Sample records for advanced pharmacy practice

  1. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

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    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS


    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  2. Variables Affecting Pharmacy Students' Patient Care Interventions during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. (United States)

    Bio, Laura L; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L; Bowen, Jane F; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A


    Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored.

  3. Student Pharmacists’ Clinical Interventions in Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences at a Community Nonteaching Hospital


    Shogbon, Angela O.; Lundquist, Lisa M.


    Objective. To assess student pharmacists’ clinical interventions in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) at a community nonteaching hospital and evaluate completed interventions based on the type of documentation method used.

  4. The Offering, Scheduling and Maintenance of Elective Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences

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    Rex O. Brown


    Full Text Available The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE provides standards for colleges of pharmacy to assist in the provision of pharmacy education to student pharmacists. An integral part of all college educational programs includes the provision of experiential learning. Experiential learning allows students to gain real-world experience in direct patient care during completion of the curriculum. All college of pharmacy programs provide several Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs, which include a balance between the four required experiences and a number of other required or elective APPEs. Required APPEs include advanced community, advanced institutional, ambulatory care, and general medicine. The elective APPEs include a myriad of opportunities to help provide a balanced education in experiential learning for student pharmacists. These unique opportunities help to expose student pharmacists to different career tracks that they may not have been able to experience otherwise. Not all colleges offer enough elective APPEs to enable the student pharmacist to obtain experiences in a defined area. Such an approach is required to produce skilled pharmacy graduates that are capable to enter practice in various settings. Elective APPEs are scheduled logically and are based upon student career interest and site availability. This article describes the offering, scheduling and maintenance of different elective APPEs offered by The University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.

  5. Documenting Student Engagement Using an Intention/Reflection Exercise during an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (United States)

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Lepp, Gardner A.


    The article shares the outcomes of a practice called Intention/Reflection (I/R) when applied to a group of ten students in a five-week course involving an international advanced pharmacy practice experience. Developed by the authors and founded on a combination of theoretical principles, this practice is unique because of the blend of formative…

  6. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations


    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P.; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N.; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O’Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily


    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of unde...

  7. A Capstone Course with a Comprehensive and Integrated Review of the Pharmacy Curriculum and Student Assessment as a Preparation for Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences


    Hirsch, Adina C.; Parihar, Harish S.


    Objective. To create a capstone course that provides a comprehensive and integrated review of the pharmacy curriculum with a broad range of assessment tools to evaluate student knowledge and skills as a final preparation prior to beginning fourth-year advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).

  8. Establishment and Implementation of a Required Medication Therapy Management Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (United States)

    Gilliam, Eric; Thompson, Megan; Griend, Joseph Vande


    Objective. To develop a community pharmacy-based medication therapy management (MTM) advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) that provides students with skills and knowledge to deliver entry-level pharmacy MTM services. Design. The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) partnered with three community pharmacy chains to establish this three-week, required MTM APPE. Students completed the American Pharmacists Association MTM Certificate Course prior to entering the APPE. Students were expected to spend 90% or more of their time at this experience working on MTM interventions, using store MTM platforms. Assessment. All 151 students successfully completed this MTM APPE, and each received a passing evaluation from their preceptor. Preceptor evaluations of students averaged above four (entry-level practice) on a five-point Likert scale. The majority of students reported engagement in MTM services for more than 80% of the time on site. Students’ self-reporting of their ability to perform MTM interventions improved after participation in the APPE. Conclusion. The SSPPS successfully implemented a required MTM APPE, preparing students for entry-level delivery of MTM services. PMID:28381896

  9. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Preceptor and Student Considerations. (United States)

    Dornblaser, Emily K; Ratka, Anna; Gleason, Shaun E; Ombengi, David N; Tofade, Toyin; Wigle, Patricia R; Zapantis, Antonia; Ryan, Melody; Connor, Sharon; Jonkman, Lauren J; Ochs, Leslie; Jungnickel, Paul W; Abrons, Jeanine P; Alsharif, Naser Z


    The objective of this article is to describe the key areas of consideration for global/international advanced pharmacy practice experience (G/I APPE) preceptors, students and learning objectives. At the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the GPE SIG prepared and presented an initial report on the G/IAPPE initiatives. Round table discussions were conducted at the 2014 AACP Annual Meeting to document GPE SIG member input on key areas in the report. Literature search of PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE with keywords was conducted to expand this report. In this paper, considerations related to preceptors and students and learning outcomes are described. Preceptors for G/I APPEs may vary based on the learning outcomes of the experience. Student learning outcomes for G/I APPEs may vary based on the type of experiential site. Recommendations and future directions for development of G/IAPPEs are presented. Development of a successful G/I APPE requires significant planning and consideration of appropriate qualifications for preceptors and students.

  10. Development and Implementation of a Novel Lifestyle Medicine Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience Elective

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    Thomas L. Lenz, PharmD, MS, PAPHS, FACLM


    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and implement an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE to increase student’s awareness and use of lifestyle modifications in chronic disease prevention and management. Design: A five-week APPE was developed that utilized a wide variety of activities, including direct patient care, patient education, case studies, journal clubs and reflective assessment and writing to explore various lifestyle modifications and their relation to chronic disease prevention and management. Conclusion: The novel lifestyle medicine APPE provides students a unique opportunity to advance their knowledge in therapeutic lifestyle changes and expand their understanding of the pharmacist’s role in chronic disease prevention and management.

  11. Current Practices in Global/International Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences: Home/Host Country or Site/Institution Considerations. (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Dakkuri, Adnan; Abrons, Jeanine P; Williams, Dennis; Ombengi, David N; Zheng, HaiAn; Al-Dahir, Sara; Tofade, Toyin; Gim, Suzanna; O'Connell, Mary Beth; Ratka, Anna; Dornblaser, Emily


    International outreach by schools and colleges of pharmacy is increasing. In this paper, we provide current practice guidelines to establish and maintain successful global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences (G/I APPEs) with specific recommendations for home/host country and host site/institution. The paper is based on a literature review (2000-2014) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms. Educational documents such as syllabi and memoranda of understanding (MoUs) from pharmacy programs were also examined. In addition, a preliminary draft was developed and the findings and recommendations were reviewed in a 90-minute roundtable discussion at the 2014 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting. Recommendations for the host country include travel considerations (eg, passport, visa, air travel), safety, housing, transportation, travel alerts and warnings, health issues, and financial considerations. For the home country, considerations for establishment of G/I APPE site (eg, vetting process, MoU, site expectations) are described. The paper is a resource for development of new G/I APPEs and provides guidance for continuous quality improvement of partnerships focusing on G/I pharmacy education.

  12. An elective pharmaceutical care course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience in Kenya. (United States)

    Schellhase, Ellen M; Miller, Monica L; Ogallo, William; Pastakia, Sonak D


    OBJECTIVE. To develop a prerequisite elective course to prepare students for an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Kenya. DESIGN. The course addressed Kenyan culture, travel preparation, patient care, and disease-state management. Instructional formats used were small-group discussions and lectures, including some Web-based presentations by Kenyan pharmacists on disease states commonly treated in Kenya. Cultural activities include instruction in conversational and medical Kiswahili and reading of a novel related to global health programs. ASSESSMENT. Student performance was assessed using written care plans, quizzes, reflection papers, a formulary management exercise, and pre- and post-course assessments. Student feedback on course evaluations indicated that the course was well received and students felt prepared for the APPE. CONCLUSION. This course offered a unique opportunity for students to learn about pharmacy practice in global health and to apply previously acquired skills in a resource-constrained international setting. It prepares students to actively participate in clinical care activities during an international APPE.

  13. Evaluating the impact of a pre-rotation workshop on student preparation for clinical advanced pharmacy practice experiences

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    Medina MS


    Full Text Available Objectives: This pilot study was designed to evaluate the impact of a pre-rotation workshop (PRW on pharmacy students’ clinical skills and preparation for clinical Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE involving direct patient care. Methods: Randomized controlled trial of an educational intervention with Institutional Review Board approval. PRW activities designed to simulate rotation activities around five competencies, patient charts, medication histories, SOAP notes, patient presentations, and professionalism. Endpoints were evaluated using clinical rotation preceptors’ evaluation of performance and students’ performance on objective structured clinical exams (OSCE.Results: Eight fourth-year students and eight GPA matched controls (20% of the total class were selected to voluntarily participate. The PRW demonstrated a positive impact on students’ clinical skills and preparation for rotations by improving OSCE performance. However, no significant differences were found between groups when comparing preceptor evaluations of skills on rotations. These results are limited by the small sample size, potential OSCE “test-wiseness” effects, lack of OSCE evaluator blinding to study groups, potential case specificity effects due to the limited number of cases used on the OSCE and possible lack of sensitivity of the rotation evaluation tool to capture true differences among the experimental and control group participants.Conclusion: The PRW was successful at advancing students’ clinical skills and preparation for rotations and may be considered as a tool to help bridge didactic to clinical experiences in the Pharm.D. curriculum.

  14. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice. (United States)

    Grace, M


    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  15. Impact of the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative on Clinical Pharmacy Specialist Practice. (United States)

    Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle


    This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed.

  16. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

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    Nousheen Aslam


    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  17. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh


    -based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  18. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie


    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...

  19. Collaborative pharmacy practice: an update

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    Law AV


    Full Text Available Anandi V Law, Eric K Gupta, Micah Hata, Karl M Hess, Roger S Klotz, Quang A Le, Emmanuelle Schwartzman, Bik-Wai Bilvick Tai Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, College of Pharmacy, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA Abstract: Collaborative practice among health professionals is slowly coming of age, given the global focus on efficiency and effectiveness of care to achieve positive patient outcomes and to reduce the economic burden of fragmented care. Collaborative pharmacy practice (CPP is accordingly evolving within different models including: disease management, medication therapy management, patient centered medical home, and accountable care organizations. Pharmacist roles in these models relate to drug therapy management and include therapy introduction, adjustment, or discontinuation, patient counseling and education, and identification, resolution, and prevention of problems leading to drug interactions and adverse reactions. Most forms of CPP occur with physicians in various settings. Collaborative practice agreements exist in many states in the US and are mentioned in the International Pharmaceutical Federation policy statement. Impetus for CPP comes from health system and economic concerns, as well as from a regulatory push. There are positive examples in community, ambulatory care, and inpatient settings that have well documented protocols, indicators of care, and measurement and reporting of clinical, economic, and patient reported outcomes; however, implementation of the practice is still not widespread. Conceptual and implementation challenges include health professional training, attitudes, confidence and comfort levels, power and communication issues, logistic barriers of time, workload, proximity, resistance to establish and adopt regulations, and importantly, payment models. Some of the attitudinal and perceptual challenges can be mitigated by incorporation of interprofessional concepts and

  20. Opportunities and challenges in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M


    Pharmacy practice and social pharmacy are two important research areas within pharmaceutical and health sciences. As the disciplines have undergone and are still undergoing changes, it is useful to reflect on the current state of their research as the basis for discussing further development....... The two areas are currently beset by a lack of consensus and charged all too often with evaluating narrowly focused pharmacy services. With the added challenge of diminished funding for research and the pressures to publish results, these fields have to accommodate a much broader research framework than...

  1. The future of pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Almarsdottir, Anna Birna


    The chapter starts by outlining the current and future scenario related to pharmacy practice research. This chapter then sets the scene by discussing issues that are pertinent for practice research. These issues are changes in population demographics; changes in technology, the role of the pharmacy...... as an institution and consumer behaviour; as well as changes in the pharmacy profession. It also outlines the major shifts in pharmacy practice research, which include interprofessional collaboration and teamwork with patients, describing and measuring outcomes of interventions as well as patients’ cultural...... diversity. It concludes by drawing attention to methodologies that would be most commonly used in future pharmacy practice research. Some of the future methodological challenges could be the emergence of big and complex data sets, dealing with electronic health records and pharmacy practice researchers...

  2. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D


    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing....... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...

  3. Pharmacy Education in the Context of Australian Practice


    Marriott, Jennifer L.; Nation, Roger L.; Roller, Louis; Costelloe, Marian; Galbraith, Kirstie; Stewart, Peter; Charman, William N.


    Accredited pharmacy programs in Australia provide a high standard of pharmacy education, attracting quality students. The principal pharmacy degree remains the 4-year bachelor of pharmacy degree; however, some universities offer graduate-entry master of pharmacy degrees taught in 6 semesters over a 2-year period. Curricula include enabling and applied pharmaceutical science, pharmacy practice, and clinical and experiential teaching, guided by competency standards and an indicative curriculum ...

  4. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation. (United States)

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah


    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.

  5. Essential Elements for a Pharmacy Practice Mentoring Program


    Metzger, Anne H.; Hardy, Yolanda M.; Jarvis, Courtney; Steven C Stoner; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L.; Hanes, Scott; Carey, Katherine; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M.


    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty member...

  6. Factors influencing pharmacy students’ attitudes towards pharmacy practice research and strategies for promoting research interest in pharmacy practice

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    Kritikos VS


    Full Text Available Objectives: To (1 investigate the relationships between students’ characteristics and their (a perceptions of research in general and (b attitudes towards pharmacy practice research; (2 identify strategies that could be used by pharmacy educators to promote research interest in pharmacy practice; and (3 identify perceived barriers to the pursuit or completion of a pharmacy practice research degree. Methods: A survey was administered to all students enrolled in each year of the four-year pharmacy undergraduate program, University of Sydney, Australia. Perceptions of research in general were measured using 4 items on a five-point semantic-differential scale and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research were measured using 16 items on a five-point Likert scale. Student characteristics were also collected as were responses to open-ended questions which were analysed using content analysis. Results: In total 853 students participated and completed the survey (83% response rate. Participants’ characteristics were associated with some but not all aspects of research and pharmacy practice research. It appeared that positive attitudes and perspectives were influenced strongly by exposure to the ‘research’ process through projects, friends or mentors, previous degrees or having future intentions to pursue a research degree. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest positive attitudes and perceptions of research can be nurtured through the formal inclusion in research processes, particularly the utility of practice research in clinical practice across the four years of study. Participants indicated there was a lack of awareness of the needs, benefits and career opportunities associated with pharmacy practice research and voiced clear impediments in their career path with respect to the choice of practice research-related careers. Conclusions: Future research should investigate changes in perceptions and attitudes in a

  7. Private pharmacy staff in Hanoi dispensing steroids - theory and practice


    Larsson M; Binh NT; Tomson G; Chuc NTK; Falkenberg T


    Objective: To investigate self reported practice and actual practice of private pharmacy staff in relation to drug regulations and provision of prednisolone (a prescription-only corticosteroid) on request to treat lower back pain. Method: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Self reported practice was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; actual practice was assessed with the Simulated Client Method with 5 encounters in each pharmacy (a ...

  8. A Pharmacotherapy Capstone Course to Advance Pharmacy Students’ Clinical Documentation Skills


    Conway, Jeannine M.; Ahmed, Ghada F


    Objective. To implement and assess the effectiveness of a capstone pharmacotherapy course designed to integrate in-class curriculum using patient cases and drug-information questions. The course was intended to improve third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students' clinical documentation skills in preparation for beginning advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs).

  9. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students

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    Muhammad Umair Khan


    Full Text Available Purpose: In Pakistan, courses in pharmacy practice, which are an essential component of the PharmD curriculum, were launched with the aim of strengthening pharmacy practice overall and enabling pharmacy students to cope with the challenges involved in meeting real-world healthcare needs. Since very little research has assessed the efficacy of such courses, we aimed to evaluate students’ perceptions of pharmacy practice courses and their opinions about whether their current knowledge of the topics covered in pharmacy practice courses is adequate for future practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted over two months among the senior pharmacy students of two pharmacy colleges. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then analysed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. Results: Research in pharmacy practice (30.2%, applied drug information (34.4%, health policy (38.1%, public health and epidemiology (39.5%, pharmacovigilance (45.6%, and pharmacoeconomics (47.9% were the major courses that were covered to the least extent in the PharmD curriculum. However, hospital pharmacy practice (94.4%, pharmacotherapeutics (88.8%, and community pharmacy practice (82.8% were covered well. Although 94% of students considered these courses important, only 37.2% considered themselves to be competent in the corresponding topics. Of the participants, 87.9% agreed that the pharmacy courses in the present curriculum should be redesigned. Conclusion: Our results showed that the pharmacy practice courses in the current PharmD curriculum do not encompass some important core subjects. A nationwide study is warranted to further establish the necessity for remodelling pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan.

  10. A Postdoctoral Fellowship in Industrial Clinical Pharmacy Practice. (United States)

    Barone, Joseph; And Others


    A postdoctoral pharmacy fellowship is described that provides training in industrial clinical pharmacy practice and related tasks associated with the development of new pharmaceuticals, through experience in industrial and hospital settings and in research projects. (MSE) PUBTYPE[141

  11. Advancing pharmacist scholarship and research within academic pharmacy. (United States)

    Kehrer, James P; Svensson, Craig K


    An appropriate balance between teaching, scholarship, and service is important for a faculty member to have a satisfying and successful career. The relative emphasis on each area normally changes during the course of a career. Although some level of scholarly output is an ongoing and fundamental expectation of all faculty members, this activity is too often given low priority, particularly among faculty members in practice areas who may have a minimal background in research and large demands on their time for teaching and clinical service. Addressing this issue requires establishing a shared commitment between administrators and faculty members, as well as identifying or developing education programs that will ensure research competence for practice faculty members. This paper provides insights into the role that scholarship and research should have for all pharmacy faculty members and provides suggestions for how to better advance this critical component within academic pharmacy.

  12. Essential elements for a pharmacy practice mentoring program. (United States)

    Metzger, Anne H; Hardy, Yolanda M; Jarvis, Courtney; Stoner, Steven C; Pitlick, Matthew; Hilaire, Michelle L; Hanes, Scott; Burke, Jack; Lodise, Nicole M


    Formal guidelines for mentoring faculty members in pharmacy practice divisions of colleges and schools of pharmacy do not exist in the literature. This paper addresses the background literature on mentoring programs, explores the current state of mentoring programs used in pharmacy practice departments, and provides guidelines for colleges and schools instituting formal mentoring programs. As the number of pharmacy colleges and schools has grown, the demand for quality pharmacy faculty members has dramatically increased. While some faculty members gain teaching experience during postgraduate residency training, new pharmacy practice faculty members often need professional development to meet the demands of their academic responsibilities. A mentoring program can be 1 means of improving faculty success and retention. Many US colleges and schools of pharmacy have developed formal mentoring programs, whereas several others have informal processes in place. This paper discusses those programs and the literature available, and makes recommendations on the structure of mentoring programs.

  13. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente


    OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over......-the-counter products, advice about medicine use, dose dispensing, generic substitutions, and administration of individual reimbursement registers. Except for very simple processes, compounding is centralized at 3 pharmacies. Many pharmacies offer measurement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and 60...

  14. Evaluation of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions on a general medicine practice experience

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    Jones JD


    Full Text Available As colleges of pharmacy prepare a new generation of practitioners, it is important that during practice experiences students learn the impact of clinical interventions. For over ten years, pharmacy students have been a vital part of the multidisciplinary team at the military treatment facility. The overall impact of the student interventions on patient care has not been evaluated. To evaluate the impact, the students began documenting their clinical interventions in Medkeeper RxInterventions™, an online database. The program is used to document faculty and fourth year pharmacy students’ pharmaceutical interventions.Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the interventions completed by fourth year pharmacy students during a general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at a military treatment facility.Methods: The students completing their general medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience at the military treatment facility are responsible for self reporting all interventions made during clinical rounds into the Medkeeper RxIntervention™ database. The researchers retrospectively collected and analyzed interventions made from June 2008 to June 2009.Results: The total number of interventions recorded by 8 fourth year pharmacy students was 114. Students averaged a number of 14.3 interventions during an eight week practice experience. Students spent an average of 5 minutes per intervention. Ninety- five percent of the interventions were accepted.Conclusion: Fourth year pharmacy students’ recommendations were accepted at a high rate by resident physicians. The high acceptance rate may have the ability to positively impact patient care.

  15. The Catch-22 of Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan’s Pharmacy Education

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    Atta Abbas


    Full Text Available New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan.

  16. Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice. (United States)

    Blank, Jerome W.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    The Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences initiated a Certificate Program in Self-Care for Pharmacy Practice. The program aimed to enable pharmacists to develop their practice to better serve the self-care needs of customers. In a pilot group 26 participating pharmacists took a sequence of home study modules and workshops…

  17. Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Practice Research Agenda. (United States)

    Hepler, Charles D.


    Research needs for pharmacy administration and clinical pharmacy include study of the relationship of pharmacists and society, management methods for providing health care services, pharmacist training and socialization, competence evaluation, formative and summative research on drug use control, and organizational decision making. (MSE)

  18. Private pharmacy staff in Hanoi dispensing steroids - theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson M


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate self reported practice and actual practice of private pharmacy staff in relation to drug regulations and provision of prednisolone (a prescription-only corticosteroid on request to treat lower back pain. Method: Sixty private pharmacies in Hanoi were randomly selected. Self reported practice was assessed through interviews with pharmacy staff using a questionnaire; actual practice was assessed with the Simulated Client Method with 5 encounters in each pharmacy (a total of 295 encounters. Results: Sixty percent of the pharmacy staff interviewed said that they would not dispense corticosteroids without prescription and 60% could mention some adverse effects. In practice all but one pharmacy dispensed corticosteroids without prescription in 76 % of all the encounters. Questions and advice given to the clients were associated with significantly lower dispensing of corticosteroids. Conclusion: The low compliance with prescription regulations and the discrepancy between stated practice and actual practice raises concerns. This study indicates that commercial pressures exceed the deterrent effect of current drug regulations and their implementation and hence enforcement of regulations needs to be improved.

  19. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research. (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din


    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  20. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh


    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  1. Pharmacies (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  2. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L


    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  3. Clinical pharmacy practice in developing countries: Focus on India and Pakistan


    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula; Barun Ranjan Sarkar; Isha Patel


    Clinical pharmacy practice is undergoing unprecedented changes as standard profession of pharmacy practice by means of pharmaceutical care. Although, the clinical pharmacy is well recognized in developed countries, but the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice is still at nascent stage in developing countries. Hence, this article is focused on the variations in implementation of clinical pharmacy education and practice in developing countries, specially focusing on highly populous coun...

  4. The Origin, Goals, and Development of a Clinical Pharmacy Emphasis in Pharmacy Education and Practice. (United States)

    Smith, Harry A.; Swintosky, Joseph V.


    The origin, goals, and development of a clinical emphasis are reviewed, beginning with some fundamental developments in pharmacy practice and education brought about by economic, political, social, scientific, and technological forces. The challenge of fitting the desirable curriculum element into a limited program length is discussed. (MSE)

  5. Best Practices in Establishing and Sustaining Consortia in Pharmacy Education. (United States)

    Danielson, Jennifer; Hincapie, Ana; Baugh, Gina; Rice, Luke; Sy, Erin; Penm, Jonathan; Albano, Christian


    Objective. To describe best practices, necessary resources, and success or lessons learned from established consortia in pharmacy education. Methods. Using semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis, interviews with members of established consortia in pharmacy education were conducted until saturation was reached. Themes were analyzed and meaningful descriptions of consortia characteristics were developed using systematic text condensation. Results. Thirteen interviews were conducted. The primary purpose for forming a consortium was identified as threefold: share ideas/best practices; facilitate collaboration; and perform shared problem-solving. For experiential education consortia, two additional purposes were found: share capacity for practice sites, and promote standardization across programs. When investigating best practices for established consortia, three main themes were identified. These included strategies for: (1) relationship building within consortia, (2) successful outcomes of consortia, and (3) sustainability. Successful outcomes included scholarship and, sometimes, program standardization. Sustainability was linked to structure/support and momentum. Respect was considered the foundation for collaborative relationships to flourish in these consortia. Conclusions. Pharmacy education consortia form through a process that involves relationship building to produce outcomes that promote sustainability, which benefits both pharmacy schools and individual faculty members. Consortium formation is a viable, productive, and often necessary institutional goal for pharmacy schools.

  6. Mobile applications in clinical practice: What is needed in the pharmacy scenario?

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    Mohamed Hassan Elnaem


    Full Text Available Pharmacy informatics is demonstrated to have a positive effect on pharmacy practice. The incorporation of pharmacy informatics in academic programs is a common feature in the pharmacy curriculum. This work aims to provide an overview of the current and potential role of mobile applications (apps in pharmacy education and practice. Mobile apps are the most common informatics tools used by medical and pharmacy practitioners as well as students. Both students and practitioners have overall positive perceptions toward using mobile apps in their daily clinical training and practice although the fact that the number of pharmacy apps is still small relatively in comparison with other medical-related apps. There are many potential roles for mobile apps in pharmacy practice and education. The future efforts of educational uses of mobile apps in pharmacy should target playing a role in the provision of customized tools for clinical pharmacy education.

  7. Analysis of ten years of publishing in Pharmacy Practice

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    Mendes AE


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to characterize the patterns and trends in the editorial process and features of the first decade of Pharmacy Practice, with the final goal of initiating a benchmarking process to enhance the quality of the journal. Methods: Metadata of all of the articles published from 2006 issue #3 to 2016 issue #2 were extracted from PubMed and complemented by a manual data extraction process on the full-text articles. Citations of these articles were retrieved from Web of Science (WOS, Scopus, and Google Scholar on August 15, 2016. The references from all of the articles published by Pharmacy Practice in 2015 were also extracted. International collaboration was explored with a network analysis. Results: A total of 40 issues were published in this timespan, including 349 articles, 91.1% of which were original research articles. The number of citations received by these articles varies from 809, as reported by the WOS, to the 1162 reported by Scopus and the 2610 reported by Google Scholar. The journals cited by Pharmacy Practice are mainly pharmacy journals, including Pharm Pract (Granada, Int J Clin Pharm, Am J Health-Syst Pharm, Am J Pharm Educ, and Ann Pharmacother. Only 17.3% of the articles involved international collaboration. Delays in the editorial process increased in 2013, mainly due to an increase in acceptance delay (mean=138 days. Conclusion: Pharmacy Practice has improved its visibility and impact over the past decade, especially after 2014, when the journal became indexed in PubMed Central. The editorial process duration is one of the weaknesses that should be tackled. Further studies should investigate if the low international collaboration rate is common across other pharmacy journals.

