieval of wastes. The two controlling factors for concentrating plutonium are the solubility of the plutonium in the wastes and the extraction efficiency of the potential organic extractants that may be found in these wastes. Residual Hanford tank sludges contain plutonium in solid forms that are expected to be primarily insoluble Pu(IV) hydroxides. Evaluation of thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams, documentation on solubility studies of various components in waste tank matrices, and actual analysis of plutonium in tank supernates all indicate that the solubility of Pu in the alkaline waste is on the order of 10 -6 M. Based on an upper limit plutonium solubility of 10 -5 M in high pH and a conservative distribution coefficient for organic extractants of a 0 for plutonium in 30% TBP at 0.07 M HNO 3 ), the estimated concentration for plutonium in the organic phase would be -7 M. This is well below the process control criteria. A significant increase in plutonium solubility or the E a o would have to occur to raise this concentration to the 0.01 M concern level for organics. Measured tank chemical component values, expected operating conditions, and the characteristics of the expected chemistry and extraction mechanisms indicate that concentration of plutonium from Hanford tank residual sludges to associated process organic extractants is significantly below levels of concern

  8. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  9. An environmentally benign plutonium processing future at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has elevated environmental restoration and waste management to major mission areas, and it has established the reduction of wastes from DOE facilities as a major objective. The DOE facilities must now comply with all environmental regulations, including special regulations required of federal facilities. In recognition of this shift in philosophy, the plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has adopted the goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste. Becoming a facility with zero radionuclide and mixed-waste discharge is an extremely challenging goal and one that requires the technical contributions of a multidisciplinary team of experts. While all the technologies necessary to achieve this goal are not yet available, an extensive knowledge base does exist that can be applied to solving the remaining problems. Working toward this goal is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for LANL, but for the nuclear complex of the future

  10. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  11. Continuous Material Balance Reconciliation for a Modern Plutonium Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLARK, THOMASG.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a safeguards approach that can be deployed at any modern plutonium processing facility to increase the level of safeguards assurance and significantly reduce the impact of safeguards on process operations. One of the most perplexing problems facing the designers of plutonium processing facilities is the constraint placed upon the limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The current DOE manual constrains the LEID for Category I and II material balance areas to 2 per cent of active inventory up to a Category II quantity of the material being processed. For 239Pu a Category II quantity is two kilograms. Due to the large material throughput anticipated for some of the modern plutonium facilities, the required LEID cannot be achieved reliably during a nominal two month inventory period, even by using state-of-the-science non-destructive assay (NDA) methods. The most cost-effective and least disruptive solution appears to be increasing the frequency of material balance closure and thus reducing the throughput being measured during each inventory period. Current inventory accounting practices and systems can already provide the book inventory values at any point in time. However, closing the material balance with measured values has typically required the process to be cleaned out, and in-process materials packaged and measured. This process requires one to two weeks of facility down time every two months for each inventory, thus significantly reducing productivity. To provide a solution to this problem, a non-traditional approach is proposed that will include using in-line instruments to provide measurement of the process materials on a near real-time basis. A new software component will be developed that will operate with the standard LANMAS application to provide the running material balance reconciliation, including the calculation of the inventory difference and variance propagation. The combined measurement system and software

  12. Solvent extraction process development for high plutonium fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, R; Selvaraj, P G; Natarajan, R; Raman, V R [Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-06-01

    The purification of high plutonium bearing irradiated fuels using 30% TBP in dodecane diluent requires precise determination of concentration profiles during steady state, transient and process upset conditions. Mathematical models have been developed and a computer code is in use for determining Pu-U concentration profiles in a solvent extraction equipment in a typical reprocessing plant. The process parameters have been optimised for recovery of U and Pu and decontamination from the fission products. This computer code is used to analyse the extraction flow sheets of fuels of two typical Pu-U compositions encountered in Indian fast breeder programme. The analysis include the effect of uncertainty in equilibrium condition prediction by the model and the variation of flows of streams during plant operation. The studies highlight the margin available to avoid second organic phase formation and adjustments required in the process flowsheet. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Advanced plutonium management in PWR - complementarity of thorium and uranium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernoult, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the possibility of advanced management of plutonium in existing reactors, 8 strategies for plutonium multi-recycling in PWRs are studied. Following equilibrium studies, it was shown that, by using homogeneous assemblies, the use of thorium cannot reduce the plutonium inventory of equilibrium cycle or production of americium. By distributing the different fuel types within the same assembly, some thoriated strategies allow however lower inventories and lower production americium best strategies using only the uranium cycle. However, in all cases, low fuel conversion theories in PWRs makes it impossible to lower resource consumption more than a few percent compared to strategies without thorium. To study the transition, active participation in development of the scenario code CLASS has been taken. It led to the two simulation scenarios among those studied in equilibrium with CLASS. These simulations have shown discrepancies with previously simulated scenarios. The major causes of these differences were identified and quantified. (author)

  14. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  15. Study on the process variables in the anion exchange plutonium separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, D T

    1957-11-15

    This report discusses the study of the process variables in the Anion Exchange Process Pilot Plant for the separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium. Variables associated with the feed, wash and elution cycles were studied with the aim of improving the quality of the final plutonium product, reduce cycling time and reagent requirements, and also to obtain data for prediction of resin column behaviour under various feed conditions. A cation resin column and a silica gel column were installed in the system and these were studied for plutonium recovery and product quality. The product obtained from the plant was acceptable in all the impurities except the associated gamma activity which was too high for easy product handling. (author)

  16. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  17. Advances on reverse strike co-precipitation method of uranium-plutonium mixed solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghini, Jorge E.; Marchi, Daniel E.; Orosco, Edgardo H.; Greco, Luis

    2000-01-01

    The reverse strike coprecipitation of uranium-plutonium mixed solutions, is an alternative way to obtain MOX fuel pellets. Previous tests, carried out in the Alpha Laboratory, included a stabilization step for transforming 100 % of plutonium into Pu +4 . Therefore, the plutonium precipitated as Pu(OH) 4 . In this second step, the stabilization process was suppressed. In this way, besides Pu(OH) 4 , a part of the precipitated is composed of a mixed salt: AD(U,Pu). Then, a homogeneous solid solution is formed in the early steps of the process. The powders showed higher tap density, better performance during the pressing and lower sinterability than the powders obtained in previous tests. The advantageous and disadvantageous effects of the stabilization step are analyzed in this paper. (author)

  18. Zirconolite glass-ceramics for plutonium immobilization: The effects of processing redox conditions on charge compensation and durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingjie, E-mail: yzx@ansto.gov.au; Gregg, Daniel J.; Kong, Linggen; Jovanovich, Miodrag; Triani, Gerry

    2017-07-15

    Zirconolite glass-ceramic samples doped with plutonium have been prepared via hot isostatic pressing. The effects of processing redox and plutonium loadings on plutonium valences, the presence of cation vacancies, zirconolite phase compositions, microstructures and durability have been investigated. Either tetravalent or trivalent plutonium ions may be incorporated on the Ca-site of CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} zirconolite with the Ca-site cation vacancies and the incorporation of Al{sup 3+} ions on the Ti-site for charge compensation. Plutonium and gadolinium (as a neutron absorber) are predominantly partitioned in zirconolite phases leading to the formation of chemically durable glass-ceramics suitable for the immobilization of impure plutonium wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle. - Highlights: •Plutonium validations of zirconolite glass-ceramics. •Effects of processing redox and plutonium loading. •Zirconolite phase compositions and plutonium valences. •Cation vacancies and chemical durability.

  19. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  20. Fluid bed direct denitration process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souply, K.R.; Neal, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The fluid bed direct-denitration process appears feasible for reprocessing Light Water Reactor fuel. Considerable experience with the fluid bed process exists in the denitration of uranyl nitrate and it shows promise for use in the denitration of plutonium nitrate. The process will require some development work before it can be used in a production-size facility. This report describes a fluid bed direct-denitration process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide, and the information should be used when making comparisons of alternative processes or as a basis for further detailed studies

  1. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  2. Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.; Elam, K.R.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES ampersand H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES ampersand H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive

  3. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Development of an expert system for analysis of plutonium processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeringter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) an expert system has been developed for the analysis and assessment of plutonium processing operations. This system is based upon an object-oriented simulation environment specifically developed for the needs of nuclear material processing. The simulation environment, called the ''Process Modeling System'' (ProMoS), contains a library of over 250 plutonium-based unit process operations ranging from analytical chemistry, oxide operations, recycle and recovery, waste management, and component fabrication. (author)

  5. Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, Stephen H.; Kyle, Richard N.; Minette, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D and D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D and D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers

  6. Process for plutonium rextraction in aqueous solution from an organic solvent, especially for uranium plutonium partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, M.; Gillet, B.; Pasquiou, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The organic solvent containing plutonium is contacted with an aqueous solution of a uranous salt, for instance uranous nitrate, and a hydroxylamine salt, for instance the nitrate. In these conditions uranous nitrate is a reducing agent of Pu III and hydroxylamine nitrate stabilizes Pu III and U IV in the aqueous phase. Performances are similar to these of the U IV-hydrazine nitrate without interference of hydrazine nitrate degradation products [fr

  7. Advanced concept of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) for plutonium multiple recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, T.; Iwamura, T.; Takeda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Okada, H.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  8. In situ observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.-C.; Fraizier, Andre

    1975-09-01

    A preliminary observation of plutonium transfer processes in the marine environment was carried out and showed that concentration of the radionuclide was lower when marine organisms stood at a higher trophic level. This observation supplemented by an investigation on contamination pathways showed that plutonium was not concentrated along the food chain and its uptake occured preferentially by direct contact of species with seawater, a process chiefly affecting producers and primary consumers. It appeared that the marine sediment was not a significant vector of plutonium transfer in burrowing species [fr

  9. An improved, computer-based, on-line gamma monitor for plutonium anion exchange process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, N.G.; Marsh, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    An improved, low-cost, computer-based system has replaced a previously developed on-line gamma monitor. Both instruments continuously profile uranium, plutonium, and americium in the nitrate anion exchange process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The latest system incorporates a personal computer that provides full-feature multichannel analyzer (MCA) capabilities by means of a single-slot, plug-in integrated circuit board. In addition to controlling all MCA functions, the computer program continuously corrects for gain shift and performs all other data processing functions. This Plutonium Recovery Operations Gamma Ray Energy Spectrometer System (PROGRESS) provides on-line process operational data essential for efficient operation. By identifying abnormal conditions in real time, it allows operators to take corrective actions promptly. The decision-making capability of the computer will be of increasing value as we implement automated process-control functions in the future. 4 refs., 6 figs

  10. The study of reductive reextraction of plutonium in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.

    1985-01-01

    The methods of separation of U and Pu in the Purex process and the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of Pu(4) reductants are discussed. The kinetic equation of the process of reductive reextraction of plutonium for the first order reaction with respect to Pu(4) is derived. The kinetics of plutonium reextraction with the use of uranium (4), ascorbic acid and other reductants has been studied. The necessity of application of the stoichiometric excess of reductant has been explained by simultaneously occured reoxidation process of plutonium. The method of calculation of the steady- state plutonium concentration profiles has been elaborated for counter-current separation of U and Pu in multistage contactor. 90 refs., 20 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  11. Uranium/plutonium and uranium/neptunium separation by the Purex process using hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaowu; He Jianyu; Zhang Zefu; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jianmin; Zhen Weifang

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyurea dissolved in nitric acid can strip plutonium and neptunium from tri-butyl phosphate efficiently and has little influence on the uranium distribution between the two phases. Simulating the 1B contactor of the Purex process by hydroxyurea with nitric acid solution as a stripping agent, the separation factors of uranium/plutonium and uranium/neptunium can reach values as high as 4.7 x 10 4 and 260, respectively. This indicates that hydroxyurea is a promising salt free agent for uranium/plutonium and uranium/neptunium separations. (author)

  12. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, M.; Plurien, P.

    1986-01-01

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  13. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program

  14. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  15. Advanced information processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance details of the advanced information processing system (AIPS) for fault and damage tolerant data processing on aircraft and spacecraft are presented. AIPS comprises several computers distributed throughout the vehicle and linked by a damage tolerant data bus. Most I/O functions are available to all the computers, which run in a TDMA mode. Each computer performs separate specific tasks in normal operation and assumes other tasks in degraded modes. Redundant software assures that all fault monitoring, logging and reporting are automated, together with control functions. Redundant duplex links and damage-spread limitation provide the fault tolerance. Details of an advanced design of a laboratory-scale proof-of-concept system are described, including functional operations.

  16. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  17. THE DEACTIVATION, DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT, A FORMER PLUTONIUM PROCESSING FACILITY AT DOE'S HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) was constructed as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. The Manhattan Project was developed to usher in the use of nuclear weapons to end the war. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material (SNM) for fabrication of nuclear devices for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race and later the processing of fuel grade mixed plutonium-uranium oxide to support DOE's breeder reactor program. In October 1990, at the close of the production mission for PFP, a shutdown order was prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington,; DC--and issued to the Richland DOE field office. Subsequent to the shutdown order, a team from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) analyzed the hazards at PFP associated with the continued storage of certain forms of plutonium solutions and solids. The assessment identified many discrete actions that were required to stabilize the different plutonium forms into stable form and repackage the material in high integrity containers. These actions were technically complicated and completed as part of the PFP nuclear material stabilization project between 1995 and early 2005. The completion of the stabilization project was a necessary first step in deactivating PFP. During stabilization, DOE entered into negotiations with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the State of Washington and established milestones for the Deactivation and Decommissioning (DandD) of the PFP. The DOE and its contractor, Fluor Hanford (Fluor), have made great progress in deactivating, decontaminating and decommissioning the PFP at the Hanford Site as detailed in this paper. Background information covering the PFP DandD effort includes descriptions of negotiations with the State of Washington concerning consent

  18. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.

  19. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Vance, E.R.; Jostsons, A.

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R ampersand D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl 2 Ti 6 O 16 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and monazite (CePO 4 ), to name a few of the most promising. R ampersand D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO 2 powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues

  20. Reduction of worldwide plutonium inventories using conventional reactors and advanced fuels: A systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Chodak, P. III

    1997-01-01

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed-oxide forms is examined by means of a cost-based plutonium-flow systems model that includes an approximate measure of proliferation risk. The impact of plutonium recycle in a number of forms is examined, including the introduction of nonfertile fuels into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo-reactor plutonium inventories

  1. Advanced materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giamei, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced materials will require improved processing methods due to high melting points, low toughness or ductility values, high reactivity with air or ceramics and typically complex crystal structures with significant anisotropy in flow and/or fracture stress. Materials for structural applications at elevated temperature in critical systems will require processing with a high degree of control. This requires an improved understanding of the relationship between process variables and microstructure to enable control systems to achieve consistently high quality. One avenue to the required level of understanding is computer simulation. Past attempts to do process modeling have been hampered by incomplete data regarding thermophysical or mechanical material behavior. Some of the required data can be calculated. Due to the advances in software and hardware, accuracy and costs are in the realm of acquiring experimental data. Such calculations can, for example, be done at an atomic level to compute lattice energy, fault energies, density of states and charge densities. These can lead to fundamental information about the competition between slip and fracture, anisotropy of bond strength (and therefore cleavage strength), cohesive strength, adhesive strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion and possibly other quantities which are difficult (and therefore expensive to measure). Some of these quantities can be fed into a process model. It is probable that temperature dependencies can be derived numerically as well. Examples are given of the beginnings of such an approach for Ni 3 Al and MoSi 2 . Solidification problems are examples of the state-of-the-art process modeling and adequately demonstrate the need for extensive input data. Such processes can be monitored in terms of interfacial position vs. time, cooling rate and thermal gradient

  2. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs

  3. Separation of americium and plutonium from nuclear wastes by the TRUEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Manry, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Americium and plutonium can be removed from a transuranic (TRU) waste stream to <10 nCi/g by the TRUEX process. The resulting waste is nontransuranic, greatly reducing disposal costs. An overview is given of the TRUEX process and of centrifugal contactors used to implement this process. Then, a plan for the deployment of TRUEX at the Hanford Site is discussed. Finally, details are given on the proposed use of TRUEX to treat the liquid wastes from the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site

  4. Adaptation of the IBM ECR [electric cantilever robot] robot to plutonium processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Halter, E.A.; Crossfield, M.

    1990-12-01

    The changing regulatory climate in the US is adding increasing incentive to reduce operator dose and TRU waste for DOE plutonium processing operations. To help achieve that goal the authors have begun adapting a small commercial overhead gantry robot, the IBM electric cantilever robot (ECR), to plutonium processing applications. Steps are being taken to harden this robot to withstand the dry, often abrasive, environment within a plutonium glove box and to protect the electronic components against alpha radiation. A mock-up processing system for the reduction of the oxide to a metal was prepared and successfully demonstrated. Design of a working prototype is now underway using the results of this mock-up study. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model

  6. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  7. Some aspects of a technology of processing weapons grade plutonium to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Y.; Glagovsky, E.M.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Orlov, V.K.; Reshetnikov, F.G.; Rogozkin, B.G.; Soloni-N, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The concept by Russia to use fissile weapons-grade materials, which are being recovered from nuclear pits in the process of disarmament, is based on an assessment of weapons-grade plutonium as an important energy source intended for use in nuclear power plants. However, in the path of involving plutonium excessive from the purposes of national safety into industrial power engineering there are a lot of problems, from which effectiveness and terms of its disposition are being dependent upon. Those problems have political, economical, financial and environmental character. This report outlines several technology problems of processing weapons-grade metallic plutonium into MOX-fuel for reactors based on thermal and fast neutrons, in particular, the issue of conversion of the metal into dioxide from the viewpoint of fabrication of pelletized MOX-fuel. The processing of metallic weapons-grade plutonium into nuclear fuel is a rather complicated and multi-stage process, every stage of which is its own production. Some of the stages are absent in production of MOX-fuel, for instance the stage of the conversion, i.e. transferring of metallic plutonium into dioxide of the ceramic quality. At this stage of plutonium utilization some tasks must be resolved as follows: I. As a result of the conversion, a material purified from ballast and radiogenic admixtures has to be obtained. This one will be applied to fabricate pelletized MOX-fuel going from morphological, physico-mechanical and technological properties. II. It is well known that metallic gallium, which is used as an alloying addition in weapons-grade plutonium, actively reacts with multiple metals. Therefore, an important issue is to study the effect of gallium on the technology of MOX-fuel production, quality of the pellets, as well as the interaction of gallium oxide with zirconium and steel shells of fuel elements depending upon the content of gallium in the fuel. The rate of the interaction of gallium oxide

  8. Waste minimization and the goal of an environmentally benign plutonium processing facility: A strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1994-02-01

    To maintain capabilities in nuclear weapons technologies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has to maintain a plutonium processing facility that meets all the current and emerging standards of environmental regulations. A strategic goal to transform the Plutonium Processing Facility at Los Alamos into an environmentally benign operation is identified. A variety of technologies and systems necessary to meet this goal are identified. Two initiatives now in early stages of implementation are described in some detail. A highly motivated and trained work force and a systems approach to waste minimization and pollution prevention are necessary to maintain technical capabilities, to comply with regulations, and to meet the strategic goal

  9. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications

  10. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO 2 -ZrO 2 -CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO 2 ) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) or europium oxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl 4 -Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  11. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  12. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  13. Drop-in capsule testing of plutonium-based fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Terry, W.K.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Palmer, A.J.; Roesener, R.A.

    1996-09-01

    The most attractive way to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is to use it as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PuO[sub 2]) mixed with urania (UO[sub 2]). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. The proposed weapons-grade MOX fuel is unusual, even relative to ongoing foreign experience with reactor-grade MOX power reactor fuel. Some demonstration of the in- reactor thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release behavior of the prototype fuel will most likely be required in a limited number of test reactor irradiations. The application to license operation with MOX fuel must be amply supported by experimental data. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is capable of playing a key role in the irradiation, development, and licensing of these new fuel types. The ATR is a 250- MW (thermal) LWR designed to study the effects of intense radiation on reactor fuels and materials. For 25 years, the primary role of the ATR has been to serve in experimental investigations for the development of advanced nuclear fuels. Both large- and small-volume test positions in the ATR could be used for MOX fuel irradiation. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. Furthermore, these data can be obtained more quickly by using ATR instead of testing in a commercial LWR. Our previous work in this area has demonstrated that it is technically feasible to perform MOX fuel testing in the ATR. This report documents our analyses of sealed drop-in capsules containing plutonium-based test specimens placed in various ATR positions

  14. Plutonium separation by reduction stripping. Application to processing of mixed oxide (U,Pu)O2 fuel fabrication wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, Thierry; Cousinou, Gerard; Ganivet, Michel.

    1978-11-01

    A procedure is described for separating plutonium from a uranium VI and plutonium IV mixture contained in an organic phase (tributyl phosphate diluted in dodecane). This separation is obtained by extracting the plutonium III using two organic reducers: hydrazine and paraminophenol. Paraminophenol has excellent reducing qualities, similar to those of ferrous sulphamate, but has the added advantage of not contaminating extracted plutonium. This procedure is currently used in processing production wastes from mixed oxide (U,Pu)O 2 fuels; the installation using this procedure is described in detail in this paper. Operating results show the remarkable efficiency of this procedure: the separated plutonium and uranium mass flows have been increased to 185 and 350 g.h -1 respectively; the uranium contains less than 0.1 ppm of plutonium on completion of the purification cycle [fr

  15. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W.; Maliyekkel, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process

  16. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maliyekkel, A.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1996-01-02

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process.

  17. CSER 00-003: Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material

  18. Plutonium estimation in the process solutions and oxide dissolved audit samplers by potentiometry using memo titrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaraguru, K.; Shukla, Y.D.; Vijayan, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Potentiometric method is employed by using memotitrator coupled with combined electrode for the estimation of plutonium. The estimations are carried out on the process samples and the acid dissolved samples for auditing, in the concentration range of 5 g/l to 20 g/l. The chemical procedure is: i)oxidising plutonium to higher oxidation state by silver oxide, ii)reducing the same by adding excess ferrous, and iii)titrating potassium dichromate against the unreacted ferrous. The plutonium content is computed from ferrous consumed in the reaction. The average percentage error of the method is +/-0.27. The values obtained are in close agreement with those obtained by coulometry. (author)

  19. Analysis of civilian processing programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials

  20. Purification process of uranium hexafluoride containing traces of plutonium fluoride and/or neptunium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, J.; Bethuel, L.; Carles, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this process impure uranium hexafluoride is contacted with a metallic fluoride chosen in the group containing lead fluoride PbF 2 , uranium fluorides UFsub(4+x) (0 3 at a temperature such as plutonium and/or neptunium are reduced and pure uranium hexafluoride is recovered. Application is made to uranium hexafluoride purification in spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  1. Personnel neutron dosimeter for use in a plutonium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunskill, R.T.; Hwang, F.S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A thermoluminesence dosimeter for personnel neutron dose measurement, which is based on the albedo principle, has been developed at Windscale works. The dosimeter has been calibrated against a 238 Pu/Be neutron source using different degrees of moderation and against a variety of neutron spectra prevailing in different areas of the Plutonium Finishing Plant. The dosimeter consists of two identical parts in which the sensitive elements are graphite discs which have thermoluminescent crystals sealed to the plane faces with a high temperature resin. The graphite discs are supported in teflon washers which fit into a body of tufnol. A circular insert of boronated polythene in each tufnol body provides a thermal neutron absorber for the sensitive element in the other half of the dosimeter. Natural lithium borate was used as the neutron sensitive phosphor and a lithium borate made from isotopes 7 Li (99.9%) and 11 B (99.2%) as the neutron insensitive materials. Neutron-sensitive lithium borate is sealed to one face of each disc and the neutron-insensitive material to the opposite face. The dosimeter is so assembled that the neutron-sensitive faces both lie in the central plane. The design is such that one neutron sensitive face responds to the incident flux of neutron only while the other responds to the albedo flux

  2. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  3. Removal of zirconium and niobium activities from plutonium nitrate during plutonium reconversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajithlal, R.T.; Rakshe, P.R.; Kumaraguru, K.

    2010-01-01

    Present investigation deals with quality improvement of Pu solutions after ion exchange cycle of Purex process. In order to improve the decontamination factor of Pu with respect to fission products zirconium ( 95 Zr) and niobium ( 95 Nb), Pu-Product solution was precipitated as oxalate at different compositions of nitric acid with stoichiometric and hyper-stoichiometric amount of oxalic acid. The Pu-oxalate so precipitated was washed with respective feed solutions of oxalic and nitric acid mixture, similar to feed conditions. Fission product activities in the feed, supernatant and the washes were analysed for gross gamma activity and individual fission products by Multichannel analyzer using HPGe-detector. A solution comprising of 4M HNO 3 + 0.2M excess oxalic acid precipitation with excess amount of washing yielded effective decontamination of the Pu product. (author)

  4. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Ledermann, P.; Pradel, P.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Determination of uranium and plutonium in metal conversion products from electrolytic reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Suh, Moo Yul; Joe, Kih Soo; Sohn, Se Chul; Jee, Kwang Young; Kim, Won Ho

    2005-01-01

    Chemical characterization of process materials is required for the optimization of an electrolytic reduction process in which uranium dioxide, a matrix of spent PWR fuels, is electrolytically reduced to uranium metal in a medium of LiCl-Li 2 O molten at 650 .deg. C. A study on the determination of fissile materials in the uranium metal products containing corrosion products, fission products and residual process materials has been performed by controlled-potential coulometric titration which is well known in the field of nuclear science and technology. Interference of Fe, Ni, Cr and Mg (corrosion products), Nd (fission product) and LiCl molten salt (residual process material) on the determination of uranium and plutonium, and the necessity of plutonium separation prior to the titration are discussed in detail. Under the analytical condition established already, their recovery yields are evaluated along with analytical reliability

  6. Baseline process description for simulating plutonium oxide production for precalc project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) started a multi-year project, the PreCalc Project, to develop a computational simulation of a plutonium oxide (PuO2) production facility with the objective to study the fundamental relationships between morphological and physicochemical properties. This report provides a detailed baseline process description to be used by SRNL personnel and collaborators to facilitate the initial design and construction of the simulation. The PreCalc Project team selected the HB-Line Plutonium Finishing Facility as the basis for a nominal baseline process since the facility is operational and significant model validation data can be obtained. The process boundary as well as process and facility design details necessary for multi-scale, multi-physics models are provided.

  7. Study of an automatic dosing of neptunium in the industrial process of separation neptunium 237-plutonium 238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, Pierre

    1973-01-01

    The objective is to study and to adapt a method of automatic dosing of neptunium to the industrial process of separation and purification of plutonium 238, while taking the information quality and economic aspects into account. After a recall of some generalities on the production of plutonium 238, and the process of separation plutonium-neptunium, the author addresses the dosing of neptunium. The adopted measurement technique is spectrophotometry (of neptunium, of neptunium peroxide) which is the most flexible and economic to adapt to automatic control. The author proposes a project of chemical automatic machine, and discusses the complex (stoichiometry, form) and some aspects of neptunium dosing (redox reactions, process control) [fr

  8. Process control and safeguards system plutonium inventory conrol for MOX fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, T.; Aoki, M.; Muto, T.; Amanuma, T.

    1979-01-01

    The plutonium inventory control (PINC) system is a real-time material accountability control system that is expected to be applied to a new large-scale plutonium fuel production facility for both fast breeder reactor and heavy water reactor at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Development Corporation. The PINC is basically a system for material control but is expected to develop into a whole facility control system, including criticality control, process control, quality control, facility protection, and so forth. Under PINC, every process and storage area is divided into a unit area, which is the smallest unit for both accountability and process control. Item and material weight automatically are accounted for at every unit area, and data are simultaneously treated by a computer network system. Sensors necessary for the system are being developed. 9 figures

  9. CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FOR THE DECOMMISSIONG AND DECONTAMINATION OF THE 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; MINETTE, M.J.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges encountered and subsequent resolutions to accomplish the deactivation and decontamination of a plutonium ash contaminated building. The 232-Z Contaminated Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant was used to recover plutonium from process wastes such as rags, gloves, containers and other items by incinerating the items and dissolving the resulting ash. The incineration process resulted in a light-weight plutonium ash residue that was highly mobile in air. This light-weight ash coated the incinerator's process equipment, which included gloveboxes, blowers, filters, furnaces, ducts, and filter boxes. Significant airborne contamination (over 1 million derived air concentration hours [DAC]) was found in the scrubber cell of the facility. Over 1300 grams of plutonium held up in the process equipment and attached to the walls had to be removed, packaged and disposed. This ash had to be removed before demolition of the building could take place

  10. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  11. The use of safeguards data for process monitoring in the Advanced Test Line for Actinide Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.W.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is constructing an integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting (PM/MC and A) system in the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The ATLAS will test and demonstrate new methods for aqueous processing of plutonium. The ATLAS will also develop, test, and demonstrate the concepts for integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting. We describe how this integrated PM/MC and A system will function and provide benefits to both process research and materials accounting personnel

  12. Advanced plutonium assembly (apa): evolution of the concept, neutron and thermal-mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Gastaldi, B.; Krakowiak-Aillaud, C.; Buffe, L.

    2002-01-01

    The APA concept was developed with the aim of increasing the PWR capacity to burn plutonium emerging from the recycling of irradiated fuels in the French park of nuclear power plants. At first, a concept using annular pins was optimised to allow a good consumption of plutonium while preserving an acceptable neutron control. To cope with the technological problems and those posed by the manufacture of these annular pins, an alternative concept is presented here. It poses as initial conditions the conservation of both the plutonium balance and the respect of the reactivity control. (authors)

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.; Thompson, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  14. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125 degrees C and 250 degrees C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110 degrees C to 270 degrees C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252 degrees C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  15. The chemistry of tributyl phosphate at elevated temperatures in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Process Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.; Cooper, T.D.

    1994-06-01

    Potentially violent chemical reactions of the tributyl phosphate solvent used by the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Site were investigated. There is a small probability that a significant quantity of this solvent could be accidental transferred to heated process vessels and react there with nitric acid or plutonium nitrate also present in the solvent extraction process. The results of laboratory studies of the reactions show that exothermic oxidation of tributyl phosphate by either nitric acid or actinide nitrates is slow at temperatures expected in the heated vessels. Less than four percent of the tributyl phosphate will be oxidized in these vented vessels at temperatures between 125{degrees}C and 250{degrees}C because the oxidant will be lost from the vessels by vaporization or decomposition before the tributyl phosphate can be extensively oxidized. The net amounts of heat generated by oxidation with concentrated nitric acid and with thorium nitrate (a stand-in for plutonium nitrate) were determined to be about -150 and -220 joules per gram of tributyl phosphate initially present, respectively. This is not enough heat to cause violent reactions in the vessels. Pyrolysis of the tributyl phosphate occurred in these mixtures at temperatures of 110{degrees}C to 270{degrees}C and produced mainly 1-butene gas, water, and pyrophosphoric acid. Butene gas generation is slow at expected process vessel temperatures, but the rate is faster at higher temperatures. At 252{degrees}C the rate of butene gas generated was 0.33 g butene/min/g of tributyl phosphate present. The measured heat absorbed by the pyrolysis reaction was 228 J/g of tributyl phosphate initially present (or 14.5 kcal/mole of tributyl phosphate). Release of flammable butene gas into process areas where it could ignite appears to be the most serious safety consideration for the Plutonium Finishing Plant.

  16. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  17. Control of instability in nitric acid evaporators for plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Improved control of the nitric acid process evaporators requires the detection of spontaneously unstable operating conditions. This process reduces the volume of contaminated liquid by evaporating nitric acid and concentrating salt residues. If a instability is identified quickly, prompt response can avert distillate contamination. An algorithm applied to the runtime data was evaluated to detect this situation. A snapshot of data from a histogram in the old process control software was captured during the unstable conditions and modeled

  18. Plutonium-uranium separation in the Purex process using mixtures of hydroxylamine nitrate and ferrous sulfamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Chostner, D.F.; Orebaugh, E.G.

    1983-11-01

    Laboratory studies, followed by plant operation, established that a mixture of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) and ferrous sulfamate (FS) is superior to FS used alone as a reductant for plutonium in the Purex first cycle. FS usage has been reduced by about 70% (from 0.12 to 0.04M) compared to the pre-1978 period. This reduced the volume of neutralized waste due to FS by 194 liters/metric ton of uranium (MTU) processed. The new flowsheet also gives lower plutonium losses to waste and at least comparable fission product decontamination. To achieve satisfactory performance at this low concentration of FS, the acidity in the 1B mixer-settler was reduced by using a split-scrub - a low acid scrub in stage one and a higher acid scrub in stage three - to remove acid from the solvent exiting the 1A centrifugal contactor. 8 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  19. Optimum Condition for Plutonium Electrodeposition Process in Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory, Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii, Mei-Wo; Abdullah Siddiqi Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Determination of alpha emitting plutonium radionuclides such as Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations inside a sample require lots of radiochemistry purification process to separate them from other interfering alpha emitters. These pure isotopes are then been electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc and quantified using alpha spectrometry counter. In Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory (RAS), Nuclear Malaysia, the quantification is done by comparing these isotopes with the recovery of known amount plutonium tracer, Pu-242, that been added into the sample prior analysis. This study been conducted to find the optimum conditions for the electrolysis process used at RAS. Four variable parameters that may interfere the percentage recovery of tracer hence the current, cathode to anode distance, pH and electrolysis duration had been identify and studied. Study was carry out using Pu-242 standard solution and the deposition disc was counted using Zinc Sulphite (silver) counter. Studies outcome suggested that the optimum conditions to reduce plutonium ion happens at 1-1.1 ampere of current, 3-5 mm of electrodes distance, pH 2.2-2.5 and a minimal electrolysis duration of 2 hours. (author)

  20. Photochemical technique for reduction of uranium and subsequently plutonium in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Barker, J.J.; Gangwer, T.

    1976-09-01

    A photochemical modification of the Purex process is described in which a purified side stream of UO 2 ++ ion is reduced to U +4 outside the radioactive area of the reprocessing plant. The U +4 is then cycled back to step 2 of the Purex process to reduce the plutonium and effect separation within the partitioning column. This process is shown to be very energy efficient and compatible with existing conventional lamp technology. Preliminary cost estimates of the energy requirements for photon production are essentially negligible. Conceptual systems and photochemical reactor designs are presented. Potential benefits of this system are discussed

  1. Physics of plutonium and americium recycling in PWR using advanced fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourcade, E.

    2004-01-01

    PWR waste inventory management is considered in many countries including Frances as one of the main current issues. Pu and Am are the 2 main contents both in term of volume and long term radio-toxicity. Waiting for the Generation IV systems implementation (2035-2050), one of the mid-term solutions for their transmutation involves the use of advanced fuels in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). These have to require as little modification as possible of the core internals, the cooling system and fuel cycle facilities (fabrication and reprocessing). The first part of this paper deals with some neutronic characteristics of Pu and/or Am recycling. In a second part, 2 technical solutions MOX-HMR and APA-DUPLEX-84 are presented and the third part is devoted to the study of a few global strategies. The main neutronic parameters to be considered for Pu and Am recycling in PWR are void coefficient, Doppler coefficient, fraction of delayed neutrons and power distribution (especially for heterogeneous configurations). The modification of the moderation ratio, the opportunity to use inert matrices (targets), the optimisation of Uranium, Plutonium and Americium contents are the key parameters to play with. One of the solutions (APA-DUPLEX-84) presented here is a heterogeneous assembly with regular moderation ratio composed with both target fuel rods (Pu and Am embedded in an inert matrix) and standard UO 2 fuel rods. An EPR (European Pressurised Reactor) type reactor, loaded only with assemblies containing 84 peripheral targets, can reach an Americium consumption rate of (4.4; 23 kg/TWh) depending on the assembly concept. For Pu and Am inventories stabilisation, the theoretical fraction of reactors loaded with Pu + Am or Pu assemblies is about 60%. For Americium inventory stabilisation, the fraction decreases down to 16%, but Pu is produced at a rate of 18.5 Kg/TWh (-25% compared to one through UOX cycle)

  2. Beam processing of advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Copley, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    International Conference on Beam Processing of Advanced Materials was held at the Fall TMS/ASM Materials Week at Chicago, Illinois, November 2--5, 1992. The symposium was devoted to the recent advances in processing of materials by an energy source such as laser, electron, ion beams, etc. The symposium served as a forum on the science of beam-induced materials processing and implications of this science to practical implementation. An increased emphasis on obtaining an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of beam-induced surface processes was a major trend observed at this years symposium. This has resulted in the increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and modeling studies to determine the rate controlling steps in these processes. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.

    1994-01-01

    According to the measurements made in this study, the only situation in which chromium (+6) could exist in a plutonium process solution is one in which a feed containing chromium is dissolved in a glass pot dissolver in high nitric acid concentration and at high temperature. But when the resulting feed is prepared for ion exchange, the chemical treatment reduces chromium to the +3 state. Any solution being processed through the evaporator will only contain chromium in the +3 state and any chromium salts remaining in the evaporator bottoms will be chromium +3 salts

  4. Advanced PWR Core Design with Siemens High-Plutonium-Content MOX Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter Porsch; Gerhard Schlosser; Hans-Dieter Berger

    2000-01-01

    The Siemens experience with plutonium recycling dates back to the late 1960s. Over the years, extensive research and development programs were performed for the qualification of mixed-oxide (MOX) technology and design methods. Today's typical reload enrichments for uranium and MOX fuel assemblies and modern core designs have become more demanding with respect to accuracy and reliability of design codes. This paper presents the status of plutonium recycling in operating high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores. Based on actual examples, it describes the validation status of the design methods and stresses current and future needs for fuel assembly and core design including those related to the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium

  5. An experimental study of factors in the recovery of plutonium from combustible wastes treated by incineration, pyrolysis and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.C.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The work described in this report is concerned with the incineration and pyrolysis of plutonium-contaminated combustible wastes, the leaching of the ashes and chars and the subsequent treatment of the leach solutions. A range of ashes and chars have been prepared from a range of plutonium-contaminated materials covering a variety of combustible materials (e.g. PVC, neoprene, Hypalon) and plutonium contaminants [e.g. PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , (U, Pu)O 2 ]. Treatment temperatures in the range of 550-900 0 C have been investigated, the best results being obtained at or below 700 0 C with pyrolysis followed by char oxidation being the favoured process. A number of methods for treatment of the leach solutions have been considered and some have been investigated experimentally. Extraction of plutonium and americium with tributylphosphate (TBP) from a leach solution conditioned to 0.1 M H/+5 M NO 3 - has been studied. The key stage has been found to be the conditioning step where precautions must be taken to ensure that plutonium-containing precipitates and non-extractable plutonium are not formed. Consideration has also been given to treatment of the americium containing raffinates from a high acid TBP extraction and some methods have been investigated. A range of simple washing experiments have been carried out in order to compare the process with incineration/pyrolysis

  6. Variations of uranium and plutonium coprocessing as proliferation-resistant alternatives to the classical purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckham, J.A.; Sumner, W.B.

    1979-08-01

    Evaluation of these alternatives for processing LWR fuel has led to the following conclusions: (1) None of the alternaives provide a pure, technical solution which completely eliminates the potential for proliferation of nuclear weapons by utilizing plutonium from the light water reactors. (2) The heat spike alternative appears feasible and provides the most effective method of rendering the LWR plutonim unattractive for weapons use. (3) The low-DF process alternate would require demonstration to: (a) determine the reliability of the in-cell recycle streams which are used to prevent reversion of the process for purification of plutonium, and (b) verify the fission product decontamination factors. (4) The alternates evaluated have no significant impacts on the design of waste treatment facilities, although the required capacities of high-level solid waste processing and high-level liquid waste storage can be significantly altered. (5) The impact of these alternate processes on fuel fabrication and other aspects of the fuel cycle requires additional evaluation

  7. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume 2, Appendix A: Process and protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This appendix contains documentation prepared by the Plutonium ES and H Vulnerability Working Group for conducting the Plutonium ES and H Vulnerability Assessment and training the assessment teams. It has the following five parts. (1) The Project Plan describes the genesis of the project, sets forth the goals, objectives and scope, provides definitions, the projected schedule, and elements of protocol. (2) The Assessment Plan provides a detailed methodology necessary to guide the many professionals who have been recruited to conduct the DOE-wide assessment. It provides guidance on which types and forms of plutonium are to be considered within the scope of the assessment, and lays out the assessment methodology to be used. (3) The memorandum from the Project to Operations Office Managers provides the protocol and direction for participation in the assessment by external stakeholders and members of the public; and the guidance for the physical inspection of plutonium materials in storage. (4) The memorandum from the Project to the assessment teams provides guidance for vulnerability screening criteria, vulnerability evaluation and prioritization process, and vulnerability quantification for prioritization. (5) The Team Training manual was used at the training session held in Colorado Springs on April 19--21, 1994 for all members of the Working Group Assessment Teams and for the leaders of the Site Assessment Teams. The goal was to provide the same training to all of the individuals who would be conducting the assessments, and thereby provide consistency in the conduct of the assessments and uniformity in reporting of the results. The training manual in Section A.5 includes supplemental material provided to the attendees after the meeting

  8. Seismic analysis procedures for the plutonium processing building of the Special Isotope Separation Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.P.; Tajirian, F.F.; Todeschini, R.A.A.; Dahlke, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for the seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis of the Plutonium Processing Building (PPB) which is part of the Special Isotope Separation (SIS) Production Plant. The PPB consists of two structures, the enclosure building and the optics/separator area. These are founded on two independent foundations which are supported on the surface of a soil medium consisting of gravel overlying basalt. The PPB is classified as a safety related structure and is required to withstand the effects of a Design Basis Earthquake (DBE)

  9. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if chromium +6 could exist in plutonium process solutions under normal operating conditions. Four individual reactions were studied: the rate of dissolution of stainless steel, which is the principal source of chromium in process solutions; the rate of oxidation of chromium +3 to chromium +6 by nitric. acid; and the reduction of chromium +6 back to chromium +3 by reaction with stainless steel and with oxalic acid. The stainless steel corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing nitric acid concentration, increasing hydrofluoric acid concentration, and increasing temperature. Oxidation of chromium +3 to chromium +6 was negligible at room temperature and only became significant in hot concentrated nitric acid. The rate of reduction of chromium +6 back to chromium +3 by reaction with stainless steel or oxalic acid was found to be much greater than the rate of the reverse oxidation reaction. Based on these findings and taking into account normal operating conditions, it was determined that although there would be considerable chromium in plutonium process streams it would rarely be found in the +6 oxidation state and would not exist in the +6 state in the final process waste solutions

  10. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if chromium(+6) could exist in plutonium process solutions under normal operating conditions. Four individual reactions were studied: the rate of dissolution of stainless steel, which is the principal source of chromium in process solutions; the rate of oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) by nitric acid; and the reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel and with oxalic acid. The stainless steel corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing nitric acid concentration, increasing hydrofluoric acid concentration, and increasing temperature. Oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) was negligible at room temperature and only became significant in hot concentrated nitric acid. The rate of reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel or oxalic acid was found to be much greater than the rate of the reverse oxidation reaction. Based on these findings and taking into account normal operating conditions, it was determined that although there would be considerable chromium in plutonium process streams it would rarely be found in the (+6) oxidation state and would not exist in the (+6) state in the final process waste solutions

  11. The establishment of in-process plutonium mass equation in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Kosuke; Ebata, Takashi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Akio; Iwamoto, Tomonori

    2008-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), Active Test (AT) using actual spent fuels for the final confirmation of the equipment and the system has been performed toward the commercial operation. From the safeguards viewpoint, performance of material accountancy equipment is confirmed and data for evaluating parameters of the inspection equipment is obtained by making use of the AT period. RRP is applied to Near Real Time material Accountancy (NRTA). Under the NRTA scheme, the inventory at a cut-off time during process operation needs to be accounted for. There are some un-measurable inventories of plutonium in the process, which will be calculated from inventory estimation equations. The amount of these plutonium inventories calculated from the equations is so large that it is essential to improve the inventory estimation equations to be quite accurate. Therefore, correctness of the inventory estimation equations is evaluated by using process operation data obtained during AT. This paper describes the results of evaluating the inventory estimation equations by using the process operation data and the NRTA procedure under continuous operating condition as well. (author)