  8. Adverse Drug Reactions: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacy

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    Maryam Etminani-Isfahani


    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to excessive health care costs. Detection and reporting of ADRs could decrease these consequences. The present study was designed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students towards ADRs monitoring and reporting.Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students regarding ADR reporting. The questionnaire consisting of 17 questions (7 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitudes and 5 on practice were given to pharmacy students randomly.Results: A total of 71 respondents participated in the study. 70% of participants had favorable general knowledge about ADRs but more than 60% of their professional knowledge was not satisfying. 60% of respondent believed that educational intervention will improve participating of health care professional in ADRs reporting. 63% of respondent observed ADRs cases but about 95% of them had never reported an ADR.Conclusion: In overall, pharmacy students have poor knowledge, attitude and practice towards ADRs reporting and pharmacovigilance. This suggests the need of suitable changes in the undergraduate teaching curriculum and additional training among the students regarding ADRs.

  9. How Do European Pharmacy Students Rank Competences for Practice?

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    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available European students (n = 370, academics (n = 241 and community pharmacists (n = 258 ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison between students and community pharmacists concerning patient care competences suggesting that students have a good idea of their future profession. A comparison of first and fifth (final year students shows more awareness of patient care competences in the final year students. Differences do exist, however, between students and community pharmacists. Students—like academics—ranked competences concerned with industrial pharmacy and the quality aspects of preparing drugs, as well as scientific fundamentals of pharmacy practice, well above the rankings of community pharmacists. There were no substantial differences amongst rankings of students from different countries although some countries have more “medicinal” courses than others. This is to our knowledge the first paper to look at how, within a healthcare sectoral profession such as pharmacy, the views on the relative importance of different competences for practice of those educating the future professionals and their students, are compared to the views of working professionals.

  10. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology


    Jeffrey Atkinson; Pat Crowley; Kristien De Paepe; Brian Gennery; Andries Koster; Luigi Martini; Vivien Moffat; Jane Nicholson; Gunther Pauwels; Giuseppe Ronsisvalle; Vitor Sousa; Chris van Schravendijk; Keith Wilson


    The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology”) looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a l...

  11. Pharmacy Mentors' Views of Practical Training (United States)

    Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Hirvonen, Jouni


    Practical knowledge and skills are necessary components of expertise. Practical training in higher education has been shown to foster students' learning and understanding of theoretical backgrounds. The attitude and skill of mentors play a central role in enhancing the quality of students' practical learning. The aims of this study were to explore…

  12. Linking a Pharmaceutical Chemistry Workshop to Pharmacy Practice. (United States)

    Morral, Jordi; Culshaw, Margaret; Morral, Kim; Conway, Barbara; Adams, Sylvia; Adams, Andrew


    This paper describes the design and implementation of a workshop to enhance pharmacy students' appreciation of the importance of chemistry for pharmacy practice. The workshop was designed to form part of the practical work of two modules taught in the second year of the MPharm degree. In this mandatory workshop, second year pharmacy students were required to spot in the dispensary drugs based on their chemical properties like chirality, their origin and chemical structure. The lecturers involved in the workshop showed examples of the application of chemistry in the day to day work of the dispensary (e.g. calculating the dose for a patient in millimoles or how small modifications from a natural product can change its ability to cross the blood-brain-barrier). Feedback from participating students was collected via two survey instruments to examine the impact of the intervention. The survey results showed a clear shift towards a more positive perception by students of the chemistry taught in the MPharm curriculum.

  13. Big data in pharmacy practice: current use, challenges, and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma C


    Full Text Available Carolyn Ma, Helen Wong Smith, Cherie Chu, Deborah T JuarezDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, The Daniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USAAbstract: Pharmacy informatics is defined as the use and integration of data, information, knowledge, technology, and automation in the medication-use process for the purpose of improving health outcomes. The term “big data” has been coined and is often defined in three V's: volume, velocity, and variety. This paper describes three major areas in which pharmacy utilizes big data, including: 1 informed decision making (clinical pathways and clinical practice guidelines; 2 improved care delivery in health care settings such as hospitals and community pharmacy practice settings; and 3 quality performance measurement for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid and medication management activities such as tracking medication adherence and medication reconciliation.Keywords: clinical pharmacy data base, pharmacy informatics, patient outcomes

  14. Challenges to UK community pharmacy: a bio-photographic study of workspace in relation to professional pharmacy practice. (United States)

    Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S


    This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.

  15. Big data in pharmacy practice: current use, challenges, and the future


    Ma C.; Smith HW; Chu C; Juarez DT


    Carolyn Ma, Helen Wong Smith, Cherie Chu, Deborah T JuarezDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, The Daniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawai'i at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USAAbstract: Pharmacy informatics is defined as the use and integration of data, information, knowledge, technology, and automation in the medication-use process for the purpose of improving health outcomes. The term “big data” has been coined and is often defined in three V's: volume, v...

  16. Consensus recommendations from the strategic planning summit for pain and palliative care pharmacy practice. (United States)

    Herndon, Christopher M; Strassels, Scott A; Strickland, Jennifer M; Kral, Lee A; Craig, David S; Nesbit, Suzanne Amato; Finley, Rebecca S; McPherson, Mary Lynn


    Pain and symptoms related to palliative care (pain and palliative care [PPC]) are often undertreated. This is largely owing to the complexity in the provision of care and the potential discrepancy in education among the various health care professionals required to deliver care. Pharmacists are frequently involved in the care of PPC patients, although pharmacy education currently does not offer or require a strong curriculum commitment to this area of practice. The Strategic Planning Summit for the Advancement of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacy was convened to address opportunities to improve the education of pharmacists and pharmacy students on PPC. Six working groups were charged with objectives to address barriers and opportunities in the areas of student and professional assessment, model curricula, postgraduate training, professional education, and credentialing. Consensus was reached among the working groups and presented to the Summit Advisory Board for adoption. These recommendations will provide guidance on improving the care provided to PPC patients by pharmacists through integrating education at all points along the professional education continuum.

  17. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armour C


    Full Text Available In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. Objectives: To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. Methods: A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted.Results: Three themes emerged around pharmacists’ attitudes towards research: pharmacists’ perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists’ motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists’ desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists’ mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff, and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested.Conclusions: Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research

  18. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning. (United States)

    Weber, Robert J


    Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 include practice model growth and the role of pharmacy students, clinical privileging of health-system pharmacists and provider status, medication error prevention, and specialty pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to 4 issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2015 to help them focus their department's goals. This article will address (1) advances in the pharmacy practice model initiative and the role of pharmacy students, (2) the current thinking of pharmacists being granted clinical privileges in health systems, (3) updates on preventing harmful medication errors, and (4) the growth of specialty pharmacy services. The sample template of a strategic plan may be used by a pharmacy department in 2015 in an effort to continue developing patient-centered pharmacy services.

  19. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others


    A panel of pharmacy faculty ranked a broad inventory of basic pharmaceutical science topics in terms of their applicability to clinical pharmacy practice. The panel concluded that basic pharmaceutical sciences are essentially applications of foundation areas in biological, physical, and social sciences. (Author/MLW)

  20. Cost Savings Associated With Pharmacy Student Interventions During APPEs


    Shepler, Brian M.


    Objective. To quantify the impact of pharmacy students’ clinical interventions in terms of number and cost savings throughout advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) using a Web-based documentation program.

  1. A European Competence Framework for Industrial Pharmacy Practice in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available The PHAR-IN (“Competences for industrial pharmacy practice in biotechnology” looked at whether there is a difference in how industrial employees and academics rank competences for practice in the biotechnological industry. A small expert panel consisting of the authors of this paper produced a biotechnology competence framework by drawing up an initial list of competences then ranking them in importance using a three-stage Delphi process. The framework was next evaluated and validated by a large expert panel of academics (n = 37 and industrial employees (n = 154. Results show that priorities for industrial employees and academics were similar. The competences for biotechnology practice that received the highest scores were mainly in: “Research and Development”, ‘“Upstream” and “Downstream” Processing’, “Product development and formulation”, “Aseptic processing”, “Analytical methodology”, “Product stability”, and “Regulation”. The main area of disagreement was in the category “Ethics and drug safety” where academics ranked competences higher than did industrial employees.

  2. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

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    Bach AT


    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  3. Adherence to treatment: practice, education and research in Danish community pharmacy

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    Herborg H


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practice, education and research concerning medication adherence in Danish community pharmacy. Methods: The authors supplemented their expertise in the area of medication adherence through their contacts with other educators and researchers as well as by conducting searches in the Danish Pharmacy Practice Evidence Database, which provides annually updated literature reviews on intervention research in Danish pharmacy practice.Results: Practice: Medication adherence is the focus of and/or is supported by a large number of services and initiatives used in pharmacy practice such as governmental funding, IT-supported medicine administration systems, dose-dispensing systems, theme years in pharmacies on adherence and concordance, standards for counselling at the counter, pharmacist counselling, medication reviews and inhaler technique assessment. Education: In Denmark, pharmacy and pharmaconomist students are extensively trained in the theory and practice of adherence to therapy.Pharmacy staff can choose from a variety of continuing education and post-graduate programmes which address patient adherence. Research: Nine ongoing and recently completed studies are described. Early research in Denmark comprised primarily smaller, qualitative studies centred on user perspectives, whereas later research has shifted the focus towards larger, quantitative, controlled studies and action-oriented studies focusing on patient groups with chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, coronary vascular diseases.Conclusions: Our analysis has documented that Danish pharmaceutical education and research has focused strongly on adherence to treatment for more than three decades. Adherence initiatives in Danish community pharmacies have developed substantially in the past 5-10 years, and, as pharmacies have prioritised their role in health care and patient safety, this development can be expected to continue in future years.

  4. Pharmacists’ journey to clinical pharmacy practice in Ethiopia: Key informants’ perspective

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    Alemayehu B Mekonnen


    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical pharmacy practice has developed internationally to expand the role of a pharmacist well beyond the traditional roles of compounding and supplying drugs to roles more directly in caring for patients and providing medication consultation to staff. This area of practice is at the infant stage in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to explore key informants’ perspective in the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Method: A qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with the heads of departments (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, nurse, pharmacy, medical director, administration and pharmacy student representatives. Qualitative data analysis was done after audiotapes were transcribed verbatim and notes were compiled. Results: All of the respondents interviewed express diverse and conflicting perspectives on pharmacists’ role, varying from a health-care professional to a business man. Despite this, the current pace of change worldwide takes the professions’ mission to that of a provider of clinical pharmacy services. The data ascertained the change in pharmacy practice, and integrating clinical pharmacy services within the health-care system should be seen as a must. Pharmacists should delineate from a business perspective and focus on widening the scope of the profession of pharmacy and should come close to the patient to serve directly. Conclusions: Although the perception of people on traditional roles of pharmacists was weak, there were promising steps in developing clinical pharmacy practice within the health-care system. Moreover, the results of this study revealed a high demand for this service among health-care providers.

  5. Conscientious objections in pharmacy practice in Great Britain. (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana


    Pharmacists who refuse to provide certain services or treatment for reasons of conscience have been criticized for failing to fulfil their professional obligations. Currently, individual pharmacists in Great Britain can withhold services or treatment for moral or religious reasons, provided they refer the patient to an alternative source. The most high-profile cases have concerned the refusal to supply emergency hormonal contraception, which will serve as an example in this article. I propose that the pharmacy profession's policy on conscientious objections should be altered slightly. Building on the work of Brock and Wicclair, I argue that conscientious refusals should be acceptable provided that the patient is informed of the service, the patient is redirected to an alternative source, the refusal does not cause an unreasonable burden to the patient, and the reasons for the refusal are based on the core values of the profession. Finally, I argue that a principled categorical refusal by an individual pharmacist is not morally permissible. I claim that, contrary to current practice, a pharmacist cannot legitimately claim universal exemption from providing a standard service, even if that service is available elsewhere.

  6. The Second Round of the PHAR-QA Survey of Competences for Pharmacy Practice

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    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the second European Delphi round on the ranking of competences for pharmacy practice and compares these data to those of the first round already published. A comparison of the numbers of respondents, distribution by age group, country of residence, etc., shows that whilst the student population of respondents changed from Round 1 to 2, the populations of the professional groups (community, hospital and industrial pharmacists, pharmacists in other occupations and academics were more stable. Results are given for the consensus of ranking and the scores of ranking of 50 competences for pharmacy practice. This two-stage, large-scale Delphi process harmonized and validated the Quality Assurance in European Pharmacy Education and Training (PHAR-QA framework and ensured the adoption by the pharmacy profession of a framework proposed by the academic pharmacy community. The process of evaluation and validation of ranking of competences by the pharmacy profession is now complete, and the PHAR-QA consortium will now put forward a definitive PHAR-QA framework of competences for pharmacy practice.

  7. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

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    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education, and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it, on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist.

  8. [Implementation of bedside training and advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial to learn and confirm about pharmacy clinical skills]. (United States)

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Sato, Keizo


    Bedside training for fourth-year students, as well as seminars in hospital pharmacy (vital sign seminars) for fifth-year students at the Department of Pharmacy of Kyushu University of Health and Welfare have been implemented using patient training models and various patient simulators. The introduction of simulation-based pharmaceutical education, where no patients are present, promotes visually, aurally, and tactilely simulated learning regarding the evaluation of vital signs and implementation of physical assessment when disease symptoms are present or adverse effects occur. A patient simulator also promotes the creation of training programs for emergency and critical care, with which basic as well as advanced life support can be practiced. In addition, an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) trial has been implemented to evaluate skills regarding vital signs and physical assessments. Pharmacists are required to examine vital signs and conduct physical assessment from a pharmaceutical point of view. The introduction of these pharmacy clinical skills will improve the efficacy of drugs, work for the prevention or early detection of adverse effects, and promote the appropriate use of drugs. It is considered that simulation-based pharmaceutical education is essential to understand physical assessment, and such education will ideally be applied and developed according to on-site practices.

  9. Advanced urology nursing practice. (United States)

    Crowe, Helen


    Urology nursing has developed as a specialty over the past few decades in response to several factors, workload demands being a prime reason. Nurses are taking on additional roles and activities including procedures such as cystoscopy and prostate biopsy, and running nurse-led clinics for a variety of urological conditions. Audits of advanced urological nursing practice have shown this care to be of a high standard and investigative procedures performed by these nurses match the diagnostic quality of existing services. Professional urological nursing organizations support the professional needs of these nurses, but the provision of education and training for advanced practice activities remains an unaddressed need. A range of confusing advanced urology nursing titles exists, and uncertainty regarding the roles and scope of practice for these nurses remains a concern. Acceptance and support from medical colleagues is required for the success of advanced urological nursing practice, but opinions on these roles remain divided.

  10. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

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    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.

  11. Benchmarking 2010: measuring long-term care and consultant pharmacy practice. (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry


    The American Society of Consultant Pharmacists, with support from the pharmacy management software company QS/1, has completed its 2010 survey to determine industry standards for long-term care pharmacy operations, consultant pharmacist practice, and the use of health information technology in the long-term care setting. The report presents data collected in this annual business benchmarking survey. Examples of data include gross profit margins of long-term care/closed-door pharmacies, pharmacists' salaries, prescription payer mix, consultant pharmacist productivity and contracting, and implementation of technology solutions such as ePrescribing, electronic medication administration records, electronic medical records, and automated dispensing.

  12. Collaboration with pharmacy services in a family practice for the medically underserved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell K


    Full Text Available Objectives: Pharmacist-managed collaborative services in a family practice setting are described, and diabetes and hypertension outcomes are assessed.Methods: Pharmacist-managed clinics, pharmacotherapy consultations, and drug information services are provided for a medically underserved, predominantly African American population. A pharmacy residency director, an ambulatory care pharmacy resident and three PharmD candidate student pharmacists work directly with physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses, and social workers to form an interdisciplinary health care team. Providers utilize pharmacy services through consultations and referrals. Collaboration outcomes were evaluated in twenty-two patients with diabetes and thirty hypertensive patients. Patients were retrospectively followed throughout their history with pharmacy service. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C was tracked before referral to pharmacy services, 3 to 6 months after, and as the most current measure after at least 6 months. Blood pressure (BP was observed before pharmacy involvement, 2 to 4 months later, and then currently for at least 4 months with the service. The mean of the most current markers was calculated, and the percent of patients at their goal marker was compared to national averages.Results: Fifty percent of pharmacy service patients met the American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c goal of less than 7% in our evaluation compared to the national mean of 49.8% overall and 44% in African Americans. Thirty percent of patients were at their BP goal while 33.1% of patients without diabetes and 33.2% of patients with diabetes nationally are at goal. Conclusion: The medically underserved patients under the care of pharmacy services achieved a higher percentage at their A1C goal than the national mean. The percentage of patients who achieved their BP goals was comparable to the national average. Increasing utilization of pharmacy services in the family practice setting allows for

  13. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland


    Bell JS; Enlund H; Vainio K


    Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication...

  14. Part-time and Job-Share Careers Among Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members


    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan


    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, ...

  15. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members. (United States)

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan


    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.

  16. The Production of a Framework of Competences for Pharmacy Practice in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available The goal of the PHAR-QA (quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training project is the production of a European framework for a quality assurance system based on competences for pharmacy practice. The PHAR-QA framework will be European, consultative and will encompass the various aspects of pharmacy practice. In this review, we describe the methodology to be used in the project and the first stage in the development of this framework. Using the proposals for competences produced by our previous PHARMINE (Pharmacy education in Europe project, together with those of other sources, three university professors of pharmacy (Authors 2 through 4 produced a list of three major competency domains that reflect the activities of practitioners: Patient Care Competences, Personal Competences and Management and Organizational Structure Competences. Each domain was subdivided into nine, nine and eight competencies, respectively, for a total of 27 major competencies that were further subdivided into an average of five supporting competences per major competence, giving a total of 140 proposals for competences for pharmacy practice. The 27 and 140 proposals were ranked by an expert panel of seven university professors of pharmacy (Authors 5 through 11. The panel also commented on the proposed competences. On the basis of the ranks and comments, a list of 68 proposals for competences was produced. This list was then examined by the expert panel and a new version based on their comments produced. The latter process was repeated twice based on Delphi methodology. This review presents this process and the 68 proposals. We invite the pharmacy community to participate in the second stage of the elaboration of the PHAR-QA competence framework for pharmacy practice by ranking the proposals and adding comments. It is anticipated that this survey will stimulate a productive discussion on pharmacy education and practice by the various stakeholders

  17. Medication dispensing errors in Palestinian community pharmacy practice: a formal consensus using the Delphi technique. (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Haddad, Aseel; Khawaja, Baraa; Raie, Rand; Zaneen, Sireen; Edais, Tasneem


    Background Medication dispensing errors (MDEs) are frequent in community pharmacy practice. A definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice were not previously approached using formal consensus techniques. Objective This study was conducted to achieve consensus on a definition of MDEs and a wide range of scenarios that should or should not be considered as MDEs in Palestinian community pharmacy practice by a panel of community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacy practice in Palestine. Method This was a descriptive study using the Delphi technique. A panel of fifty community pharmacists was recruited from different geographical locations of the West Bank of Palestine. A three round Delphi technique was followed to achieve consensus on a proposed definition of MDEs and 83 different scenarios representing potential MDEs using a nine-point scale. Main outcome measure Agreement or disagreement of a panel of community pharmacists on a proposed definition of MDEs and a series of scenarios representing potential MDEs. Results In the first Delphi round, views of key contact community pharmacists on MDEs were explored and situations representing potential MDEs were collected. In the second Delphi round, consensus was achieved to accept the proposed definition and to include 49 (59 %) of the 83 proposed scenarios as MDEs. In the third Delphi round, consensus was achieved to include further 13 (15.7 %) scenarios as MDEs, exclude 9 (10.8 %) scenarios and the rest of 12 (14.5 %) scenarios were considered equivocal based on the opinions of the panelists. Conclusion Consensus on a definition of MDEs and scenarios representing MDE situations in Palestinian community pharmacy practice was achieved using a formal consensus technique. The use of consensual definitions and scenarios representing MDE situations in community pharmacy practice might minimize methodological variations and their significant effects on the

  18. Issues facing pharmacy leaders in 2014: suggestions for pharmacy strategic planning. (United States)

    Khandoobhai, Anand; Weber, Robert J


    In 2013, the Director's Forum published our assessment of issues facing pharmacy leaders to assist pharmacy directors in planning for the year ahead. The issues include health care reform and the Affordable Care Act, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative, the health care workforce, patients' perceptions of pharmacists, and the changing landscape of pharmacy education. Based on our environmental scan, the issues addressed in 2013 are pertinent to a department's plan for 2014. The goal of this article is to provide practical approaches to each of these issues to help pharmacy directors focus their department's goals for 2014 to support the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. This column will address (1) strategies to reduce medication costs and generate new pharmacy revenue streams, (2) innovative approaches to improving medication safety and quality, (3) steps to advance the clinical practice model, and (4) ways to create mutually beneficial student experiences.

  19. [Pharmacists' Behavior in Clinical Practice: Results from a Questionnaire Survey of Pharmacy Students]. (United States)

    Nakada, Akiko; Akagawa, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Toshinori


    A questionnaire survey was performed to obtain pharmacy students' impressions of pharmacists' behavior, to classify these based on professionalism, and to analyze the relationship between these experiences and students' satisfaction with their clinical practice in Japan. The questionnaire was answered by 327 5th-year pharmacy school students upon completing clinical practice at community pharmacies from 2011 to 2012. They rated their satisfaction with their clinical practice using a 6-point Likert scale, and provided descriptions of their experience such as, "This health provider is professional", or "What a great person he/she is as a health provider". We counted the words and then categorized the responses into 10 traits, as defined by the American Pharmaceutical Association Academy of Students of Pharmacy-American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Council of Deans Task Force on Professionalism 1999, using text mining. We analyzed the relationship between their experiences with respectful persons, and satisfaction, using the Mann-Whitney U-test (significance level<0.05). Most students (337 of 364, 92.6%) reported experiences with respectful health providers. These students experienced significantly more satisfaction than did other students (p<0.001). We analyzed 343 sentences written by 261 students, using text mining analysis after excluding unsuitable responses. The word most used was "patient" (121 times). Many students noted their impression that the pharmacists had answered patients' questions. Of the 10 trait categories, "professional knowledge and skills" was mentioned most often (151 students).

  20. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell JS


    Full Text Available Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication compliance, adherence or persistence. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health was invited to nominate policies and documents related to medication adherence. A narrative review of medication counselling practices and professional service delivery through Finnish community pharmacies was undertaken.Results: Medication adherence was a theme integrated into obligatory and elective courses for bachelors and masters degree students. The literature search identified 33 English language peer-reviewed research articles reporting medication compliance, adherence or persistence published since the year 2000. Policy documents of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health recognise that poor medication adherence may lead to sub-optimal treatment outcomes, and encourage patient participation in treatment decision making. Adherence practice in Finnish pharmacies has been strongly linked to the development of medication counselling services. Conclusions: Adherence research and education has focused on understanding and addressing the contextual factors that contribute to medication non-adherence. Adherence practice in community pharmacies has tended to focus on medication counselling and programs specific to particular disease states. Medication adherence is a topic that is integrated into courses for bachelor’s and master’s level pharmacy students in Finland.

  1. Implementing simulated learning modules to improve students’ pharmacy practice skills and professionalism

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    Fejzic J


    Full Text Available Background: Effective communication enables healthcare professionals and students to practise their disciplines in a professional and competent manner. Simulated-based education (SBE has been increasingly used to improve students’ communication and practice skills in Health Education. Objective: Simulated learning modules (SLMs were developed using practice-based scenarios grounded in effective communication competencies. The effect of the SLMs on Pharmacy students’ (i Practice skills and (ii Professionalism were evaluated. Methods: SLMs integrating EXCELL competencies were applied in the classroom to study their effect on a number of learning outcomes. EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL Program is a schematic, evidence-based professional development resource centred around developing participants’ self-efficacy and generic communication competencies. Students (N=95 completed three hours of preliminary lectures and eight hours of SLM workshops including six scenarios focused on Pharmacy Practice and Experiential Placements. Each SLM included briefing, role-plays with actors, facilitation, and debriefing on EXCELL social interaction maps (SIMs. Evaluations comprised quantitative and qualitative survey responsed by students before and post-workshops, and post-placements, and teachers’ reflections. Surveys examine specific learning outcomes by using pharmacy professionalism and pharmacy practice effectiveness scales. Responses were measured prior to the commencement of SLMs, after completion of the two workshops and after students completed their block placement. Self-report measures enabled students to self-assess whether any improvements occurred. Results: Student responses were overwhelmingly positive and indicated significant improvements in their Pharmacy practice and professionalism skills, and commitment to professional ethics. Qualitative feedback strongly supported students’ improved communication

  2. Best practices for implementing team-based learning in pharmacy education. (United States)

    Farland, Michelle Z; Sicat, Brigitte L; Franks, Andrea S; Pater, Karen S; Medina, Melissa S; Persky, Adam M


    Colleges and schools of pharmacy are incorporating more team-based learning (TBL) into their curriculum. Published resources are available to assist instructors with implementing TBL and describing it in the health professions literature. The 7 core elements include: team formation, readiness assurance, immediate feedback, sequencing of in-class problem solving, the 4 "S" structure for developing team application exercises (significant problem, same problem, specific answer choice, simultaneous reporting), incentive structure, and peer evaluation. This paper summarizes best practices related to implementation of TBL in pharmacy education, including courses taught using teaching teams.

  3. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study (United States)

    Soumya, R.; Devarashetty, Vijayalakshmi; Jayanthi, C. R.; Sushma, M.


    Objectives: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas of Bengaluru, was conducted using a prevalidated questionnaire administered to the chief pharmacist or the person-in-charge by the investigators. Results: Dispensing without prescription at pharmacies was 45% of the total dispensing encounters and significantly higher (χ2 = 15.2, P educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices.