  12. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Contribution to the study of the process of purification of plutonium by extraction with trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saey, Jean-Claude

    1966-01-01

    This work addresses the process of plutonium purification which uses trilaurylamine nitrate. In order to use this nitrate in its solid state and at ordinary temperature, a secondary solvent must be added which must have some properties: low volume mass and viscosity, high boiling and ignition temperatures, rather low miscibility with water, high stability in front of joint actions of nitric acid and radiations, and no reaction with the alkylammonium nitrate and the complex. Thus, the author addresses phenomena of immiscibility and identifies some important molecular characteristics which could lead to the selection of another secondary solvent than dodecane. The decalin seem interesting and its behaviour is studied. A mixing of dodecane and decalin is used as extraction mixing. The obtained results are discussed. Finally, the author notices that using this mixing in the plutonium purification process results in a large increase of metal concentrations and a decrease of risks of crystallisation, without any major drawback, in a continuously operating micro-industrial installation

  14. Extrinsic and intrinsic complexities of the Los Alamos plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearse, R.C.; Roberts, N.J.; Longmire, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the data obtained in one year of plutonium accounting at Los Alamos reveals significant complexity. Much of this complexity arises from the complexity of the processes themselves. Additional complexity is induced by errors in the data entry process. It is important to note that there is no evidence that this complexity is adversely affecting the accounting in the plant. The authors have been analyzing transaction data from fiscal year 1983 processing. This study involved 62,595 transactions. The data have been analyzed using the relational database program INGRES on a VAX 11/780 computer. This software allows easy manipulation of the original data and subsets drawn from it. The authors have been attempting for several years to understand the global features of the TA-55 accounting data. This project has underscored several of the system's complexities

  15. The PWI [plutonium waste incinerator] expert system: Real time, PC-based process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Smith, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A real time, microcomputer-based expert system is being developed for a prototype plutonium waste incinerator (PWI) process at Du Pont's Savannah River Laboratory. The expert system will diagnose instrumentation problems, assist operator training, serve as a repository for engineering knowledge about the process, and provide continuous operation and performance information. A set of necessary operational criteria was developed from process and engineering constraints; it was used to define hardware and software needs. The most important criterion is operating speed because the analysis operates in real time. TURBO PROLOG by Borland International was selected. The analysis system is divided into three sections: the user-system interface, the inference engine and rule base, and the files representing the blackboard information center

  16. Study of the potential use of carburized niobium in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carburized refractory metals, especially tantalum, have been shown to possess properties useful for application as hardware in the plutonium-processing environment. These applications are driven in part by a desire to minimize the production of radioactively contaminated waste. The current use of ceramics as containment materials for Pu processing are not ideal due to the short service life of the hardware, placing an additional burden on the contaminated waste stream. Carburized niobium has been examined for use as an improved hardware material. The Nb-C system is analogous to the previously studied Ta-C system. The low density of niobium relative to tantalum will improve the ergonomics of the glovebox environment. The choice of the Nb-C system will be supported by a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Preliminary results of the processing investigation also will be presented

  17. Extrinsic and intrinsic complexities of the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearse, R.C.; Longmire, V.L.; Roberts, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the data obtained in one year of plutonium accounting at Los Alamos reveals significant complexity. Much of this complexity arises from the complexity of the processes themselves. Additional complexity is induced by errors in the data entry process. It is important to note that there is no evidence that this complexity is adversely affecting the accounting in the plant. We have been analyzing transaction data from fiscal year 1983 processing. This study involved 62,595 transactions. The data have been analyzed using the relational database program INGRES on a VAX 11/780 computer. This software allows easy manipulation of the original data and subsets drawn from it. We have been attempting for several years to understand the global features of the TA-55 accounting data. This project has underscored several of the system's complexities. Examples that will be reported here include audit trails, lot-name multiplicity, etc

  18. Status summary of chemical processing development in plutonium-238 supply program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wham, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DePaoli, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sherman, Steven R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This document summarizes the status of development of chemical processing in the Plutonium-238 Supply Program (PSP) near the end of Demonstration 1. The objective of the PSP is “to develop, demonstrate, and document a production process that meets program objectives and to prepare for its operation” (Frazier et al. 2016). Success in the effort includes establishing capability using the current infrastructure to produce Np targets for irradiation in Department of Energy research reactors, chemically processing the irradiated targets to separate and purify the produced Pu and transferring the PuO2 product to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at an average rate of 1.5 kg/y.

  19. Flexible process options for the immobilisation of residues and wastes containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Moricca, S.A.; Day, R. A.; Begg, B. D.; Scales, C. R.; Maddrell, E. R.; Eilbeck, A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Residues and waste streams containing plutonium present unique technical, safety, regulatory, security, and socio-political challenges. In the UK these streams range from lightly plutonium contaminated materials (PCM) through to residue s resulting directly from Pu processing operations. In addition there are potentially stocks of Pu oxide powders whose future designation may be either a waste or an asset, due to their levels of contamination making their reuse uneconomic, or to changes in nuclear policy. While waste management routes exist for PCM, an immobilisation process is required for streams containing higher levels of Pu. Such a process is being developed by Nexia Solutions and ANSTO to treat and immobilise Pu waste and residues currently stored on the Sellafield site. The characteristics of these Pu waste streams are highly variable. The physical form of the Pu waste ranges from liquids, sludges, powders/granules, to solid components (e.g., test fuels), with the Pu present as an ion in solution, as a salt, metal, oxide or other compound. The chemistry of the Pu waste streams also varies considerably with a variety of impurities present in many waste streams. Furthermore, with fissile isotopes present, criticality is an issue during operations and in the store or repository. Safeguards and security concerns must be assessed and controlled. The process under development, by using a combination of tailored waste form chemistry combined with flexible process technology aims to develop a process line to handle a broad range of Pu waste streams. It aims to be capable of dealing with not only current arisings but those anticipated to arise as a result of future operations or policy changes. (authors)

  20. Ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) based process of simultaneous partitioning and reconversion for uranium and plutonium in fast breeder reactors (FBRs) fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, P.; Palamalai, A.; Vijayan, K.S.; Subba Rao, R.V.; Venkataraman, M.; Natarajan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) based process of simultaneous partitioning and reconversion for uranium and plutonium is developed for the recovery of uranium and plutonium present in spent fuel of fast breeder reactors (FBRs). Effect of pH on the solubility of carbonates of uranium and plutonium in ammonium carbonate medium is studied. Effect of mole ratios of uranium and plutonium as a function of uranium and plutonium concentration at pH 8.0-8.5 for effective separation of uranium and plutonium to each other is studied. Feasibility of reconversion of plutonium in carbonate medium is also studied. The studies indicate that uranium is selectively precipitated as AUC at pH 8.0-8.5 by adding ammonium carbonate solution leaving plutonium in the filtrate. Plutonium in the filtrate after acidified with concentrated nitric acid could also be precipitated as carbonate at pH 6.5-7.0 by adding ammonium carbonate solution. A flow sheet is proposed and evaluated for partitioning and reconversion of uranium and plutonium simultaneously in the FBR fuel reprocessing. (author)

  1. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  2. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility's process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases

  3. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility's process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases

  4. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy.

  5. Implementation of the DYMAC system at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. Phase II report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanify, J.J.; Amsden, D.C.

    1982-08-01

    The DYnamic Materials ACcountability System - called DYMAC - performs accountability functions at the new Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility where it began operation when the facility opened in January 1978. A demonstration program, DYMAC was designed to collect and assess inventory information for safeguards purposes. It accomplishes 75% of its design goals. DYMAC collects information about the physical inventory through deployment of nondestructive assay instrumentation and video terminals throughout the facility. The information resides in a minicomputer where it can be immediately sorted and displayed on the video terminals or produced in printed form. Although the capability now exists to assess the collected data, this portion of the program is not yet implemented. DYMAC in its present form is an excellent tool for process and quality control. The facility operator relies on it exclusively for keeping track of the inventory and for complying with accountability requirements of the US Department of Energy

  6. Continuous plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination process. [From product streams from Redox, Purex, or Recuplex solvent extraction plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beede, R L

    1956-09-27

    A continuous plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination process has been developed. Continuous and batch decomposition of the oxalate in the filtrates has been demonstrated. The processes have been demonstrated in prototype equipment. Plutonium (IV) oxalate was precipitated continuously at room temperature by the concurrent addition of plutonium (IV) nitrate feed and oxalic acid into the pan of a modified rotary drum filter. The plutonium (IV) oxalate was calcined to plutonium dioxide, which could be readily hydrofluorinated. Continuous decomposition of the oxalate in synthetic plutonium (IV) oxalate filtrates containing plutonium (IV) oxalate solids was demonstrated using co-current flow in a U-shaped reactor. Feeds containing from 10 to 100 g/1 Pu, as plutonium (IV) nitrate, and 1.0 to 6.5 M HNO/sub 3/, respectively, can be processed. One molar oxalic acid is used as the precipitant. Temperatures of 20 to 35/sup 0/C for the precipitation and filtration are satisfactory. Plutonium (IV) oxalate can be calcined at 300 to 400/sup 0/C in a screw-type drier-calciner to plutonium dioxide and hydrofluorinated at 450 to 550/sup 0/C. Plutonium dioxide exceeding purity requirements has been produced in the prototype equipment. Advantages of continuous precipitation and filtration are: uniform plutonium (IV) oxalate, improved filtration characteristics, elimination of heating and cooling facilities, and higher capacities through a single unit. Advantages of the screw-type drier-calciner are the continuous production of an oxide satisfactory for feed for the proposed plant vibrating tube hydrofluorinator, and ease of coupling continuous precipitation and filtration to this proposed hydrofluorinator. Continuous decomposition of oxalate in filtrates offers advantages in decreasing filtrate storage requirements when coupled to a filtrate concentrator. (JGB)

  7. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  8. Properties of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new

  9. Properties of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  10. Processing plutonium-contaminated soild for volume reduction using the segmented gate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, K.S.; Moroney, J.D.; Turney, J.M.; Doane, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    TMA/Eberline has developed and demonstrated an effective method for removing mixed plutonium and americium contamination from a coral soil matrix at the Defense Nuclear Agency's Johnston Atoll site. TMA's onsite soil processing for volume reduction is ongoing at a rate of over 2000 metric tons per week. The system uses arrays of sensitive radiation detectors coupled with sophisticated computer software developed by Eberline Instrument Corporation. The proprietary software controls four soil sorting units operating in parallel that utilize TMA's unique Segmented Gate System technology to remove radiologically contaminated soil from a moving supply on conveyor belts. Clean soil is released for use elsewhere on the island. Contaminated soil is diverted to either a metal drum for collecting higher activity open-quotes hotclose quotes particles (>5000 Becquerels), or to a supplementary soil washing process designed to remove finely divided particles of dispersed low level contamination. Site contamination limits specify maximum dispersed radioactivity of no more than 500 Becquerels per kilogram of soil averaged over no more than 0.1 cubic meter. Results of soil processing at this site have been excellent. After processing over 50,000 metric tons, the volume of contaminated material that would have required expensive special handling, packaging, and disposal as radioactive waste has been successfully reduced by over 98 percent. By mid-January 1994, nearly three million kiloBecquerels of plutonium/americium contamination had been physically separated from the contaminated feed by TMA's Segmented Gate System, and quality control sampling showed no radioactivity above release criteria in the open-quotes cleanclose quotes soil pile

  11. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE's stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities

  12. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  13. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition

  14. Environmental Transport of Plutonium: Biogeochemical Processes at Femtomolar Concentrations and Nanometer Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Annie B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-05

    The major challenge in predicting the mobility and transport of plutonium (Pu) is determining the dominant geochemical processes that control its behavior in the subsurface. The reaction chemistry of Pu (i.e., aqueous speciation, solubility, sorptivity, redox chemistry, and affinity for colloidal particles, both abiotic and microbially mediated) is particularly complicated. It is generally thought that due to its low solubility and high sorptivity, Pu migration in the environment occurs only when facilitated by transport on particulate matter (i.e., colloidal particles). Despite the recognized importance of colloid-facilitated transport of Pu, very little is known about the geochemical and biochemical mechanisms controlling Pu-colloid formation and association, particularly at femtomolar Pu concentrations observed at DOE sites.

  15. Separation of neptunium from uranium and plutonium in the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.; Schuler, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of removing neptunium from the Purex process in the first extraction cycle was investigated. Butyraldehyde was found to reduce Np(VI) to Np(V), but not Pu(IV) to Pu(III). Up to 99.7% Np can be separated from uranium and plutonium in the 1A extractor or, much more favourably, in an additional partitioning extractor. Hydroxylamine nitrate can be used for reducing Np(VI) to Np(V) in a uranium purification cycle at a high U concentration in the feed solution. Here the decontamination factor for Np can be as high as 2300 and is lowered if iron is present in the feed. (author)

  16. Final characterization report for the non-process areas of the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.; Harris, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report addresses the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility characterization survey data collected from January 21, 1997 through February 3, 1997. The characterization activities evaluated the radiological status and identified the hazardous materials locations. The scope of this report is limited to the nonprocess areas in the facility, which include the special work permit (SWP) change room, toilet, equipment room, electrical cubicle, control room, and pipe gallery. A portion of the roof (excluding the roof over the process hood and viewing room) was also included. Information in this report will be used to identify waste streams, provide specific chemical and radiological data to aid in planning decontamination and demolition activities, and allow proper disposal of the demolition debris, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980

  17. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  18. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  19. Stop plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  20. Tracing discharges of plutonium and technetium from nuclear processing plants by ultra-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Hausladen, P.A.; Cresswell, R.G.; Di Tada, M.L.; Day, J.P.; Carling, R.S.; Oughton, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Historical discharges of plutonium from the Russian nuclear processing plant at Mayak in the Urals have been traced in sediments, soils and river water using ultra-sensitive detection of plutonium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Significant advantages of AMS over other techniques are its very high sensitivity. which is presently ∼10 6 atoms (1 μBq), and its ability to determine the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio. The latter is a sensitive indicator of the source of the plutonium, being very low (1-2%) for weapons grade plutonium, and higher (∼ 20%) for plutonium from civil reactors or fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Since this ratio has changed significantly over the years of discharges from Mayak, a measurement can provide important information about the source of plutonium at a particular location. Similar measurements have been performed on samples from the Kara Sea which contains a graveyard of nuclear submarines from the former Soviet Union. AMS techniques have also been developed for detection of 99 Tc down to levels of a few femtograms. This isotope is one of the most prolific fission products and has a very long half-life of 220 ka. Hundreds of kg have been discharged from the nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield in the UK. While there may be public health issues associated with these discharges which can be addressed with AMS, these discharges may also constitute a valuable oceanographic tracer experiment in this climatically-important region of the world's oceans. Applications to date have included a human uptake study to assess long-term retention of 99 Tc in the body, and a survey of seaweeds from northern Europe to establish a baseline for a future oceanographic study

  1. Cation exchange process for recovery of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.

    1978-10-01

    A cation exchange technique was developed for the separation of plutonium from laboratory solutions containing either Pu(III) or Pu(III)--Pu(IV) mixtures in acidic solutions containing chloride ions. The procedure consists of adjusting the acid concentration to less than one molar and adjusting the valence of the plutonium ion to the (III) state, if necessary. The adjusted solution is fed to a cation exchange column and washed with distilled water to remove residual chlorides from the column. Plutonium is then eluted from the column with 5M nitric acid containing 0.34M sulfamic acid. This procedure was used to separate plutonium from 1.2M chloride solution on a production-scale column. Typical plutonium recovery was 99.97%, while greater than 96% of the original chloride was rejected

  2. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J.; Van Den Durpel, L.

    2007-01-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of various fuel cycles to control inventories of plutonium and minor in advanced fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.F.; Anderson, T.; Preston, J.; Humberstone, M.; Hou, J.; McConn, J. [Tennessee Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Knoxville, TN (United States); Van Den Durpel, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Inventories of Plutonium and minor actinides are important factors in determination of the risk associated with the use of nuclear energy. This includes the potential of exceeding release limits from a repository and the potential for proliferation. The amount of these materials in any given fleet of reactors is determined in large part by the choice of fuel cycle and by the types of reactors selected for operation. Most of the US reactor fleet will need to be replaced within the next 30 years and additional reactors will need to be added if the contribution of power from nuclear energy is expanded. In order to minimize risk and to make judicious use of repository space, inventories of all radionuclides will need to be effectively managed. Use of hard-spectrum reactors to burn excess Plutonium and other actinides is technologically feasible and is most likely less costly than any other options for minimizing various risks. Calculations for the inventories of several categories of radionuclides indicate that introduction of a modest fraction of fast reactors into the US reactor fleet is effective in stabilizing the growth of problematic radioisotopes. Results are obtained from the DANESS (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies)1,2 Code and from the solution of algebraic equations that define steady state inventories. There are various different possible fuel cycle scenarios to utilize in the implementation of fast, thermal and intermediate spectrum reactors into the U.S. fleet. Results include various combinations of reactor types and fuel with varying times of implementations. Mass flows with uncertainties for equilibrium cycles will also be reported. Time-dependent scenarios are modeled with the DANESS code, and algebraic equations for various fuel cycles are derived. Uncertainties are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations based on estimates of parameters in the models. (authors)

  4. Conversion of metal plutonium to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Mashirev, V.P. [ALL-Russian Science and Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    Report contains experimental results on metal plutonium of weapon origin samples conversion to plutonium dioxide by pyrochemical method. Circuits of processes are described. Their advantages and shortcomings are shown. Parameters of plutonium dioxide powders (phase and fraction compositions, poured density) manufactured by pyrochemical method in RFNC-VNIITF are shown as well. (authors)

  5. Transplutonium elements production program: extraction chromatographic process for plutonium irradiated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, J.; Madic, C.; Koehly, G.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of irradiated plutonium targets by extraction chromatography allowed the purification of the isotopes 243 Am and 244 Cm on the scale of few tens of grams. This process proved to be extremely simple and flexible, and yielded results which are reproducible in time. The chief advantage of the TBP process over the HDEHP process in high and medium activity conditions lies in the rapid absorption/desorption kinetics of the elements to be purified and in the separation of americium from curium, which largely offsets its lower selectivity for lanthanide elements. it is certainly possible to improve the performance of this process by: a) optimization of the characteristics of the stationary phase, b) improvement in the filling technique and in hydraulic operation of the columns, c) on-line analysis of americium (the key element in actinide/lanthanide separation) in the eluate. The application of extraction chromatography with HD(DiBM)P to the purification of 243 Am of the end of treatment makes the process more consistent, eliminates the delicate stages implemented in hot cell, and considerably improves final product quality

  6. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  7. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  8. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail

  9. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvidge, J. E.

    1977-04-28

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10/sup -4/ per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10/sup -7/ grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10/sup -3/ grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10/sup -7/ per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated.

  10. Natural hazards that may trigger a radiological release from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations show the probability of a tornado striking a plutonium area at Rocky Flats is 2.2 x 10 -4 per year. The source term (expected value of plutonium release) should such an event occur is calculated at 3.3 x 10 -7 grams. The source term for high-velocity, downslope winds is higher--2.2 x 10 -3 grams. The probability of a meteorite that weighs one or more pounds (453 grams) striking a plutonium area is estimated at 8.88 x 10 -7 per year. Because of this small probability and the remote chance that a plutonium release would occur even if a meteorite hit occurred, the hazard from meteorite impact is considered negligible. Conservative assumptions result in all calculated frequencies being almost certainly too high. Empirical observations have indicated lower frequencies than those calculated

  11. Advanced local dose rate calculations with the Monte Carlo code MCNP for plutonium nitrate storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron- und Gamma dose rate calculations were performed for the storage containers filled with plutonium nitrate of the MOX fabrication facility of Siemens. For the particle transport calculations the Monte Carlo Code MCNP 4.2 was used. The calculated results were compared with experimental dose rate measurements. It can be stated that the choice of the code system was appropriate since all aspects of the many facettes of the problem were well reproduced in the calculations. The position dependency as well as the influence of the shieldings, the reflections and the mutual influences of the sources were well described by the calculations for the gamma and for the neutron dose rates. However, good agreement with the experimental results on the gamma dose rates could only be reached when the lead shielding of the detector was integrated into the geometry modelling of the calculations. For some few cases of thick shieldings and soft gamma ray sources the statistics of the calculational results were not sufficient. In such cases more elaborate variance reduction methods must be applied in future calculations. Thus the MCNP code in connection with NGSRC has been proven as an effective tool for the solution of this type of problems. (orig./HP) [de

  12. 1981 Annual Status Report. Plutonium fuels and actinide programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In this 1981 report the work carried out by the European Institute for Transuranium elements is reviewed. Main topics are: operation limits of plutonium fuels: swelling of advanced fuels, oxide fuel transients, equation of state of nuclear materials; actinide cycle safety: formation of actinides (FACT), safe handling of plutonium fuel (SHAPE), aspects of the head-end processing of carbide fuel (RECARB); actinide research: crystal chemistry, solid state studies, applied actinide research

  13. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  14. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  15. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  16. Field test of plutonium and thorium contaminated clay soils from the Mound Site using the ACT*DE*CON Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Swift, N.A.; Church, R.H.; Neff, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A treatability test was run during the summer and fall of 1997 to demonstrate the effectiveness of ACT*DE*CON for removing plutonium and thorium from the clay soils around Mound. ACT*DE*CON is a proprietary solution patented by Selentec. The process utilized a highly selective dissolution of the contaminants by the use of a chemical wash. The pilot scale process involved pretreatment of the soil in an attrition scrubber with ACT*DE*CON solution. This blended solution was then passed through a counter-current extraction chamber where additional contact with ACT*DE*CON solution occurred, followed by a rinse cycle. During this process sand was added to aid contact of the solution with the soil particles. The sand is removed during the rinse step and reused. The chelating agent is separated from the contaminant and recycled back into the process, along with the reverse osmosis permeate. The resulting solution can be further treated to concentrate the contaminant. Three different types of environmental soils were tested -- plutonium and thorium contaminated soils with the natural clay content, and plutonium contaminated soils with a high percentage of fine clay particles. The goal of these tests was to reduce the plutonium levels from several hundreds of pCi/g to between 25 and 75 pCi/g and the thorium from a couple hundred pCi/g to less than 5 pCi/g. The results of these four tests are presented along with a discussion of the operating parameters and the lessons learned relating to full scale implementation at Mound as well as other potential applications of this process

  17. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  18. Plutonium storage phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szempruch, R.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium has been produced, handled, and stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities since the 1940s. Many changes have occurred during the last 40 years in the sources, production demands, and end uses of plutonium. These have resulted in corresponding changes in the isotopic composition as well as the chemical and physical forms of the processed and stored plutonium. Thousands of ordinary food pack tin cans have been used successfully for many years to handle and store plutonium. Other containers have been used with equal success. This paper addressees the exceptions to this satisfactory experience. To aid in understanding the challenges of handling plutonium for storage or immobilization the lessons learned from past storage experience and the necessary countermeasures to improve storage performance are discussed

  19. Analytical control of reducing agents on uranium/plutonium partitioning at purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Izilda da Cruz de

    1995-01-01

    Spectrophotometric methods for uranium (IV), hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ) and its decomposition product hydrazoic acid(HN 3 ), and hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) determinations were developed aiming their applications for the process control of CELESTE I installation at IPEN/CNEN-SP. These compounds are normally present in the U/Pu partitioning phase of the spent nuclear treatment via PUREX process. The direct spectrophotometry was used for uranium (IV) analysis in nitric acid-hydrazine solutions based on the absorption measurement at 648 nm. The azomethine compound formed by reaction of hydrazine and p-dimethylamine benzaldehyde with maximum absorption at 457 nm was the basis for the specific analytical method for hydrazine determination. The hydrazoic acid analysis was performed indirectly by its conversion into ferric azide complex with maximum absorption at 465 nm. The hydroxylamine detection was accomplished based on its selective oxidation to nitrous acid which is easily analyzed by the reaction with Griess reagent. The resulted azocompound gas a maximum absorption at 520 nm. The sensibility of 1,4x10 -6 M for U(IV) with 0,8% of precision, 1,6x10 -6 M for hydrazine with 0,8% of precision, 2,3x10 -6 M hydrazoic acid with 0,9% of precision and 2,5x10 -6 M for hydroxylamine with 0,8% of precision were achieved. The interference studies have shown that each reducing agent can be determined in the presence of each other without any interference. Uranium(VI) and plutonium have also shown no interference in these analysis. The established methods were adapted to run inside glove-boxes by using an optical fiber colorimetry and applied to process control of the CELESTE I installation. The results pointed out that the methods are reliable and safety in order to provide just-in-time information about process conditions. (author)

  20. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.; Melvin, J.G.; Slater, J.B.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  1. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  2. Analysis of the reactivity coefficients of the advanced high-temperature reactor for plutonium and uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, Jitka; Talamo, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The conceptual design of the advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) has recently been proposed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the intention to provide and alternative energy source for very high temperature applications. In the present study, we focused on the analyses of the reactivity coefficients of the AHTR core fueled with two types of fuel: enriched uranium and plutonium from the reprocessing of light water reactors irradiated fuel. More precisely, we investigated the influence of the outer graphite reflectors on the multiplication factor of the core, the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and the void reactivity coefficient for five different molten salts: NaF, BeF 2 , LiF, ZrF 4 and Li 2 BeF 4 eutectic. In order to better illustrate the behavior of the previous parameters for different core configurations, we evaluated the moderating ratio of the molten salts and the absorption rate of the key fuel nuclides, which, of course, are driven by the neutron spectrum. The results show that the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients are always negative, whereas the void reactivity coefficient can be set negative provided that the fuel to moderator ratio is optimized (the core is undermoderated) and the moderating ratio of the coolant is large

  3. Analysis of the reactivity coefficients of the advanced high-temperature reactor for plutonium and uranium fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakova, Jitka [Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: jitka.zakova@neutron.kth.se; Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, ANL, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: alby@anl.gov

    2008-05-15

    The conceptual design of the advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) has recently been proposed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the intention to provide and alternative energy source for very high temperature applications. In the present study, we focused on the analyses of the reactivity coefficients of the AHTR core fueled with two types of fuel: enriched uranium and plutonium from the reprocessing of light water reactors irradiated fuel. More precisely, we investigated the influence of the outer graphite reflectors on the multiplication factor of the core, the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and the void reactivity coefficient for five different molten salts: NaF, BeF{sub 2}, LiF, ZrF{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} eutectic. In order to better illustrate the behavior of the previous parameters for different core configurations, we evaluated the moderating ratio of the molten salts and the absorption rate of the key fuel nuclides, which, of course, are driven by the neutron spectrum. The results show that the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients are always negative, whereas the void reactivity coefficient can be set negative provided that the fuel to moderator ratio is optimized (the core is undermoderated) and the moderating ratio of the coolant is large.

  4. Plutonium-241 processing: from impure oxide to high purity metal target disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Baaso, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of three plutonium-241 metal target disks, using a precision casting technique, is described. The disks were 0.625 inch in diameter and 0.125, 0.025, and 0.010 inch thick. All three disks were prepared simultaneously in a single casting. The variation in thickness of each disk was within +-1 percent of the disk's average thickness. The plutonium-241 was highly pure, and the finished disks contained a total of only 297 parts per million of detectable impurities. Purification of the plutonium oxide ( 241 PuO 2 ) and the conversion of the purified 241 PuO 2 to metal are also described. (U.S.)

  5. Post-remedial-action radiological survey of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania, October 1-8, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.; Sholeen, C.M.; Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The post-remedial-action radiological assessment conducted by the ANL Radiological Survey Group in October 1981, following decommissioning and decontamination efforts by Westinghouse personnel, indicated that except for the Advanced Fuels Laboratory exhaust ductwork and north wall, the interior surfaces of the Plutonium Laboratory and associated areas within Building 7 and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory within Building 8 were below both the ANSI Draft Standard N13.12 and NRC Guideline criteria for acceptable surface contamination levels. Hence, with the exceptions noted above, the interior surfaces of those areas within Buildings 7 and 8 that were included in the assessment are suitable for unrestricted use. Air samples collected at the involved areas within Buildings 7 and 8 indicated that the radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations within the air were well below the limits prescribed by the US Surgeon General, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. The Building 7 drain lines are contaminated with uranium, plutonium, and americium. Radiochemical analysis of water and dirt/sludge samples collected from accessible Low-Bay, High-Bay, Shower Room, and Sodium laboratory drains revealed uranium, plutonium, and americium contaminants. The Building 7 drain lines hence are unsuitable for release for unrestricted use in their present condition. Low levels of enriched uranium, plutonium, and americium were detected in an environmental soil coring near Building 8, indicating release or spillage due to Advanced Reactors Division activities or Nuclear Fuel Division activities undr NRC licensure. 60 Co contamination was detected within the Building 7 Shower Room and in soil corings from the environs of Building 7. All other radionuclide concentrations measured in soil corings and the storm sewer outfall sample collected from the environs about Buildings 7 and 8 were within the range of normally expected background concentrations

  6. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xu; Martinez, Alex; Schappert, Michael; Montoya, D.P.; Martinez, Patrick; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    A simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 deg C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements. (author)

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J.; Nass, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  9. Automation of plutonium spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.J.; Boisde, G.; Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Chevalier, G.; Isaac, M.

    1980-01-01

    Instrumentation was designed and constructed for automatic control of plutonium by molecular absorption spectrophotometry, on behalf of the reprocessing facilities, to meet two objectives: on-line measurement, of the valency state of plutonium, on by-pass, with the measured concentration covering the process concentration range up to a few mg.l -1 ; laboratory measurement of plutonium adjusted to valency VI, with operation carried out using a preparative system meeting the required containment specifications. For this two objectives, the photometer, optical cell connections are made by optical fibers resistant to β, γ radiation. Except this characteristic the devices are different according to the quality required for result [fr

  10. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  11. Investigation of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryushin, V.G.; Belov, V.A.; Galaktionov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, P.B.; Matyukha, V.A.; Shmidt, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Deposition processes of plutonium (4) hydroxoformates in the system Pu(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 -HCoOH-N6 4 OH-H 2 O have been studied in pH range 0.2-10.7 at total plutonium concentration in the system 100 g/l. It is shown that under the conditions plutonium (4) hydrolysis takes place with the formation of hydroxoformates. A local maximum of plutonium (4) hydroxoformate solubility in the range pH=3.8-4.8, which is evidently conditioned by the formation of soluble formate complex of plutonium in the region, is pointed out. The basic plutonium (4) formates of the composition PuOsub(x)(OH)sub(y)(COOH)sub(4-2x-y)xnHsub(2)O, where 1,3 >=x >= 0.7, 1.7 >= y >= 1.0 and n=1.5-7.0, are singled out, their thermal stability being studied. Density of the crystals and plutonium dioxide, formed during their thermal decomposition, is measured. It is established that for plutonium (4) hydroxoformates common regularities of the influence of salt composition (OH - -, CHOO - - and H 2 O-group numbers in the mulecule) on position of temperature decomposition effects and on the density of compounds, which have been previously found during the study of thorium and plutonium hydroxosalts are observed. It is shown that the density of plutonium dioxide decreases with the increase of hydration and hydrolysis degree of the initial plutonium hydroxoformate

  12. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  14. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  15. Study of advanced LWR cores for effective use of plutonium and MOX physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsu-Ura, H.; Ueji, M.; Ota, H.; Kanagawa, T.; Sakurada, K.; Maruyama, H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced technologies of full MOX cores have been studied to obtain higher Pu consumption based on the advanced light water reactors (APWRs and ABWRs). For this aim, basic core designs of high moderation lattice (H/HM ∼5) have been studied with reduced fuel diameters in fuel assemblies for APWRs and those of high moderation lattice (H/HM ∼6) with addition of extra water rods in fuel assemblies for ABWRs. The analysis of equilibrium cores shows that nuclear and thermal hydraulic parameters satisfy the design criteria and the Pu consumption rate increases about 20 %. An experimental program has been carried out to obtain the core parameters of high moderation MOX cores in the EOLE critical facility at the Cadarache Centre as a joint study of NUPEC, CEA and CEA's industrial partners. The experiments include a uranium homogeneous core, two MOX homogeneous cores of different moderation and a PWR assembly mock up core of MOX fuel with high moderation. The program was started from 1996 and will be completed in 2000. (author)

  16. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  17. Automation of process accountability flow diagrams at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, P.; Whiteson, R.; Strittmatter, R.; Mousseau, K.

    1999-01-01

    Many industrial processes (including reprocessing activities; nuclear fuel fabrication; and material storage, measurement and transfer) make use of process flow diagrams. These flows can be used for material accountancy and for data analysis. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Technical Area (TA)-55 Plutonium Facility is home to various research and development activities involving the use of special nuclear material (SNM). A facility conducting research and development (R and D) activities using SNM must satisfy material accountability guidelines. All processes involving SNM or tritium processing, at LANL, require a process accountability flow diagram (PAFD). At LANL a technique was developed to generate PAFDs that can be coupled to a relational database for use in material accountancy. These techniques could also be used for propagation of variance, measurement control, and inventory difference analysis. The PAFD is a graphical representation of the material flow during a specific process. PAFDs are currently stored as PowerPoint files. In the PowerPoint format, the data captured by the PAFD are not easily accessible. Converting the PAFDs to an accessible electronic format is desirable for several reasons. Any program will be able to access the data contained in the PAFD. For the PAFD data to be useful in applications such as an expert system for data checking, SNM accountability, inventory difference evaluation, measurement control, and other kinds of analysis, it is necessary to interface directly with the information contained within the PAFD. The PAFDs can be approved and distributed electronically, eliminating the paper copies of the PAFDs and ensuring that material handlers have the current PAFDs. Modifications to the PAFDs are often global. Storing the data in an accessible format would eliminate the need to manually update each of the PAFDs when a global change has occurred. The goal was to determine a software package that would store the

  18. Seismic qualification of equipment for the TA-55 Plutonium Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellette, P.R.; Endebrock, E.G.; Giles, P.M.; Shaw, R.H.

    1977-04-01

    The techniques employed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the seismic qualification of internal equipment for the TA-55 Plutonium Facility are discussed. The structural analysis of the plutonium building and critical associated structures was performed by the Architect-Engineer (A-E), and the calculations were checked by LASL. The specifications and procedures used by LASL produced dramatic improvement in the responses by qualified vendors to the seismic requirements. There was an increase from about a 20% bid ratio to greater than 90% because prospective vendors could be competitive without having had previous seismic experience with their equipment. The equipment seismic qualification for TA-55 is in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Guides, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Manual Chapters and Appendices, and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 344

  19. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author) [es

  20. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  1. An oxyde mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides and process to obtain this oxyde mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1976-01-01

    An oxide-mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides having the slage of spherical, or nearly spherical, oxide-mixture particles with a diameter within the range of from 0.2 to 2 mn charactarized in that each oxide-mixture particles is provided with an outer layer comprising mainly UO2, the thickness of which is at least 0.05; whereas the inner portion of the oxide-mixture particles comprises mainly PUO 2

  2. Advanced Electrorefining Process at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansoo Lee; Jong Hyun Lee; Sung Bin Park; Yoon Sang Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Sung Won Park

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the throughput of a pyro-processing in which electrochemical processes are mostly engaged, the design of a continuous concept is required. The graphite cathode in the electro-refiner enables the uranium deposit on the cathodes to be stripped off spontaneously, resulting in a continuous reaction. The collected uranium deposits at the bottom of the inner cone of the reactor are transferred by a conveyor. The residuals in the anode basket after the uranium is depleted are noble metals. These are also collected at the bottom of the outer shell of the reactor, and conveyed from the reactor for a further treatment. This work addresses the design of the electro-refiner for a continuous operation. The behavior of particles such as uranium dendrites or noble metals was analyzed to achieve the proper operating conditions. The operating conditions for the cathode processor in which molten salt is distilled were also investigated. (authors)

  3. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  4. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  5. Preliminary laboratory study of plutonium-238 dissolution from Mound soil by means of the ACT*DE*CONSM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Heinrich, R.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Edgar, D.E.

    1992-04-01

    The treatment of contaminated soil presents a significant technical problem. Soil-washing and chemical-extraction methods have proven to be effective for specific applications, but a process with more comprehensive treatment properties that is both cost-effective and environmentally propitious is needed. Bradtec, Inc., has developed a process, the ACT*DE*CON SM process, that has been tested on soil contaminated with plutonium. The process effectively extracted Pu-238 after three washes, reducing the contamination levels from approximately 20 Bq/g to 1.6--1.9 Bq/g and yielding a decontamination factor ranging from 11 to 13. By using four or more ACT*DE*CON SM washes or a continuous-flow process with ACT*DE*CON SM solvents on a pilot-scale test, a target decontamination level of 0.93 Bq/g might be achievable

  6. Advanced oxidation processes: overall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Curco, D.; Addardak, A.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica. Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Modelling AOPs implies to consider all the steps included in the process, that means, mass transfer, kinetic (reaction) and luminic steps. In this way, recent works develop models which relate the global reaction rate to catalyst concentration and radiation absorption. However, the application of such models requires to know what is the controlling step for the overall process. In this paper, a simple method is explained which allows to determine the controlling step. Thus, it is assumed that reactor is divided in two hypothetical zones (dark and illuminated), and according to the experimental results, obtained by varying only the reaction volume, it can be decided if reaction occurs only in the illuminated zone or in the all reactor, including dark zone. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol, by using titania degussa P-25 as catalyst, is studied as reaction model. The preliminary results obtained are presented here, showing that it seems that, in this case, reaction only occurs in the illuminated zone of photoreactor. A model is developed to explain this behaviour. (orig.)

  7. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  8. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofman, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    If the world chooses to seek a solution to the energy dilemma through nuclear energy, the element plutonium will become an article of commerce to be handled in quantities of thousands of tonnes annually. Plutonium is a uniquely potent inhalation carcinogen, the potential induction of lung cancer dwarfing other possible toxic effects. For reasons to be presented here, it is the author's opinion that plutonium's carcinogenicity has been very seriously underestimated. If one couples the corrected carcinogenicity with the probable degree of industrial containment of the plutonium, it appears that the commercialization of a plutonium-based energy economy is not an acceptable option for society. Sagan's statement that ''the experience of 30 years supports the contention that plutonium can be used safely'' is manifestly indefensible. No meaningful epidemiological study of plutonium-exposed workers for that 30-year period has ever been done. Since thousands of those possibly exposed have left the industry and are not even available to follow-up, it is doubtful that any meaningful study of ''the experience of 30 years'' will ever be accomplished

  9. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  10. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  11. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaysser, W.A.; Weber-Bock, J.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  12. Comparison of the Environment, Health, And Safety Characteristics of Advanced Thorium- Uranium and Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Timothy M.

    The environment, health, and safety properties of thorium-uranium-based (''thorium'') fuel cycles are estimated and compared to those of analogous uranium-plutonium-based (''uranium'') fuel cycle options. A structured assessment methodology for assessing and comparing fuel cycle is refined and applied to several reference fuel cycle options. Resource recovery as a measure of environmental sustainability for thorium is explored in depth in terms of resource availability, chemical processing requirements, and radiological impacts. A review of available experience and recent practices indicates that near-term thorium recovery will occur as a by-product of mining for other commodities, particularly titanium. The characterization of actively-mined global titanium, uranium, rare earth element, and iron deposits reveals that by-product thorium recovery would be sufficient to satisfy even the most intensive nuclear demand for thorium at least six times over. Chemical flowsheet analysis indicates that the consumption of strong acids and bases associated with thorium resource recovery is 3-4 times larger than for uranium recovery, with the comparison of other chemical types being less distinct. Radiologically, thorium recovery imparts about one order of magnitude larger of a collective occupational dose than uranium recovery. Moving to the entire fuel cycle, four fuel cycle options are compared: a limited-recycle (''modified-open'') uranium fuel cycle, a modified-open thorium fuel cycle, a full-recycle (''closed'') uranium fuel cycle, and a closed thorium fuel cycle. A combination of existing data and calculations using SCALE are used to develop material balances for the four fuel cycle options. The fuel cycle options are compared on the bases of resource sustainability, waste management (both low- and high-level waste, including used nuclear fuel), and occupational radiological impacts. At steady-state, occupational doses somewhat favor the closed thorium option while low

  13. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulenova, Alena [Principal Investigator; Vandegrift, III, George F. [Collaborator

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  14. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M.; Charboneau, S.; Bond, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  15. Plutonium solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomnech, I.; Bruno, J.

    1991-02-01

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  16. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  17. Advanced spent fuel processing technologies for the United States GNEP programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spent fuel processing technologies for future advanced nuclear fuel cycles are being developed under the scope of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). This effort seeks to make available for future deployment a fissile material recycling system that does not involve the separation of pure plutonium from spent fuel. In the nuclear system proposed by the United States under the GNEP initiative, light water reactor spent fuel is treated by means of a solvent extraction process that involves a group extraction of transuranic elements. The recovered transuranics are recycled as fuel material for advanced burner reactors, which can lead in the long term to fast reactors with conversion ratios greater than unity, helping to assure the sustainability of nuclear power systems. Both aqueous and pyrochemical methods are being considered for fast reactor spent fuel processing in the current US development programme. (author)

  18. Decontamination of Battelle-Columbus' Plutonium Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, A.; Kirsch, G.; Toy, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Plutonium Laboratory, owned and operated by Battelle Memorial Institute's Columbus Division, was located in Battelle's Nuclear Sciences area near West Jefferson, Ohio, approximately 17 miles west of Columbus, Ohio. Originally built in 1960 for plutonium research and processing, the Plutonium Laboratory was enlarged in 1964 and again in 1967. With the termination of the Advanced Fuel Program in March, 1977, the decision was made to decommission the Plutonium Laboratory and to decontaminate the building for unrestricted use. Decontamination procedures began in January, 1978. All items which had come into contact with radioactivity from the plutonium operations were cleaned or disposed of through prescribed channels, maintaining procedures to ensure that D and D operations would pose no risk to the public, the environment, or the workers. The entire program was conducted under the cognizance of DOE's Chicago Operations Office. The building which housed the Plutonium Laboratory has now been decontaminated to levels allowing it to house ordinary laboratory and office operations. A ''Finding of No Significant Impact'' (FNSI) was issued in May, 1980

  19. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Sasak, T.; Vikis, A.C.; Singh, A.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  20. Investigation of a process for the pyrolysis of plutonium contaminated combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longstaff, B.; Cains, P.W.; Elliot, M.N.; Taylor, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrolysis offers an attractive first-stage alternative to incineration as a means of weight and volume reduction of solide combustible waste P.C.M, if it is required to recover plutonium from the final product. The avoidance of turbulent conditions associated with incineration should lead to less carry-over of particulates, and the lower operating temperature approximately 700 0 C should be most advantageous to the choice of constructional materials and to plant life. The char product from pyrolysis may be oxidised to a final ash at similarly acceptable low temperatures by passing air over a stirred bed of materials. The recently received draft designs for a cyclone after-burner (plus associated scrubbers and filters etc) offer an attractive method of dispensing of the volatile products of pyrolysis

  1. The development and testing of the new flowsheets for the plutonium purification of the Purex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, K.V.; Korotaev, V.G.; Korchenkin, K.K.; Logunov, M.V.; Ludin, S.A.; Mashkin, A.N.; Melentev, A.B.; Samarina, N.S. [FSUE ' PAMayak' , Lenin st., 35, Ozersk 456780 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    In order to improve the extraction flowsheet of RT-1 Plant two versions of plutonium purification unit flowsheet were developed: a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(IV) valence pair and Pu, Np co-recovery, and a flowsheet with stabilization of Pu(IV)-Np(V) valence pair and Pu recovery. The task related to stabilization of the valence pair of the target components in the required state was solved with the use of reactants already applied at RT-1 Plant, namely, hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine nitrate and catalyst (Fe). Both flowsheets were adapted for the plant purification facility with minimum modifications of the equipment, and passed the full scale industrial testing. As a result of this work, reduction in volume and salt content of the raffinate was achieved. (authors)

  2. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  3. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  4. Analytical techniques for in-line/on-line monitoring of uranium and plutonium in process solutions : a brief literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.G.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    In-line/on-line monitoring of various parameters such as uranium-plutonium-fission product concentration, acidity, density etc. plays an important role in quickly understanding the efficiency of processes in a reprocessing plant. Efforts in studying and installation of such analytical instruments are going on since more than three decades with adaptation of newer methods and technologies. A review on the developement of in-line analytical instrumentation was carried out in this laboratory about two decades ago. This report presents a very short literature survey of the work in the last two decades. The report includes an outline of principles of the main techniques employed in the in-line/on-line monitoring. (author). 77 refs., 6 tabs

  5. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  6. [Nursing process in advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio Peña, Gerardo; Fuentes Leonardo, Ana María

    2002-01-01

    The process male nurse is a systematic and organized method to offer effective and efficient cares guided to the achievement of solving real problems of health, reducing the incidence and the duration. It is organized and systematic for that consists of five sequential and interrelated steps: Valuation, diagnostic, planning, execution and evaluation, in which are carried out interrelated actions, thought to maximize the long term results. The nurse process is based on the notion that the success of the cares is measured by the degree of effectiveness and the degree of satisfaction and the patient's progress. Applying this method in the Advanced Cardiac Live Support (ACLS) the identification of a cardiovascular or cardiopulmonary urgency was achieved that implies advanced treatment of the air road, defibrillation and appropriate medications to the circumstances. The ACLS challenges the nurses in charge from the patient's attention to make decisions quick low pressure and in dramatic scenes. Reason why it develops the flowing process male nurse in the advanced cardiopulmonary reanimation due to the incidence of these events in the National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chávez, which should guarantee the benefit of services in basic and advanced cardiopulmonary reanimation for personal with a high formation level in all the units of intensive cares and services of hospitalization in integrated form and stratified this way to avoid that it progresses to situations that cause the death or leave irreversible sequels since in the central nervous system the time it is a factor critical for the treatment of this events.