  4. Acute care clinical pharmacy practice: unit- versus service-based models. (United States)

    Haas, Curtis E; Eckel, Stephen; Arif, Sally; Beringer, Paul M; Blake, Elizabeth W; Lardieri, Allison B; Lobo, Bob L; Mercer, Jessica M; Moye, Pamela; Orlando, Patricia L; Wargo, Kurt


    This commentary from the 2010 Task Force on Acute Care Practice Model of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy was developed to compare and contrast the "unit-based" and "service-based" orientation of the clinical pharmacist within an acute care pharmacy practice model and to offer an informed opinion concerning which should be preferred. The clinical pharmacy practice model must facilitate patient-centered care and therefore must position the pharmacist to be an active member of the interprofessional team focused on providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to the patient. Although both models may have advantages and disadvantages, the most important distinction pertains to the patient care role of the clinical pharmacist. The unit-based pharmacist is often in a position of reacting to an established order or decision and frequently is focused on task-oriented clinical services. By definition, the service-based clinical pharmacist functions as a member of the interprofessional team. As a team member, the pharmacist proactively contributes to the decision-making process and the development of patient-centered care plans. The service-based orientation of the pharmacist is consistent with both the practice vision embraced by ACCP and its definition of clinical pharmacy. The task force strongly recommends that institutions pursue a service-based pharmacy practice model to optimally deploy their clinical pharmacists. Those who elect to adopt this recommendation will face challenges in overcoming several resource, technologic, regulatory, and accreditation barriers. However, such challenges must be confronted if clinical pharmacists are to contribute fully to achieving optimal patient outcomes.

  5. Attitudes of Doctor of Pharmacy Students Toward the Application of Social and Administrative Pharmacy in Clinical Practice (United States)

    Bootman, J. Lyle; Johnson, C. Anderson


    Comparisons for Minnesota's class of 1977 supported the hypothesis that clinical pharmacy students become more receptive to pharmacy administrations skills and services as they gain clinical experience, especially in consultation services. Comparisons with the class of 1976 failed to support the hypothesis, however. (LBH)

  6. Impact of an Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Laboratory Experience on Pharmacy Student Confidence and Knowledge. (United States)

    Maxwell, Whitney D; Mohorn, Phillip L; Haney, Jason S; Phillips, Cynthia M; Lu, Z Kevin; Clark, Kimberly; Corboy, Alex; Ragucci, Kelly R


    Objective. To assess the impact of an advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) simulation on pharmacy student confidence and knowledge. Design. Third-year pharmacy students participated in a simulation experience that consisted of team roles training, high-fidelity ACLS simulations, and debriefing. Students completed a pre/postsimulation confidence and knowledge assessment. Assessment. Overall, student knowledge assessment scores and student confidence scores improved significantly. Student confidence and knowledge changes from baseline were not significantly correlated. Conversely, a significant, weak positive correlation between presimulation studying and both presimulation confidence and presimulation knowledge was discovered. Conclusions. Overall, student confidence and knowledge assessment scores in ACLS significantly improved from baseline; however, student confidence and knowledge were not significantly correlated.

  7. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research. (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S


    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  8. Profile of a unique community-based clinical pharmacy family practice program. (United States)

    Leff, R D; Helling, D K; Smith, F W; Probasco, R W; Pfeiffer, F G


    The provision of clinical pharmaceutical services in family practice offices has aroused considerable national interest among both pharmacists and physicians. Many of these clinical pharmaceutical services and educational programs have been university-funded and/or rely on colleges of pharmacy for fiscal support. Few examples of community-funded, ambulatory care clinical pharmaceutical programs have been reported. Community Health Care, Inc., and Davenport Medical Education Foundation, Inc., are two health care programs which sponsor an innovative ambulatory care clinical pharmacy program. Community Health Care is a nonprofit corporation which utilizes a multidisciplinary team concept to provide comprehensive ambulatory care services to patients. Davenport Medical Education Foundation is a nonprofit corporation that provides a community-based family practice residency program. Because the two separate parent organizations have distinct goals requiring individualized clinical pharmaceutical services, the responsibilities of the clinical pharmacist have evolved to be comprehensive in scope.

  9. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1). (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle


    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

  10. Community Pharmacists’ Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies (United States)

    Necyk, Candace


    Background Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs). The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are “front-line” health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied. Methods Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15) open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies. Results The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68%) recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist’s Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84%) recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31%) recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Conclusions The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists’ practices around NHPs are consistent with

  11. Survey of Prior Learning Assessment Practices in Pharmacy Education. (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Zgarrick, David P.


    Surveyed nontraditional Pharm.D (NTPD) program directors to determine use of prior learning assessment (PLA). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported using PLA for one or more purposes, including the admissions process and awarding of advanced standing for didactic and experiential courses. Transcript review, faculty-developed exams, and…

  12. Advances in Navy pharmacy information technology: accessing Micromedex via the Composite Healthcare Computer System and local area networks. (United States)

    Koerner, S D; Becker, F


    The pharmacy profession has long used technology to more effectively bring health care to the patient. Navy pharmacy has embraced technology advances in its daily operations, from computers to dispensing robots. Evolving from the traditional role of compounding and dispensing specialists, pharmacists are establishing themselves as vital team members in direct patient care: on the ward, in ambulatory clinics, in specialty clinics, and in other specialty patient care programs (e.g., smoking cessation). An important part of the evolution is the timely access to the most up-to-date information available. Micromedex, Inc. (Denver, Colorado), has developed a number of computer CD-ROM-based full-text pharmacy, toxicology, emergency medicine, and patient education products. Micromedex is a recognized leader with regard to total pharmaceutical information availability. This article discusses the implementation of Micromedex products within the established Composite Healthcare Computer System and the subsequent use by and effect on the international Navy pharmacy community.

  13. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2. (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle


    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services.

  14. An Interprofessional Diabetes Experience to Improve Pharmacy and Nursing Students’ Competency in Collaborative Practice (United States)

    Westberg, Sarah; Rowan, Mary; Schweiss, Sarah


    Objective. To improve pharmacy and nursing students’ competency in collaborative practice by having them participate in an interprofessional diabetes experience involving social networking. Design. An existing elective course on diabetes management was modified to include interprofessional content based on Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) competency domains. Web-based collaborative tools (social networking and video chat) were used to allow nursing and pharmacy students located on 2 different campuses to apply diabetes management content as an interprofessional team. Assessment. Mixed-method analyses demonstrated an increase in students’ knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of the other profession and developed an understanding of interprofessional communication strategies and their central role in effective teamwork. Conclusion. Interprofessional content and activities can be effectively integrated into an existing course and offered successfully to students from other professional programs and on remote campuses. PMID:24249859

  15. Developing practice protocols for advanced practice nursing. (United States)

    Paul, S


    In most states, the role of an advanced practice nurse is dependent on practice protocols that provide an organized method for analyzing and managing a disease or major symptom. They are also used to control the process of medical care and to specify steps in the delivery of that care. Creating appropriate practice protocols is one of the most important precursors to implementing the advanced practice role, because they virtually drive the clinician's ability to treat or manage clinical situations or disease states. This article outlines the steps involved in developing practice protocols and discusses the content that should be included in a protocol, providing an example of narrative and algorithm format protocols. Pros and cons, as well as legal issues related to practice protocols, are also presented.

  16. Pharmacy benefit managers, pharmacies, and pharmacogenomic testing: prescription for progress? (United States)

    Topol, Eric J


    Few would argue that the ability to match individual patients with the safest and most effective drugs and doses would be a major advance for clinical medicine. But while clinicians have been reluctant to routinely use pharmacogenomic analyses to guide their prescribing practices, pharmacy benefit managers and drugstores are proceeding with major pharmacogenetic initiatives.

  17. Self medication practice among undergraduate pharmacy students in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

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    Nirajan Bhattarai


    Full Text Available Background Self medication is practice by a pharmacist or lay person to treat minor health problem or symptoms without prescription. The study was conducted to evaluate the medication pattern, behaviour, practice and attitude among undergraduate pharmacy students on self medication. Methods Descriptive cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among 175 pharmacy undergraduates in different institutions within Kathmandu valley, Nepal using prevalidated, five sectional and structured questionnaires. Results Non steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic drugs (n=235, 38.29% were mostly preferred for the treatment of fever (n=94, 55.29% and headaches (n=89, 52.35%, mainly paracetamol (n=144, 23.8%.Community pharmacies (n=136, 80.00% and pharmacist recommendation (n=76, 44.70% were main sources of obtaining and selecting particular medicine and its dose (n=108, 63.54% while friends and family (n=75, 44.11% remained main source of information. 128(75.29%always checked up the information on package label or insert, mainly date of manufacturing (n=96, 56.47% . 70(41.17% respondents fully and 71(41.76% of them partly understood the information. 161(94.30%respondent always checked the expiry date before medicating. Significant proportion perceived it as unacceptable practice with main reasons of being unsafe (n=64, 37.64% and potential adverse reaction (n=21, 12.35%.52(30.58% of them faced adverse reactions or side effects. Allopathic system (n=114, 67.05% was preferable medication system for self medication. Conclusion Most common drugs were NSAIDs, primly paracetamol, cough and cold reliever and GI infection ailments. Students and their profession interrelationship were predominant shaping their attitude and behaviour on self medication.

  18. Recommendations for the successful pursuit of scholarship by pharmacy practice faculty members. (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Hastings, Jan K; Speedie, Marilyn K; Rodriguez de Bittner, Magaly


    Scholarship has long been a basic expectation of faculty members at institutions of higher learning in the United States and elsewhere. This expectation is no less assumed in academic pharmacy. A number of organizations have verbalized and enforced this precept over the years.(1-3) For example, this expectation is spoken to directly in the American Council for Pharmacy Education's Accreditation Standards and Guidelines.(4) This expectation is further emphasized in the draft document of the accreditation standards to be implemented in 2016, in Standard 20. Specifically, Element 20.2 states: "The college or school must create an environment that both requires and promotes scholarship, and must also develop mechanisms to assess both the quantity and quality of faculty scholarly productivity."(5) The successful pursuit of scholarship by clinical faculty members (those engaged in both clinical practice and teaching, without regard to tenure or clinical track status) is challenging. (6-10) Thus, faculty member job descriptions or models should be designed so clinical faculty members can successfully meet all academic job expectations, including productive and meaningful scholarship. In 2012, an AACP Section of Teachers of Pharmacy Practice task force was charged with examining this issue and providing recommendations for models for clinical faculty members that would allow the successful pursuit of scholarship. The task force gathered information relating to the current state of affairs at a number of colleges and reviewed relevant literature. This information, along with personal experiences and much discussion and contemplation, led to some general observations as well as specific recommendations. This paper reiterates the task force's observations and recommendations and provides further detail regarding our interpretation of the findings and basis for the eventual recommendations to the section.

  19. Alternative Methods by Which Basic Science Pharmacy Faculty Can Relate to Clinical Practice, Executive Summary and Final Report, October 1, 1978 - March 15, 1980. (United States)

    Kabat, Hugh F.; And Others

    The areas of basic science pharmacy instruction and clinical pharmacy practice and their interrelationships were identified in order to help develop didactic and clinical experience alternatives. A 10-member advisory committee ranked basic pharmaceutical science topical areas in terms of their applicability to clinical practice utilizing a Delphi…

  20. Pharmacy Education Reaction to Presentations on Bridging the Gap Between the Basic Sciences and Clinical Practice: Teaching, Research, and Service. (United States)

    Doluisio, James T.


    Issues in the conflict between clinical practice and basic research in pharmacy are reviewed: professional associations' role, curriculum needs and traditions, internal strains and diversity in the profession, computer use, scholarly work of faculty, using the medical profession as a model, and misperceptions of what clinical and basic sciences…

  1. Relationships between Geographic Origins, Externship Placement, and Practice Location Subsequent to Graduation of UMKC School of Pharmacy Students. (United States)

    Levine, Daniel U.; Mares, Kenneth R.

    The relationships among geographic origins, externship placement, and post-graduation practice location of University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) 1977-79 pharmacy graduates were studied. The aim was to help select, prepare, and encourage students to locate in underserved communities. It is assumed the data can help decide whether to retain,…

  2. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

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    Jeffrey Atkinson


    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  3. Evaluation of urban-rural differences in pharmacy practice needs in Maine with the MaPPNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin SL


    Full Text Available Background: Maine is a rural state with an aging population located in the northeastern United States. Pharmacists play an important role in serving the public’s health as they are often the most available point-of-contact within a community. Objective: To assess the current pharmacy practice needs as viewed by licensed pharmacists across our rural state, and to distinguish issues that are unique to rural pharmacy practice. Methods: An online survey was sent to all licensed pharmacists in the state in the fall of 2014 (n=1,262 to assess their pharmacy practice needs, and specify an rural-specific needs, within the categories of (1 opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion, (2 challenges associated with access to healthcare, (3 poly-pharmacy use, (4 meeting the needs of special populations, (5 lack of antibiotic stewardship, and (6 resources, such as staffing. Results: The response rate was 22.1 % (n=279. We found the most agreed upon issue facing pharmacists’ in Maine is opioid use, misuse and diversion, followed closely by shortages in staffing. We also learned that pharmacists’ view pharmaceutical care for older adults, those with low health literacy, and those with mental disabilities more time-consuming. Some urban-rural differences were discovered in with regard to the pharmacists’ views; such as the magnitude of the distance barrier, and limited transportation options available to rural residents. Issues related to polypharmacy were viewed as more problematic by pharmacists practicing in urban versus rural sites. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care in Maine must focus on meeting the needs of the elderly, those with disabilities, and those with limited health literacy. As with the rest of the nation, opioids challenge pharmacy practice in a variety of ways. These findings clarify areas that present opportunities for pharmacists to focus more specifically on Maine’s largely rural population.

  4. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling (United States)


    Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training), 5th (before practical training at clinical sites), and 6th (after all practical training) years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation), and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43). Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation. PMID:28167812

  5. Effect of practical training on the learning motivation profile of Japanese pharmacy students using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Yamamura


    Full Text Available Purpose To establish a model of Japanese pharmacy students’ learning motivation profile and investigate the effects of pharmaceutical practical training programs on their learning motivation. Methods The Science Motivation Questionnaire II was administered to pharmacy students in their 4th (before practical training, 5th (before practical training at clinical sites, and 6th (after all practical training years of study at Josai International University in April, 2016. Factor analysis and multiple-group structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. Results A total of 165 students participated. The learning motivation profile was modeled with 4 factors (intrinsic, career, self-determination, and grade motivation, and the most effective learning motivation was grade motivation. In the multiple-group analysis, the fit of the model with the data was acceptable, and the estimated mean value of the factor of ‘self-determination’ in the learning motivation profile increased after the practical training programs (P= 0.048, Cohen’s d= 0.43. Conclusion Practical training programs in a 6-year course were effective for increasing learning motivation, based on ‘self-determination’ among Japanese pharmacy students. The results suggest that practical training programs are meaningful not only for providing clinical experience but also for raising learning motivation.

  6. The Vision and Challenges of Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University's Affiliated Pharmacy. (United States)

    Norose, Takahiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Furuta, Seiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro


    Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University (HPU), according to its educational mission, seeks to "develop medical professionals who contribute to community medicine", and it has produced more than 6300 graduates since 1974. With recent medical advancements and a progressively aging society, the role of the pharmacist in community medicine has diversified and is increasing in importance. Therefore, in April 2012, the Hokkaido Pharmaceutical University Affiliated Pharmacy was established as a for-profit business of the Educational Foundation of the Hokkaido University of Science, the parent body of HPU. The pharmacy is located near the Sapporo station; it is operated by six pharmacists and four clerks, and supported by three faculty members who are engaged in providing HPU student education such as on-site clinical training, in addition to their pharmacy duties such as home care pharmaceutics. For the first two years it was open, the pharmacy focused on the establishment of pharmacy administration and fiscal consolidation. In April 2015, the Pharmacy Management Committee set the pharmacy's future vision, as well as its mid-term strategy, which consists of the four main components of pharmacy practices, education, research, and social contribution, in order for the pharmacy to serve as a model of community pharmacy.

  7. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding (United States)

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  8. An international capstone experience for pharmacy students. (United States)

    Gourley, Dick R; Vaidya, Varun A; Hufstader, Meghan A; Ray, Max D; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A


    This report describes the experiences of the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy over 20 years with an international capstone educational experience for students. Although the university provides reciprocal opportunities to international students, this report focuses on the experiences of the college's pharmacy students who have participated in the program. This capstone course is offered as an elective course in the advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) component of the college's experiential program. Goals of the program and a brief description of its organizational structure are provided. Results of a structured student satisfaction survey and a survey covering the most recent 3 years of the program are presented. This program has greatly broadened participants' cultural horizons and expanded their global view and understanding of the contributions of pharmacy to health care.

  9. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for education and research : A network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Blom, A.T.G.; Philbert, D.; Rump, H.H.; Bouvy, M.L.


    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This p

  10. Pharmacy Technicians (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Pharmacy Technicians PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Pharmacy Technicians Do About this section Pharmacy technicians fill ...

  11. Attitude of fourth year Doctor of Pharmacy students towards pharmacy profession and their career preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Saad


    Conclusion: Fourth year students believed that pharmacy education and practice affect the health care system. Their favorite career areas were clinical pharmacy, industrial pharmacy, and hospital pharmacy. Personal interest was the most important factor involved in this selection. Most of them were interested in pharmacy-related research activities.

  12. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait


    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.


    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  13. [Pharmacy, pharmacists and society--pharmaceutical science and practice with philosophy]. (United States)

    Nagai, Tsuneji


    contribution/participation. For that, the most important and necessary issue is to make change in fundamental sense in Japanese pharmaceutical community, though an internationalization of technological issues is usually taken into consideration. In this connection, regarding the new drug development, we must have a change in the sense to establish pharmaceutical philosophy and jump up in conception from the existing one. Based on the above mentioned pharmaceutical philosophy, seven star pharmacists should be educated as described in 2000 FIP Statement of Policy: Good Pharmacy Education Practice, who could be a (1) care giver; (2) decision maker; (3) communicator; (4) leader; (5) manager; (6) life-long learner; (7) teacher.

  14. Historical development and emerging trends of community pharmacy residencies. (United States)

    Stolpe, Samuel F; Adams, Alex J; Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Burns, Anne L; Owen, James A


    Clinical pharmacy services necessitate appropriately trained pharmacists. Postgraduate year one (PGY1) community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) provide advanced training for pharmacists to provide multiple patient care services in the community setting. These programs provide an avenue to translate innovative ideas and services into clinical practice. In this paper, we describe the history and current status of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs, including an analysis of the typical settings and services offered. Specific information on the trends of community programs compared with other PGY1 pharmacy residencies is also discussed. The information presented in this paper is intended to encourage discussion regarding the need for increasing the capacity of PGY1 community pharmacy residency programs.

  15. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy]. (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki


    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  16. Development of a virtual patient record mobile app for pharmacy practice education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Weiyi Toh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare students are generally not exposed in the school curriculum to the workings of electronic health records (EHRs and the types of patient health information (PHI from EHRs that are relevant to clinical practices. A prototype virtual patient record (VPR mobile app was created on two Samsung Galaxy Tab tablets to educate pharmacy students on the types of PHI available from EHRs. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted from March-April 2013, whereby students used the app to solve counseling case scenarios. Respondents′ demographics, mobile app usage patterns, perceptions regarding the app′s usefulness, and its relevance as an EHR simulation tool, were determined through an online 14-item survey. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher′s exact tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the results. Results: Response rate was 100% (n = 31. Medical and healthcare apps were most commonly used (93.5%, and 67.7% of students used apps more than 5 times a day over the past 6 months. The app had 4 features ("PHR", "Case Questions", "Statutes" and "Useful Links". Most students felt that the app features were understandable and self-explanatory (96.7%. Majority agreed that "PHR" (100% and "Case Questions" (83.9% were the most useful features. Majority (90.3% found the app useful as a teaching aid. Conclusion: A VPR app has been successfully created and implemented as a teaching aid. Future development will involve migrating its features to the mobile web. Resources for health-related and medication-related information will be added. Furthermore, the app will be introduced to lower-year undergraduates before their hospital preceptorship attachments.

  17. Designing a modern hospital pharmacy. (United States)

    Kay, B G; Boyar, R L; Raspante, P S


    Cooperation between the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects in planning a modern hospital pharmacy is described. The pharmacy director at an 870-bed voluntary nonprofit institution and the hospital's architects planned the design for a new 3250-square foot pharmacy department. They developed a preliminary floor plan based on the following functions that the pharmacy would perform: centralized unit dose drug distribution; compounding; bulk and unit dose prepackaging; preparation of sterile products; controlled substance storage; outpatient and employee prescription dispensing; reserve stock storage; purchasing, receiving, and inventory control; drug information services; and administrative services. A final floor plan was designed that incorporated these functions with structural and utility requirements, such as placement of the computer system and dispensing and lighting fixtures. By integrating modern material management concepts with contemporary hospital pharmacy practice, the pharmacy director and the hospital's architects were able to plan and construct a pharmacy that receives, processes, and dispenses medication efficiently.

  18. [Rationalization in 20th-century czechoslovak pharmacy practice - commission for rationalization and standardization in medicine, veterinary medicine and pharmacy - part 2*]. (United States)

    Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav


    In interwar Czechoslovakia health care, an increased attention paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Masaryk Academy of Work. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928 and 1932. The first part of the paper described the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, and work objectives of RANOK and its group for pharmacy. The second part deals with the work results, relative failure and importance of the group for pharmacy.

  19. Reassessment of dispensing pharmacy and animal experiments in undergraduate practical pharmacology curriculum: feedback from students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish GR


    Conclusions: Computer assisted learning seems to be a better alternative to animal experiments. In the changing scenario, teaching clinical pharmacology should be focused rather than teaching dispensing pharmacy, which is obsolete. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(2.000: 285-292

  20. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat


    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  1. Barriers to effective pharmacy practice in low- and middle-income countries


    Babar ZU; Scahill S


    Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar,1 Shane Scahill2 1School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland; 2School of Management, College of Business, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: The role of the pharmacist within health care systems is undergoing significant development with the continual introduction of new medicine entities, the emergence of new resistant microbes, and changes in the delivery of health services. In developed countries, pharmacists are ...

  2. The use of Eriksonian Hypnosis to improve patient outcomes in pharmacy practice: A novel communication skill for pharmacists. (United States)

    Lonie, John M; Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie


    Motivational Interviewing, pharmacist-based health coaching and traditional patient counseling techniques all show merit in improving communication between patients and health care providers. However, in order to effectively utilize these techniques one should have the ability to draw upon internal cognitive and psychological resources. Some patients have difficulty obtaining optimal health outcomes due to an unconscious inability to learn and connect with psychological resources. When this is the case, other methods of communication may need to be considered. With the appropriate training, Eriksonian Hypnosis or the use of techniques such as hypnotic language patterns (HLP) have the potential to be implemented into pharmacy practice settings and assist those patients who have previously failed to make positive behavior changes and act upon their health issues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Dwiastuti


    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengindentifikasi, mengukur serta menganalisa kesenjangan yuang terjadi saat implementasi Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP di PT. Kimia Farma Apotek, Unit Bisnis Jaya 2 Business Unit. Selain itu, proses perencanaan aksi dalam rangka pencapaian nilai tertinggi.Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah analisa deskripsi kualitatif, pencarian data melalui audit, observasi dan interview. Teknik analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa tulang ikan untuk mendapatkan akar penyebab dan sesi pencerahan dalam rangka perancangan peningkatan aksi perencanaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kesenjangan terjadi disebabkan oleh keterlambatan aktifitas manajemen mutu, siklus PDSA, seperti perancangan tata letak dan infrastruktur farmasi, sosialisasi tentang GPP, pembahasan deskripsi kerja, audit hasil evaluasi dan peningkatan kerja secara komprehensif. Rekomendasi rencana aksi untuk sebagai sebuah upaya improvisasi juga disampaikan pada bagian akhir dari tulisan ini.

  4. A Graduate Program in Institutional Pharmacy Management Leading to an MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA and Residency. (United States)

    Blair, Jan N.; Lipman, Arthur G.


    A combined program leading to the MS in Hospital Pharmacy, MBA, and Certificate of Residency in Hospital Pharmacy established at the University of Utah in 1978 is described. The program provides coursework in both hospital pharmacy and management plus practical experience in hospital pharmacy practice management. (Author/MLW)

  5. Measuring change in health-system pharmacy over 50 years: "reflecting" on the mirror, part I. (United States)

    Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James; Ng, Christine; White, Sara


    The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. August 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s and established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics, (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy, (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen, (4) increased practice competence, (5) wage and salary compensation commensurate with professional responsibilities, and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews the profession's progress on the first 3 goals; an article in the January 2014 issue of Hospital Pharmacy will review the final 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services.

  6. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses as a treatment resource: survey and analysis. (United States)

    Feldman, Saul; Bachman, John; Cuffel, Brian; Friesen, Bernice; McCabe, John


    Access to behavioral health services, particularly pharmacotherapy, continues to be a significant problem. This is particularly the case for public sector beneficiaries and managed care members. The greater use of advanced practice psychiatric nurses (APPNs) with prescribing privileges could help. To better understand the availability and competence of APPNs to prescribe, the authors conducted 1) a national survey of APPNs' availability and prescribing practices, 2) a comparative analysis of pharmacy claims data generated by APPNs and psychiatrists, and 3) a comprehensive clinical record review comparing APPNs to psychiatrists. About 25% of the sample of APPNs reported having prescription authority and a private practice. The analysis of prescribing practices between APPNs and psychiatrists showed that with a few exceptions, there were no differences between the groups, as did a retrospective clinical record review. These results lead the authors to recommend greater efforts to increase the supply of APPNs.

  7. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies. (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo


    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  8. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine M; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna


    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...

  9. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  10. Roots of pharmacy practice in bosnia and herzegovina from the ottoman and austro-hungarian period: attars' mission for pharmaceutical care. (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet


    Significant role in how they played, and Jews Sephardim who came to Bosnia from Spain and Portugal in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. It is those were the first owners of districts-Shop herbs or pharmacy. Along with them were developed and Muslim attars, who founded and attars marketplace in Sarajevo. Experience and knowledge in the domain of medicine and healing practiced by old Bosnian Sephardim been acquired for centuries, is now mainly found on the shelves.

  11. Pharmacy alternatives (image) (United States)

    ... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...

  12. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Soumya


    Conclusion: This study shows a high proportion of dispensing encounters without prescription, a higher rate of older prescription refills, many irregularities in medication counseling and unsatisfactory storage practices. It also revealed that about half of the pharmacists were unaware of Schedule H and majority of them about current regulations. Hence, regulatory enforcement and educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices.

  13. Measuring Change in Health-System Pharmacy Over 50 Years: "Reflecting" on the Mirror, Part II. (United States)

    Weber, Robert J; Stevenson, James G; White, Sara J


    The Director's Forum guides pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the publication of the Mirror to Hospital Pharmacy, which was a comprehensive study of hospital pharmacy services in the United States. This iconic textbook was co-authored by Donald Francke, Clifton J. Latiolais, Gloria N. Francke, and Norman Ho. The Mirror's results profiled hospital pharmacy of the 1950s; these results established goals for the profession in 6 paradigms: (1) professional philosophy and ethics; (2) scientific and technical expansion of health-system pharmacy; (3) development of administrative and managerial acumen; (4) increased practice competence; (5) wage and salary commensurate with professional responsibilities; and (6) health-system pharmacy as a vehicle for advancing the profession as a whole. This article critically reviews our progress on the last of 3 goals. An understanding of the profession's progress on these goals since the seminal work of the Mirror provides directors of pharmacy a platform from which to develop strategies to enhance patient-centered pharmacy services.

  14. Towards an operational definition of pharmacy clinical competency (United States)

    Douglas, Charles Allen

    The scope of pharmacy practice and the training of future pharmacists have undergone a strategic shift over the last few decades. The pharmacy profession recognizes greater pharmacist involvement in patient care activities. Towards this strategic objective, pharmacy schools are training future pharmacists to meet these new clinical demands. Pharmacy students have clerkships called Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs), and these clerkships account for 30% of the professional curriculum. APPEs provide the only opportunity for students to refine clinical skills under the guidance of an experienced pharmacist. Nationwide, schools of pharmacy need to evaluate whether students have successfully completed APPEs and are ready treat patients. Schools are left to their own devices to develop assessment programs that demonstrate to the public and regulatory agencies, students are clinically competent prior to graduation. There is no widely accepted method to evaluate whether these assessment programs actually discriminate between the competent and non-competent students. The central purpose of this study is to demonstrate a rigorous method to evaluate the validity and reliability of APPE assessment programs. The method introduced in this study is applicable to a wide variety of assessment programs. To illustrate this method, the study evaluated new performance criteria with a novel rating scale. The study had two main phases. In the first phase, a Delphi panel was created to bring together expert opinions. Pharmacy schools nominated exceptional preceptors to join a Delphi panel. Delphi is a method to achieve agreement of complex issues among experts. The principal researcher recruited preceptors representing a variety of practice settings and geographical regions. The Delphi panel evaluated and refined the new performance criteria. In the second phase, the study produced a novel set of video vignettes that portrayed student performances based on recommendations of

  15. Clinical Pharmacy Education in China (United States)

    Ryan, Melody; Yang, Li; Nie, Xiao-Yan; Zhai, Suo-Di; Shi, Lu-Wen; Lubawy, William C.


    Pharmacy education in China focuses on pharmaceutical sciences, with the bachelor of science (BS) of pharmacy as the entry-level degree. Pharmacy practice curricula in these programs are centered on compounding, dispensing, pharmacy administration, and laboratory experiences, which are the traditional responsibilities for pharmacists. Additional graduate-level training is available at the master of science (MS) and the doctor of philosophy (PhD) levels, most of which concentrate on drug discovery and drug development research. Presently, the emphasis in practice is beginning to shift to clinical pharmacy. With this change, additional degree offerings are being developed to meet the growing demand for clinical pharmacists. There is also interest in developing more clinical skills in practicing pharmacists through additional non-degree training. The Ministry of Education is considering a proposal for an entry-level professional degree of master and/or doctor in clinical pharmacy similar to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree in the United States. PMID:19325949

  16. Analysis of Community Practice Clinical Decision-Making Skills in Pharmacy Students. (United States)

    Greer, Marianne L.; Kirk, Kenneth W.


    A computerized, simulation-based instrument, consisting of four community practice clinical scenarios, collected information-searching data and the students' decisions. The appropriateness of the decisions, assessed by three clinical judges, and the focus of information search, based on the computer-collected process data, were the dependent…

  17. 深度处理维生素制药废水的研究%Study on the Advanced Treatment of Waste Water in the Pharmacy by Vitamin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英丽; 刘红代


    This paper takes the integration of aerobiotic-anaerobic biological strengthening reactor as the main technology of the advanced treatment, combines with the pretreatment technology of electrolytic oxidation to improve the removal efficiency of waste water in the pharmacy by vitamin.%本文采取以好氧—厌氧生物强化一体化反应器为深度处理的主体工艺,并配合电解氧化预处理工艺,以此提高维生素制药废水的去除效率。

  18. The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union. (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Rombaut, Bart


    The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. THE CONSORTIUM SURVEYED PHARMACIES AND PHARMACISTS IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.

  19. Quality indicators to compare accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in Thailand. (United States)

    Arkaravichien, Wiwat; Wongpratat, Apichaya; Lertsinudom, Sunee


    Background Quality indicators determine the quality of actual practice in reference to standard criteria. The Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand), with technical support from the International Pharmaceutical Federation, developed a tool for quality assessment and quality improvement at community pharmacies. This tool has passed validity and reliability tests, but has not yet had feasibility testing. Objective (1) To test whether this quality tool could be used in routine settings. (2) To compare quality scores between accredited independent and accredited chain pharmacies. Setting Accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies in the north eastern region of Thailand. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 accredited independent pharmacies and accredited chain pharmacies. Quality scores were assessed by observation and by interviewing the responsible pharmacists. Data were collected and analyzed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate. Results were plotted by histogram and spider chart. Main outcome measure Domain's assessable scores, possible maximum scores, mean and median of measured scores. Results Domain's assessable scores were close to domain's possible maximum scores. This meant that most indicators could be assessed in most pharmacies. The spider chart revealed that measured scores in the personnel, drug inventory and stocking, and patient satisfaction and health promotion domains of chain pharmacies were significantly higher than those of independent pharmacies (p pharmacies and chain pharmacies in the premise and facility or dispensing and patient care domains. Conclusion Quality indicators developed by the Community Pharmacy Association (Thailand) could be used to assess quality of practice in pharmacies in routine settings. It is revealed that the quality scores of chain pharmacies were higher than those of independent pharmacies.

  20. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.


    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  1. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists. (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E


    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  2. Role of Pharmacy Residency Training in Career Planning: A Student's Perspective. (United States)

    McElhaney, Ashley; Weber, Robert J


    Pharmacy students typically become more focused on career planning and assessment in the final year of their PharmD training. Weighing career options in the advanced pharmacy practice experience year can be both exciting and stressful. The goal of this article is to provide a primer on how pharmacy students can assess how a residency can fit into career planning. This article will describe the various career paths available to graduating students, highlight ways in which a residency can complement career choices, review the current state of the job market for pharmacists, discuss the current and future plans for residency programs, and present thoughts from some current and former residents on why they chose to complete a residency. Most career paths require some additional training, and a residency provides appropriate experience very quickly compared to on-the-job training. Alternative plans to residency training must also be considered, as there are not enough residency positions for candidates. Directors of pharmacy must consider several factors when giving career advice on pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students; they should provide the students with an honest assessment of their work skills and their abilities to successfully complete a residency. This assessment will help the students to set a plan for improvement and give them a better chance at being matched to a pharmacy residency.

  3. Social Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy - Joining Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, Anna Birna; Granas, Anne Gerd


    This commentary seeks to define the areas of social pharmacy and clinical pharmacy to uncover what they have in common and what still sets them apart. Common threats and challenges of the two areas are reviewed in order to understand the forces in play. Forces that still keep clinical and social...... pharmacy apart are university structures, research traditions, and the management of pharmacy services. There are key (but shrinking) differences between clinical and social pharmacy which entail the levels of study within pharmaceutical sciences, the location in which the research is carried out...... and external key players in putting forth what is needed for the profession of pharmacy. At the end the question is posed, “What’s in a name?” and we argue that it is important to emphasize what unifies the families of clinical pharmacy and social pharmacy for the benefit of both fields, pharmacy in general...



    Paradis, Johanne; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard


    The lack of interest of researchers in relation to question of hospital pharmacy management, and the status quo of existing managerial practices serving the reforms, justifies analysis of theoretical foundations of hospital pharmacy management. The objective is twofold. First, provide an overview of the socio-historical eras of the organizational theories in order to position the hospital pharmacy management on the axis of the changing ways of thinking about the organization and management. S...

  5. Motivating pharmacy employees. (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A


    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  6. Action research methodology in clinical pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh


    Introduction The focus in clinical pharmacy practice is and has for the last 30-35 years been on changing the role of pharmacy staff into service orientation and patient counselling. One way of doing this is by involving staff in change process and as a researcher to take part in the change process...

  7. Cash Advance Accounting: Accounting Regulations and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila


    Full Text Available It is known the fact that often the entities offer to staff or third parties certain amounts of money, in order to make payments for the entities, such sums being registered differently in the accounting as cash advances. In the case in which the advances are offered in a foreign currency, there is the problem of the exchange rate used when justifying the advance, for the conversion in lei of payments that were carried out. In this article we wanted to signal the effect that the exchange rate, used in the assessment for reflecting in the accounting operations concerning cash advance reimbursements in a foreign currency, has on the information presented in the financial statement. Therewith, we signal some aspects from the content of the accounting regulations, with reference at defining the cash advances, meaning, and the presentation in the balance sheet of cash advances, which, in our opinion, impose clarifications.

  8. Practice and management on Chinese traditional pharmacy consultation%中药药事咨询的管理与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以中医药理论为指导,采取窗口咨询、远程服务、走向临床等方法,创建中药药事咨询服务模式,建立药患交流平台,改善中药临床药学服务质量.通过实践,提升了中药人员的服务能力,促进了专业人员深入学习,对保障患者用药安全、合理、经济、有效等具有积极作用.%Based on theory of Chinese traditional drug, mode of pharmacy consultation of Chinese traditional drug includes face to face consultation, online service and actively support clinicians is created to establish pharmacist patient communication platform and improve clinical pharmacy quality. By practice, service capacity has been promoted. The new mode is benefit for safety, rational and economic drug use.

  9. Methods Used by Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy to Prepare Student Pharmacists for Careers in Academia (United States)

    Dy-Boarman, Eliza A.; Clifford, Kalin M.; Summa, Maria A.; Willson, Megan N.; Boyle, Jaclyn A.; Peeters, Michael J.


    Objective. To identify the methods used by US colleges and schools of pharmacy to prepare student pharmacists for academic careers. Method. An 18-item survey instrument was developed and distributed to US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Representatives were asked about faculty responsibilities, experiences in academia currently offered to student pharmacists, and representatives’ perception of their student pharmacists’ preparedness for careers in academia, including barriers in current programming. Results. Representatives from 96 colleges/schools responded. The vast majority (96%) provided academia-focused advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs), 40% provided didactic coursework in academia, 28% offered a longitudinal research track, and 42% offered academia-focused independent studies. Teaching methods and creating learning objectives were the most common pedagogical content, while assessment activities were diverse. Time was the most prevalent barrier to providing training for academic careers; however, degree of student pharmacist interest, faculty inexperience, and lack of leadership support were also commonly reported. Conclusions: Colleges and schools of pharmacy vary in the extent to which they prepare student pharmacists for careers in academia. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences were the most common method of training offered. Standardization of training for academia may better promote this career path to student pharmacists. PMID:28289296

  10. What pharmacy practitioners need to know about ethics in scientific publishing. (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet


    Pharmacy practice is an ever-changing science and profession. We are witnessing many advancement of pharmacy technology, drug-related information and applied clinical pharmacy literature, which influence our every day's life. Thus, new knowledge generated by research and clinical experience widen the knowledge; change the understanding of drugs and their application in therapeutics and every days life. Thus, policy makers, pharmacists, clinicians and researchers must evaluate and use the information existing in the literature to implement in their healthcare delivery. This paper is prepared for pharmacy researchers and pharmacy students and analyzes the major principles of ethical conduct in general science and also closely related topics on ghost authorship, conflict of interest, assigning co-authorship, redundant/repetitive and duplicate publication. Furthermore, the paper provides an insight into fabrication and falsification of data, as the most common form of scientific fraud. Scientific misconduct goes against everything that normal scientific method wants to reach for and pharmacy practitioners as one the first line available health care professionals all round the world should be enough aware of its importance and details when they want to evaluate the medical and pharmaceutical literature and deliver unbiased and ethically published knowledge of drugs both for the research or during consultations for patients care.

  11. [Design of spiral curriculum for pharmacy students to reach the outcome]. (United States)

    Sato, Eiji


    The third advanced workshop of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan for pharmaceutical teachers was held from October 12th to 14th, 2013, and participants discussed an outcome-based approach to curriculum development in pharmacy education. In this article, I report the outcome-based spiral curriculum model of group 2A, which was designed to enable pharmacy students to understand a patient's condition, and to provide a basic practical ability in medical therapy. In the curriculum, pharmacy students will learn biochemistry and functional morphology in the first and second years, skills to interview patients in the third year, pathophysiology and pharmacotherapeutics in the third and fourth years, skills to estimate patient disease from physical examination in the fourth year, and practice in understanding real patient conditions in a clinical clerkship in the fifth year. The curriculum also included learning and evaluation methods.

  12. Drug assessment by a Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee: from drug selection criteria to use in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano-Blázquez A


    Full Text Available Ana Lozano-Blázquez,1 Cecilia Calvo-Pita,2 Mónica Carbajales-Álvarez,1 Patricio Suárez-Gil,3 Fernando Martínez-Martínez,4 Miguel Ángel Calleja-Hernández51Pharmacy Department, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Primary Health Care, Servicio Madrileño de Salud, Dirección Asistencial Oeste, Madrid, Spain; 3Research Unit Área V, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Spain; 4Responsable del Grupo de Investigación en Atención Farmacéutica, Universidad de Granada, 5UGC Provincial de Farmacia de Granada Instituto de Biomedicina de Granada, Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, SpainBackground: In Spain, hospital medicines are assessed and selected by local Pharmacy and Therapeutics committees (PTCs. Of all the drugs assessed, cancer drugs are particularly important because of their budgetary impact and the sometimes arguable added value with respect to existing alternatives. This study analyzed the PTC drug selection process and the main objective was to evaluate the degree of compliance of prescriptions for oncology drugs with their criteria for use.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study (May 2007 to April 2010 of PTC-assessed drugs. The variables measured to describe the committee's activity were number of drugs assessed per year and number of drugs included in any of these settings: without restrictions, with criteria for use, and not included in formulary. These drugs were also analyzed by therapeutic group. To assess the degree of compliance of prescriptions, a score was calculated to determine whether prescriptions for bevacizumab, cetuximab, trastuzumab, and bortezomib were issued in accordance with PTC drug use criteria.Results: The PTC received requests for inclusion of 40 drugs, of which 32 were included in the hospital formulary (80.0%. Criteria for use were established for 28 (87.5% of the drugs included. In total, 293 patients were treated with the four cancer drugs in eight different

  13. 门诊药房药学服务实践体会%Practice and Experience of Pharmaceutical Service in Outpatient Pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢洪梅; 钱青; 张蓉


    Objective To improve the quality of pharmaceutical service by exploring the theories and Methods of pharmaceutical service in outpatient pharmacy. Methods The outstanding characteristics of pharmaceutical service were analyzed in outpatient pharmacy by consulting the related literature and combining the actual situation in the hospital. Results Standardizing working system can improve the accuracy of pharmacists in dispensing drugs and shorten the waiting time of outpatients;the medical errors would be reduced by strictly checking prescription;various approaches to guide rational drug use with patient-oriented to improve the prevention and drug treatment;carefully commenting on the prescriptions could realize the continuous development of quality of medication. Conclusion Paci-fication of prescription and review process,comprehensive medication guide,and appropriate prescription intervention practice plays a very important role in pharmaceutical service of outpatient pharmacy.%目的:探索门诊药房药学服务的理论和方法,提高药学服务质量。方法查阅相关文献并结合医院实际情况,分析门诊药房在药学服务实践中的突出特点。结果规范工作制度能提高药师调配药品的准确性,减少患者的等候时间;严格执行处方审核制度能及时发现医生诊疗过程中的问题处方,减少医疗差错;以患者为中心,利用多种途径指导合理用药,能提高药品的预防和治疗作用;开展处方点评工作,对抽取处方和科室进行综合分析、评价,改进并提高药品治疗质量。结论规范处方调剂和审核流程、全面的用药指导、适当的处方点评在门诊药学服务实践中起着重要作用。

  14. Doctoral education for WOC nurses considering advanced practice nursing. (United States)

    Pieper, Barbara; Colwell, Janice


    Advanced practice nursing education is at a crossroads. Societal changes, increased health care demands, and leadership nursing organizations have identified the need of a doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree as the advanced practice degree. WOC nurses need to examine DNP programs when considering returning for an advanced practice degree. This article explores nursing education at the doctorate level and areas the WOC nurse should consider when making a decision about attending a program. The WOC nurse needs to understand the similarities and differences of the doctor of philosophy and the DNP, issues about each program and its completion, personal factors, and the application process. Although selecting a doctoral program is a daunting experience, the education will provide opportunities for the WOC nurse to excel as a scholar, thus influencing the profession and the practice.

  15. The Future of Clinical Pharmacy: Developing a Holistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Shane


    Full Text Available This concept paper discusses the untapped promise of often overlooked humanistic skills to advance the practice of pharmacy. It highlights the seminal work that is, increasingly, integrated into medical and nursing education. The work of these educators and the growing empirical evidence that validates the importance of humanistic skills is raising questions for the future of pharmacy education and practice. To potentiate humanistic professional competencies, e.g., compassion, empathy, and emotional intelligence, how do we develop a more holistic model that integrates reflective and affective skills? There are many historical and current transitions in the profession and practice of pharmacy. If our education model is refocused with an emphasis on pharmacy’s therapeutic roots, the field has the opportunity to play a vital role in improving health outcomes and patient-centered care. Beyond the metrics of treatment effects, achieving greater patient-centeredness will require transformations that improve care processes and invest in patients’ experiences of the treatment and care they receive. Is layering on additional science sufficient to yield better health outcomes if we neglect the power of empathic interactions in the healing process?

  16. Exploring Best Practices in Advance Care Planning (United States)


    System factors such as expansion of technological and medical options added to lists of tasks primary care providers are expected to complete in ever...Background: The factors that influence completion of advance care planning for elderly adults in the primary care setting are poorly understood...shrinking visit time, provider factors such as discomfort with end-of-life discussions, and patient factors such as impaired communication all contribute

  17. Strategic directions and actions for advanced practice nursing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha N. Hill


    Full Text Available There is a need and opportunity for China to develop education and practice innovations given that advance practice nurses (APNs improve health care and outcomes. The China Medical Board (CMB China Nursing Network (CCNN began planning for an Advanced Nursing Practice Program for education and career development that will facilitate CCNN's contributions to meeting national nursing policy priorities. This paper presents the discussion, recommendations and action plans developed at the inaugural planning meeting on June 26, 2015 at Fudan University in Shanghai. The recommendations are: Develop standards for advanced nursing practice; Develop Master's level curricula based on the standards; Commence pilot projects across a number of University affiliated hospitals; and Prepare clinical tutors and faculty. The strategic directions and actions are: Develop a clinical career ladder system; Expand the nursing role from hospital to community; and Build a specialty nurse accreditation system.

  18. Pharmacy in a New Frontier - The First Five Years at the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina


    A poster entitled "Space Medicine - A New Role for Clinical Pharmacists" was presented in December 2001 highlighting an up-and-coming role for pharmacists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Since that time, the operational need for the pharmacy profession has expanded with the administration s decision to open a pharmacy on site at JSC to complement the care provided by the Flight Medicine and Occupational Medicine Clinics. The JSC Pharmacy is a hybrid of traditional retail and hospital pharmacy and is compliant with the ambulatory care standards set forth by the Joint Commission. The primary charge for the pharmacy is to provide medication management for JSC. In addition to providing ambulatory care for both clinics, the pharmacists also practice space medicine. A pharmacist had been involved in the packing of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station Medical Kits before the JSC Pharmacy was established; however, the role of the pharmacist in packing medical kits has grown. The pharmacists are now full members of the operations team providing consultation for new drug delivery systems, regulations, and patient safety issues. As the space crews become more international, so does the drug information provided by the pharmacists. This presentation will review the journey of the JSC Pharmacy as it celebrated its five year anniversary in April of 2008. The implementation of the pharmacy, challenges to the incorporation of the pharmacy into an existing health-care system, and the current responsibilities of a pharmacist at the Johnson Space Center will be discussed.

  19. Effectiveness of educational technology to improve patient care in pharmacy curricula. (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Benedict, Neal


    A review of the literature on the effectiveness of educational technologies to teach patient care skills to pharmacy students was conducted. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Seven of the articles included computer-aided instruction, 4 utilized human-patient simulation, 1 used both computer-aided instruction and human-patient simulation, and 7 utilized virtual patients. Educational technology was employed with more than 2700 students at 12 colleges and schools of pharmacy in courses including pharmacotherapeutics, skills and patient care laboratories, drug diversion, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) orientation. Students who learned by means of human-patient simulation and virtual patients reported enjoying the learning activity, whereas the results with computer-aided instruction were mixed. Moreover, the effect on learning was significant in the human-patient simulation and virtual patient studies, while conflicting data emerged on the effectiveness of computer-aided instruction.

  20. REST advanced research topics and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, Erik; Alarcon, Rosa


    This book serves as a starting point for people looking for a deeper principled understanding of REST, its applications, its limitations, and current research work in the area and as an architectural style. The authors focus on applying REST beyond Web applications (i.e., in enterprise environments), and in reusing established and well-understood design patterns. The book examines how RESTful systems can be designed and deployed, and what the results are in terms of benefits and challenges encountered in the process. This book is intended for information and service architects and designers who are interested in learning about REST, how it is applied, and how it is being advanced.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  2. A roadmap for educational research in pharmacy. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Dean, Meredith J; Mumper, Russell J; Blouin, Robert A; Roth, Mary T


    Educational research must play a critical role in informing practice and policy within pharmacy education. Understanding the educational environment and its impact on students, faculty members, and other stakeholders is imperative for improving outcomes and preparing pharmacy students to meet the needs of 21st century health care. To aid in the design and implementation of meaningful educational research within colleges and schools of pharmacy, this roadmap addresses philosophy and educational language; guidelines for the conduct of educational research; research design, including 4 approaches to defining, collecting, and analyzing educational data; measurement issues; ethical considerations; resources and tools; and the value of educational research in guiding curricular transformation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevangi V M


    Full Text Available Drug information service refers to activities carried out by pharmacists in providing any drug related information to healthcare professionals to provide better patient care. Providing drug information is a clinical pharmacy service and delivered as part of the multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Accurate information about safety of drugs is very essential for health care professionals in identifying, preventing and managing Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs, thereby ensuring safe use of medications. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the drug information service from enquirer’s perspective. The data was collected from drug information centre through drug information request forms and feedback questionnaires form. A nine months hospital based prospective study was carried out at Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga. A total number of 122 queries were received during the study period. Most of the queries were received from general medicine department 82(67.21% and least were from general surgery 2(1.64%. Most of the queries were for update of knowledge 69 (56.56% and time frame for reply was within a day 83 (68.03%, answers were given in printed format 77(63.11%. The majority of queries were regarding dose and administration of drug 49 (36.03% and most preferred resource was Micromedex 75 (52.45%. The quality of the services provided by the centre was appreciated by majority of its users. However there is a need to bring greater awareness about the service in the hospital and to encourage the healthcare professionals to utilize the services for better patient care.

  4. Human resources management for a hospital pharmacy department. (United States)

    Chase, P A


    The concepts of human resources management (HRM) are presented, and the application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department is described. Low salaries and poor working conditions had precipitated a mass exodus of pharmacists from a 650-bed, tertiary-care medical center. The newly hired director of pharmacy sought to rebuild the department by developing a three-stage HRM model consisting of needs forecasting, performance management, and advanced management systems. In the needs-forecasting stage, the strengths and weaknesses of departmental programs were determined through analysis of existing standards of practice, situational analysis, and financial analyses; the strengths and weaknesses of departmental employees were determined through the use of talent inventories, turnover analysis, analysis of time and leave records, reevaluation of the department's job classifications, performance and productivity evaluations, and productivity evaluations, and development of a philosophy of practice and mission statement. Needs and problems were addressed by examining each existing program and developing new policies and procedures, performance standards, quality assurance mechanisms, and productivity expectations. Personnel needs and problems were addressed by designing a system of differentiated career ladders, contracting with pharmacists for career moves, developing the skills of currently employed pharmacists, and implementing a succession planning model. The model has been in place for approximately three years and is beginning to yield the desired results. Application of HRM concepts to a hospital pharmacy department appears to have been successful in improving employee morale and in helping the department to meet goals of expanded and improved services.

  5. Professional development for an advanced practice nursing team. (United States)

    Pye, Sherry; Green, Angela


    Since its development in 1998, the Cardiology Advanced Practice Nurse team has been plagued by retention issues. The coordinator for the team developed this leadership project while participating in the 2008 to 2009 Maternal-Child Health Leadership Academy sponsored by Sigma Theta Tau International and Johnson & Johnson. The focus of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate initiatives to empower the advanced practice nurse team, promote their professional development, and ultimately improve retention of team members. Although evaluation data show progress toward addressing work environment issues, retention remains an ongoing problem.