  7. Solvent anode for plutonium purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Fife, K.W.; Christensen, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a technique to allow complete oxidation of plutonium from the anode during plutonium electrorefining. This will eliminate the generation of a ''spent'' anode heel which requires further treatment for recovery. Our approach is to employ a solvent metal in the anode to provide a liquid anode pool throughout electrorefining. We use molten salts and metals in ceramic crucibles at 700 0 C. Our goal is to produce plutonium metal at 99.9% purity with oxidation and transfer of more than 98% of the impure plutonium feed metal from the anode into the salt and product phases. We have met these criteria in experiments on the 100 to 1000 g scale. We plan to scale our operations to 4 kg of feed plutonium and to optimize the process parameters

  8. Shielding analysis of the advanced voloxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.; Shin, J. M.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-09-15

    This report deals describes how much a shielding benefit can be obtained by the Advanced Voloxidation process. The calculation was performed with the MCNPX code and a simple problem was modeled with a spent fuel source which was surrounded by a concrete wall. The source terms were estimated with the ORIGEN-ARP code and the gamma spectrum and the neutron spectrum were also obtained. The thickness of the concrete wall was estimated before and after the voloxidation process. From the results, the gamma spectrum after the voloxidation process was estimated as a 67% reduction compared with that of before the voloxidation process due to the removal of several gamma emission elements such as cesium and rubidium. The MCNPX calculations provided that the thickness of the general concrete wall could be reduced by 12% after the voloxidation process. And the heavy concrete wall provided a 28% reduction in the shielding of the source term after the voloxidation process. This can be explained in that there lots of gamma emission isotopes still exist after the advanced voloxidation process such as Pu-241, Y-90, and Sr-90 which are independent of the voloxidation process.

  9. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

  10. Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masaya; Akasaka, Takayuki; Noura, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

  11. Plutonium recovery from carbonate wash solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Reif, D.J.; Chostner, D.F.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    540Periodically higher than expected levels of plutonium are found in carbonate solutions used to wash second plutonium cycle solvent. The recent accumulation of plutonium in carbonate wash solutions has led to studies to determine the cause of that plutonium accumulation, to evaluate the quality of all canyon solvents, and to develop additional criteria needed to establish when solvent quality is acceptable. Solvent from three canyon solvent extraction cycles was used to evaluate technology required to measure tributyl phosphate (TBP) degradation products and was used to evaluate solvent quality criteria during the development of plutonium recovery processes. 1 fig

  12. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. R. Johnson; R. E. Best

    2009-12-28

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the “UREX+3c fuel cycle” and the “Alternative Fuel Cycle” (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount

  13. Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX+3c Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Best, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the 'UREX+3c fuel cycle' and the 'Alternative Fuel Cycle' (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount of the

  14. Advancing the Assessment of Dynamic Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly used clinical assessment tools cannot fully capture the dynamic psychological processes often hypothesized as core mechanisms of psychopathology and psychotherapy. There is therefore a gap between our theories of problems and interventions for those problems and the tools we use to understand clients. The purpose of this special issue is to connect theory about clinical dynamics to practice by focusing on methods for collecting dynamic data, statistical models for analyzing dynamic data, and conceptual schemes for implementing dynamic data in applied settings. In this introductory article, we argue for the importance of assessing dynamic processes, highlight recent advances in assessment science that enable their measurement, review challenges in using these advances in applied practice, and adumbrate the articles in this issue.

  15. Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates advanced parallel processing techniques and innovative hardware/software architectures that can be applied to boost the performance of supercomputers. Critical issues on architectural choices, parallel languages, compiling techniques, resource management, concurrency control, programming environment, parallel algorithms, and performance enhancement methods are examined and the best answers are presented. The authors cover advanced processing techniques suitable for supercomputers, high-end mainframes, minisupers, and array processors. The coverage emphasizes vectorization, multitasking, multiprocessing, and distributed computing. In order to achieve these operation modes, parallel languages, smart compilers, synchronization mechanisms, load balancing methods, mapping parallel algorithms, operating system functions, application library, and multidiscipline interactions are investigated to ensure high performance. At the end, they assess the potentials of optical and neural technologies for developing future supercomputers

  16. Plutonium (Pu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the properties and uses of plutonium: where does it come from, the history of its discovery, its uses and energy content, its recycling and reuse in MOX fuels, its half-life, toxicity and presence in the environment. (J.S.)

  17. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  18. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOX) TEXTILE WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Salas C., G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOX) are based on the in situ generation of hydroxyradicals (·OH), which have a high oxidation potential. In the case of Fenton processes !he generation of hydroxy radicals takes place by the combination of an oxidation agent (H202) with a catalyst (Fe(II)). These radicals are not selective and they react very fast with the organic matter,being able to oxidize a high variety of organic compounds. This property allows the degradation of pollutants into more biodeg...

  19. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  20. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  1. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document offers chemical, metallurgical and economical information on the plutonium, a hard white radioelement. It deals also on the plutonium formation in the earth, the plutonium use in the nuclear industry, the plutonium in the environment and the plutonium toxicity. (A.L.B.)

  2. Plutonium in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases

  3. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  4. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  5. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  6. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  7. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  8. Plutonium story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238 Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239 Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  9. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates the discovery of the different plutonium chemical extraction processes in their historical context. The first experiments started during the second world war in 1942 with the American ''Metallurgical Laboratory'' project which brought together Arthur Compton, Enrico Fermi and Glenn Seaborg. During the same period, a competitive English-Canadian project, the ''Montreal Project'', was carried out to test different plutonium solvent extraction techniques. The author participated in both projects and joined the CEA in 1946, where he was in charge of the uranium and plutonium chemistry. By the end of 1949, his team could isolate the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide pellets of the ZOE reactor. In the beginning of 1952 he developed with his team the PUREX process. (J.S.)

  10. Plutonium decontamination studies using Reverse Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plock, C.E.; Travis, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Water in batches of 45 gallons each, from a creek crossing the Rocky Flats Plant, was transferred to the Reverse Osmosis (RO) laboratory for experimental testing. The testing involved using RO for plutonium decontamination. For each test, the water was spiked with plutonium, had its pH adjusted, and was then processed by RO. At a water recovery level of 87%, the plutonium decontamination factors ranged from near 100 to 1200, depending on the pH of the processed water

  11. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  12. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  13. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process

  14. Evaluation of TASTEX task H: measurement of plutonium isotopic abundances by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.; Prindle, A.L.; Asakura, Y.; Masui, J.; Ishiguro, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Kataoka, S.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes a computer-based gamma spectrometer system that was developed for measuring isotopic and total plutonium concentrations in nitric acid solutions. The system was installed at the Tokai reprocessing plant where it is undergoing testing and evaluation as part of the Tokai Advanced Safeguards Exercise (TASTEX). Objectives of TASTEX Task H, High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometer for Plutonium Isotopic Analysis, the methods and equipment used, the installation and calibration of the system, and the measurements obtained from several reprocessing campaigns are discussed and described. In general, we find that measurements for gamma spectroscopy agree well with those of mass spectrometry and of other chemical analysis. The system measures both freshly processed plutonium from the product accountability tank and aged plutonium solutions from storage tanks. 14 figures, 15 tables

  15. Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

    1997-12-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO{sub 2}, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, supercritical H{sub 2}O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations.

  16. Implementing waste minimization at an active plutonium processing facility: Successes and progress at technical area (TA) -55 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, J.J.; Robinson, M.A.; Boak, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has ongoing national security missions that necessitate increased plutonium processing. The bulk of this activity occurs at Technical Area -55 (TA-55), the nations only operable plutonium facility. TA-55 has developed and demonstrated a number of technologies that significantly minimize waste generation in plutonium processing (supercritical CO 2 , Mg(OH) 2 precipitation, supercritical H 2 O oxidation, WAND), disposition of excess fissile materials (hydride-dehydride, electrolytic decontamination), disposition of historical waste inventories (salt distillation), and Decontamination ampersand Decommissioning (D ampersand D) of closed nuclear facilities (electrolytic decontamination). Furthermore, TA-55 is in the process of developing additional waste minimization technologies (molten salt oxidation, nitric acid recycle, americium extraction) that will significantly reduce ongoing waste generation rates and allow volume reduction of existing waste streams. Cost savings from reduction in waste volumes to be managed and disposed far exceed development and deployment costs in every case. Waste minimization is also important because it reduces occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, risks of transportation accidents, and transfer of burdens from current nuclear operations to future generations

  17. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Jeun, Joonpyo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and {gamma}-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose.

  18. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  19. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  20. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm 2 and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields

  1. Ultratrace analysis of uranium and plutonium by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Wacker, J.F.; Olsen, K.B.; Petersen, S.L.; Farmer, O.T.; Kelley, J.M.; Eiden, G.C.; Maiti, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Uranium and plutonium have traditionally been analyzed using alpha energy spectrometry. Both isotopic compositions and elemental abundances can be characterized on samples containing microgram to milligram quantities of uranium and nanogram to microgram quantities of plutonium. In the past ten years or so, considerable interest has developed in measuring nanograms quantities of uranium and sub-picogram quantities of plutonium in environmental samples. Such measurements require high sensitivity and as a consequence, sensitive mass spectrometric-based methods have been developed. Thus, the analysis of uranium and plutonium have gone from counting decays to counting atoms, with considerable increases in both sensitivity and precision for isotopic measurements. At the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), we have developed highly sensitive methods to analyze uranium and plutonium in environmental samples. The development of an ultratrace analysis capability for measuring uranium and plutonium has arisen from a need to detect and characterize environmental samples for signatures associated with nuclear industry processes. Our most sensitive well-developed methodologies employ thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), however, recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have shown considerable promise for use in detecting uranium and plutonium at ultratrace levels. The work at PNNL has included the development of both chemical separation and purification techniques, as well as the development of mass spectrometric instrumentation and techniques. At the heart of our methodology for TIMS analysis is a procedure that utilizes 100-microliter-volumes of analyte for chemical processing to purify, separate, and load actinide elements into resin beads for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The resin bead technique has been combined with a thorough knowledge of the physicochemistry of thermal ion emission to achieve

  2. Plutonium helps probe protein, superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists are finding that plutonium can be a useful research tool that may help them answer important questions in fields as diverse as biochemistry and solid-state physics. This paper reports that U.S. research involving plutonium is confined to the Department of Energy's national laboratories and centers around nuclear weapons technology, waste cleanup and disposal, and health effects. But at Los Alamos National Laboratory, scientists also are using plutonium to probe the biochemical behavior of calmodulin, a key calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium-regulated processes in biological systems. At Argonne National Laboratory, another team is trying to learn how a superconductor's properties are affected by the 5f electrons of an actinide like plutonium

  3. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  4. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  5. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  6. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  7. Applying modular concepts to process and authorization basis issues for plutonium residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, R.A.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    A recent study completed for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site proved that it is feasible to use modular, skid-mounted processes for disposition of Category 1 quantities of nuclear materials. This would allow personnel to assemble, test, and authorize the processes outside of the nuclear material management area. Besides having cost and schedule advantages, this technology reduces the uncertainty and risk in applications involving disposition of materials and facilities. This paper explains the previous research into modular skid-mounted processes and suggests various future applications of the technology

  8. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Gerding, T.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1979-06-01

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 10 6 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 10 6 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  9. Design and operation of a remotely operated plutonium waste size reduction and material handling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.A. III; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Noncombustible 238 Pu and 239 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant, and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plant to process the stored waste and current waste for permanent disposal, a remote size reduction and material handling process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory. The process consists of a large, low-speed shredder and material handling system, a remote worktable, a bagless transfer system, and a robotically controlled manipulator. Initial testing of the shredder and material handling system and a cycle test of the bagless transfer system has been completed. Fabrication and acceptance testing of the Telerobat, a robotically controlled manipulator has been completed. Testing is scheduled to begin in 3/86. Design features maximizing the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated. Complete cold-testing of the equipment is scheduled to be completed in 1987

  10. ALARA Design Review for the Resumption of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Cementation Process Project Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Dayley, L

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for the performance of radiological design reviews are codified in 10CFR835, Occupational Radiation Protection. The basic requirements for the performance of ALARA design reviews are presented in the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM). The HSRCM has established trigger levels requiring radiological reviews of non-routine or complex work activities. These requirements are implemented in site procedures HNF-PRO-1622 and 1623. HNF-PRO-1622 Radiological Design Review Process requires that ''radiological design reviews [be performed] of new facilities and equipment and modifications of existing facilities and equipment''. In addition, HNF-PRO-1623 Radiological Work Planning Process requires a formal ALARA Review for planned activities that are estimated to exceed 1 person-rem total Dose Equivalent (DE). The purpose of this review is to validate that the original design for the PFP Cementation Process ensures that the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) were included...

  11. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  12. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  13. Safeguardability of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Lee, S. Y. (Sang Yoon); Burr, Tom; Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Menlove, Howard O.; Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I. (Won Il); Park, S. W.; Park, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing this technology since 1977 for the purpose of spent fuel management and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2006. By using of this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, which would lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety and economics. In the framework of collaboration agreement to develop the safeguards system for the ACP, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the KAERI since 2002. In this study, the safeguardability of the ACP technology was examined for the pilot-scale facility. The process and material flows were conceptually designed, and the uncertainties in material accounting were estimated with international target values.

  14. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  15. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  16. Investigation on neptunium behavior in electrolytic partitioning process of uranium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingxuan; Zhang Jiajun; Tian Baosheng; Jiang Dongliang; Li Zhaoyi; He Jianyu

    1988-01-01

    The electrolytic oxidation-raduction of Np(V, VI) in HNO 3 solution was studied. Experimental results showed that the electrode process of Np(V)-Np(VI) couple is reversible, and the half reaction time of the process mentioned above is about 1.5 minutes under given conditions. The overpotential of reduction of Np(V) is high, which makes it difficult to reduce Np(V) into Np(IV) directly at cathode. Owing to a large quantity of U(IV) produced through electrolysis, it is presaged that neptunium will be mainly in tetravalent state in the electrolytic M-S battery. A new type of electrolytic M-S battery was developed, in which anodes were installed in each settling chamber without any specific anode chamber in the battery. Owing to using of the mechanical stirrer driven by a wheel gear, stage efficiency is high. Demonstration campaign was carried out. It follows from the results that the yield of Pu is 99.90 ∼ 99.99%. Separation factor of U from Pu is 3900 ∼ 33000. Material balance of U and Pu is satisfactory. Heavy accumulation of Np in the battery was observed. Np in the battery is mainly in the tetravalent state. It is believed that it is difficult to recover Np quantitatively from single fluent (e.g. 1BP or 1BU) under normal conditions of partitioning step of the PUREX process

  17. Stability with temperature of mixed uranium plutonium monocarbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Dumas, J.C.; Piron, J.P.; Gueneau, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Among the different advanced fuel materials of concern for Generation IV systems, the mixed carbide of uranium and plutonium fuel is considered as one of the key materials for Gas Fast Reactors (GFR) systems. For purposes of optimising its fabrication process as well as its performances in various operating conditions, the losses of gaseous plutonium specially at elevated temperatures have to be controlled and minimized. The paper is therefore concerned with a parametric analysis of the stability with temperature of mixed carbides of uranium and plutonium. Previous published experimental studies have shown that mixed (U ,Pu) carbides undergo a highly incongruent sublimation at high temperatures: the vapour phase in equilibrium with the solid is mainly composed of gaseous plutonium (P Pu /P total > 99 % ) while the contribution of gaseous U and C remains very low. The composition of the system U 1-z Pu z C 1+x ' (z =Pu/(U+Pu) and x C/(U+Pu)), the temperature (T) and the expansion volume (V) of the gas are the main parameters in the loss of gaseous Pu. The calculations are carried out using the SAGE (Solgasmix Advanced Gibbs Energy) software, by assuming ideal solid solutions between UC and PuC, as well as between U 2 C 3 and Pu 2 C 3 . The validity of the model is previously tested using published equilibrium vapour pressure data. This work gives rise to a large description of the variations of Pu losses from mixed uranium plutonium carbides and leads to some basic recommendations in connection with the use of this advanced fuel materials

  18. Six-kilogram-scale electrorefining of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, L.J.; Morgan, A.N.; Apgar, S.A. III; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-01

    The electrorefining of metallic plutonium scrap to produce high purity metal has been an established procedure at Los Alamos since 1964. This is a batch process and was limited to 4-kg plutonium because of criticality safety considerations. Improvements in critical mass measurements have permitted us to develop a process for 6-kg plutonium. The 6-kg process is now operational. The increased size of the process, together with other improvements which have been made, makes plutonium electrorefining the principal industrial tool for processing and purifying metallic plutonium scrap

  19. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO_2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature. • New SEM

  20. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, R.M.; Sims, H.E.; Taylor, R.J., E-mail: robin.j.taylor@nnl.co.uk

    2015-10-15

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or ‘finishing’ processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO{sub 2} product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles. - Highlights: • Critical review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions. • New analysis of relationship between SSA and calcination temperature.

  1. Method of separating plutonium from the process streams of a reprocessing plant for HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, D.; Kankura, R.; Wenzel, U.

    1975-07-15

    The process streams of a reprocessing plant for Th-U fuel elements can be purified of Pu, using a chromatographic method. The process is based on the principles of extraction chromatography with the application of the method of breakthrough chromatography. The inert carrier consists of polytrifluoromonochloroethylene, TOA forming the steady-state phase and 2 M HNO/sub 3/ the mobile phase. After adjustment of the feed solution to the extraction conditions, Pu is extracted in the separating column to the steady-state phase. The height of the separating stages is expressed by the equation HTS (cm) = 0.2 + 0.65 u/sub 0/ (cm min/sup -1/). Due to the delayed Pu/Th exchange in TOA, it depends heavily on the linear flow velocity. Details are given of the design of a separating unit for a flowrate of 2 kg of heavy metal per day (the flowrate of the Jupiter plant). (12 fig, 4 tables)

  2. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  3. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  4. Protected Plutonium Production by Transmutation of Minor Actinides for Peace and Sustainable Prosperity [O1] - Fundamentals of P{sup 3} Mechanism and Methodology Development for Plutonium Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masaki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 1528550 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    'Protected Plutonium Production (P{sup 3})' has been proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium by the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MAs). Doping the small amount of MAs such as {sup 237}Np or {sup 241}Am with large neutron capture cross-section into the uranium fuel to enhance the production of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 242}Pu, which have high spontaneous fission neutron source or also high decay heat to makes the process of the nuclear weapon manufacture and maintenance technologically difficult, can be effective for improving the isotopic barrier of proliferation resistance of the plutonium in thermal reactors. Super weapon grade plutonium could be produced in the blanket of a conventional FBR. However, by increasing the {sup 238}Pu or {sup 242}Pu ratio in the total plutonium by MAs doping into the fresh blanket, the protected plutonium with high proliferation-resistance can be bred. A new evaluation function, 'attractiveness', defined as a ratio of potential of fission yield to the technological difficulties of nuclear explosive device, has been proposed to evaluate the proliferation resistance of Pu based on the nuclear material property for Plutonium Categorization. In the conference, the fundamentals of P{sup 3} mechanism by transmutation of MA, and the comparison of the 'attractiveness' of the Pu produced in advanced reactors based on P{sup 3} mechanism and in the conventional reactors will be presented. Instead of the geological disposal or just their burning of MAs by the fission reaction, they should be treated as valuable fertile materials to enhance the proliferation resistance of plutonium produced in the thermal and fast breeder reactors for peace and sustainable prosperity in future. Acknowledgement: Some parts of this work have been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. (authors)

  5. Environmental processes leading to the presence of organically bound plutonium in plant tissues consumed by animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)

  6. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  7. Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-06-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  8. Test plan for demonstrating plutonium extraction from 10-L solutions using EIChrom extraction chromatographic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosive plutonium solutions stored in 10-L containers at the Plutonium Finishing Plant must be treated to convert the plutonium to a safe, solid form for storage and to remove the americium so that radiation exposure can be reduced. Extraction chromatographic resins will be tested for separating plutonium from these solutions in the laboratory. Separation parameters will be developed during the testing for large scale processing of the 10-L solutions and solutions of similar composition. Use of chromatographic resins will allow plutonium separation with minimum of chemical addition to the feed and without the need for plutonium valence adjustment. The separated plutonium will be calcined to plutonium oxide by direct solution calcination

  9. Plutonium Disposition Now exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000's. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries

  10. Safeguarding the Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Lockwood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In developing a Safeguards Approach for a plutonium process facility, two general diversion and misuse scenarios must be addressed: 1) Unreported batches of undeclared nuclear material being processed through the plant and bypassing the accountancy measurement points, and 2) The operator removing plutonium at a rate that cannot be detected with confidence due to measurement uncertainties. This paper will look at the implementation of international safeguards at plutonium fuel cycle facilities in light of past lessons learned and current safeguards approaches. It will then discuss technical areas which are currently being addressed as future tools to improve on the efficiency of safeguards implementation, while maintaining its effectiveness. The discussion of new improvements will include: safeguards by design (SBD), process monitoring (PM), measurement and monitoring equipment, and data management. The paper is illustrated with the implementation of international safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan and its accountancy structure is detailed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  11. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  12. Modeling of Diffusion of Plutonium in Other Metals and of Gaseous Species in Plutonium-Based Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Bernard R.; Gayanath W. Fernando; Beiden, S.; Setty, A.; Sevilla, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Establish standards for temperature conditions under which plutonium, uranium, or neptunium from nuclear wastes permeates steel, with which it is in contact, by diffusion processes. The primary focus is on plutonium because of the greater difficulties created by the peculiarities of face-centered-cubic-stabilized (delta) plutonium (the form used in the technology generating the waste)

  13. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  14. Glutarimidedioxime. A complexing and reducing reagent for plutonium recovery from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Tian, Guoxin [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China). Radiochemistry Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Shuh, David K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

    2016-04-04

    Efficient separation processes for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel are essential to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The performance characteristics of a new salt-free complexing and reducing reagent, glutarimidedioxime (H{sub 2}A), are reported for recovering plutonium in a PUREX process. With a phase ratio of organic to aqueous of up to 10:1, plutonium can be effectively stripped from 30 % tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene into 1M HNO{sub 3} with H{sub 2}A. The complexation-reduction mechanism is illustrated with the combination of UV/Vis absorption spectra and the crystal structure of a Pu{sup IV} complex with the reagent. The fast stripping rate and the high efficiency for stripping Pu{sup IV}, through the complexation-reduction mechanism, is suitable for use in centrifugal contactors with very short contact/resident times, thereby offering significant advantages over conventional processes.