  6. Activity and the Role of Keio University Pharmacy. (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko


    Keio University Faculty of Pharmacy opened an insurance pharmacy on its campus in 2001. This pharmacy was opened with the objectives of 1) educating pharmacists to serve the regional community; 2) heightening students' motivation; and 3) providing practical education geared to the needs of actual healthcare settings. Since my appointment as director in 2003, I have led various initiatives to determine an ideal business model for a university pharmacy. This paper reports these initiatives and discusses the mission and future prospects of university pharmacies. In terms of education, all 4th-year students provide medication guidance to simulated patients at our university pharmacy counters, and are briefed by pharmacists about pharmacy administration and dispensing activities. Over three periods each academic year, trainees from other universities have been accepted for long-term on-site training. Students also work at local facilities for elderly persons to learn how to effectively communicate with this demographic and to better understand their unique pharmacokinetic profiles, impaired QOL, etc. Students can also participate in health promotion and drug education courses for regional residents, and support their self-medication. Pharmacies are important points of contact with local communities where residents' lives can be medically monitored. It is important for pharmaceutical universities to operate their own pharmacies in order to determine and stay abreast of the evolving challenges society expects pharmaceutical science to address. University pharmacies need to become models for general community pharmacies.

  7. Promoting residencies to pharmacy students. (United States)

    Knapp, K K


    A program for promoting pharmacy residency training to pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific (UOP) is described. A residency club was started in 1982 to increase UOP students' interest in residency training and to provide them with relevant information. Some students needed to be convinced that residencies were primarily educational rather than staffing experiences. Students were made aware of pharmacists' practice in specialty areas, for which residency training is needed, and were taught how to prepare themselves for selection for residencies. The club was formed to encourage mutual support among the students, which would be less likely to occur if residencies were promoted only through work with individual students. Club meetings provide information about available residencies, the application process, and the value of residency training to a career in pharmacy. Students are taught how to prepare curricula vitae, how to interview, and how to select programs to which to apply. Applications for residencies increased. Although the rate of acceptance was low at first, it was expected to increase as more UOP students demonstrated their interest in and qualification for residency training. The promotion of residencies as part of a balanced career planning and placement program for pharmacy students is encouraged.

  8. [Life-support training to improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students]. (United States)

    Takamura, Norito; Tokunaga, Jin; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao


    Life-support (particularly, advanced life-support) training is not included in pharmacist education; however, the life-support should be mastered since a pharmacist is a medical professional. We consider it to be important to master other skills before the life-support practicing, because a pharmacist does not check a patient to assess their clinical condition and administer drugs (suppository, intravenous injection etc.) The pharmacist prepares medicines, but does not administer medicines to treat the patient. Furthermore, the pharmacist is not interested in the vital signs of the patient receiving the medicines (the pharmacist has not identified the patient has complaint from changes in vital signs), which is why pharmacists can not develop themselves as medical professionals. Based on this observation, life-support training should be considered. In other words, to foster pharmacists with high clinical competence, pharmacy students should receive life-support training after training in drug administration and vital sign checks in a bedside training room. Drug administration using a pharmacy system versatile-type training model and pharmacy training model, vital signs check and auscultation using a physical assessment model and a cardiac disease disorder simulator in our bedside practice are useful for advanced life-support using a high-performance care simulator (monitoring vital signs, adrenalin administration and oxygen inhalation for ventricular fibrillation (VF). These training skills can improve the clinical competence of pharmacy students.

  9. Health literacy in the pharmacy setting: defining pharmacotherapy literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King SR


    Full Text Available Objective: All currently available definitions of health literacy may be considered quite general. Given the complex nature of the patient-pharmacy encounter and the varying tasks required to properly and successfully consume or administer medication or to adhere to a pharmaceutical care regimen, these available definitions may describe inadequately a patient’s health literacy for the purpose of pharmacotherapy and pharmacist intervention. Therefore, the objective of this research was to conceptualize the Pharmacotherapy Literacy construct.Methods: Licensed pharmacists (n=2,368 were mailed a questionnaire providing them with the Healthy People 2010 definition of health literacy and asked, “Given this definition, how would you define Pharmacotherapy Literacy?” A total of 420 usable surveys were returned of which 176 (42% included responses to the open-ended question concerning pharmacotherapy literacy. Responses were reviewed independently and collectively by the authors. Common themes were identified, compared and discussed until consensus was reached. An initial definition was formulated and distributed to six doctoral-trained academicians and practicing pharmacists who were asked to offer their opinions of the definition as well as suggestions for its improvement. The definition was modified and subjected to further review from 15 additional doctoral-trained academicians and practicing pharmacists who provided feedback concerning its improvement.Results: Based on the recommendations received from the academicians and pharmacists, the following, definition was formulated by the authors: Pharmacotherapy Literacy – An individual’s capacity to obtain, evaluate, calculate, and comprehend basic information about pharmacotherapy and pharmacy related services necessary to make appropriate medication-related decisions, regardless of the mode of content delivery (e.g. written, oral, visual images and symbols.Conclusions: As the ever

  10. Challenges for Managed Care from 340B Contract Pharmacies. (United States)

    Fein, Adam J


    The federal 340B Drug Pricing Program has expanded rapidly, with important yet still unmeasured impact on both managed care practice and policies. Notably, providers increasingly rely on external, contract pharmacies to extend 340B pricing to a broad set of patients. In 2014, 1 in 4 U.S. retail, mail, and specialty pharmacy locations acted as contract pharmacies for 340B-covered entities. This commentary discusses crucial ways in which 340B growth is affecting managed care pharmacy through formulary rebates, profits from managed care paid prescriptions, disruption of retail pharmacy networks, and reduced generic dispensing rates. Managed care should become more engaged in the discussion on how the 340B program should evolve and offer policy proposals to mitigate the challenges being encountered. There is also an urgent need for objective, transparent research on the 340B program's costs, benefits, and implications for managed care pharmacy and practice.

  11. Offering Clinical Pharmacy Clerkship in Hospital for Pharmacy Student: A Successful Cooperation between Medical and Pharmacy Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Eslami


    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacy education has been changed in recent years. Pharmacy students need more practical and clinical skills which come from direct interaction with patients and other health care providers. To achieve this, students need more effective courses and clerkships. In this paper we describe our method to design and evaluate clinical pharmacy clerkship for the first time in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS.Methods: To  determine  the  most  beneficial way  of  education  we  designed  a  pilot  study  in educational hospital of AJUMS. After analyzing the conclusions from pilot study, 40 fifth year pharmacy student divided in ten groups and each group had a six week rotation in three different wards under supervision of medical residents. Each student was asked to provide evaluations during six total weeks of three different rotation sites.Results and Discussion: Clinical pharmacy clerkship led to successfully improved clinical skills for students such as being familiar with different practice environments, direct communication whit patients and medical team and participation in direct patient care activities. All the students participate in the course could pass the final exam and 85% of students believed this would be a necessary education course in their clerkship programs. Although there were some problems but pharmacy students benefited from this course and it gives them advantages in clinical knowledge and professional communication skills.

  12. Training Advanced Writing Skills: The Case for Deliberate Practice (United States)

    Kellogg, Ronald T.; Whiteford, Alison P.


    The development of advanced writing skills has been neglected in schools of the United States, with even some college graduates lacking the level of ability required in the workplace (National Commission on Writing, 2003, 2004). The core problem, we argue, is an insufficient degree of appropriate task practice distributed throughout the secondary…

  13. [Role of the freelance gerontological advanced practice nurse]. (United States)

    Lambert, Pascal


    Through their new and specialist skills, gerontological advanced practice nurses are a driving force for efficiency to improve the quality of care provided to elderly people. Working upstream of the geriatric sector, they can identify, prevent and treat in an adapted fashion the risks which can compromise an elderly person's ability to remain living at home.

  14. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments. (United States)

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann


    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  15. Using Bourdieu’s Theoretical Framework to Examine How the Pharmacy Educator Views Pharmacy Knowledge (United States)


    Objective. To explore how different pharmacy educators view pharmacy knowledge within the United Kingdom MPharm program and to relate these findings to Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework. Methods. Twelve qualitative interviews were conducted with 4 faculty members from 3 different types of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom: a newer school, an established teaching-based school, and an established research-intensive school. Selection was based on a representation of both science-based and practice-based disciplines, gender balance, and teaching experience. Results. The interview transcripts indicated how these members of the academic community describe knowledge. There was a polarization between science-based and practice-based educators in terms of Bourdieu’s description of field, species of capital, and habitus. Conclusion. A Bourdieusian perspective on the differences among faculty member responses supports our understanding of curriculum integration and offers some practical implications for the future development of pharmacy programs. PMID:26889065

  16. The Challenges of Pharmacy Education in Yemen (United States)


    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges. PMID:25386011

  17. Provision of clinical pharmacist services for individuals with chronic hepatitis C viral infection: Joint Opinion of the GI/Liver/Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. (United States)

    Mohammad, Rima A; Bulloch, Marilyn N; Chan, Juliana; Deming, Paulina; Love, Bryan; Smith, Lisa; Dong, Betty J; GI Liver Nutrition and Infectious Diseases Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy


    The objective of this opinion paper was to identify and describe potential clinical pharmacists' services for the prevention and management of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goals of this paper are to guide the establishment and development of pharmacy services for patients infected with HCV and to highlight HCV research and educational opportunities. Recommendations were based on the following: a review of published data on clinical pharmacist involvement in the treatment and management of HCV-infected patients; a consensus of clinical pharmacists who provide direct patient care to HCV-infected patients and practice in different pharmacy models, including community-based and academic settings; and a review of published guidelines and literature focusing on the treatment and management of HCV infections. The recommendations provided in this opinion paper define the areas of clinical pharmacist involvement and clinical pharmacy practice in the treatment and management of patients with HCV. Clinical pharmacists can promote preventive measures and education about reducing HCV transmission, improve medication adherence, assist in monitoring clinical and adverse effects, recommend treatment strategies to minimize adverse effects and drug interactions, and facilitate medication acquisition and logistics that positively improve patient outcomes and reduce the health care system costs.

  18. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yielder, Jill, E-mail: [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen [University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)


    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  19. Medicinal chemistry and the pharmacy curriculum. (United States)

    Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok


    The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.

  20. Advanced practice geriatric nursing education. New options in Kansas. (United States)

    Bonnel, W B


    Knowledgeable practitioners with the skills needed to serve in a variety of clinical settings are the primary objective of the Adult-Geriatric Advanced Nursing Program and the FNP elective, Advanced Practice Nursing Care of the Frail Elderly. The continued blending of long term and acute care settings will further cloud and challenge the school responsible for educating APNs in the care of older adults, particularly the frail elderly. Education needs to provide flexibility for students through new service designs such as interactive computer courses. Nurses with an orientation to the future should consider geriatric nursing education.

  1. Survey of Pharmacy Schools' Approaches and Attitudes toward Curricular Integration. (United States)

    Poirier, Therese I; Fan, Jingyang; Nieto, Marcelo J


    Objective. To identify ways in which curricular integration is addressed in US pharmacy schools, the structure of therapeutics and foundational science courses, and perceptions of the effects current curricular integration methods have on student learning. Methods. An electronic survey was sent to academic leaders representing 131 pharmacy schools in the United States. Frequency data was tabulated and demographic analysis was performed. Results. Respondent data represents 94 schools of pharmacy. Arranging similar content from various disciplines in a course, a skills laboratory and pharmacy practice experiences were the most common methods for achieving curricular integration. More than one half of the schools indicated that foundational sciences were integrated with therapeutics. The most common reported challenge to curricular integration was logistics. Conclusion. Pharmacy education in the United States has evolved in addressing curricular integration in the curricula, which is consistent with changes in accreditation standards. Most pharmacy schools reported a variety of methods for achieving the intent of curricular integration.

  2. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation. (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y


    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  3. Recognising advancing nursing practice: evidence from two observational studies. (United States)

    Wilson-Barnett, J; Barriball, K L; Reynolds, H; Jowett, S; Ryrie, I


    Debates over title, grades and relationships across the profession has tended to dominate the literature in advancing nursing practice. Fewer research projects have attempted to study the activities of nurses who are designated as undertaking advancing nursing roles. One study evaluating Masters courses for Clinical Nursing Practice and a second addressing the impact of the 'Scope of Professional Practice' (United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery & Health Visiting, 1992) document by this team of authors afforded these research opportunities. In this paper empirical data from 'reflective' observation with 19 nurses (including midwives and health visitors) are presented to illustrate the range and type of functions undertaken by a small group of practitioners developing their practice. A number of characteristic features emerged. Assessment of individual and group needs, positive motivation to constantly improve practice, inter-disciplinary and cross agency working for planned change and an ability to identify and prioritize service requirements were recognised in these nurses' roles. Certain personal attributes were seen to be essential for successful role development such as confidence, commitment and problem solving powers combined with a positive working environment and supportive managers.

  4. A formalized teaching, practice, and research partnership with the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System: a model for advancing academic partnerships. (United States)

    Hall, Ronald G; Foslein-Nash, Cynthia; Singh, Dilpreet K; Zeiss, Robert A; Sanders, Karen M; Patry, Roland; Leff, Richard


    In 1999, the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy expanded its Dallas/Fort Worth presence by creating a regional campus for pharmacy students in their third and fourth years (P3 and P4 years) of the program. This expansion was driven by the need for additional practice sites. The VANTHCS was an obvious choice for the school due to the similarity of missions for clinical practice, education, and research. The VANTHCS and pharmacy school renovated a 4,000 square foot building, which includes classrooms, conference rooms, a student lounge, and faculty offices (expanded to 8,000 square feet in 2003). To date, the school has invested $1 million in the building. From a practice perspective, VANTHCS purchases faculty professional services from the school to augment its clinical specialist staff. These professional practice contracts provide VANTHCS with 12 additional clinical pharmacy specialists serving 50% of their time in multiple specialty areas. The collaboration has also allowed for expansion of clinical teaching, benefitting both institutions. In addition to the pharmacy student interns on P3 and P4 practice experiences, the collaboration allows for 8 to 10 postgraduate pharmacy residents to train with VANTHCS clinical specialists and school faculty members each year. The VANTHCS/pharmacy school collaboration has clearly enhanced the ability of both institutions to exceed their teaching, research, and practice goals in a cost-effective manner.

  5. Advanced practice nursing in performing arts health care. (United States)

    Weslin, Anna T; Silva-Smith, Amy


    Performing arts medicine is a growing health care profession specializing in the needs of performing artists. As part of the performing arts venue, the dancer, a combination of athlete and artist, presents with unique health care needs requiring a more collaborative and holistic health care program. Currently there are relatively few advanced practice nurses (APNs) who specialize in performing arts health care. APNs, with focus on collaborative and holistic health care, are ideally suited to join other health care professionals in developing and implementing comprehensive health care programs for the performing artist. This article focuses on the dancer as the client in an APN practice that specializes in performing arts health care.

  6. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C


    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  7. The Internship Experience: A Manual for Pharmacy Preceptors and Interns. (United States)

    Grussing, Paul G., Ed.

    Responsibilities or practice requirements of pharmacy interns at three levels of expertise are outlined, and guidelines for using the designations in supervision and instruction are presented. Recent trends in pharmacy internship and the methodology that was used to identify performance dimensions, responsibilities, and tasks are examined, along…

  8. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA]. (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M


    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  9. Developing an advanced practice nurse-led liver clinic. (United States)

    McAfee, Jean L


    End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a leading cause of digestive disease deaths in the United States and continues to increase exponentially every year. Best practice does not currently recognize or utilize a clinic practice model for ESLD management. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) can impact ESLD disease management by implementing an outpatient clinic care model to focus on treatment compliance, patient education, improvement of patient outcomes, and reduction in hospital admission rates for ESLD patients. A review of 15 research articles was completed to determine the impact APRNs can make on chronic care of ESLD patients. Results from the review support APRN analysis, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, intervention, and evaluation of ESLD patients. The literature reviewed also demonstrates that ESLD patients have improved symptom management when maintained in an outpatient setting, allowing for decreased hospital and insurance expenditures. Following evaluation of the evidence, it was concluded that an APRN-led ESLD clinic merits further study.

  10. The advanced practice professionals' perspective: keys to a good working relationship between advanced practice professions and physicians. (United States)

    Polansky, Maura


    A strong working relationship between advanced practice professionals (APPs) and supervising oncologists is essential for reducing medical errors, retaining employees, and improving work environments. Although there is rather limited data on the unique relationship of the APP and physician, fundamental communication skills-including open communication, mutual respect, establishing expectations, and working with mutual purpose-should be the foundation of these relationships. This paper addresses various aspects of relationship building between APPs and physicians with suggestions for establishing successful working relationships.

  11. Pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya



    Objective To assess pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharm...

  12. Assessing the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care services in Karachi


    Muhammad Amir, B.Pharmacy, MSc. MBA, Assistant Professor/Clinical Pharmacist


    Provision of pharmaceutical care services in community pharmacies is a new trend in pharmacy practice worldwide. Published literature from developed countries is available showing benefits of pharmaceutical care services provided in community pharmacies. However, relatively little published literature is available from developing countries in which unique market environments are encountered. This study was conducted to assess the acceptability of community pharmacy based pharmaceutical care s...

  13. 基于优质护理服务药事管理实践%The Practice of High Quality Care Related Pharmacy Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周权; 朱玲玲


    从护理部与药剂科的关系定位、平台建设、用药安全和作业效率等方面,介绍了落实优质护理服务相关的药事管理经验.指出药剂科的优质药学服务可为优质护理服务的开展提供强大的技术支撑;护理团队与药师团队应紧密合作,共同为提高医疗品质而努力.%From the relationship between Department of Nursing and Department of Pharmacy, platform construction, pharmacy usage safety and operating efficiency, the paper introduced the experience of implementation of high quality care related pharmacy management. The paper pointed out that the quality of pharmaceutical care of the Department of Pharmacy can provide strong technical support for the launching of high quality care. The nursing team and pharmacist team should work closely together for the quality improvement of medical care.

  14. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy


    Alistair Gray


    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  15. Managing the gap: balancing advances in technology with advances in management practice. (United States)

    Ritchie, D


    Expenditure on information systems is widely anticipated to lead to improved management of health care resources. Despite large investments in hardware and software, these expectations are difficult to realise. Part of the difficulty lies in the manner in which information systems are applied to, rather than integrated within, organisations. This paper considers some of the the personal and organisational issues that need to be addressed to 'manage the gap' in balancing advances in information technology with advances in management practice. The issues identified are consistent with the concept of a learning organisation dealing with environmental change.

  16. Characterization of mudrocks: a practical application of advanced laboratory testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard J.JARDINE


    An integrated approach to geomaterial characterization is advocated that combines geology, in-situ testing, fabric studies, routine index experiments and advanced laboratory testing. It is shown that advanced laboratory testing can explore features such as kinematic yielding and anisotropy in stiffness or shear strength that would otherwise be impossible to quantify. A detailed study performed in London clay at the new Heathrow Terminal 5 site is used to illustrate the arguments made. It is shown that the London clay has strong anisotropy in stiffness, is highly non-linear over the strain range of engineering interest, has markedly anisotropic shear strength characteristics and exhibits a pronounced degree of brittleness. These features can impact significantly on the practical design and analysis of civil engineering works including shallow and deep foundations, tunnels and excavations, and the stability of slopes.

  17. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. (United States)

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P


    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  18. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course. (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Daniels, Lacy; Demps, Elaine


    Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL), an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist's and patient's roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple active-learning assignments were successful in increasing students' knowledge, and provided additional practice in building the communication skills beneficial for students preparing for experiential clinical rotations.

  19. Life in a fishbowl: accountability and integrity in pharmacy leadership. (United States)

    Haumschild, Ryan J; Weber, Robert J


    The Director's Forum is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems by providing practical information on various leadership topics. Pharmacists are bound to practice in the best interest of the patient and are obligated to act with integrity and in an ethical manner. Pharmacy directors and their leadership staff are additionally bound to manage their department with integrity. Staff often scrutinize the pharmacy director's actions, giving the director a feeling of "life in a fishbowl." Every action of the leader is judged in the context of personal integrity or their individual commitment to moral, spiritual, and ethical values. The objective of this article is to describe how a pharmacy leader manages this responsibility. This article addresses the pharmacy leader's obligations to act with integrity, reviews key integrity concerns in pharmacy leadership, and provides guidance for leading and managing in the context of ethics and integrity. Pharmacy directors must always be aware that they are open to both department and public scrutiny if they do not conduct themselves in a professional manner. Being accountable for their actions and maintaining a high standard of integrity, leaders can keep the focus of their departments on the goal of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  20. Combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process used for pharmacy wastewater treatment%生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜家绪; 买文宁; 王敏; 唐启


    采用生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水,介绍了制药废水处理工程的工艺流程、工艺设计、调试方法、处理效果和工程效益.运行结果表明,该系统处理效果好且运行稳定,出水水质满足《混装制剂类制药工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 21908—2008)表2标准.%The combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process has been designed for the treatment of pharmacy wastewater. The process flow,process design,debugging methods,treatment effect and engi-neering benefit of the pharmacy wastewater treatment project are introduced. The running results show that the treat-ment effect of the system is good,it runs steadily,and the effluent quality meets the requirements specified in Tab. 2 of the Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry Mixing/Compounding and Formulati on Category(GB 21908—2008).

  1. Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI): clinimetric validation (United States)

    Sastre-Fullana, Pedro; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Sesé-Abad, Albert; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; De Pedro-Gómez, Joan


    Objective To describe the development and clinimetric validation of the Advanced Practice Nursing Competency Assessment Instrument (APNCAI) through several evidence sources about reliability and validity in the Spanish context. Design and setting APNCAI development was based on a multisequential and systematic process: literature review, instrument content consensus through qualitative Delphi method approach (a panel of 51 Advanced Practice in Nursing –APN– experts was selected) and the clinimetric validation process based on a sample of 600 nurses from the Balearic Islands public healthcare setting. Methods An initial step for tool's content development process based on Delphi method approach of expert consensus was implemented. A subsequent phase of tool validation started from the analysis of APN core competencies latent measurement model, including exploratory and confirmatory techniques. Reliability evidence for each latent factor was also obtained. Items' scores were submitted to descriptive analysis, plus univariate and multivariate normality tests. Results An eight-factor competency assessment latent model obtained adequate fit, and it was composed by ‘Research and Evidence-Based Practice’, ‘Clinical and Professional Leadership’, ‘Interprofessional Relationship and Mentoring’, ‘Professional Autonomy’, ‘Quality Management’, ‘Care Management’, ‘Professional Teaching and Education’ and ‘Health Promotion’. Conclusions Adequate empirical evidence of reliability and validity for APNCAI makes it useful for application in healthcare policy programmes for APN competency assessment in Spain. PMID:28235968

  2. Application of Personal Drug (P-Drug) Seminar to Clinical Pharmacy Education in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences



    The P-drug seminar, a novel method of teaching the process of rational pharmacotherapy, was introduced in 2000 into the practice program of the clinical pharmacy course in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University (TMPU). The P-drug concept is evidence-based drug selection according to criteria (i.e., efficacy, safety, suitability and cost) deter mined in advance and rational prescribing by each physician. The P-drug seminar originated from e...

  3. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies. (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi


    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  4. Exploration and Practice on Teaching Reform of Organic Chemistry for Pharmacy Specialty%药学专业有机化学教学改革探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Organic chemistry was one of the important basic courses of pharmacy specialty,which had its own knowledge system and special characterisitc as the basic course for the students majored in pharmacy.Its theories and knowledge laid a solid foundation for the learning of subsequent pharmaceutical specialty courses.Based on the teaching practice,teaching rules and teaching methods of the new era required were in practice and explored,so as to improve student's whole quality and cultivate more comprehensive ability talents.%有机化学作为药学专业的一门重要的基础课程,具有自己特有的知识体系和学科特点。它的基本理论、基本知识为后续药学专业课程的学习打下了坚实的基础。本人结合具体教学实践,探索有机化学教学中适应新时代要求的教学规律和教学方法。宗旨是为全面提高学生素质,培养和造就更多综合能力人才的目标努力。

  5. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada. (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina


    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  6. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons. (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice


    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  7. Pharmacy cases in Second Life: an elective course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronin MA


    Full Text Available Michael A Veronin,1,2 Lacy Daniels,1,2 Elaine Demps21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, 2Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Kingsville, TX, USAAbstract: Interactive pharmacy case studies are an essential component of the pharmacy curriculum. We recently developed an elective course at the Rangel College of Pharmacy in pharmacy case studies for second- and third-year Doctor of Pharmacy students using Second Life® (SL, an interactive three-dimensional virtual environment that simulates the real world. This course explored the use of SL for education and training in pharmacy, emphasizing a case-based approach. Virtual worlds such as SL promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, and can potentially develop problem-solving skills in pharmacy students. Students were presented ten case scenarios that primarily focused on drug safety and effective communication with patients. Avatars, representing instructors and students, reviewed case scenarios during sessions in a virtual classroom. Individually and in teams, students participated in active-learning activities modeling both the pharmacist’s and patient’s roles. Student performance and learning were assessed based on SL class participation, activities, assignments, and two formal, essay-type online exams in Blackboard 9. Student course-evaluation results indicated favorable perceptions of content and delivery. Student comments included an enhanced appreciation of practical issues in pharmacy practice, flexibility of attendance, and an increased ability to focus on course content. Excellent student participation and performance in weekly active-learning activities translated into positive performance on subsequent formal assessments. Students were actively engaged and exposed to topics pertinent to pharmacy practice that were not covered in the required pharmacy curriculum. The multiple

  8. Barriers to advanced practice registered nurse scope of practice: issue analysis. (United States)

    Villegas, Whitney J; Allen, Patricia E


    Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) have the unique potential to affect the changing needs of health care in the United States, but are restricted in care provision by varying state regulations and reimbursement policies. Although research shows APRN care to be safe, cost-effective, and of high quality, most medical professional organizations continue to oppose the removal of scope-of-practice barriers, citing patient safety concerns. Nursing organizations at the state and national levels have already begun to invest the time and resources needed for policy change. However, empirical evidence of APRN quality of care must be shared with policymakers, funding entities, and the public. Additionally, support must be garnered from the public and other health care disciplines. Scope-of-practice policy change will occur through the emergence of strong individuals within nursing professional organizations and the joining together of organizations to form one voice.