  15. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  17. Plutonium biokinetics in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.; Ham, G.; McCarthy, W.; Lands, C.

    1994-01-01

    By using an 'unusual' isotope it is possible to carry out experiments with plutonium in volunteers at minimal radiation dose levels. Measurements have been made of the gut transfer factor and the urinary excretion of plutonium after intravenous injection. (author)

  18. Plutonium in uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Aguilar, R.; Attrep, M. Jr.; Roensch, F.

    1992-01-01

    Plutonium-239 (t 1/2 , 24,100 yr) is one of the most persistent radioactive constituents of high-level wastes from nuclear fission power reactors. Effective containment of such a long-lived constituent will rely heavily upon its containment by the geologic environment of a repository. Uranium ore deposits offer a means to evaluate the geochemical properties of plutonium under natural conditions. In this paper, analyses of natural plutonium in several ores are compared to calculated plutonium production rates in order to evaluate the degree of retention of plutonium by the ore. The authors find that current methods for estimating production rates are neither sufficiently accurate nor precise to provide unambiguous measures of plutonium retention. However, alternative methods for evaluating plutonium mobility are being investigated, including its measurement in natural ground waters. Preliminary results are reported and establish the foundation for a comprehensive characterization of plutonium geochemistry in other natural environments

  19. Plutonium metal burning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausburg, D.E.; Leebl, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    A glove-box facility was designed to convert plutonium skull metal or unburned oxide to an oxide acceptable for plutonium recovery and purification. A discussion of the operation, safety aspects, and electrical schematics are included

  20. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wolkov, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Office Clean Water Processing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-03-01

    The DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)’s Advanced Manufacturing Office partners with industry, small business, universities, and other stakeholders to identify and invest in emerging technologies with the potential to create high-quality domestic manufacturing jobs and enhance the global competitiveness of the United States.

  2. Optimization and plutonium equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The sequential simplex method has been used to estimate the extent of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in dilute acid. A method for simulating potentiometric titrations is proposed, and this method suggests that the stoichiometric end point and the inflection point may not always correspond in the potentiometric titration of plutonium. A possible characteristic equation for the nitrite-plutonium reaction is illustrated, and the method of proportional equations is extended to the iron-plutonium reaction

  3. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Optimizing Plutonium stock management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquil, Y.; Guillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium from spent fuel reprocessing is reused in new MOX assemblies. Since plutonium isotopic composition deteriorates with time, it is necessary to optimize plutonium stock management over a long period, to guarantee safe procurement, and contribute to a nuclear fuel cycle policy at the lowest cost. This optimization is provided by the prototype software POMAR

  5. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  6. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  7. Plutonium economy. Plutonium-Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traube, K

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved.

  8. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium fluoride reduction slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Rayburn, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    A process was developed for the pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from residues resulting from the PuF 4 reduction process. The process involves crushing the CaF 2 slag and dissolving it at 800 0 C in a CaCl 2 solvent. The plutonium, which exists either as finely divided metal or as incompletely reduced fluoride salt, is reduced to metal and/or allowed to coalesce as a massive button in the bottom of the reaction crucible. The recovery of plutonium in a 1-day cycle averaged 96%; all of the resulting residues were discardable

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-01-01

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  10. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1999-05-13

    'The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading conceptual design and includes a process block diagram, process description, preliminary equipment specifications, and several can loading issues. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.'

  11. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one-step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...magnetic and spectroscopic properties. They were linked with targeting agents and used for successful Radio- Frequency (RF) driven thermal ablation of...State University (KSU). This work encompassed outstanding research at the nanostructural level and the use of advanced multifunctiona l nanomaterials in

  12. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  13. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  14. An introduction to the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, N.G.; Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Day, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) will evaluate promising plutonium recovery process modifications and new technologies. It combines advances in process chemistry, process control, process analytical chemistry, and process engineering. ATLAS has a processing capability equal to other recovery systems but without the pressure to achieve predetermined recovery quotas

  15. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  16. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  17. The plutonium society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mez, L.; Richter, M.

    1981-01-01

    The lectures of an institute are reported on, which took place between 25th and 27th January 1980 in Berlin. The subsequent public panel discussion with representations from the political parties is then documentated in a few press-reports. The themes of the 8 lectures are: views and facts on plutonium, plutonium as an energy resource, military aspects of the production of plutonium, economic aspects of the plutonium economy, the position of the trade unions on the industrial reconversion, the alleged inevitability of a plutonium society and the socio-political alternatives and perspectives of nuclear waste disposal. (UA) [de

  18. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  19. Advanced coking process control at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritamaki, O.; Luhtaniemi, H. [Rautaruukki Engineering (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest development of the Coking Process Management System (CPMS) at Raahe Steel. The latest third generation system is based on the previous system with the addition of fuzzy logic controllers. (The previous second generation system was based simultaneous feed forward and feedback control.) The system development has resulted in balanced coke oven battery heating, decreased variation in process regulation between shifts and increase of process information for operators. The economic results are very satisfactory. 7 figs.

  20. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  1. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudder, G.B.; Herbillon, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  2. The use of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The use of plutonium as a vital energy source producing maximum economic benefit with minimum proliferation risks is discussed. Having considered the production of plutonium, several possible plutonium fuel cycle options are identified and the economic value to be attached to plutonium for each examined. It is shown how the use of plutonium in fast reactors gives an opportunity for a non-proliferation policy not available when plutonium is used only in thermal reactors. From the technical considerations reviewed concerning plutonium and fast reactors it is shown that an economic regime involving international trade in spent thermal reactor fuel is possible which benefits equally those countries with fast reactors and those without and also assists in avoiding the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  3. APROMORE : an advanced process model repository

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Rosa, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Dijkman, R.M.; Mendling, J.; Dumas, M.; García-Bañuelos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Business process models are becoming available in large numbers due to their widespread use in many industrial applications such as enterprise and quality engineering projects. On the one hand, this raises a challenge as to their proper management: how can it be ensured that the proper process model

  4. Uranium-plutonium fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, S.A.; Astafiev, V.A.; Clouchenkov, A.E.; Gustchin, K.I.; Menshikova, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Technology was established for fabrication of MOX fuel pellets from co-precipitated and mechanically blended mixed oxides. Both processes ensure the homogeneous structure of pellets readily dissolvable in nitric acid upon reprocessing. In order to increase the plutonium charge in a reactor-burner a process was tested for producing MOX fuel with higher content of plutonium and an inert diluent. It was shown that it is feasible to produce fuel having homogeneous structure and the content of plutonium up to 45% mass

  5. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-inspired, multi-agent-based method. The sustainability and performance assessment of process operating points is carried out using the U.S. E.P.A.’s GREENSCOPE assessment tool that provides scores for the selected economic, material management, environmental and energy indicators. The indicator results supply information on whether the implementation of the controller is moving the process towards a more sustainable operation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is illustrated through a case study of a continuous bioethanol fermentation process whose dynamics are characterized by steady-state multiplicity and oscillatory behavior. This book chapter contribution demonstrates the application of novel process control strategies for sustainability by increasing material management, energy efficiency, and pollution prevention, as needed for SHC Sustainable Uses of Wastes and Materials Management.

  6. Plutonium in nature; Le plutonium dans la nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.

    1994-12-31

    Plutonium in nature comes from natural sources and anthropogenic ones. Plutonium at the earth surface comes principally from anthropogenic sources. It is easily detectable in environment. The plutonium behaviour in environment is complex. It seems necessary for the future to reduce releases in environment, to improve predictive models of plutonium behaviour in geosphere, to precise biological impact of anthropogenic plutonium releases.

  7. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    This study was concerned with plutonium contamination of grassland at the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geogrphical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for plutonium analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99% of the total plutonium was contained in the soil. The concentrations of plutonium in soil were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes. A mechanism of agglomerated submicron plutonium oxide particles and larger (1-500 μm) host soil particles was proposed. Concentrations of Pu in litter and vegetation were inversely correlated to distance from the source and directly correlated to soil concentrations at the same location. Comparatively high concentration ratios of vegetation to soil suggested wind resuspension of contamination as an important transport mechanism. Arthropod and small mammal samples were highly skewed, kurtotic, and quite variable, having coefficients of variation (standard deviation/mean) as high as 600%. Bone Pu concentrations were lower than other tissues. Hide, GI, and lung were generally not higher in Pu than kidney, liver and muscle

  8. 1982 Annual Status Report Plutonium Fuels and Actinide Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The programme of the Transuranium Institute has long included work on advanced fuels for fast breeder reactors. Study of the swelling of carbide and nitride fuels is now nearing completion, the retention of fission gases in bubbles of different sizes in the fuel having been quantified as function of burn-up and temperature. An important step forward has been achieved in the studies of the Equation of State of Nuclear Fuels up to 5000 K. Formation of some of the less abundant isotopes in PWR fuel has been determined experimentally. Aerosol formation during the fabrication of plutonium containing fuels, part of the activity Safe Handling of Plutonium Fuel has been studied. Head-End Processing of carbide fuels has continued experiments with high burn up mixed carbides. In the field of actinide research the preparation and characterisation of pure specimens is carried out. Effect of actinides on the properties of waste glasses is investigated

  9. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong [Nonproliferation System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dae, Dongsun [Department of Chemistry, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Whitehouse, Andrew I. [Applied Photonics Ltd., Unit 8 Carleton Business Park, Skipton, North Yorkshire BD23 2DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  10. Feasibility Study for Monitoring Actinide Elements in Process Materials Using FO-LIBS at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bo-Young; Choi, Daewoong; Park, Se Hwan; Kim, Ho-Dong; Dae, Dongsun; Whitehouse, Andrew I.

    2015-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been developing the design and deployment methodology of Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument for safeguards application within the argon hot cell environment at Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility (ACPF), where ACPF is a facility being refurbished for the laboratory-scaled demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process. LIBS is an analysis technology used to measure the emission spectra of excited elements in the local plasma of a target material induced by a laser. The spectra measured by LIBS are analyzed to verify the quality and quantity of the specific element in the target matrix. Recently LIBS has been recognized as a promising technology for safeguards purposes in terms of several advantages including a simple sample preparation and in-situ analysis capability. In particular, a feasibility study of LIBS to remotely monitor the nuclear material in a high radiation environment has been carried out for supporting the IAEA safeguards implementation. Fiber-Optic LIBS (FO-LIBS) deployment was proposed by Applied Photonics Ltd because the use of fiber optics had benefited applications of LIBS by delivering the laser energy to the target and by collecting the plasma light. The design of FO-LIBS instrument for the measurement of actinides in the spent fuel and high temperature molten salt at ACPF had been developed in cooperation with Applied Photonics Ltd. FO-LIBS has some advantages as followings: the detectable plasma light wavelength range is not limited by the optical properties of the thick lead-glass shield window and the potential risk of laser damage to the lead-glass shield window is not considered. The remote LIBS instrument had been installed at ACPF and then the feasibility study for monitoring actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium, and curium in process materials has been carried out. (authors)

  11. Advanced Secure Optical Image Processing for Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falou, Ayman

    2018-04-01

    New image processing tools and data-processing network systems have considerably increased the volume of transmitted information such as 2D and 3D images with high resolution. Thus, more complex networks and long processing times become necessary, and high image quality and transmission speeds are requested for an increasing number of applications. To satisfy these two requests, several either numerical or optical solutions were offered separately. This book explores both alternatives and describes research works that are converging towards optical/numerical hybrid solutions for high volume signal and image processing and transmission. Without being limited to hybrid approaches, the latter are particularly investigated in this book in the purpose of combining the advantages of both techniques. Additionally, pure numerical or optical solutions are also considered since they emphasize the advantages of one of the two approaches separately.

  12. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  13. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  14. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  15. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process and a lineari......This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... on pilot plant equipment on the department of Chemical Engineering DTU Lyngby....

  16. Advanced metrology by offline SEM data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakcher, Amine; Schneider, Loïc.; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Ducoté, Julien; Farys, Vincent; Besacier, Maxime

    2017-06-01

    Today's technology nodes contain more and more complex designs bringing increasing challenges to chip manufacturing process steps. It is necessary to have an efficient metrology to assess process variability of these complex patterns and thus extract relevant data to generate process aware design rules and to improve OPC models. Today process variability is mostly addressed through the analysis of in-line monitoring features which are often designed to support robust measurements and as a consequence are not always very representative of critical design rules. CD-SEM is the main CD metrology technique used in chip manufacturing process but it is challenged when it comes to measure metrics like tip to tip, tip to line, areas or necking in high quantity and with robustness. CD-SEM images contain a lot of information that is not always used in metrology. Suppliers have provided tools that allow engineers to extract the SEM contours of their features and to convert them into a GDS. Contours can be seen as the signature of the shape as it contains all the dimensional data. Thus the methodology is to use the CD-SEM to take high quality images then generate SEM contours and create a data base out of them. Contours are used to feed an offline metrology tool that will process them to extract different metrics. It was shown in two previous papers that it is possible to perform complex measurements on hotspots at different process steps (lithography, etch, copper CMP) by using SEM contours with an in-house offline metrology tool. In the current paper, the methodology presented previously will be expanded to improve its robustness and combined with the use of phylogeny to classify the SEM images according to their geometrical proximities.

  17. Characteristics of airborne plutonium resuspended from near-background aged surface-sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-11-01

    Plutonium content in samples of airborne solids collected at five Hanford sites was determined in several experiments directed toward investigating resuspension processes for aged surface sources. Though airborne plutonium concentrations are extremely low, radiochemical technique sensitivities allow plutonium characterization to be considered as a function of host-particle diameter in samples of airborne solids. Plutonium concentrations and activity densities are a function of aerodynamic particle diameter, sampling height, wind speed, wind direction and plutonium isotopic ratios

  18. Advances in process research by radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, A.; Vogg, H.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications and transformations of materials and their technical implementation in process systems require movement of materials. Radionuclide techniques can greatly help in understanding and describing these mechanisms. The specialized measuring technique is demonstrated by three examples selected from various fields of process technology. Radioactive tracer studies performed on a rotary kiln helped, inter alia, to establish a subdivision into process zones and to pinpoint areas of dust generation. Mixing and feeding actions were studied in a twin screw extruder equipped with a special screw and mixer disk arrangement. Tracer experiments conducted in two secondary settling basins indicate the differences in the mechanisms of movement of the aqueous phase if the mean residence time and the residence time distribution may be influenced not only by hydraulic loads, but also by design variants of the overflow flumes. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    vitrification process; Fast Flux Test Facility; facility data; impact assessment methods; air quality; waste management; socioeconomics; human health risks; facility accidents; evaluation of human health effects from transportation; analysis of environmental justice; and plutonium polishing

  20. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  1. Recent advances in radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Commercial application of radiation technology for food processing started in the nineties after it was approved by FAO/IAEA/WHO and Codex Alimentarius Commission in the eighties. Sanitary applications were initially explored commercially with microbial decontamination of spices and dry ingredients as the primary commodities to be processed on a large scale. Subsequently, with the emergence of E.coli O157:H7 as the potential food poisoning risk in ground beef, irradiation of meat was initiated in the late nineties in the USA. Since then irradiation, has become a very useful food safety tool and the technology has been approved for addressing food safety risks in moluscan shellfish and vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and more recently for raw uncooked meat by USFDA. Phytosanitary applications assumed importance after USFDA approved irradiation as a method of phytosanitary treatment and subsequent endorsement of the process by International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2003. These approvals were responsible for development of international trade in agricultural commodities. The first to demonstrate the feasibility of the process were India and Australia, the countries that exported mangoes to New Zealand and USA, respectively. As far as the source of radiation is concerned, the world is slowly moving towards deployment of machine sources, thereby reducing its dependence on radioisotopes for commercial irradiation. (author)

  2. Advances in the Application of Image Processing Fruit Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang , Chengjun; Hua , Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In the perspective of actual production, the paper presents the advances in the application of image processing fruit grading from several aspects, such as processing precision and processing speed of image processing technology. Furthermore, the different algorithms about detecting size, shape, color and defects are combined effectively to reduce the complexity of each algorithm and achieve a balance between the processing precision and processing speed are keys to au...

  3. Manual for the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Detector (ENMC) for Measurement of Impure MOX and Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Kroncke, K. E.; DeAguero, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a high-efficiency neutron detector for passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting of dirty scrap and bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for the measurement of impure plutonium samples at the JNC MOX fabrication facility in Japan. The counter can also be used to create working standards from bulk process MOX. The detector uses advanced design "3He tubes to increase the efficiency and to shorten the neutron die-away time. The efficiency is 64% and the die-away time is 19.1 ?s. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) is designed for high-precision measurements of bulk plutonium samples with diameters of less than 200 mm. The average neutron energy from the sample can be measured using the ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes to the outer ring. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the ENMC.

  4. Ecological distribution and fate of plutonium and americium in a processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergy, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    U Pond, located on the Hanford Reservation, has received low-level quantities of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) longer than any other aquatic environment in the world. Its ecological complexity and content of transuranics make it an ideal resource for information concerning the movement of these actinides within and out of an aquatic ecosystem. U Pond has been intensively inventoried for Pu concentrations in the ecological compartments and characterized limnologically in terms of its physicochemial parameters, biological productivity, and community structure. This work provides a basis for evaluating the pond's performance in retaining waste transuranics. The quantitative estimation of export routes developed by this study is important in determining how effectively such ponds act as retainers for transuranic wastes

  5. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  6. Advanced fuel cycle on the basis of pyroelectrochemical process for irradiated fuel reprocessing and vibropacking technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorshin, A.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Golovanov, V.N.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kisly, V.A.; Bobrov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    For advanced nuclear fuel cycle in SSC RIAR there is developed the pyroelectrochemical process to reprocess irradiated fuel and produce granulated oxide fuel UO 2 , PuO 2 or (U,Pu)O 2 from chloride melts. The basic technological stage is the extraction of oxides as a crystal product with the methods either of the electrolysis (UO 2 and UO 2 -PuO 2 ) or of the precipitating crystalIization (PuO 2 ). After treating the granulated fuel is ready for direct use to manufacture vibropacking fuel pins. Electrochemical model for (U,Pu)O 2 coprecipitation is described. There are new processes being developed: electroprecipitation of mixed oxides - (U,Np)O 2 , (U,Pu,Np)O 2 , (U,Am)O 2 and (U,Pu,Am)O 2 . Pyroelectrochemical production of mixed actinide oxides is used both for reprocessing spent fuel and for producing actinide fuel. Both the efficiency of pyroelectrochemical methods application for reprocessing nuclear fuel and of vibropac technology for plutonium recovery are estimated. (author)

  7. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  8. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  10. Nondestructive analysis of plutonium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.E.; Taylor, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium contaminated soil is currently being removed from a covered liquid waste disposal trench near the Pu Processing facility on the Hanford Project. This soil with the plutonium is being mined using remote techniques and equipment. The mined soil is being packaged for placement into retrievable storage, pending possible recovery. To meet the requirements of criticality safety and materials accountability, a nondestructive analysis program has been developed to determine the quantity of plutonium in each packing-storage container. This paper describes the total measurement program: equipment systems, calibration techniques, matrix assumption, instrument control program and a review of laboratory operating experience

  11. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching.......Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  12. Civil plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, B.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    During 1960 and 1970 the researches on the plutonium recycling in fast neutrons reactors were stimulated by the fear of uranium reserves diminishing. At the beginning of 1980, the plutonium mono-recycling for water cooled reactors is implementing. After 1990 the public opinion concerning the radioactive wastes management and the consequences of the disarmament agreements between Russia and United States, modified the context. This paper presents the today situation and technology associated to the different options and strategical solutions of the plutonium management: the plutonium use in the world, the neutronic characteristics, the plutonium effect on the reactors characteristics, the MOX behavior in the reactors, the MOX fabrication and treatment, the possible improvements to the plutonium use, the concepts performance in a nuclear park. (A.L.B.)