  9. Advancing practice through prescribing: is there a better way? (United States)

    Harding, Stephen; Gardner, Andrew


    The literature demonstrates a clear relationship between the rate of adverse effects and the number of prescribers that a service consumer may consult. This brings into question the benefits, for the service consumer, of nurses prescribing. Given the complexities of care for certain population groups, for example older people, it is suggested that there is greater benefit in professionals working collaboratively toward the best outcome for the person in care, with nurses offering more informed advice to their partners in service delivery. Nurses who advance their practice through the development of an expert knowledge base relevant to their area of expertise can contribute to the diagnosis and management of particular client groups by providing specialist advice to primary and direct care professionals. It is proposed that this could be achieved using an 'academic detailing' approach rather than becoming another prescriber of pharmacotherapy.

  10. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp


    Most advanced process control systems are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). In this paper we discuss three critical issues for the practical implementation of linear MPC for process control applications. The rst issue is related to oset free control and disturbance models; the second issue...... is related to the use of soft output constraints in MPC; and the third issue is related to the computationally ecient solution of the quadratic program in the dynamic regulator of the MPC. We have implemented MPC in .Net using C# and the MPCMath library. The implemented MPC is based on the target...... models and integration of the innovation errors. If the disturbances increases, oset-free control cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function is used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of soft constraints for process output...

  11. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care. (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H


    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.

  12. Harnessing competence and confidence: Dimensions in education and development for advanced and consultant practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Richard C. [School of Health and Emergency Professions, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Edwards, Hazel M. [School of Health and Emergency Professions, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)


    Consultant and advanced practice are relatively new concepts in radiography. There is evidence to show that as the career progression framework is being adopted the numbers of consultant and advanced practitioners in radiography are growing with the latter growing at a faster rate. The article considers the concept of advanced and consultant practice and the education requirements to support development. Preparation for an advanced practice role begins at the practitioner stage. Masters' level programmes are available to support the development of advanced practice. Education needs to be flexible as new advanced practice roles emerge. It is necessary to take practitioners beyond a defined modality to include leadership and people skills. These are essential for those aspiring to become consultants. Consultants require a high level of clinical knowledge for expert practice but also strategic vision and interpersonal intelligence to facilitate leadership and practice innovation. A model for developing leadership skills for consultants focussing on competence, confidence and capacity is proposed.

  13. Advanced nursing practice and Newton's three laws of motion. (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    This article considers the reasons for the development of advanced practice roles among nurses and other healthcare professions. It explores the implications of financial constraints, consumer preferences and the development of new healthcare services on the reorganization of professional boundaries. It makes use of Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion to demonstrate how professional development in nursing has taken place in response to a number of external influences and demands. It also considers the significance of skill mix for the nursing profession, in particular the development and likely expansion of the physician assistant role. The application of different professionals and grades within a healthcare team or organization is central to the Government's Agenda for Change proposals and nurses have successfully adopted a number of roles traditionally performed by doctors. Nurses have demonstrated that they are capable of providing high quality care and contributing directly to positive patient outcome. Advanced nursing roles should not only reflect the changing nature of healthcare work, they should also be actively engaged in reconstructing healthcare boundaries.

  14. Controlling pharmacy costs. (United States)

    Stansfield, S


    There are many costs associated with parenteral nutrition: physician time, nursing time, biochemical monitoring, patient education, ancillary equipment and the nutrition solutions themselves. The solutions are easily identified as responsible for a large proportion of these costs. There are several strategies that can be used to help control pharmacy costs, such as selection of ingredients, purchasing contracts, standardized formulae and prescribing procedures, preprinted doctor's order forms, automated manufacturing and labelling processes, patient monitoring, all-in-one preparation, and contracted manufacturing services. Individual pharmacies need to know what options are available in order to select those that, in the context of their own institutions, can lead to cost savings and improved efficiency.

  15. 医院药剂科文化的构建与实践%Cultural Construction and Practice of the Pharmacy Department in Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜淑娴; 程红勤; 王育琴


    OBJECTIVE:To explore the influence of the cultural construction on the management of the pharmacy department and the level of pharmaceutical care.METHODS:The experience of the construction of department culture in our hospital was introduced,i.g.establishing same values of pharmacy department by building up the service concept of "patient-centered" and the contents of "quality,learning,team,sharing and performance".RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:The cultural construction of pharmacy department is developed by insisting quality management,building up learning organization,enhancing team construction and learning and communication,carrying out performance management.All pharmacist's enthusiasm and initiative are mobilized,cohesion of sections is enhanced,which contribute to the sustainable development of the department of pharmacy and the level of pharmaceutical care.%目的:探讨文化建设对药剂科管理和药学服务水平的影响.方法:介绍该院科室文化建设的经验,内容包括通过树立“以患者为中心”的服务理念,结合“质量、学习、团队、分享、绩效”等具体内容,确立了药剂科的共同价值观.结果与结论:通过坚持质量管理、构建学习型组织、加强团队建设、加强学习交流、实施绩效管理等进行药剂科的文化建设,调动了全体药师工作的积极性和主动性,科室的凝聚力得以加强,从而促进了药剂科的持续发展和药学服务水平的提升.

  16. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy


    Kristin K. Janke, Ph.D.; Todd D. Sorensen, Pharm.D.; Andrew P. Traynor, Pharm.D., BCPS


    The Clifton StrengthsFinder® is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual’s greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder® assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents ...

  17. Proceedings of the International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education. (1st, Minneapolis, Minnesota, July 13-16, 1976). (United States)

    American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Bethesda, MD.

    The proceedings of the First International Congress on Clinical Pharmacy Education, which introduced pharmacy educators from outside of North America to the U.S. clinical pharmacy component of education and practice are presented in more than 20 separate papers. The program's objectives were: (1) to provide a historical overview of the development…

  18. The psychiatric advanced practice nurse with prescriptive authority: role development, practice issues, and outcomes measurement. (United States)

    Cornwell, C; Chiverton, P


    Within the rapidly changing health care system, there is an increased need for professionals who can provide cost-effective primary health care for mentally ill patients. This article discusses the role of the Psychiatric Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) with Prescriptive Authority as a cost-effective, high-quality component of comprehensive mental health care delivery. Historical aspects of the development of the Nurse Practitioner (NP) role are discussed, as well as issues specific to the role in psychiatric nursing. The implementation of this role at Rochester is described, followed by recommendations for studying the impact of the psychiatric NP on care delivery, including process and outcome variables.

  19. Premixed intravenous admixtures: a positive development for hospital pharmacy. (United States)

    Lee, H E


    The development of premixed intravenous admixtures is reviewed in a historical context, and its effects on hospital pharmacy practice are discussed. As pharmaceutical manufacturers introduce more i.v. medications in ready-to-use containers, the same complaints that were voiced by pharmacists about unit dose packaging and ready-to-dispense tablets and capsules are being aired. But premixed i.v. admixtures are a logical extension of the basic unit dose principle of providing a readily identifiable and ready-to-administer dose. The time and cost savings these products offer are needed in hospital pharmacies. Some of the disadvantages of these products--including storage and freezer space and multiplicity of administration systems--are overcome by proper planning and education of personnel. If fewer personnel are now needed to prepare i.v. admixtures, then those personnel should be used to improve patient care in other ways. The use of premixed i.v. admixtures is a positive technological advance in drug packaging. Its advantages outweight its disadvantages, and it will soon be become the universally accepted form of i.v. drug packaging.

  20. Construction and Management of the Pharmacy Practice Base of Higher Vocational Education%药学专业校内实训基地的建设与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马彦; 徐刚


    The pharmacy students could master the pharmaceutical manufactural skills, pharmaceutical analysis skills, pharmaceutical marketing and service skills through training of the pharmacy professional practice base. Methods:According to the needs of students' different skills, plan and zone the practice base, and manage according to the characteristics of different practice zones, develop training projects on the basis of university-enterprise cooperation. Results: The students could master operation skills, professional habits, cultivate professional ethics by means of the real task driven under the simulation environment. Conclusion: Cultivate high professional quality pharmaceutical students, through comprehensive training and strengthening.%通过药学专业校内实训基地的建设和运行使学生掌握药品生产、药物分析检验、药品营销与服务等技能、养成药学职业习惯.方法:根据学生不同技能培养的需要,将实训基地进行了规划分区,并根据各实训区的特点进行建设和管理,校企合作开发实训项目.结果:学生在仿真的工作环境下,真实的任务驱动下,掌握操作技能、养成职业习惯、培养职业道德.结论:通过多方位校内实训基地的训练强化,培养高职业素养药学人才.

  1. Recommendations for Planning and Managing International Short-term Pharmacy Service Trips (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; Rovers, John; Connor, Sharon; White, Nicole D.; Hogue, Michael D.


    International pharmacy service trips by schools and colleges of pharmacy allow students to provide health care to medically underserved areas. A literature review (2000-2016) in databases and Internet searches with specific keywords or terms was performed to assess current practices to establish and maintain successful pharmacy service trips. Educational documents such as syllabi were obtained from pharmacy programs and examined. A preliminary draft was developed and authors worked on sections of interest and expertise. Considerations and current recommendations are provided for the key aspects of the home institution and the host country requirements for pharmacy service trips based on findings from a literature search and the authors’ collective, extensive experience. Evaluation of the trip and ethical considerations are also discussed. This article serves as a resource for schools and colleges of pharmacy that are interested in the development of new pharmacy service trips and provides key considerations for continuous quality improvement of current or future activities.

  2. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning In Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment


    Jeerisuda Khumsikiew; Sisira Donsamak; Manit Saeteaw


    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy students in the clinical environment that facilitated by pharmacy instructors. A PBL model was implemented in 1-day periods each wee...

  3. History of clinical pharmacy and clinical pharmacology. (United States)

    Miller, R R


    The purpose of the Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology is to describe the present and future functional roles of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists in drug research, professional education, and patient care. Clinical pharmacy is a relatively new professional discipline, being only about 15 years old. This new breed of pharmacists is patient rather than drug product oriented. The discipline arose out of dissatisfaction with old practice norms and the pressing need for a health professional with a comprehensive knowledge of the therapeutic use of drugs. The clinical pharmacy movement began at the University of Michigan in the early 1960s, but much of the pioneering work was done by David Burkholder, Paul Parker, and Charles Walton at the University of Kentucky in the latter part of the 1960s. Clinical pharmacology is a professional discipline that combines basic pharmacology and clinical medicine. Its development began in the early 1950s, primarily as a result of the efforts of Harry Gold. It has had a slower growth than clinical pharmacy but it has made many important contributions to our knowledge of human pharmacology and the rational use of drugs.

  4. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash G


    Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.

  5. The WHO UNESCO FIP Pharmacy Education Taskforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Mike


    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.

  6. Advances in computer technology: impact on the practice of medicine. (United States)

    Groth-Vasselli, B; Singh, K; Farnsworth, P N


    Advances in computer technology provide a wide range of applications which are revolutionizing the practice of medicine. The development of new software for the office creates a web of communication among physicians, staff members, health care facilities and associated agencies. This provides the physician with the prospect of a paperless office. At the other end of the spectrum, the development of 3D work stations and software based on computational chemistry permits visualization of protein molecules involved in disease. Computer assisted molecular modeling has been used to construct working 3D models of lens alpha-crystallin. The 3D structure of alpha-crystallin is basic to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lens fiber cell maturation, stabilization of the inner nuclear region, the maintenance of lens transparency and cataractogenesis. The major component of the high molecular weight aggregates that occur during cataractogenesis is alpha-crystallin subunits. Subunits of alpha-crystallin occur in other tissues of the body. In the central nervous system accumulation of these subunits in the form of dense inclusion bodies occurs in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and toxoplasmosis (Iwaki, Wisniewski et al., 1992), as well as neoplasms of astrocyte origin (Iwaki, Iwaki, et al., 1991). Also cardiac ischemia is associated with an increased alpha B synthesis (Chiesi, Longoni et al., 1990). On a more global level, the molecular structure of alpha-crystallin may provide information pertaining to the function of small heat shock proteins, hsp, in maintaining cell stability under the stress of disease.

  7. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland



    In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration) pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth) applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and r...

  8. Potential Risks of Pharmacy Compounding


    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael


    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compoun...

  9. Implementation of Advanced Access in a Family Medicine Residency Practice. (United States)

    Tseng, Ann; Wiser, Eric; Barclay, Emily; Aiello, Karen


    Several models of scheduling have been documented in the literature, including the traditional model, the carve-out model, and the advanced access model. We describe the implementation of the advanced access model in our clinic, which has been very successful. Advanced access has decreased third next available appointments to less than seven days for many of our providers and has increased individual primary care physician continuity for 40% of our providers. Interestingly, we had no gains in patient satisfaction, which is consistent with other previously published studies on advanced access.

  10. Global Health Education in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs in the United States (United States)

    Vu, Betty N.; Alsharif, Naser Z.; Prescott, William Allan


    Objective. To determine the extent and manner in which global health education is taught at US PharmD programs. Methods. A pre-tested 40-question electronic survey instrument was developed and sent to each of the 127 accredited or candidate-status US doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs. Results. Twenty-eight public and 27 private PharmD programs responded to the survey (43.3%). Twenty-five (45.5%) programs had integrated global health topics into their required didactic curriculum, and 30 of 52 programs (57.7%) offered at least one standalone global health elective course. Of the 52 programs that provided details regarding experiential education, 41 (78.8%) offered introductory and/or advanced pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs and/or APPEs) in global health, and 34 (65.4%) programs offered medical mission trips. Conclusion. Doctor of pharmacy programs participating in global health education most commonly educate students on global health through experiential learning, while inclusion of required and elective coursework in global health was less common. To adequately prepare students for an increasingly global society, US PharmD programs should consider expanding global health education.

  11. Exploring Knowledge, Attitudes and Abuse Concerning Doping in Sport among Syrian Pharmacy Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen El-Hammadi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST. Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know that narcotics, β-blockers and diuretics were used in sport as doping agents. Additionally, proportions between 60% and 80% considered vitamins, energy drinks and amino acids as substances that possess performance-enhancing effects. The main reason for doping, based on students’ response, was to improve muscular body appearance. The vast majority of students agreed that pharmacists should play a major role in promoting awareness about risks of doping. While students showed negative attitudes toward doping, approximately 15% of them, primarily males, had already tried a doping drug or might do so in the future. More than 60% of the students believed that sports-mates and friends are the most influential in encouraging them to take a doping agent. The study highlights the need to provide pharmacy students with advanced theoretical background and practical training concerning doping. This can be achieved by adopting simple, but essential, changes to the current curricula.

  12. ASHP statement on the pharmacy technician's role in pharmacy informatics. (United States)


    The American Society of Health- System Pharmacists (ASHP) believes that specially trained pharmacy technicians can assume important supportive roles in pharmacy informatics. These roles include automation and technology systems management, management of projects, training and education, policy and governance, customer service, charge integrity, and reporting. Such roles require pharmacy technicians to gain expertise in information technology (IT) systems, including knowledge of interfaces, computer management techniques, problem resolution, and database maintenance. This knowledge could be acquired through specialized training or experience in a health science or allied scientific field (e.g., health informatics). With appropriate safeguards and supervision, pharmacy technician informaticists (PTIs) will manage IT processes in health-system pharmacy services, ensuring a safe and efficient medication-use process.

  13. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie


    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  14. Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter - why do they exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig


    Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter...... between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived...... expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through...

  15. Informal learning processes in support of clinical service delivery in a service-oriented community pharmacy. (United States)

    Patterson, Brandon J; Bakken, Brianne K; Doucette, William R; Urmie, Julie M; McDonough, Randal P

    The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.

  16. Development of an instrument to assess the impact of an enhanced experiential model on pharmacy students' learning opportunities, skills and attitudes: A retrospective comparative-experimentalist study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins John B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacy schools across North America have been charged to ensure their students are adequately skilled in the principles and practices of pharmaceutical care. Despite this mandate, a large percentage of students experience insufficient opportunities to practice the activities, tasks and processes essential to pharmaceutical care. The objective of this retrospective study of pharmacy students was to: (1 as "proof of concept", test the overall educational impact of an enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiential (APPE model on student competencies; (2 develop an instrument to measure students' and preceptors' experiences; and (3 assess the psychometric properties of the instrument. Methods A comparative-experimental design, using student and preceptor surveys, was used to evaluate the impact of the enhanced community-based APPE over the traditional APPE model. The study was grounded in a 5-stage learning model: (1 an enhanced learning climate leads to (2 better utilization of learning opportunities, including (3 more frequent student/patient consultation, then to (4 improved skills acquisition, thence to (5 more favorable attitudes toward pharmaceutical care practice. The intervention included a one-day preceptor workshop, a comprehensive on-site student orientation and extending the experience from two four-week experiences in different pharmacies to one eight-week in one pharmacy. Results The 35 student and 38 preceptor survey results favored the enhanced model; with students conducting many more patient consultations and reporting greater skills improvement. In addition, the student self-assessment suggested changes in attitudes favoring pharmaceutical care principles. Psychometric testing showed the instrument to be sensitive, valid and reliable in ascertaining differences between the enhanced and traditional arms. Conclusion The enhanced experiential model positively affects learning opportunities and competency

  17. Student Mentors in Pharmacy Ethics. (United States)

    Richardson, James D.; And Others


    A study investigated use of upper-level undergraduate pharmacy students, rather than graduate students, as mentors/teaching assistants in a pharmacy ethics course. Course participants felt the student mentors facilitated their successful completion of the course, and that carefully selected, trained, and supported upper-level undergraduate student…

  18. Course experiences, satisfaction and career intent of final year pre-registration Australian pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen G


    Full Text Available Background: In Australia, the profession of pharmacy has undergone many changes to adapt to the needs of the community. In recent years, concerns have been raised with evidence emerging of workforce saturation in traditional pharmacy practice sectors. It is not known how current final year pharmacy students’ perceive the different pharmacy career paths in this changing environment. Hence investigating students’ current experiences with their pharmacy course, interaction with the profession and developing an understanding of their career intentions would be an important step, as these students would make up a large proportion of future pharmacy workforce Objective: The objective of this study was thus to investigate final year students’ career perspectives and the reasons for choosing pharmacy, satisfaction with this choice of pharmacy as a tertiary course and a possible future career, factors affecting satisfaction and intention of future career paths. Methods: A quantitative cross sectional survey of final year students from 3 Australian universities followed by a qualitative semi-structured interview of a convenience sample of final year students from the University of Sydney. Results: ‘Interest in health and medicine’ was the most important reason for choosing pharmacy (n=238. The majority of students were ‘somewhat satisfied’ with the choice of pharmacy (35.7% as a course and possible future career. Positive associations were found between satisfaction and reasons for joining pharmacy such as ‘felt pharmacy is a good profession’ (p=0.003 while negative associations included ‘joined pharmacy as a gateway to medicine or dentistry’ (p=0.001. Quantitate and qualitative results showed the most frequent perception of community pharmacy was ‘changing’ while hospital and pharmaceutical industry was described as ‘competitive’ and ‘research’ respectively. The highest career intention was community followed by hospital

  19. Practical engineering project of high concentration pharmacy production wastewater treatment%高浓度制药废水处理工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪莲; 孙茂然; 庞艳; 冀强; 冀贞泉


    Due to the fact that the major constituents of pharmacy production wastewater were DMF, triethylamine, tetrahydrofuran, and so on, a new wastewater treatment plant with the process of chemical oxidation-anaerobic-aerobic-contact oxidation was built for wastewater treatment. Because the high saline concentration in this kind of wastewater, it needed to be diluted before the chemical treatment. The effluent from the secondary sedimentation tank after the chemical treatment could meet the secondary grade standards of Integrated -waste-water discharge standard (GB 8978—1996). The order gas from the wastewater treatment was treated by the process of col-lection-pre-treatment-low temperature plasma treatment-post treatment-high space discharge. After the treatment, the gas could meet the secondary discharge standards of Emission standards for odor pollutants (GB 14554—93).%针对某制药公司废水主要成分为DMF、三乙胺、四氢呋喃等,新建1座废水处理厂,采用化学氧化—兼氧—好氧—接触氧化处理工艺.该类制药废水含盐量较高,需经稀释后再进行生化处理,经生化处理后二沉池出水可达《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978-1996)二级标准.处理工艺恶臭气体采用收集—预处理—低温等离子处理—后处理—高空排放工艺进行处理,处理后可达《恶臭污染物排放标准》(GB 14554-93)二级排放标准.

  20. Self-Reported Digital Literacy of the Pharmacy Workforce in North East Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie MacLure


    Full Text Available In their day-to-day practice, pharmacists, graduate (pre-registration pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, dispensing assistants and medicines counter assistants use widely available office, retail and management information systems alongside dedicated pharmacy management and electronic health (ehealth applications. The ability of pharmacy staff to use these applications at home and at work, also known as digital literacy or digital competence or e-skills, depends on personal experience and related education and training. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the self-reported digital literacy of the pharmacy workforce in the North East of Scotland. A purposive case sample survey was conducted across NHS Grampian in the NE of Scotland. Data collection was based on five items: sex, age band, role, pharmacy experience plus a final question about self-reported digital literacy. The study was conducted between August 2012 and March 2013 in 17 community and two hospital pharmacies. With few exceptions, pharmacy staff perceived their own digital literacy to be at a basic level. Secondary outcome measures of role, age, gender and work experience were not found to be clear determinants of digital literacy. Pharmacy staff need to be more digitally literate to harness technologies in pharmacy practice more effectively and efficiently.

  1. Pharmacy students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hajj MS


    Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj,1 Ayat S Hammad,1 Hebatalla M Afifi2 1College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2National Centre for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR, Doha, Qatar Objectives: The study objectives were to investigate Qatar pharmacy students’ attitudes toward pharmaceutical care (PC, to identify the factors that influence their attitudes, and to recognize their perceived barriers for PC provision. Methods: A cross-sectional and online survey of Qatar pharmacy students was conducted. Results: Over 4 weeks, 46 surveys were submitted (88% response rate. All respondents agreed that the pharmacist’s primary responsibility is to prevent and resolve medication therapy problems. Most respondents believed that PC provision is professionally rewarding and that all pharmacists should provide PC (93% and 91% of respondents, respectively. Highly perceived barriers for PC provision included lack of access to patient information (76%, inadequate drug information sources (55%, and time constraints (53%. Professional year and practical experience duration were inversely significantly associated with four and five statements, respectively, out of the 13 Standard Pharmaceutical Care Attitudes Survey statements, including the statements related to the value of PC, and its benefit in improving patient health and pharmacy practitioners’ careers. Conclusion: Qatar pharmacy students had positive attitudes toward PC. Efforts should be exerted to overcome their perceived barriers. Keywords: Qatar, pharmaceutical care, pharmacy, student

  2. Branding a college of pharmacy. (United States)

    Rupp, Michael T


    In a possible future of supply-demand imbalance in pharmacy education, a brand that positively differentiates a college or school of pharmacy from its competitors may be the key to its survival. The nominal group technique, a structured group problem-solving and decision-making process, was used during a faculty retreat to identify and agree on the core qualities that define the brand image of Midwestern University's College of Pharmacy in Glendale, AZ. Results from the retreat were provided to the faculty and students, who then proposed 168 mottos that embodied these qualities. Mottos were voted on by faculty members and pharmacy students. The highest ranked 24 choices were submitted to the faculty, who then selected the top 10 finalists. A final vote by students was used to select the winning motto. The methods described here may be useful to other colleges and schools of pharmacy that want to better define their own brand image and strengthen their organizational culture.

  3. A System Approach to Advanced Practice Clinician Standardization and High Reliability. (United States)

    Okuno-Jones, Susan; Siehoff, Alice; Law, Jennifer; Juarez, Patricia

    Advanced practice clinicians (APCs) are an integral part of the health care team. Opportunities exist within Advocate Health Care to standardize and optimize APC practice across the system. To enhance the role and talents of APCs, an approach to role definition and optimization of practice and a structured approach to orientation and evaluation are shared. Although in the early stages of development, definition and standardization of accountabilities in a framework to support system changes are transforming the practice of APCs.

  4. Collaborative learning through advanced Web2.0 practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos


    Latest advances in ICT have started impacting also the field of education and training. Social computing and Web2.0 technologies have brought vigorous opportunities for learning and have realised a shift of the web‟s role in learning from an information carrier to a facilitator for the creation...... and distribution of collective knowledge [1]. Technological advances have enhanced the potential of collaborative learning and peer-learning, where students can become more active participants and co-producers of knowledge, thereby allowing for more horizontal educational structures and contexts....

  5. 21 CFR 1304.05 - Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of authorized central fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. 1304.05 Section 1304.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fill pharmacies and retail pharmacies. (a) Every retail pharmacy that utilizes the services of...

  6. Succession planning in US pharmacy schools. (United States)

    Van Amburgh, Jenny; Surratt, Christopher K; Green, James S; Gallucci, Randle M; Colbert, James; Zatopek, Shara L; Blouin, Robert A


    The deans, associate and assistant deans, and department chairs of a college or school of pharmacy retain historic memories of the institution and share the responsibility for day-to-day operation, sustainability, and future planning. Between the anticipated retirement of baby boomers who are senior administrative faculty members and the steady increase in number of colleges and schools of pharmacy, the academy is facing a shortage of qualified successors. Succession planning involves planning for the effective transition of personnel in leadership positions within an organization. This paper describes the subject of succession planning at a sample population of AACP institutions by obtaining perspectives on the subject from the deans of these institutions via standardized interview instruments. The instruments were utilized with 15 deans; all interview data were blinded and analyzed using analyst triangulation. The majority of deans responded that some level of succession planning was desirable and even necessary; however, none claimed to have a formal succession planning structure in place at his or her home institution. Although widely accepted and well-recognized in the corporate and military sectors, succession planning within pharmacy schools and colleges is neither universally documented nor implemented. Differences exist within the administrative structure of these non-academic and academic institutions that may preclude a uniform succession planning format. While the evidence presented suggests that succession planning is needed within the academy, a concerted effort must be made towards implementing its practice.

  7. The advanced registered nurse practitioner in rural practice. (United States)

    Schmidt, L; Brandt, J; Norris, K


    Availability of health care to rural areas is limited. FNP's in rural practice have the ability to address rural needs and tailor interventions to the specific attributes of rural populations. The objective of this article is to define the role and the functions of the FNP and to support and defend this role in the rural setting. Much of the FNP research presented in the literature to date focuses on urban populations; therefore, the unique health care problems and needs of rural populations will first be defined as they relate to the FNP's scope of practice.

  8. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy]. (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko


    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  9. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study. (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie


    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  10. Pharmacy Students' Self-Identified Interests in a Hospital Pharmacy Internship Course in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ranjbar


    Full Text Available Introduction: After revision of pharmacy curriculum by, Iranian Health and Education Ministry reviewed in 2005, it was decided that pharmacy students need extra internship courses such as hospital internship course. Hospital internship course could provide students with the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and master the skills required for current pharmacy practices in community and hospital setting. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze pharmacy students’ experiences during hospital internship. Methods: Each student attended in 3 wards and provided a logbook for each ward. Students were asked to document at least one topic interesting for them on each day. The collected information was divided into sections and analyzed using SPSS ver 14. Results: Seventeen students enrolled in the course. Endocrinology and nephrology wards had the highest and neurology the lowest number of attended students. Seven hundred and one reported learning subjects were divided into 24 areas. The highest numbers of reported topics were the drugs indications, adverse drug reactions and diagnosis of diseases while the lowest number was pretreatment laboratory tests, pharmacoeconomy, counseling medical staffs and off label use of medications. Gastroenterology and endocrinology wards with 210 reports had the highest and neurology ward with 12 had the lowest number of reports. Conclusion: Completing the logbooks was an encouragement for students to seek and document and learn new topics and also a major feature of the clinical assessment scheme of the course. The majority of the reported topics were learning objectives but not the interventional ones. The present study showed us some areas of pharmacy education which need further attention.

  11. Advances in the application of action learning in nursing practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-Huan Han; Yan Zhang; Jian-Ge Zhang; Bei-Lei Lin


    In this paper, we elucidate the concept and characteristics of action learning as well as summarize the reflexivity, cooperativeness, and subjectivity of this approach. Furthermore, we describe the effects and limitations of action learning when applied in nursing management, nursing education, and clinical practice, among various fields.

  12. Advancing Risk and Value Management Practices for Processes and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Ojala


    Full Text Available During the last decades software has become an important part of our everyday life in the form of various information processing intensive products and services. The competition between software companies has risen considerably and at the same time the importance of cost efficient and value creating software development has been recognized in many companies. Value Engineering has been a usable to method for developing high value products for several years. Earlier it has been applied successfully to software process as well as to software product development. Normally the development of high value products contains also several risks. Combination of efficient value management practices and risk management is one possibility to try to avoid the most dangerous risks to realize for planned value. This research combines Value Engineering and risk management practices into a usable new method in order to better respond to the challenges that risks might cause to the value of software products and their development. This is done in part by defining the concepts of value, worth and cost and in part by defining the Value Engineering process with necessary risk management practices. Three practical industrial cases show that proposed two-dimensional method works in practise and is useful to assessed companies.

  13. Practical Implementation of Cooperative RRM for IMT-Advanced Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Tragos, Elias; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis


    This paper describes a practical implementation of a radio resource management (RRM) framework for support of cooperation between radio access networks (RANs). The platform supports the inter-working between a next generation RAN and legacy systems (i.e., WLAN, UMTS). The platform is based on rea...

  14. Use of clinical practice as a motivating tool of radioprotection teaching and radiopharmacology in early semesters of pharmacy course; Uso da pratica clinica como ferramenta motivadora de ensino de radioprotecao e radiofarmacologia em semestres iniciais em cursos de farmacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrighetto, Daniela; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CCNE/DEFIS/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica


    The research teaching methods aimed at the success of the higher education student in pharmacology and medicine courses in technical expertise in the fields of radiological protection, radiopharmacology and interventional radiology is extremely important in view of the progress of these sectors. The objective of this work is to propose a methodological sequence of teaching work with first-year students of pharmacy and medicine courses within a biophysical discipline where the integrated knowledge to clinical practice can be used for this purpose. The methodology was to assess individual learning of a group of N = 49 students of the first half in the age group of 17-19 years through conceptual acquisition by the traditional method of 'blackboard and chalk' and developed method that includes four pedagogical moments focused on the area health. An analysis of the evaluation student performance through Variance Analysis of a pathway showed improved scores with respect to the performance of application issues of knowledge concerning radiation protection and biological mechanisms of radiation with respect to the method of 'blackboard and chalk' with p < 0.05. Therefore, work with students with respect to the content in the form of six steps of clinical interest are a promising technique for radiation protection education in the early grades of college courses with experimental effectiveness.

  15. Review of community pharmacy services: what is being performed, and where are the opportunities for improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melton BL


    Full Text Available Brittany L Melton, Zoe Lai Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Objective: The aim of this review was to assess pharmacist and pharmacy services being provided and identify opportunities to improve patient satisfaction.Methods: Studies published between January 2006 and July 2016 examining patient satisfaction with pharmacy and pharmacist services, which were written in English, were identified in PubMed. Studies were excluded if they only looked at pharmacy student-provided services.Key findings: A total of 50 studies were ultimately included in the review. Of these studies, 28 examined services traditionally provided by community pharmacists such as dispensing and counseling, while 16 examined a new in-person service being offered by a pharmacy, and the remaining six involved a new technology-assisted service. While study findings were generally positive for patient satisfaction of pharmacy services, several opportunities were identified for pharmacies to improve.Conclusion: Overall, patient satisfaction is high across pharmacy services; however, this satisfaction is related to prior patient exposure to services and their level of expectation. Pharmacists have multiple opportunities to improve the services they provide, and there are additional services pharmacists may consider offering to expand their role within the health care system. Keywords: pharmacy, services, community, patient satisfaction

  16. Integrating Social Neuroscience and Social Work: Innovations for Advancing Practice-Based Research (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica


    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is…

  17. What is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone? A scoping review. (United States)

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Van Hout, Marie Claire


    There is growing evidence that expanded supply of take-home naloxone to prevent opioid overdose deaths is needed. Potential routes for expansion of naloxone provision include through community pharmacies. The aim of this scoping review is to establish what is known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone, in light of unique challenges and opportunities present in pharmacy settings. A scoping review methodology was employed using the six stage iterative process advocated by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) and Levac et al. (2010). Searches used key words and terms such as 'naloxone'; 'overdose prevention/drug overdose/opiate overdose'; 'community/retail pharmacy'; 'pharmacist/pharmacy/community pharmacy/pharmaceutical services'; 'professional practice/role'; 'community care'; attitude of health personnel'; 'training/supply/cost'. Appropriate search terms were selected for each database. After initial exploratory searches, comprehensive searches were conducted with Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Eligibility criteria centered on whether studies broadly described supply of naloxone in community pharmacy or had content relating to community pharmacy supply. The search identified 95 articles, of which 16 were related to pharmacy supply of naloxone. Five themes were presented after initial review of the data and consultation with the project Expert Group, and are; 'Pharmacists Perceptions of Naloxone: Facilitators and Barriers', 'Patient Populations: Identification and Recruitment', 'Supply Systems and Cost', 'Legal Issues', and 'Training of Pharmacists and Community Pharmacy Naloxone Recipients'. Findings from this scoping review suggest that community pharmacy based supply of take-home naloxone warrants the community pharmacy based route for distribution of take home naloxone provision warrants further consideration and development. Existing strengths include a range of established supply models, and

  18. The Competencies, Roles and Scope of Practice of Advanced Psychiatric Nursing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Wardani


    Full Text Available The graduate advanced psychiatric nursing (psychiatric nursing specialist from master degree in Indonesia are about 70 nurses, 67 nurses were graduated from University of Indonesia. They are working at mental health services and educational setting around Indonesia and yet seem not ready to perform some specific advanced competencies in clinical area. The mastery on mental health assessment, neurochemical perspectives, medical management and psychotherapy have not yet performed by the psychiatric nurse specialist in the clinical area or community.To have those competencies and its performances, therefore the curriculum in a psychiatric nursing graduate program must include advanced courses in physiopsychology, psychopathology, advanced psychopharmacology, neurobehavioral science, advanced mental health assessment, and advanced treatment interventions such as psychotherapy and prescription and management of psychotropic medications as their core and major courses in the curriculum. Those courses should be performed in their clinical practice courses or other related learning experiences. When those qualifications are met, then they are competent to be called advanced psychiatric nurse.As advanced practice registered nurses, the advanced psychiatric nurses should be able to demonstrate their direct expertise and roles in advanced mental health assessment, diagnostic evaluation, psychopharmacology management, psychotherapy with individuals, group and families, case management, millieu management, liason and counselling from prevention, promotion until psychiatric rehabilitation. Meanwhile the skill such as psycho-education, teaching, unit management, research and staff development can be added as their indirect roles.

  19. Assuming a Pharmacy Organization Leadership Position: A Guide for Pharmacy Leaders. (United States)

    Shay, Blake; Weber, Robert J


    Important and influential pharmacy organization leadership positions, such as president, board member, or committee chair, are volunteer positions and require a commitment of personal and professional time. These positions provide excellent opportunities for leadership development, personal promotion, and advancement of the profession. In deciding to assume a leadership position, interested individuals must consider the impact on their personal and professional commitments and relationships, career planning, employer support, current and future department projects, employee support, and personal readiness. This article reviews these factors and also provides an assessment tool that leaders can use to determine their readiness to assume leadership positions. By using an assessment tool, pharmacy leaders can better understand their ability to assume an important and influential leadership position while achieving job and personal goals.

  20. Advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners’ ideas and needs for supervision in private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Temane


    Full Text Available Background: Supervision forms an integral part of psychiatric nursing. The value of clinical supervision has been demonstrated widely in research. Despite efforts made toward advanced psychiatric nursing, supervision seems to be non-existent in this field. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners’ ideas and needs with regard to supervision in private practice in order to contribute to the new efforts made in advanced psychiatric nursing in South Africa. Method: A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory, and contextual design using a phenomenological approach as research method was utilised in this study. A purposive sampling was used. Eight advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners in private practice described their ideas and needs for supervision during phenomenological interviews. Tesch’s method of open coding was utilised to analyse data. After data analysis the findings were recontextualised within literature. Results: The data analysis generated the following themes – that the supervisor should have or possess: (a professional competencies, (b personal competencies and (c specific facilitative communication skills. The findings indicated that there was a need for supervision of advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners in private practice in South Africa. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is need for supervision and competent supervisors in private practice. Supervision can be beneficial with regard to developing a culture of support for advanced psychiatric practitioners in private practice and also psychiatric nurse practitioners.

  1. Advancement in Sensing Technology New Developments and Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jayasundera, Krishanthi; Fuchs, Anton


    The book presents the recent advancements in the area of sensors and sensing technology, specifically in environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, dielectric, magnetic, electrochemical, ultrasonic, microfluidic, flow, surface acoustic wave, gas, cloud computing and bio-medical.   This book will be useful to a variety of readers, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, working on sensors and sensing technology. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

  2. Advanced hemodynamic monitoring: principles and practice in neurocritical care. (United States)

    Lazaridis, Christos


    Advanced hemodynamic monitoring is necessary for many patients with acute brain and/or spinal cord injury. Optimizing cerebral and systemic physiology requires multi-organ system function monitoring. Hemodynamic manipulations are cardinal among interventions to regulate cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral blood flow. The pulmonary artery catheter is not any more the sole tool available; less invasive and potentially more accurate methodologies have been developed and employed in the operating room and among diverse critically ill populations. These include transpulmonary thermodilution, arterial pressure pulse contour, and waveform analysis and bedside critical care ultrasound. A thorough understanding of hemodynamics and of the available monitoring modalities is an essential skill for the neurointensivist.

  3. Prosthodontics in a general practice program of advanced dental education. (United States)

    Plekavich, E J


    The problems involved in teaching prosthodontics in a general practice program outwardly appear to be due to the lack of sufficient basic prosthodontic training dispensed by the dental schools. This lack of sufficient training is not the fault of dental school faculties. The students are not learning what they are taught. What they need is more repetition, which means more time. The problems are not insurmountable. We just must find the route.

  4. The evolving role of advanced practice nursing within the new Veteran's Health Administration. (United States)

    Lynn, M M; Achtmeyer, C; Chavez, C; Zicafoose, B; Therien, J


    The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) is experiencing profound change in focus and organization of service delivery. The focus of the evolving VHA system includes improvements in performance outcomes, such as actual costs, better access, higher levels of customer satisfaction, and improved functional status of patients. Given the changing nature of service delivery in the VHA system and the contributions of the Advanced Practices Nurses (APNs), this article explores the expanding role of the APN within the VHA and presents a best practice model for achieving the full potential of advanced nursing practice.

  5. Using advanced mobile devices in nursing practice--the views of nurses and nursing students. (United States)

    Johansson, Pauline; Petersson, Göran; Saveman, Britt-Inger; Nilsson, Gunilla


    Advanced mobile devices allow registered nurses and nursing students to keep up-to-date with expanding health-related knowledge but are rarely used in nursing in Sweden. This study aims at describing registered nurses' and nursing students' views regarding the use of advanced mobile devices in nursing practice. A cross-sectional study was completed in 2012; a total of 398 participants replied to a questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were applied. Results showed that the majority of the participants regarded an advanced mobile device to be useful, giving access to necessary information and also being useful in making notes, planning their work and saving time. Furthermore, the advanced mobile device was regarded to improve patient safety and the quality of care and to increase confidence. In order to continuously improve the safety and quality of health care, advanced mobile devices adjusted for nursing practice should be further developed, implemented and evaluated in research.

  6. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology]. (United States)

    Vons, J


    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  7. A growing codependency: compounding pharmacy and safety. (United States)

    Prince, Bryan; Lundevall, Jeremy


    Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are in constant contact with potent compounds. When compounding with powders, there is a susceptibility to environmental conditions such that proper containment be in place to keep the employees safe, the medicine free from cross contamination or the introduction of outside contaminants, and the workplace free from floating active pharmaceutical ingredient particles. Adapting powder hoods as safety devices that work in direct relation to clearly defined standard operating procedures and good lab practices will facilitate a safer lab environment for employees and ensure good-quality prescriptions. This article discusses the safety concerns of compounding with powders and the safety measures to consider when purchasing powder hoods.

  8. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications? (United States)

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M


    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  9. Practical advance in obtaining an emergency airway via cricothyroidotomy. (United States)

    Huber, William G; Dahman, Marc H; Thomas, Deanna; Lipschutz, Joshua H


    By the time a cricothyroidotomy is deemed necessary, the patient is in critical need of an emergency airway before anoxic damage ensues. Two things are necessary for the delivery of the requisite oxygen. First, an airway must be rapidly established. Second, the airway must be large enough to facilitate ventilation. Present methods for emergency cricothyroidotomy include needle cricothyroidotomy, which suffers from difficulties in both establishment and ventilation. We describe here a practical and widely available method for establishing a timely effective airway that has been used successfully for five patients since 1992.

  10. Sensors advancements in modeling, design issues, fabrication and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhash Chandra


    Sensors are the most important component in any system and engineers in any field need to understand the fundamentals of how these components work, how to select them properly and how to integrate them into an overall system. This book has outlined the fundamentals, analytical concepts, modelling and design issues, technical details and practical applications of different types of sensors, electromagnetic, capacitive, ultrasonic, vision, Terahertz, displacement, fibre-optic and so on. The book: addresses the identification, modeling, selection, operation and integration of a wide variety of se

  11. Advancing the Practice of Health Coaching: Differentiation From Wellness Coaching. (United States)

    Huffman, Melinda H


    The increasing demand for health coaches and wellness coaches in worksite health promotion and the marketplace has resulted in a plethora of training programs with wide variations in coaching definitions, content, attributes, and eligibility of those who may train. It is in the interest of public awareness and safety that those in clinical practice take the lead in this discussion and offer a reasonable contrast and comparison focusing on the risks and responsibilities of health coaching in particular. With the endorsement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN), the National Society of Health Coaches, whose membership is primarily nurses, discusses the issue and states its position here.

  12. Impact of advanced manufacturing technology on prosthetic and orthotic practice. (United States)

    Jones, D


    Radical changes in the technology applied to prosthetics and orthotics are being proposed. This paper attempts to define the scope and character of advanced manufacturing technology and examines the rehabilitation problems which are or could be tackled. Lower-limb prosthetics has been the major area under investigation so far, but orthopaedic footwear, spinal orthotics and custom seating for the disabled have also been investigated using similar technological approaches. The whole process of patient measurement, device design, and component manufacture is conceived as an integrated system relying upon shape or tissue property sensing, computer based device design and computer-numerically-controlled or robot manufacturing processes. The aim is to retain flexibility for custom design which is necessary to provide for individual patients, and yet improve the rapidity and precision of overall device manufacture and service delivery.

  13. Diversification strategies for hospital pharmacies. (United States)

    Smith, J E; Phillips, D J; Meyer, G E


    Several ways used by the pharmacy department of a large university hospital to generate revenue through diversification are described. The department offers its facilities and staff as a resource in training medical service representatives for several pharmaceutical manufacturers, which is projected to provide $85,000 in net income for fiscal year (FY) 1983-84. The pharmacy department also conducts a six-month program for training pharmacy technicians, which yields a small net profit. The pharmacy department actively participates in educational programs such as college courses and clerkships earning extra income. An apothecary-style outpatient pharmacy was set up under a for-profit corporation. Services have been expanded to include the preparation of i.v. solutions that support home care. A durable medical equipment (DME) business is planned. The ambulatory and home-care programs are expected to generate approximately $165,000 in net profit next year. Contract pharmaceutical services are provided to another hospital. The net income generated through diversification in this pharmacy department will exceed $250,000 in FY 1983-84.

  14. Advancing patient safety: a framework for accountability and practical action. (United States)

    Wilson, N J; Hatlie, M J


    This article traces the development of the patient safety movement in healthcare from 1997 to the present. It reviews the findings and recommendations in the Institute of Medicine report on medical errors, which issued a call to action. Moving beyond the call to action requires aligning incentives, in both public and private sectors, consistent with complexity theory and the tenets of a systems approach to the reliable delivery of service in dynamic environments in which failure produces severe consequences. Because safety is a fundamental value of healthcare and has money-saving potential, it can be a powerful pathway forcultural change. Thisarticle explains a simple framework that requires alignment among stakeholder groups and communities. It recommends a practical problem-solving approach and explores the roles and responsibilities of each segment within the framework. Finally, it describes a VHA Inc. leadership initiative, based on the framework, to promote change within healthcare systems.

  15. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy. (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S


    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  16. Fostering and managing diversity in schools of pharmacy. (United States)

    Nkansah, Nancy T; Youmans, Sharon L; Agness, Chanel F; Assemi, Mitra


    Organizational benefits of diversity in the workplace have been well documented. In health professions, however, diversity-related research traditionally has focused on the effect of diversity on health care disparities. Few tools exist describing the benefits of diversity from an organizational standpoint to guide pharmacy administrators and faculty members in nurturing and developing a culture of diversity. Given the scarcity of pharmacy specific data, experience from other academic areas and national/international diversity reports were incorporated into this manuscript to supplement the available pharmacy evidence base. This review summarizes the benefits of diversity from an academic organizational standpoint, discusses the issues administrators and faculty members must consider when developing programs, and provides guidance on best practices in fostering and managing diversity.

  17. Birth order and communication skills of pharmacy students. (United States)

    Murawski, M M; Miederhoff, P; Rule, W


    Pharmacy educators are training graduates in a concept of practice called pharmaceutical care. The movement towards patient care requires consideration of the personal and social qualities of trainees. All individuals attracted to pharmacy may not desire involvement in patient care. This preliminary study of pharmacy students of the relationships among birth order, empathy, and assertiveness behaviors using the Interpersonal Communication Inventory showed the incidence of firstborn students in this sample was not significantly higher than in the general population but the incidence of those born second was significantly lower. Regression analysis of individual items gave significant correlations between birth order and three items on the inventory. While few conclusions can be drawn, a clear direction for further research is indicated.

  18. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA


    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  19. Pharmacy Education Development In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Peymani


    Full Text Available For the first time in 1922, a pharmacy division was set up atthe school of medicine. In 1926, the first union of Iranianpharmacy students who had graduated in France and returnedto Iran. Duration of this course was 3 years. In 1939 this coursechanges to 4-years program and 140 Credits. After that TehranUniversity changed the Pharmacy degree from Masters todoctorate (Pharm.D. and the duration of the study wasincreased to 5 years [1, 2].During all these years pharmacy department were belongto faculty of medicine. In 1956 the first faculty of pharmacywas established. Then, in 1973 each academic year waschanged into two semesters. After this modification, Pharmacystudents would get their Pharm.D degree after writing thesesand taking an oath [1]. Graduates need to present and defendtheir theses in different fields of pharmacy and this addsanother year to their studies and generally after 6 yearsstudents can graduate as Doctor in Pharmacy. The Pharm.Ddegree program requires at least 2-years of specific preprofessional(undergraduate coursework followed by 4-academic years of professional study. Pharmacy colleges andschools accept students directly from high school for Pharm.Dprogram [3].When Iranian students finished eight years of primaryschool and four years of high school in natural sciences(Experimental Sciences Diploma, can attend a nationalentrance exam for universities. At now, we have 16 faculty ofpharmacy in university of medical sciences. After Fivesemesters which is equal to 90-100 credits of general and basicsciences study, students entrance National test named “thebasic sciences exam” which is held for pharmacy students[3].

  20. The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe


    BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...... of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to argue for the inclusion of political pre-studies as part of the study design for implementation studies on reimbursed services in community pharmacy. METHODS: A political pre-study of the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) introduced in Denmark in 2004...

  1. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A


    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn....... Previous participation in a study or activity on drug-related problems and the size of the pharmacy also had statistically significant effects on the problem detection rate. The use of open-ended questions to create a dialogue with the patient seemed to be a successful means to discover problems....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  2. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, Paul W


    In this paper we explore the theory of communities of practice in the context of a physics college course and in particular the classroom environment of an advanced laboratory. We introduce the idea of elements of a classroom community being able to provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of practice of physicists. This opportunity is a result of structural features of the course and a primary instructional choice which result in the development of a learning community with several elements that encourage students to engage in more authentic practices of a physicist. A jump in accountable disciplinary knowledge is also explored as a motivation for enculturation into the community of practice of physicists. In the advanced laboratory what students are being assessed on as counting as physics is significantly different and so they need to assimilate in order to succeed.

  3. The foundation and development of the department of pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Jovan


    Full Text Available The Department of Pharmacy. The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. Activities of the Department of Pharmacy. The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to European centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Pharmacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was Established.

  4. Not sold here: limited access to legally available syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Kimberly C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterile syringe access is a critical component of HIV prevention programs. Although retail pharmacies provide convenient outlets for syringe access, injection drug users (IDUs may encounter barriers to syringe purchase even where purchase without a prescription is legal. We sought to obtain an objective measure of syringe access in Tijuana, Mexico, where IDUs report being denied or overcharged for syringes at pharmacies. Methods Trained "mystery shoppers" attempted to buy a 1 cc insulin syringe according to a predetermined script at all retail pharmacies in three Tijuana neighborhoods. The same pharmacies were surveyed by telephone regarding their syringe sales policies. Data on purchase attempts were analyzed using basic statistics to obtain an objective measure of syringe access and compared with data on stated sales policies to ascertain consistency. Results Only 46 (28.4% of 162 syringe purchase attempts were successful. Leading reasons for unsuccessful attempts were being told that the pharmacy didn't sell syringes (35.3%, there were no syringes in stock (31.0%, or a prescription was required (20.7%. Of 136 pharmacies also surveyed by telephone, a majority (88.2% reported selling syringes but only one-third (32.5% had a successful mystery shopper purchase; the majority of unsuccessful purchases were attributed to being told the pharmacy didn't sell syringes. There was similar discordance regarding prescription policies: 74 pharmacies said in the telephone survey that they did not require a prescription for syringes, yet 10 of these pharmacies asked the mystery shopper for a prescription. Conclusions IDUs in Tijuana have limited access to syringes through retail pharmacies and policies and practices regarding syringe sales are inconsistent. Reasons for these restrictive and inconsistent practices must be identified and addressed to expand syringe access, reduce syringe sharing and prevent HIV transmission.

  5. 药学管理引入ISO质量管理体系的实践及体会%The Practice and Experience of Applying ISO Quality Management Systems to the Hospital Pharmacy Manage-ment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉刚; 陈淑媛; 付小平


    医院药学管理工作中引入ISO质量管理体系.探讨了提高药学管理水平的途径和方法 .结果 表明药学事业迅速发展,工作有章可循,药学管理的制度化、程序化程度提高.%The way of improving the pharmacy management level was discussed in the article, through the ISO quantity man-agement system being applied to the hospital pharmacy management and the plan being executed according to the system's request The results showed that the pharmacy developed rapidly and the degree of institutionalized process was increased.

  6. Practical Approach to Knowledge-based Question Answering with Natural Language Understanding and Advanced Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Wilson


    This research hypothesized that a practical approach in the form of a solution framework known as Natural Language Understanding and Reasoning for Intelligence (NaLURI), which combines full-discourse natural language understanding, powerful representation formalism capable of exploiting ontological information and reasoning approach with advanced features, will solve the following problems without compromising practicality factors: 1) restriction on the nature of question and response, and 2) limitation to scale across domains and to real-life natural language text.

  7. 76 FR 51415 - Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., D/B/A Esplanade Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On... to Show Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Ideal Pharmacy Care, Inc., d/b/a Esplanade Pharmacy (Registrant), of New Orleans, Louisiana. The Show Cause Order proposed the revocation...