  13. World status report: plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dircks, W.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent speech in Japan, the Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) said that the economic case for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel had been severely eroded. An edited version of the speech is given. The changed prospects for nuclear energy is given as the reason why the demand for plutonium has declined sharply. The oil crisis of the 1970s reduced the demand for electric power and the economic justification for the use of recycled plutonium. The stockpile of isolated plutonium is growing rapidly giving rise to worries about its security. From this point of view, isolated plutonium is best kept in reactor fuel not separated out. In this connection the IAEA has offered to help in the storage of plutonium so that vigorous safety and security requirements are met. In Japan there is a debate about the plutonium which is dependent on the future of the fast breeder reactor programme. (UK)

  14. Advances in cost effective processing of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recently an industry expert pointed out that one of the greatest hindrances to the growth of titanium usage has been the low percentage of material usable in the final product. Due to the extensive processing, forming, and machining operations typically performed on titanium, yield losses are high. This is especially true in aerospace applications where most titanium is used. In engine components, the start to finish ratio, known as the buy to fly ratio, is often as high as 7 to 1. This can be illustrated by looking at the use of titanium in Pratt and Whitney engines. In the JT-8D-217 used on Boeing's 737-200, the titanium buyweight is 5,385 pounds, whereas the finished titanium, flyweight is just 758 pounds. This start to finish ratio is 7.1:1, giving titanium 17.0% of total engine weight. (orig.)

  15. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safadi, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Zeaiter, J. [Chemical Engineering Program, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-07-01

    The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  16. Structural health monitoring an advanced signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuefeng; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.

  17. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  18. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  19. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  20. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA

  1. Advances in the sample preparation and the detector for a combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation method of low-level plutonium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Thorngate, J.H.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1976-07-01

    A combined solvent extraction-liquid scintillation technique, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has many possible applications to the determination of low levels of plutonium and other alpha-emitting nuclides. Using these procedures, plutonium can be extracted from biological or environmental samples and introduced directly into a liquid scintillator. Quenching of the scintillator is thus minimized so that spectroscopic techniques may be employed. Existing chemical procedures and counting equipment were reviewed and improved. Purification of the di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (used as the actinide extractant) was found necessary. Destruction of organic material in the sample and control of the valence state of plutonium were found to be major sources of irreproducibility. Methods were developed to allow samples separated with commonly used ion exchange techniques to be extracted into the scintillator. Comparisons were made of a wide variety of the components and parameters of the detector system to find the best combination of pulse-height resolution and pulse-shape discrimination. When a single phototube was used, optimum performance was obtained using a hemispherical reflector-sample holder viewed sideways by an RCA 8575 photomultiplier tube used in conjunction with a special integrating preamplifier and a good quality linear amplifier that used delay lines to shape the pulses

  2. Perspective on plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  3. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  4. Direct reduction of plutonium from dicesium hexachloroplutonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, W.A.; Boyd, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant produces dicesium hexachloroplutonate (DCHP) primarily as a reagent in the molten salt extraction of americium from plutonium metal. DCHP is precipitated from aqueous chloride solutions derived from the leaching of process residues with a high degree of selectivity. DCHP is a chloride salt of plutonium, while the traditional aqueous precipitate is a hydrated oxide. Plutonium metal preparation from the oxide involves either the conversion of oxide to a halide followed by metallothermic reduction or direct reduction of the oxide using a flux. Either method generates at least three times as much radioactively contaminated waste as metal produced. Plutonium concentration by DCHP precipitation, however, produces a chloride salt that can be reduced using calcium metal at a temperature of approximately 1000K. In this paper the advantages and limitations of this process are discussed

  5. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  6. Method to manufacture a nuclear fuel from uranium-plutonium monocarbide or uranium-plutonium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, A.; Mueller, N.

    1977-01-01

    Pure uranium carbide or nitride is converted with plutonium oxide and carbon (all in powder form) to uranium-plutonium monocarbide or mononitride by cold pressing and sintering at about 1600 0 C. Pure uranium carbide or uranium nitride powder is firstly prepared without extensive safety measures. The pure uranium carbide or nitride powder can also be inactivated by using chemical substances (e.g. stearic acid) and be handled in air. The sinterable uranium carbide or nitride powder (or also granulate) is then introduced into the plutonium line and mixed with a nonstoichiometrically adjusted, prereacted mixture of plutonium oxide and carbon, pressed to pellets and reaction sintered. The surface of the uranium-plutonium carbide (higher metal content) can be nitrated towards the end of the sinter process in a stream of nitrogen. The protective layer stabilizes the carbide against the water and oxygen content in air. (IHOE) [de

  7. Advance care planning in CKD/ESRD: an evolving process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Jean L

    2012-06-01

    Advance care planning was historically considered to be simply the completion of a proxy (health care surrogate designation) or instruction (living will) directive that resulted from a conversation between a patient and his or her physician. We now know that advance care planning is a much more comprehensive and dynamic patient-centered process used by patients and families to strengthen relationships, achieve control over medical care, prepare for death, and clarify goals of care. Some advance directives, notably designated health care proxy documents, remain appropriate expressions of advance care planning. Moreover, although physician orders, such as do-not-resuscitate orders and Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, may not be strictly defined as advance directives, their completion, when appropriate, is an integral component of advance care planning. The changing health circumstances and illness trajectory characteristic of ESRD mandate that advance care planning discussions adapt to a patient's situation and therefore must be readdressed at appropriate times and intervals. The options of withholding and withdrawing dialysis add ESRD-specific issues to advance care planning in this population and are events each nephrologist will at some time confront. Advance care planning is important throughout the spectrum of ESRD and is a part of nephrology practice that can be rewarding to nephrologists and beneficial to patients and their families.

  8. Introducing advanced nuclear fuel cycles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.

    1978-05-01

    The ability of several different advanced fuel cycles to provide energy for a range of energy growth scenarios has been examined for a few special situations of interest in Canada. Plutonium generated from the CANDU-PHW operating on natural uranium is used to initiate advanced fuel cycles in the year 2000. The four fuel cycles compared are: 1) natural uranium in the CANDU-PHW; 2) high burnup thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 3) self-sufficient thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 4) plutonium-uranium cycle in a fast breeder reactor. The general features of the results are quite clear. While any plutonium generated prior to the introduction of the advanced fuel cycle remains, system requirements for natural uranium for each of the advanced fuel cycles are the same and are governed by the rate at which plants operating on natural uranium can be retired. When the accumulated plutonium inventory has been entirely used, natural uranium is again required to provide inventory for the advanced fuel cycle reactors. The time interval during which no uranium is required varies only from about 25 to 40 years for both thorium cycles, depending primarily on the energy growth rate. The breeder does not require the entire plutonium inventory produced and so would call for less processing of fuel from the PHW reactors. (author)

  9. A state-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant and recently installed by Finnigan factory representatives. This instrument is a refinement of the MAT 260 which has been used routinely for three years in the laboratory at SRP. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desktop computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample reconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other developments in setting up the instrument are presented

  10. State-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desk-top computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample preconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other development in setting up the instrument are presented

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  13. Recent advances in processing and applications of microwave ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Vincent G.; Geiler, Anton; Chen Yajie; Yoon, Soack Dae; Wu Mingzhong; Yang, Aria; Chen Zhaohui; He Peng; Parimi, Patanjali V.; Zuo Xu; Patton, Carl E.; Abe, Manasori; Acher, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Next generation magnetic microwave devices will be planar, smaller, weigh less, and perform well beyond the present state-of-the-art. For this to become a reality advances in ferrite materials must first be realized. These advances include self-bias magnetization, tunability of the magnetic anisotropy, low microwave loss, and volumetric and weight reduction. To achieve these goals one must turn to novel materials processing methods. Here, we review recent advances in the processing of microwave ferrites. Attention is paid to the processing of ferrite films by pulsed laser deposition, liquid phase epitaxy, spin spray ferrite plating, screen printing, and compaction of quasi-single crystals. Conventional and novel applications of ferrite materials, including microwave non-reciprocal passive devices, microwave signal processing, negative index metamaterial-based electronics, and electromagnetic interference suppression are discussed.

  14. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  15. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  17. Advances in the Process Development of Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Al-Haque, Naweed

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis is already established in chemical synthesis on an industrial scale, in particular in the pharmaceutical sector. However, the wider implementation of biocatalysis is currently hindered by the extensive effort required to develop a competitive process. In order that resources spent...

  18. Mimas, a mature and flexible process to convert the stockpiles of separated civil and weapon grade plutonium into MOX fuel for use in LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergheynst, A.; Vanderborck, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The BELGONUCLEAIRE Dessel MOX fabrication plant started operation in 1973. The first ten years have laid down the bases for all the modifications and improvements in the field of fuel fabrication and quality control process and technology, waste management, safety and safeguards. In 1984, BELGONUCLEAIRE developed the MIMAS fabrication process and has used it on industrial scale to make MOX fuel complying with the most stringent fuel vendor specifications. From 1986 to 2000, more than 25 t Pu have been processed into more than 450 tHM of MIMAS fuel delivered in five countries. The MOX fuel produced has been demonstrated to reach at least the same performance as the UO 2 fuel used simultaneously in the same reactors. The BELGONUCLEAIRE MIMAS MOX fuel fabrication process was selected by COGEMA in the late 80(tm)s for its MELOX and its Cadarache plants. In 1999, the MIMAS process was chosen by the US DOE for the new MOX fabrication plant to be built in Savannah (SC-USA) to ''demilitarize'' 25,6 tons of weapon grade plutonium originating from nuclear war- heads. Recently MIMAS was selected by Japan for its domestic MOX plant to be built in Rokkasho-mura. (author)

  19. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  20. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  1. Plutonium valence state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    A calculational method for ascertaining equilibrium valence state distributions of plutonium in acid solutions as a function of the plutonium oxidation number and the solution acidity is illustrated with an example. The method may be more practical for manual use than methods based upon polynomial equations. (T.G.)

  2. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R. M.; Sims, H. E.; Taylor, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or 'finishing' processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles.

  3. Development of Operational Parameters for Advanced Voloxidation Process at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Won; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Yun, Y. W.; Park, G. I.; Lee, J. W.

    2010-10-01

    KAERI has been developing a voloxidation process as a head-end process of pyroprocessing technology with INL (Idaho National Laboratory). The work scope of KAERI is to develop the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process at KAERI using surrogate materials and SIMFUEL. In order to evaluate operation conditions of an advanced voloxidation process, oxidation and vaporization behavior of metals and Cs compounds was investigated in terms of thermal treatment atmosphere and temperature by using thermodynamic data. And also, the oxidation and vaporization behavior of semi-volatile fission products with process pressure and temperature was investigated using surrogate materials. Particle size control for U 3 O 8 powder was investigated using SIMFUEL and a rotary voloxidizer. According to analysis of KAERI works, the operation conditions for advanced voloxiation process may be consisted of the following four steps: 1) oxidation of UO 2 pellet into U 3 O 8 powder at 500 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 2) additional oxidation of noble metal alloy and vaporization of high vapor pressure of fission products at 700 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 3) granulation of U 3 O 8 powder and vaporization of Cs compounds at 1200 .deg. C in an atmosphere of argon, and 4) reduction of UO 2+x granules into UO 2 granules at 1000 .deg. C in an atmosphere of 4%H 2 -Ar. This report will be used as a useful means for determining the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process

  4. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  5. Study of plutonium cycle in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Pareja, J.; Sanchez Cabeza, J. A.; Molero Savall, J.; Masque Barri, P.

    1998-01-01

    The distribution, transport and accumulation mechanisms of transuranics (and other radionuclides) in the marine environment depend on the source term, biogeochemical cycles, transport with the water masses, sedimentation processes and transfer mechanisms in the trophic chain. The biogeochemical behaviour of plutonium, which has been the focus of our work, was studied using the following approaches: determination of the physico-chemical speciation of plutonium in marine waters, vertical flux in the water column, uptake by marine organisms (phytoplankton and zooplankton) and distribution in dements cores. A preliminary model of the accumulation and distribution of plutonium in the first levels of the marine food chain in the Irish Sea has also been formulated. All this information allowed us to obtain an integrated view of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment. (Author) 14 refs

  6. Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  8. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  9. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  10. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  11. Confinement facilities for handling plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.; Stafford, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium handling on a multigram scale began in 1944. Early criteria, equipment, and techniques for confining contamination have been superseded by more stringent criteria and vastly improved equipment and techniques for in-process contamination control, effluent air cleaning and treatment of liquid wastes. This paper describes the evolution of equipment and practices to minimize exposure of workers and escape of contamination into work areas and into the environment. Early and current contamination controls are compared. (author)

  12. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  13. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Plutonium recovery from spent glass fiber paper fine air filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovnyj, S.I.; Guzhavin, V.I.; Pyatin, N.P.; Evlanov, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigations into the realizing technology of plutonium recovery from waste glass paper filters of fine purification were conducted. Two process schemes involving the nitro-fluoro-acid treatment of glass paper in the mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids and the previous alkali treatment of glass paper with the following nitro-fluoro-acid leaching of plutonium from pulp by the mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids were developed. Alkali, nitrate solutions and insoluble precipitants were analyzed for plutonium content [ru

  15. Adding structure to the transition process to advanced mathematical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-03-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical deductive reasoning, required in advanced mathematics. It is necessary to assist students in this transition process, in moving from general to mathematical thinking. In this article some structure is suggested for this transition period. This essay is an argumentative exposition supported by personal experience and international literature. This makes this study theoretical rather than empirical.

  16. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1998--April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Activities from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium are described. Areas of work include materials science of nuclear and explosive materials, plutonium processing and handling, robotics, and storage.

  17. Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    The broad objectives of the programme are to develop and assess: (a) techniques for the minimisation, treatment and encapsulation of solid PCM; (b) techniques for the measurement of plutonium in encapsulated and unencapsulated PCM; and (c) advanced treatments for alpha bearing liquid wastes, in order to provide information on their waste management implications. Development has been carried out in eight areas: (a) reduction of arisings; (b) plutonium measurement; (c) decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatments; (d) washing; (e) PCM immobilisation; (f) liquid effluent treatment; (g) sorting and packaging; and (h) engineering objectives. The work is reported. (author)

  18. Experimental studies on plutonium kinetics in marine biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.; Heyraud, M.; Beasley, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were undertaken to measure plutonium flux through marine organisms and to clarify the pathways by which this important element is cycled in the marine environment. The use of a specially prepared isotope, plutonium-237, allowed measurements to be made with standard NaI(Tl) scintillation techniques. Mussels, shrimp and worms were allowed to accumulate plutonium-237 from seawater for up to 25 days. Accumulation by shrimp was relatively slow and the degree of uptake was strongly influenced by moulting. Cast moults contained large fractions of the shrimps' plutonium content, indicating the high affinity of plutonium for surface areas. Only small amounts of the isotope in the moult are lost to water; hence, moulting is considered to be an important biological parameter in the biogeochemical cycling of plutonium. Mussels attained higher concentration factors than shrimp with most of the accumulated isotope (>80%) located in the shell. Byssus threads often contained large fractions of the mussels' plutonium-237 content and reached concentration factors as high as 4100. Worms readily accumulated plutonium-237 in either the +4 or +6 state, reaching concentration factors of approximately 200. Retention studies indicated a relatively slow loss of plutonium-237 from all animals studied. In the case of mussels, a computed half-time for a large fraction of the animals' plutonium content was of the order of 2 years. The more rapid loss from shrimp (Tbsub(1/2)=1.5 months) was due principally to the large fraction of plutonium lost at moult. Food chain studies with shrimp indicated that tissue build-up via plutonium ingestion would be a slow process. Total excretion was not entirely a result of passing contaminated food through the gut; approximately 15% of the ingested plutonium was removed from the contaminated food and subsequently excreted by processes other than defaecation of labelled food. Ratios of four different plutonium isotopes used in the

  19. Experimental Studies on Plutonium Kinetics in Marine Biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.; Heyraud, M.; Beasley, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were undertaken to measure plutonium flux through marine organisms and to clarify the pathways by which this important element is cycled in the marine environment. The use of a specially prepared isotope, plutonium-237, allowed measurements to be made with standard Nal(Tl) scintillation techniques. Mussels, shrimp and worms were allowed to accumulate plutonium-237 from sea water for up to 25 days. Accumulation by shrimp was relatively slow and the degree of uptake was strongly influenced by moulting. Cast moults contained large fractions of the shrimps ' plutonium content, indicating the high affinity of plutonium for surface areas. Only small amounts of the isotope in the moult are lost to water; hence, moulting is considered to be an important biological parameter in the biogeochemical cycling of plutonium. Mussels attained higher concentration factors than shrimp with most of the accumulated isotope (> 80%) located in the shell. Byssus threads often contained large fractions of the mussels' plutonium-237 content and reached concentration factors as high as 4100. Worms readily accumulated plutonium-237 in either the +4 or +6 state, reaching concentration factors of approximately 200, Retention studies indicated a relatively slow loss of plutonium-237 from all animals studied. In the case of mussels, a computed half-time for a large fraction of the animals plutonium content was of the order of 2 years. The more rapid loss from shrimp (Tb 1/2 = 1.5 months) was due principally to the large fraction of plutonium lost at moult. Food chain studies with shrimp indicated that tissue build-up via plutonium ingestion would be a slow process. Total excretion was not entirely a result of passing contaminated food through the gut; approximately 15% of the ingested plutonium was removed from the contaminated food and subsequently excreted by processes other than defaecation of labelled food. Ratios of four different plutonium isotopes used in

  20. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzigues, H.; Reneaud, J.M.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [fr

  1. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; McDougall, T.E.; Chung, M.; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-01-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties. (Author)

  2. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; McDougall, T.E.; Chung, M.; Tateishi, Miyoko [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL`s 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties. (Author).

  3. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item

  5. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  6. The first milligrams of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  7. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  8. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  9. Advanced Process Control Application and Optimization in Industrial Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes application of the new method and tool for system identification and PID tuning/advanced process control (APC optimization using the new 3G (geometric, gradient, gravity optimization method. It helps to design and implement control schemes directly inside the distributed control system (DCS or programmable logic controller (PLC. Also, the algorithm helps to identify process dynamics in closed-loop mode, optimizes controller parameters, and helps to develop adaptive control and model-based control (MBC. Application of the new 3G algorithm for designing and implementing APC schemes is presented. Optimization of primary and advanced control schemes stabilizes the process and allows the plant to run closer to process, equipment and economic constraints. This increases production rates, minimizes operating costs and improves product quality.

  10. Study of plutonium multi-recycle in high moderation LWR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toru; Ueji, Masao; Hibi, Koki; Aoyama, Motoo; Sakurada, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has been studying advanced cores that are dedicated to enhance the plutonium consumption per recycling for effective use of plutonium. In this study, a fissile plutonium consumption rate is adopted as an index of the effective use of plutonium, which is defined as a ratio of consumption to loading of fissile plutonium in a core. High moderation core concepts have been studied in order to increase this index based on full MOX cores in the latest designs of LWRs in Japan that are the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR). As a part of this study, core performance in the case of plutonium multi-recycling has been surveyed with these higher moderation cores aiming further effective use of plutonium. The design and analyses for equilibrium cores show that nuclear and thermal hydraulics parameters satisfy design criteria, and a fissile plutonium consumption rate increases up to 20% for ABWRs and 30% for APWRs even in plutonium multi-recycling condition. It was confirmed that the high moderation cores are feasible from a viewpoint of nuclear and thermal hydraulics, safety and plutonium consumption in the condition of plutonium multi-recycling. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  12. Advanced exergetic analysis of five natural gas liquefaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Palizdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergetic analysis was investigated for five LNG processes. • Avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous irreversibilities were calculated. • Advanced exergetic analysis identifies the potentials for improving the system. - Abstract: Conventional exergy analysis cannot identify portion of inefficiencies which can be avoided. Also this analysis does not have ability to calculate a portion of exergy destruction which has been produced through performance of a component alone. In this study advanced exergetic analysis was performed for five mixed refrigerant LNG processes and four parts of irreversibility (avoidable/unavoidable) and (endogenous/exogenous) were calculated for the components with high inefficiencies. The results showed that portion of endogenous exergy destruction in the components is higher than the exogenous one. In fact interactions among the components do not affect the inefficiencies significantly. Also this analysis showed that structural optimization cannot be useful to decrease the overall process irreversibilities. In compressors high portion of the exergy destruction is related to the avoidable one, thus they have high potential to improve. But in multi stream heat exchangers and air coolers, unavoidable inefficiencies were higher than the other parts. Advanced exergetic analysis can identify the potentials and strategies to improve thermodynamic performance of energy intensive processes

  13. Adding Structure to the Transition Process to Advanced Mathematical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2010-01-01

    The transition process to advanced mathematical thinking is experienced as traumatic by many students. Experiences that students had of school mathematics differ greatly to what is expected from them at university. Success in school mathematics meant application of different methods to get an answer. Students are not familiar with logical…

  14. Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalija, Tatjana V

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.

  15. The plutonium danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, W. de

    1983-01-01

    Nobody can ignore the fact that plutonium is potentially very dangerous and the greatest danger concerning it lies in the spreading of nuclear weapons via nuclear energy programmes. The following seven different attitudes towards this problem are presented and discussed: 1) There is no connection between peaceful and military applications; 2) The problem cannot be prevented; 3) A technical solution must be found; 4) plutonium must be totally inaccessible to countries involved in acquiring nuclear weapons; 5) The use of plutonium for energy production should only occur in one multinational centre; 6) Dogmas in the nuclear industry must be enfeebled; 7) All developments in this area should stop. (C.F.)

  16. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  17. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  18. Recent advances in liquid membranes and their applications in nuclear waste processing: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, J P; Iyer, R H [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Membrane extraction, combining the processes of extraction, scrubbing and stripping in a single step, demonstrates the inherent capability of solvent extraction under non-equilibrium conditions. Permeant transport across various liquid membrane (LM) configurations, viz. bulk liquid, emulsion liquid and supported liquid membranes has great potential for applications in the nuclear field particularly in the decontamination of low and medium level radioactive wastes. Potential practical applications of such membranes have also been envisaged in the recovery of metals from hydrometallurgical leach solutions and in plutonium and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium recovery operations in the PUREX process. Studies carried out have established that minor actinides like uranium, plutonium and americium from process effluents can easily be transported across polymeric and liquid type membranes through the use of specific ionophores dissolved in an appropriate liquid membrane phase. The possibility of the membrane extraction of fission palladium from acidic wastes has also been demonstrated by the use of some soft bases. An overview of these results and also some of the recent radiochemical applications of energy - efficient LM processes including directions for future research are outlined in this paper. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Experience with thermal recycle of plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, O.; Schlosser, G.; Spielvogel, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) decided to close the fuel cycle by erecting the reprocessing plant WA350 at Wackersdorf. As long as the plutonium supply from reprocessing plants exceeds the plutonium demand of fast breeder reactors, recycling of plutonium in LWR's is a convenient solution by which a significant advanced uranium utilization is achieved. The demonstration of plutonium recycling performed to date in the FRG in BWR's and PWR's shows that thermal plutonium recycling on an industrial scale is feasible and that the usual levels of reliability and safety can be achieved in reactor operation. The recycling of reprocessed uranium is presently demonstrated in the FRG, too. As regards fuel cycle economy thermal recycling allows savings in natural uranium and separative work. Already under present cost conditions the fuel cycle costs for mixed oxide or enriched reprocessed uranium fuel assemblies are equal or even lower than for usual uranium fuel assemblies

  20. Recent advances in the use of ASEDRA in post processing scintillator spectra for resolution enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoden, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The ASEDRA (Advanced Synthetically Enhanced Detector Resolution Algorithm, patent pending) has been successfully applied as a post processing algorithm to both sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and cesium iodide (CsI(Na)) scintillator detectors to synthetically enhance their realized spectral data resolution by as much as a factor of three, wherein from these detectors the 'raw' unprocessed spectra are traditionally of poor resolution. ASEDRA uses noise reduction and built-in high resolution Monte Carlo radiation transport based detector response functions (DRFs) to rapidly post-process a spectrum in a few seconds on a standard laptop; gamma lines are extracted with an accuracy that makes the scintillator detectors competitive with higher resolution, higher material cost detectors. ASEDRA differs from other tools in the field, such as Sandia's GADRAS software, in that ASEDRA performs a differential spectrum attribution and cumulative extraction from the sample spectrum, rather than an integral-based approach, as in GADRAS. Previous publications have highlighted the successful application of ASEDRA in samples with plutonium and various isotopes. A new SmartID nuclide identification package to accompany ASEDRA has recently been implemented for test and evaluation purposes for sample attribution; in addition, the application of ASEDRA+SmartID has occurred with success in long dwell cargo monitoring and SNM detection applications, enabling new protocols for HEU detection. Overall, this paper presents recent developments and results along with a discussion of follow-on steps in the development of ASEDRA as an effective field gamma spectrum analysis tool for low cost scintillators. (author)

  1. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  2. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  4. French plutonium management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2002-01-01

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  5. Learning more about plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  6. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  7. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1976-08-01

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238 Pu and 239 Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  8. Determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions - Gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate gravimetric method for determining the concentration of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate solutions and reference solutions, containing between 100 and 300 g of plutonium per litre, in a nitric acid medium. The weighed portion of the plutonium nitrate is treated with sulfuric acid and evaporated to dryness. The plutonium sulfate is decomposed and formed to oxide by heating in air. The oxide is ignited in air at 1200 to 1250 deg. C and weighed as stoichiometric plutonium dioxide, which is stable and non-hygroscopic

  9. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Kostiainen, E.

    2002-01-01

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  10. Eurex Plant - Manual for the conversion of plutonium characteristics for the plant and description of the process; Impianto Eurex - Unita manuale di conversione del plutonio charatteristiche dell'unita e descrizione del processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G; Hall, A; Pozzi, F [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy)

    1988-05-15

    A unit for liquid-solid conversion of plutonium recovered during the reprocessing campaign of Candu irradiated fuels has been recently put in operation at the ENEA -EUREX plant - CRE Saluggia. The unit, the auxiliary services, the control and security systems and the health physics equipments are described in the report. The conversion process, based on Gel Supported Precipitation (GSP) and the throughput of the unit are also described. (author)

  11. Analytical control of reducing agents on uranium/plutonium partitioning at purex process; Controle analitico dos agentes redutores na particao uranio/plutonio no processo purex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Izilda da Cruz de

    1995-07-01

    Spectrophotometric methods for uranium (IV), hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and its decomposition product hydrazoic acid(HN{sub 3}), and hydroxylamine (NH{sub 2} OH) determinations were developed aiming their applications for the process control of CELESTE I installation at IPEN/CNEN-SP. These compounds are normally present in the U/Pu partitioning phase of the spent nuclear treatment via PUREX process. The direct spectrophotometry was used for uranium (IV) analysis in nitric acid-hydrazine solutions based on the absorption measurement at 648 nm. The azomethine compound formed by reaction of hydrazine and p-dimethylamine benzaldehyde with maximum absorption at 457 nm was the basis for the specific analytical method for hydrazine determination. The hydrazoic acid analysis was performed indirectly by its conversion into ferric azide complex with maximum absorption at 465 nm. The hydroxylamine detection was accomplished based on its selective oxidation to nitrous acid which is easily analyzed by the reaction with Griess reagent. The resulted azocompound gas a maximum absorption at 520 nm. The sensibility of 1,4x10{sup -6}M for U(IV) with 0,8% of precision, 1,6x10{sup -6}M for hydrazine with 0,8% of precision, 2,3x10{sup -6}M hydrazoic acid with 0,9% of precision and 2,5x10{sup -6}M for hydroxylamine with 0,8% of precision were achieved. The interference studies have shown that each reducing agent can be determined in the presence of each other without any interference. Uranium(VI) and plutonium have also shown no interference in these analysis. The established methods were adapted to run inside glove-boxes by using an optical fiber colorimetry and applied to process control of the CELESTE I installation. The results pointed out that the methods are reliable and safety in order to provide just-in-time information about process conditions. (author)

  12. Appraisal of BWR plutonium burners for energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The design of BWR cores with plutonium loadings beyond the self-generation recycle (SGR) level is investigated with regard to their possible role as plutonium burners in a nuclear energy center. Alternative plutonium burner approaches are also examined including the substitution of thorium for uranium as fertile material in the BWR and the use of a high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) as a plutonium burner. Effects on core design, fuel cycle facility requirements, economics, and actinide residues are considered. Differences in net fissile material consumption among the various plutonium-burning systems examined were small in comparison to uncertainties in HTGR, thorium cycle, and high plutonium-loaded LWR technology. Variation in the actinide content of high-level wastes is not likely to be a significant factor in determining the feasibility of alternate systems of plutonium utilization. It was found that after 10,000 years the toxicity of actinide high-level wastes from the plutonium-burning fuel cycles was less than would have existed if the processed natural ores had not been used for nuclear fuel. The implications of plutonium burning and possible future fuel cycle options on uranium resource conservation are examined in the framework of current ERDA estimates of minable uranium resources

  13. On-line monitoring of low-level plutonium concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Huff, G.A.; Rebagay, T.V.

    1979-10-01

    An on-line monitor has been developed to assay plutonium in nitric acid solutions. The performance of the monitor has been assessed by a laboratory experimentation program using solutions with plutonium concentrations from 0.1 to 10 g/l. These conditions are typical of the plutonium solutions in an input stream to a plutonium-purification cycle in a reprocessing plant following uranium/plutonium partitioning. The monitoring system can be fully automated and shows great promise for detecting and quantifying plutonium in situ, thus minimizing the reliance on traditional sampling and laboratory-analysis techniques. The total concentration and isotopic abundance of plutonium are determined by measuring the absolute intensities of the low-energy gamma rays characteristics of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu nuclides by direct gamma-ray spectroscopy and computer analysis of the spectral data. The addition of a monitoring system of this type to the input stream of a plutonium-purification cycle along with other suitable monitors on the waste streams and on the product stream provides the basis for a near real-time materials control and inventory system. Results of the laboratory-evaluation program employing plutonium in solutions with isotopic compositions typical of those involved in processing light water reactor fuels are presented. The detailed design of a monitoring cell and detection system is given. The precision and accuracy of the results relative to those measured by mass spectrometry and controlled potential coulometry are also summarized

  14. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  15. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi

  16. Demolition of Building 12, an old plutonium filter facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.L.; Garde, R.; Valentine, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses the decommissioning and disposal of a plutonium-contaminated air filter facility that provided ventilation for the main plutonium processing plant at Los Alamos from 1945 until 1973. The health physics, waste management, and environmental aspects of the demolition are also discussed

  17. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room-temperature fluoride volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.M.; Foropoulos, J.; Kennedy, R.C.; Dye, B.A.; Behrens, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of dioxygen difluoride and krypton difluoride for the recovery of plutonium from lean residues by conversion to gaseous plutonium hexa-fluoride is being investigated. The synthesis of dioxygen difluoride in practical quantity has been demonstrated. Fluorination of plutonium compounds under ideal conditions supports the contention that a viable process can be developed. Application of the method to lean plutonium residues is in the early stage of development

  18. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  19. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... the structure of the receiver with the hope that the resulting heuristic architecture will exhibit the desired behavior and performance. On the other hand, one can employ analytical frameworks to pose the problem as the optimization of a global objective function subject to certain constraints. This work...

  20. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume I: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    At the conclusion of the Cold War, the Department of Energy (DOE) stopped plutonium processing for nuclear weapons production. Facilities used for that purpose now hold significant quantities of plutonium in various forms. Unless properly stored and handled, plutonium can present environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) hazards. Improperly stored plutonium poses a variety of hazards. When containers or packaging fail to fully protect plutonium metal from exposure to air, oxidation can occur and cause packaging failures and personnel contamination. Contamination can also result when plutonium solutions leak from bottles, tanks or piping. Plutonium in the form of scrap or residues generated by weapons production are often very corrosive, chemically reactive and difficult to contain. Buildings and equipment that are aging, poorly maintained or of obsolete design contribute to the overall problem. Inadvertent accumulations of plutonium of any form in sufficient quantities within facilities can result in nuclear criticality events that could emit large amounts of radiation locally. Contamination events and precursors of criticality events are causing safety and health concerns for workers at the Department's plutonium facilities. Contamination events also potentially threaten the public and the surrounding environment

  1. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  2. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  3. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Pottier, R.; Berger, R.

    1969-01-01

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236 Pu/ 238 Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors) [fr

  4. Raw materials for advanced ceramics: rare earths separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, D.R.; Nobre, J.S.M.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of obtaining purified rare earths oxidesis related, mainly to the increasing use of these compounds as raw materials for advanced ceramics. Processes of rare earths separation and purification are almost always based on the solvent extraction, fractional precipitation and ion exchange chromatography techniques, whose association depends on the initial concentrate and on the desired purity. This paper describes some steps of fractionation of didymium carbonate by using the solvent extraction and fractional precipitation techniques. The experimental conditions presented here have enable the production of lantanium, neodimium - praseodimium, samarium - gadolinium and ytrium concentrates, which constitute the intermediate fractions of the overall process to obtain high purity rare earths. (author) [pt

  5. Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S.; Park, S-W.

    2004-01-01

    The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed

  6. Decision model for evaluating reactor disposition of excess plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmunds, T.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering a range of technologies for disposition of excess weapon plutonium. Use of plutonium fuel in fission reactors to generate spent fuel is one class of technology options. This report describes the inputs and results of decision analyses conducted to evaluate four evolutionary/advanced and three existing fission reactor designs for plutonium disposition. The evaluation incorporates multiple objectives or decision criteria, and accounts for uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to identify important and discriminating decision criteria, and to identify combinations of value judgments and assumptions that tend to favor one reactor design over another

  7. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE's System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE's Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy

  8. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  9. Plutonium dispositioning in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Feinroth, H.; Luxat, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to evaluate salient technical, strategic, schedule, and cost-related parameters of using CANDU reactors for dispositioning of weapons-grade plutonium in the form of Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel. A study team, consisting of key staff from the CANDU reactor designers and researchers (AECL), operators (Ontario Hydro) and fuel suppliers, analyzed all significant factors involved in such application, with the objective of identifying an arrangement that would permit the burning of MOX in CANDU at the earliest date. One of Ontario Hydro's multi-unit stations, Bruce A nuclear generating station (4x769 MW(e)), was chosen as the reference for the study. The assessment showed that no significant modifications of reactor or process systems are necessary to operate with a full MOX core. Plant modifications would be limited to fuel handling and modifications necessary to accommodate enhanced security and safeguards requirements. No safety limitations were identified

  10. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  11. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  12. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsop, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in 'older' alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments are underway aimed at specific engineering and process requirements, both in the aerospace and non-aerospace sectors. Both the advanced high temperature and conventional alloy developments are considered, before the paper goes on to assess the potential of new processes and products, like spray-forming, metal matrix composites and shaped-plate rolling. (orig.)

  13. The advances in radiation processing technology and some suggestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Wei Genshuan; Ha Hongfei

    1992-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been made great advances in the last decade especially in the developed countries. According to the conservative evaluation, the total sales of radiation processing products approached about 2-3 billion U.S. dollar in 1981, there after, the processing capacity at least doubles. Now, the intensities of 60 Co in use for radiation processing are (5.55-7.40) x 10 18 Bq and there are about 600 sets of electron accelerators for radiation processing. The total sales of radiation processing products are supposed to be over 10 billion U.S. dollar in 1989. However, there are only several fields commercialized. In great scale, such as radiation crosslinked heat shrinkable materials, radiation crosslinked electric cables and wires, and radiation sterilization of medical articles. In China, the radiation processing technology has been developed rapidly in the past years, but the processing capacity is still lower in comparing with developed countries. We suggest that much attention should be devoted to the training of the workers, technicians and managers. The basic theoretical and new technological researches are the keys for developing radiation processing technology at high speed in our country

  14. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  15. Advanced Photonic Processes for Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygletou, Maria; Petridis, Constantinos; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Solar-energy harvesting through photovoltaic (PV) conversion is the most promising technology for long-term renewable energy production. At the same time, significant progress has been made in the development of energy-storage (ES) systems, which are essential components within the cycle of energy generation, transmission, and usage. Toward commercial applications, the enhancement of the performance and competitiveness of PV and ES systems requires the adoption of precise, but simple and low-cost manufacturing solutions, compatible with large-scale and high-throughput production lines. Photonic processes enable cost-efficient, noncontact, highly precise, and selective engineering of materials via photothermal, photochemical, or photophysical routes. Laser-based processes, in particular, provide access to a plethora of processing parameters that can be tuned with a remarkably high degree of precision to enable innovative processing routes that cannot be attained by conventional approaches. The focus here is on the application of advanced light-driven approaches for the fabrication, as well as the synthesis, of materials and components relevant to PV and ES systems. Besides presenting recent advances on recent achievements, the existing limitations are outlined and future possibilities and emerging prospects discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  17. Critical and subcritical parameters of the system simulating plutonium metal dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Yury Yu.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.; Mozhayeva, Lubov I.

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution of plutonium metal was simulated using the Monte Carlo computer code to calculate criticality safety limits for the process. Calculations were made for the constant masses of plutonium charged to the dissolving vessel considering distribution of plutonium in metal and solution phases. Critical parameters and limits were calculated as a function of dissolving vessel volume and plutonium metal mass. 240 Pu content was assumed to be from 0% to 10% (mass). Critical parameters were evaluated for the system with a water reflector. Results of this paper may be used in the designing process equipment for plutonium metal dissolution. (author)

  18. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl 2 at 850 0 C. The solvent CaCl 2 from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl 2 and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO 2 reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production

  19. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  20. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  1. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alberti, F; Risposi, L [Instituto di Fisica Applicata, University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961.

  2. Measurements of plutonium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alberti, F.; Risposi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the activities connected with the start up of the PETRA Laboratory (Processo per l'Estrazione di Terre Rare ed Attinidi, i.e. process for extraction of rare earths and actinides), the Radiation Protection Unit of the J.R.C.-Ispra has carried out a well planned set of experimental measurements aimed at evaluating the zero point of the isotopes of plutonium in environmental samples by alfa spectrometry. After the International Moratorium in 1963, no release of plutonium has occurred in the environment apart from the burn up of SNAP 9A satellite in April 1964. Since then the plutonium concentration in air and in fallout samples has been continuously decreasing requiring, therefore, optimization of both instrumentation and experimental measurement procedures in order to obtain better sensibilities. In this work, the experimental methodology followed at the J.R.C.-Ispra for measurements of plutonium concentration in air, deposition and soil is described and the plutonium behaviour in these samples is reported and discussed starting from 1961

  3. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  4. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  5. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  6. Direct extraction of uranium and plutonium from oxide fuel using TBP-HNO3 complex for super-DIREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, S.; Kamiya, M.; Nomura, K.; Koyama, T.; Ogum, S.; Shimada, T.; Mori, Y.; Enokida, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Super-DIREX is a new reprocessing method which has high economical efficiency. Experimental study of this process was started on the direct extraction of U and Pu from irradiated MOX fuel by the supercritical carbon dioxide (SFCO 2 ) containing TBP-HNO 3 complex. This report describes direct extraction of U and Pu with TBP-HNO 3 complex at atmospheric pressure, as the first test for irradiated fuel, in order to investigate the applicability of SFCO 2 containing TBP-HNO 3 complex. In this test, dependency on dissolution temperature, Pu content, fuel/ TBP-HNO 3 complex ratio and effect of voloxidation were investigated. From these results, TBP-HNO 3 complex was found to be effective in the respect of the recovery of U and Pu. The number of the process step in dissolution and co-extraction is small, and amount of waste can be reduced. It is applicable to the direct extraction in Super-DIREX. (authors)

  7. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  8. Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium Co-recovery with Irradiated Fast Reactor MOX Fuel by Single Cycle Extraction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaumi Nakahara; Yuichi Sano; Kazunori Nomura; Tadahiro Washiya; Jun Komaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki, 319-1194 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    The behavior of Np in single cycle extraction processes using tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as an extractant for U, Pu and Np co-recovery was investigated as a part of NEXT (New Extraction System for Transuranium) process. Two approaches for Np co-recovery with U and Pu were carried out with irradiated MOX fuel from fast reactor 'JOYO'; one was the counter current experiment using a feed solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration and the other used a scrubbing solution with a high HNO{sub 3} concentration. Experimental results showed that the leakage of Np to the raffinate were 0.986 % and 5.96 % under the condition of high HNO{sub 3} concentration in the feed solution and scrubbing solution, respectively. The simulation results based on these experiments indicated that most of Np could be extracted and co-recovered with U and Pu, just by increasing HNO{sub 3} concentrations in the feed and scrubbing solution on the single cycle extraction process. (authors)

  9. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  10. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  13. Metrology aspects of SIMS depth profiling for advanced ULSI processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrevich, Andre; Hunter, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    As the semiconductor industry roadmap passes through the 0.1 μm technology node, the junction depth of the transistor source/drain extension will be required to be less than 20 nm and the well doping will be near 1.0 μm in depth. The development of advanced ULSI processing techniques requires the evolution of new metrology tools to ensure process capability. High sensitivity (ppb) coupled with excellent depth resolution (1 nm) makes SIMS the technique of choice for measuring the in-depth chemical distribution of these dopants with high precision and accuracy. This paper will discuss the issues, which impact the accuracy and precision of SIMS measurements of ion implants (both shallow and deep). First this paper will discuss common uses of the SIMS technique in the technology development and manufacturing of advanced ULSI processes. In the second part of this paper the ability of SIMS to make high precision measurements of ion implant depth profiles will be studied

  14. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Valladares, M.R.S. de [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  15. Plutonium production in a remote cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddux, E.P.; Purcell, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of 239 Pu metal has traditionally been carried out in glovebox enclosures for protection of operating personnel and the environment. With the advent of more stringent federal regulations for protecting personnel, the environment, and security of special nuclear materials, it is proposed that plutonium be processed in a totally remote environment using automated work stations and robotic materials transfer and equipment maintenance. At the Savannah River Plant, the existing plutonium production facility is a batch-type glovebox operation built in the 1950s. A viable alternative to restoration of the existing glovebox operation is to provide a facility that uses remote cell operation

  16. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  17. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  18. Recent Technological Advances in Natural Language Processing and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nishal Pradeepkumar

    2012-01-01

    A recent advance in computer technology has permitted scientists to implement and test algorithms that were known from quite some time (or not) but which were computationally expensive. Two such projects are IBM's Jeopardy as a part of its DeepQA project [1] and Wolfram's Wolframalpha[2]. Both these methods implement natural language processing (another goal of AI scientists) and try to answer questions as asked by the user. Though the goal of the two projects is similar, both of them have a ...

  19. Structural analysis of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, J. H.; Jung, W. M.; Jo, I. J.; Gug, D. H.; Yoo, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    An advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) is developing for the safe and effective management of spent fuels which arising from the domestic nuclear power plants. And its demonstration facility is under design. This facility will be prepared by modifying IMEF's reserve hot cell facility which reserved for future usage by considering the characteristics of ACP. This study presents a basic structural architecture design and analysis results of ACP hot cell including modification of the IMEF. The results of this study will be used for the detail design of ACP demonstration facility, and utilized as basic data for the licensing of the ACP facility

  20. Advanced computational modelling for drying processes – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraeye, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Understanding the product dehydration process is a key aspect in drying technology. • Advanced modelling thereof plays an increasingly important role for developing next-generation drying technology. • Dehydration modelling should be more energy-oriented. • An integrated “nexus” modelling approach is needed to produce more energy-smart products. • Multi-objective process optimisation requires development of more complete multiphysics models. - Abstract: Drying is one of the most complex and energy-consuming chemical unit operations. R and D efforts in drying technology have skyrocketed in the past decades, as new drivers emerged in this industry next to procuring prime product quality and high throughput, namely reduction of energy consumption and carbon footprint as well as improving food safety and security. Solutions are sought in optimising existing technologies or developing new ones which increase energy and resource efficiency, use renewable energy, recuperate waste heat and reduce product loss, thus also the embodied energy therein. Novel tools are required to push such technological innovations and their subsequent implementation. Particularly computer-aided drying process engineering has a large potential to develop next-generation drying technology, including more energy-smart and environmentally-friendly products and dryers systems. This review paper deals with rapidly emerging advanced computational methods for modelling dehydration of porous materials, particularly for foods. Drying is approached as a combined multiphysics, multiscale and multiphase problem. These advanced methods include computational fluid dynamics, several multiphysics modelling methods (e.g. conjugate modelling), multiscale modelling and modelling of material properties and the associated propagation of material property variability. Apart from the current challenges for each of these, future perspectives should be directed towards material property