  8. Performance of retail pharmacies in low- and middle-income Asian settings: a systematic review (United States)

    Miller, Rosalind; Goodman, Catherine


    In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, pharmacies are often patients’ first point of contact with the health care system and their preferred channel for purchasing medicines. Unfortunately, pharmacy practice in these settings has been characterized by deficient knowledge and inappropriate treatment. This paper systematically reviews both the performance of all types of pharmacies and drug stores across Asia’s LMIC, and the determinants of poor practice, in order to reflect on how this could best be addressed. Poor pharmacy practice in Asia appears to have persisted over the past 30 years. We identify a set of inadequacies that occur at key moments throughout the pharmacy encounter, including: insufficient history taking; lack of referral of patients who require medical attention; illegal sale of a wide range of prescription only medicines without a prescription; sale of medicines that are either clinically inappropriate and/or in doses that are outside of the therapeutic range; sale of incomplete courses of antibiotics; and limited provision of information and counselling. In terms of determinants of poor practice, first knowledge was found to be necessary but not sufficient to ensure correct management of patients presenting at the pharmacy. This is evidenced by large discrepancies between stated and actual practice; little difference in the treatment behaviour of less and more qualified personnel and the failure of training programmes to improve practice to a satisfactory level. Second, we identified a number of profit maximizing strategies employed by pharmacy staff that can be linked to poor practices. Finally, whilst the research is relatively sparse, the regulatory environment appears to play an important role in shaping behaviour. Future efforts to improve the situation may yield more success than historical attempts, which have tended to concentrate on education, if they address the profit incentives faced by pharmacy personnel and the

  9. [Advanced nursing practice: a must for the quality of care and mental health services]. (United States)

    Ricard, Nicole; Page, Claire; Laflamme, France


    New professional legislation and reorganization of mental health services have had a significant influence on mental health nursing practice. Many nurses have demonstrated clinical leadership and have been able to adapt their services to the needs of the population specially in the primary health care setting. However, many believe that the role of nurses is not sufficiently known and optimally utilized in mental health services. In this article we take a critical look at the mental health nursing practice in Quebec and at the essential requirements for its development. This review aims to: 1) describe current trends in the changing roles and the modernization of mental health nursing practice in Quebec, 2) provide an overview of the development of advanced nursing practice and its impact on the quality of mental health services; 3) clarify the concept of advanced nursing practice and position its development in Quebec and 4) propose various strategies for optimizing the role of nurses and their complementarity with other professionals providing mental health services. This review presents innovative practices developed by nurses in the context of the restructuring of mental health services. For example, new nursing roles have been developed to improve the collaboration with general practitioners groups in primary care settings and facilitate the evaluation and monitoring of patient presenting medical and psychological problems. Another interesting innovation was set up by nurses in developing a new service to allow timely access to integrated care for patients with substance abuse and mental health problems. The various testimonies reported in this article illustrate the potential contribution of these nursing innovations in improving the mental health services in Quebec. Also, in few countries, the reform of mental health services has been a good time to recognize this potential. Thus, some countries have repositioned the role of mental health nurses and

  10. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum. (United States)

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine


    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.

  11. Pharmacy ethics: evaluation pharmacists' ethical attitude. (United States)

    Sharif, Pooneh Salari; Javadi, Mohammadreza; Asghari, Fariba


    Alterations in pharmacy practice from prescription dispensing to more patient-centered relationship intensifies the necessity of clinical decision-making. Pharmacists' knowledge as well as ethical reasoning affects their clinical decision-making. Unfortunately in Iran pharmacy ethics did not develop along with medical ethics and special considerations are of major importance. The study was designed to evaluate pharmacists' attitude toward some principles of bioethics. A cross-sectional survey was performed on a sample of Iranian pharmacists attended in continuous education programs in 2010. Based on the pharmacists' attitude toward common ethical problems, 9 Likert-type scale scenarios were designed. A thousand pharmacists were surveyed and 505 questionnaires were filled. For the whole questionnaire the strongly disagree answer was the most ethical answer. On a scale from 1-5 on which 5=strongly disagree, the total score of pharmacists ethical attitude was 17.69 ± 3.57. For easier analysis we considered the score of 1 for agree and strongly agree answers, score of 2 for neutral answers and score of 3 for disagree and strongly disagree answers. The total score in confidentiality for all participants was 4.15 ± 1.45 out of 9, in autonomy 6.25 ± 1.85 out of 9, in non-maleficence 5.14 ± 1.17 out of 6 and in justice was 2.27 ± 0.89 out of 3, however there was no significant difference between men and women in the total score and the score of each theme. The older participants (> 40 years) significantly had lower total score (Pethical guidelines and improving pharmacy ethics curriculum is highly critical to provide the best pharmaceutical care and to make clinical decisions in critical situations. Therefore further quantitative and qualitative investigations into finding pitfalls and challenges in this issue are highly recommended.

  12. The evolution of the advanced practice role in psychiatric mental health in New Jersey: 1960-2010. (United States)

    Caldwell, Barbara A; Sclafani, Michael; Piren, Karen; Torre, Carolyn


    This historical perspective is focused on the contribution of Hildegard E. Peplau in laying the foundation for advanced practice nursing and the development of the roles of clinical nurse specialists and psychiatric nurse practitioners. An overview is provided of legal developments within the state that enabled Advanced Practice Nurses to provide mental health services. A description of a recent specialized state-funded initiative is outlined, focused on the development and contributions of psychiatric advanced practice nurses in community settings in New Jersey. Implications for the advanced practice nursing role in New Jersey are presented based on national and state initiatives.

  13. 21 CFR 1311.200 - Pharmacy responsibilities. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy responsibilities. 1311.200 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.200 Pharmacy responsibilities. (a) Before initially using a pharmacy application to process controlled substance prescriptions, the...

  14. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal...

  15. 42 CFR 483.60 - Pharmacy services. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy services. 483.60 Section 483.60 Public... Care Facilities § 483.60 Pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and... the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records of receipt...

  16. 38 CFR 51.180 - Pharmacy services. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pharmacy services. 51.180... FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 51.180 Pharmacy services. The facility... aspects of the provision of pharmacy services in the facility; (2) Establishes a system of records...

  17. Comparison of Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) Measure Adherence Between Oncology Fellows, Advanced Practice Providers, and Attending Physicians. (United States)

    Zhu, Jason; Zhang, Tian; Shah, Radhika; Kamal, Arif H; Kelley, Michael J


    Quality improvement measures are uniformly applied to all oncology providers, regardless of their roles. Little is known about differences in adherence to these measures between oncology fellows, advance practice providers (APP), and attending physicians. We investigated conformance across Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) measures for oncology fellows, advance practice providers, and attending physicians at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (DVAMC). Using data collected from the Spring 2012 and 2013 QOPI cycles, we abstracted charts of patients and separated them based on their primary provider. Descriptive statistics and the chi-square test were calculated for each QOPI measure between fellows, advanced practice providers (APPs), and attending physicians. A total of 169 patients were reviewed. Of these, 31 patients had a fellow, 39 had an APP, and 99 had an attending as their primary oncology provider. Fellows and attending physicians performed similarly on 90 of 94 QOPI metrics. High-performing metrics included several core QOPI measures including documenting consent for chemotherapy, recommending adjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate, and prescribing serotonin antagonists when prescribing emetogenic chemotherapies. Low-performing metrics included documentation of treatment summary and taking action to address problems with emotional well-being by the second office visit. Attendings documented the plan for oral chemotherapy more often (92 vs. 63%, P=0.049). However, after the chart audit, we found that fellows actually documented the plan for oral chemotherapy 88% of the time (p=0.73). APPs and attendings performed similarly on 88 of 90 QOPI measures. The quality of oncology care tends to be similar between attendings and fellows overall; some of the significant differences do not remain significant after a second manual chart review, highlighting that the use of manual data collection for QOPI analysis is an imperfect system, and there may

  18. 27th Annual APRN legislative update: advancements continue for APRN practice. (United States)

    Phillips, Susanne J


    As the tides of healthcare in the United States continue to change, advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) are at the forefront of legislative history. This overview provides a snapshot of legislative and regulatory activity in 2014 as reported by state Boards of Nursing and nursing organizations representing APRNs.

  19. Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT[R]: Advanced Skill Practice. Revised Edition (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy


    Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT: Advanced Skill Practice is a revised and updated edition of Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test. Since the introduction of the TOEFL iBT in 2005, there have been significant changes to some of the test questions, particularly the integrated writing and integrated speaking tasks. The new 2011 edition of…

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of an Advanced Practice Nurse-Directed Transitional Care Model Intervention (United States)

    Bradway, Christine; Trotta, Rebecca; Bixby, M. Brian; McPartland, Ellen; Wollman, M. Catherine; Kapustka, Heidi; McCauley, Kathleen; Naylor, Mary D.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe barriers and facilitators to implementing a transitional care intervention for cognitively impaired older adults and their caregivers lead by advanced practice nurses (APNs). Design and Methods: APNs implemented an evidence-based protocol to optimize transitions from hospital to home. An…

  1. Summative assessment in a doctor of pharmacy program: a critical insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur K


    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: The Canadian-accredited post-baccalaureate Doctor of Pharmacy program at Qatar University trains pharmacists to deliver advanced patient care. Emphasis on acquisition and development of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes lies in the curriculum’s extensive experiential component. A campus-based oral comprehensive examination (OCE was devised to emulate a clinical viva voce and complement the extensive formative assessments conducted at experiential practice sites throughout the curriculum. We describe an evaluation of the final exit summative assessment for this graduate program. Methods: OCE results since the inception of the graduate program (3 years ago were retrieved and recorded into a blinded database. Examination scores among each paired faculty examiner team were analyzed for inter-rater reliability and linearity of agreement using intraclass correlation and Spearman’s correlation coefficient measurements, respectively. Graduate student ranking from individual examiner OCE scores was compared with that of other relative ranked student performance. Results: Sixty-one OCEs were administered to 30 graduate students over 3 years by a composite of eleven different pairs of faculty examiners. Intraclass correlation measures demonstrated that examiner team reliability was low and linearity of agreements was inconsistent. Only one examiner team in each respective academic year was found to have statistically significant inter-rater reliability, and linearity of agreements was inconsistent in all years. No association was found between examination performance rankings and other academic parameters. Conclusion: Critical review of our final summative assessment implies it is lacking robustness and defensibility. Measures are in place to continue the quality improvement process and develop and implement an alternative means of evaluation within a more

  2. Motivational interviewing and specialty pharmacy. (United States)

    Berger, Bruce A; Bertram, Carl T


    It is well documented in substance abuse and health care literature that motivational interviewing is an evidenced-based and effective intervention for influencing patient behaviors and associated positive health outcomes. The introduction of motivational interviewing training in specialty pharmacy has great potential to increase patient and pharmacist satisfaction, maximize adherence rates, and improve health outcomes. This commentary examines the need for effective approaches for improving patient adherence and outcomes and briefly describes the history and efficacy of motivational interviewing. Case studies using traditional approaches to patient care and motivational interviewing are analysed, and real-world experience using motivational interviewing is presented in the form of a specialty pharmacy case study.

  3. Pharmacy education in India: strategies for a better future. (United States)

    Jishnu, V; Gilhotra, Rm; Mishra, Dn


    In this world of specialization and globalization the pharmacy education in India is suffering from serious backdrops and flaws. There is an urgent need to initiate an academic exercise aimed at attaining revamping of curriculum, keeping in pace with current and emerging trends in the field of pharmacy. Unfortunately all these years, enough emphasis was not laid on strengthening the components of Community Pharmacy, Hospital and Clinical pharmacy, while designing curriculum at diploma and degree levels of teaching. The curriculum followed by almost all universities in India are no were up to the world standards and students are still getting the 20-30 yrs older compounding practical exposure in labs during the graduation level. The article emphasises the concept of innovation ecosystems and quality management. Application of TQM to the educational system improves the present situation. The counseling system which serves to be the gateway of the students for entry into the profession should be brought under the scanner. Introducing specializations at the graduation level will result in professional expertise and excellence. Education is a customer focused industry and every student should be capable of evaluating themselves for continuously improving their quality and professionalism. Teacher focused mastery learning should give away to student focused smart learning. An educational institution should provide the student with a stress-free atmosphere for learning and developing his intellectual capabilities. Every college should have a counseling centre to address the problems of students in their academic and personal life. An emphasis on the concept of quality teacher is included. Revival of the pharmacy education in India is the need of the hour which in turn will pave the way for the up gradation of the pharmacy profession in the country.

  4. Class Room Seminar and Journal Club (CRSJC) as an Effective Teaching Learning Tool: Perception to Post Graduation Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Dahiya, Sunita; Dahiya, Rajiv


    Theory and practicals are two essential components of pharmacy course curriculum; but in addition to appearing and passing examination with good score grades, pharmacy post graduation (PG) pursuing students are essentially required to develop some professional skills which might not be attained solely by conventional class room programs. This…

  5. The Development of Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Pharmacy Students Based on Experiential Education (United States)

    Yorra, Mark L.


    This doctoral thesis contributes to the literature on self-efficacy and self-esteem and the relationship to a student's school, age, gender, ethnicity, GPA, paid and introductory pharmacy practice experiences in a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program. Graduates with a high level of self-efficacy and self-esteem are more desirable as pharmacists…

  6. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment (United States)

    Khumsikiew, Jeerisuda; Donsamak, Sisira; Saeteaw, Manit


    Problem-based Learning (PBL) is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy…

  7. A survey of role diversity among advanced practice nurses in pediatric gastroenterology. (United States)

    McDuffie, Adelina F; Huffman, Shari


    A survey of advanced practice nurses in the Association of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses (APGNN) was conducted to assess role diversity in anticipation of sharing these results with our international colleagues at the World Congress in 2004. A single-page, 14-item survey was sent via e-mail or fax to 79 APGNN advanced practice nurses identified by their credentials (MS, PNP, FNP) in the membership database. Forty surveys were returned via e-mail or fax for an overall response rate of 51%. Most reported working full time as nurse practitioners in an outpatient gastrointestinal clinic, yet almost one third were hospital based. Additional job titles included clinical nurse specialist, researcher, and case manager or clinical coordinator. Slightly more than one half reported seeing any patients in their outpatient practice, whereas 43% saw specific populations, with constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and abdominal pain being the most common diagnoses. Seventy percent had prescriptive privileges. Billing practices were the most diverse, with 30% always billing under their own number, 23% sometimes billing under their own number, and 40% never billing under their own number (5% not applicable). Overall, most advanced practice nurses in APGNN are pediatric nurse practitioners with a primary focus on outpatient care but also are involved in patient and family teaching, nutrition support, home care, and research. Only a few were involved with procedures, which may be surprising to our adult counterparts.

  8. Education, training, and academic experience of newly hired, first-time pharmacy faculty members. (United States)

    Wanat, Matthew A; Fleming, Marc L; Fernandez, Julianna M; Garey, Kevin W


    Objective. To describe the education, training, and academic experiences of newly hired faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy during the 2012-2013 academic year. Methods. A survey regarding education, training, and academic experiences was conducted of all first-time faculty members at US colleges and schools of pharmacy hired during the 2012-2013 academic year. Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members accounted for the majority (68.2%) of new hires. Ambulatory care was the most common pharmacy specialty position (29.8%). Most new faculty members had a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as their terminal degree (74.8%), and 88.3% of pharmacy practice faculty members completed a residency. Of new faculty members who responded to the survey, 102 (67.5%) had at least 3 prior academic teaching, precepting, or research experiences. Conclusion. New faculty members were hired most frequently for clinical faculty positions at the assistant professor level and most frequently in the specialty of ambulatory care. Prior academic experience included precepting pharmacy students, facilitating small discussions, and guest lecturing.

  9. Educating advanced practice nurses in using social media in rural health care. (United States)

    Rutledge, Carolyn M; Renaud, Michelle; Shepherd, Laurel; Bordelon, Michele; Haney, Tina; Gregory, Donna; Ayers, Paula


    Health care in the United States is facing a crisis in providing access to quality care for those in underserved and rural regions. Advanced practice nurses are at the forefront of addressing such issues, through modalities such as health care technology. Many nursing education programs are seeking strategies for better educating students on technology utilization. Health care technology includes electronic health records, telemedicine, and clinical decision support systems. However, little focus has been placed on the role of social media in health care. This paper describes an educational workshop using standardized patients and hands-on experiences to introduce advanced practice nurses in a Doctor of Nursing Practice program to the role of social media in addressing issues inherent in the delivery of rural health care. The students explore innovative approaches for utilizing social media for patient and caregiver support as well as identify online resources that assist providers in a rural setting.

  10. Legal issues in neonatal nursing: considerations for staff nurses and advanced practice nurses. (United States)

    Enzman Hagedorn, M I; Gardner, S L


    A neonatal nurse is a professional with special training, skill, and knowledge in the care of newborns and their families. The neonatal nurse is accountable to the patient, profession, and employer. Failure of the neonatal nurse to meet these obligations can result in liability in the profession, liability in the employment, a civil suit, or a criminal conviction. Regardless of the health care setting, professional nurses, whether at the bedside or in advanced practice, are morally, ethically, and legally accountable for their nursing judgments and actions. Although most nurses assume they will never be named in a lawsuit, and it is true that few are, their professional actions can be the focus of a suit. An overview of the legal implications found within neonatal nursing practice is presented. Two recent legal cases are presented and discussed to illustrate neonatal nursing and advanced practice liability.

  11. Integrating social neuroscience and social work: innovations for advancing practice-based research. (United States)

    Matto, Holly C; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica


    Throughout the social work profession, there is ongoing interest in building a social science agenda that can address the complex practice-based questions faced by social work professionals today. Methodological innovations and unique funding opportunities have already significantly advanced research on social work practice. Still, there is enthusiastic discussion of how to ensure that such capacity development helps the profession move forward in ways that make use of the biological sciences and that facilitate social work-specific contributions to the larger interdisciplinary scientific community. This article describes how the social work profession can make use of biomedical knowledge and technological advances from social neuroscience to inform psychosocial treatment development, and it illustrates an application to social work practice by giving an example of a substance abuse treatment development process built on social neuroscientific research.

  12. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  13. [Priesthood and pharmacy in France after the French Revolution]. (United States)

    Bonnemain, Bruno


    Contrary to Tournier's assertion (thesis of 1938), the law of germinal (the seventh month of the eleventh year of the French Republican Calendar) had not been respected by the regular/secular priesthood because it was so ambiguous that they could seize the opportunity to carry on practising the art of medicine or manufacturing and selling drugs. In fact there were three reasons for the lack of steadiness of authorities: the practice of charity, financial concerns and the rise of the science which incited to illegal practice of pharmacy although professionals protested against. On the other hand, the priesthood officials tardily took the decision of forbidding the practice of medicine, surgery and pharmacy until 1936 when it was anew forbidden after a meeting of French cardinals and bishops. In 1941, with the agreement of all concerned persons the problem came to its end.

  14. Pharmacy and Chemistry in the Eighteenth Century: What Lessons for the History of Science? (United States)

    Simon, Jonathan


    This essay questions the continuity of chemistry across the eighteenth century based on an analysis of its relationship to pharmacy in France. Comparing a text by Nicolas Lémery (1675) with one by Antoine Baumé (1773), the article argues for a key transformation in chemistry across this period. The elimination of the practical side of pharmacy (indications and dosages) from chemistry texts is symptomatic of a reorientation of chemistry toward more theoretical or philosophical concerns. The essay considers several possible explanations for this change in orientation, including developments within pharmacy, but in the end privileges an approach in terms of the changing publics for chemistry in eighteenth-century France.

  15. Quality-control: from record keeping to key performance indicators: manging quality in compounding pharmacies. (United States)

    Braga, Glaucia Karime; Fonseca, Maria Jose Viera


    Record keeping is fundamental in any quality-management system. Compounding pharmacies use a quality-management system that is based on the Good Compounding Practices, which emphasizes the necessity and therefore the importance of maintaining records. However, the activity of recording without conducting further data analysis does not assure continuous improvement of the preparations, services, and of the system itself. The purpose of this article is to suggest some nonfinancial key performance indicators that can be easily implemented by compounding pharmacies to assist in the development of an organizational procedure for measuring the quality of products and services. This is a new paradigm for managing quality in compounding pharmacies.

  16. Defining Levels of Learning for Strengths Development Programs in Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Janke, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The Clifton StrengthsFinder® is an online measure of personal talent that identifies where an individual’s greatest potential for building strengths exists. This paper describes a framework for strengths education in pharmacy which includes introductory, intermediate and advanced levels of learning. The use of the StrengthsFinder® assessment and supporting workshops aids student pharmacists, pharmacy residents and practitioners in identifying and refining their talents and connecting talents to roles in the profession. Additional learning strategies support a learner’s progression to intermediate and advanced levels of learning, which focus on the application of strengths in teams, leadership, and organizational development. By articulating and recognizing levels of learning around strengths-related content and skills, strong instructional design is fostered. Optimal design includes development of a sequence of learning opportunities delivered over time, a roll-out plan and consideration of the instructional resources required.

  17. International Society for Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) best practices. (United States)

    Barsky, Lora W; Black, Michele; Cochran, Matthew; Daniel, Benjamin J; Davies, Derek; DeLay, Monica; Gardner, Rui; Gregory, Michael; Kunkel, Desiree; Lannigan, Joanne; Marvin, James; Salomon, Robert; Torres, Carina; Walker, Rachael


    The purpose of this document is to define minimal standards for a flow cytometry shared resource laboratory (SRL) and provide guidance for best practices in several important areas. This effort is driven by the desire of International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) members in SRLs to define and maintain standards of excellence in flow cytometry, and act as a repository for key elements of this information (e.g. example SOPs/training material, etc.). These best practices are not intended to define specifically how to implement these recommendations, but rather to establish minimal goals for an SRL to address in order to achieve excellence. It is hoped that once these best practices are established and implemented they will serve as a template from which similar practices can be defined for other types of SRLs. Identification of the need for best practices first occurred through discussions at the CYTO 2013 SRL Forum, with the most important areas for which best practices should be defined identified through several surveys and SRL track workshops as part of CYTO 2014. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach


    Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...

  19. Simulated drug discovery process to conduct a synoptic assessment of pharmacy students. (United States)

    Richardson, Alan; Curtis, Anthony D M; Moss, Gary P; Pearson, Russell J; White, Simon; Rutten, Frank J M; Perumal, Dhaya; Maddock, Katie


    OBJECTIVE. To implement and assess a task-based learning exercise that prompts pharmacy students to integrate their understanding of different disciplines. DESIGN. Master of pharmacy (MPharm degree) students were provided with simulated information from several preclinical science and from clinical trials and asked to synthesize this into a marketing authorization application for a new drug. Students made a link to pharmacy practice by creating an advice leaflet for pharmacists. ASSESSMENT. Students' ability to integrate information from different disciplines was evaluated by oral examination. In 2 successive academic years, 96% and 82% of students demonstrated an integrated understanding of their proposed new drug. Students indicated in a survey that their understanding of the links between different subjects improved. CONCLUSION. Simulated drug discovery provides a learning environment that emphasizes the connectivity of the preclinical sciences with each other and the practice of pharmacy.

  20. [Chronic diseases and complexity: new roles in nursing. Advanced practice nurses and chronic patient]. (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, C Inmaculada


    The increase in chronic diseases and the progressive ageing of the population is a source of concern for the different agencies with responsibility for health care. This has led to the creation of many documents focused on the analysis of the current situation and care of chronic diseases, including the WHO recommendations intended to assist countries and health services design and implement strategies that will address the existing demand, control and prevention of chronic diseases. In addition, there is a need to respond to the demand generated by chronic diseases in every sense, and from the different systems it is becoming more difficult to get enough support from multidisciplinary teams where the nurse has a central importance. While chronic diseases are becoming a threat due to the costs they generate, it is also an opportunity for nursing to be at the forefront for advanced care requirements, performed by professionals with recognized advanced clinical skills and ability for case management while monitoring and controlling complex chronic patients. The different services of the National Health System have introduced nurses that play different roles (cases managers, liaison nurses, advanced practice nurses and so on). However, it could be argued that they are not being trained to a desirable development level. It is therefore time for health care authorities to determine the role of the advanced practice nurse in relation to functional positions, and allow them to make an advance in the development of unified skills for the whole National Health System. From our experience we have learned that the advanced practice nurse is a resource that helps in the sustainability of services, thanks to the efficiency shown in the results obtained from the care given to both chronic and complex chronic patients.

  1. Discussion on standard use of warfarin and related clinical pharmacy practice%探讨华法林用药规范和开展相应临床药学工作的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥; 陈敏玲; 张顺国; 李岚; 蒋樾廉; 贡沁燕


    目的:提高临床医师对心脏人工机械瓣膜置换术后华法林抗凝用药规范的认识.方法:检索已有的华法林抗凝治疗循证医学文献,以此评价一名7个月先天性心脏病患儿换瓣术后,住院期间低分子量肝素、华法林和维生素K1的应用过程.结果:术后第1~4天国际标准化比值(international normalized ratio,INR)均在正常参考值范围内.术后第6天INR达抗凝目标值,静脉滴注维生素K12 mg后,INR降到正常参考值.结论:临床医师对华法林抗凝过度的误判以及应用维生素K1处置不妥,且该病例可能存在华法林抵抗现象,说明了制定华法林抗凝治疗用药规范的重要性及开展相应临床药学工作的必要性.%Objective: To enhance the understanding of guidelines for anticoagulant therapy with warfarin after mechanical valve replacement. Methods: We retrieved the evidence-based medicine literature of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin, so as to evaluate the management of a 7-month-old patient with congenital heart disease cured by low molecular weight heparin( LM-WH), warfarin and vitamin K, after mechanical valve replacement during in hospital. Results: The international normalized ra-tio(INR) of the patient was in the reference values from the first to fourth day after operation. The INR reached the target of anticoagulation at the sixth day after operation. Vitamin K, (2 mg) was given by intravenously guttae, then the INR dropped to the reference values. Conclusion: Clinical doctors have misjudged the over-anticoagulation of the warfarin and incorrectly used the vitamin Ki. Warfarin resistance may have existed in this case. So it is necessary to carry out clinical pharmacy practice and is important to carry out standard of anticoagulant therapy with warfarin.

  2. Antibiotic Self-Prescribing Trends, Experiences and Attitudes in Upper Respiratory Tract Infection among Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Students: A Study from Lahore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikria Saleem

    Full Text Available Pharmacists are the custodians of drugs; hence their education, training, behaviors and experiences would affect the future use of drugs at community and hospital pharmacies. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the self-prescribing antibiotic trends, knowledge and attitudes among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. We found that pharmacy students had higher risks of experiencing URIs related symptoms such as cough (RR; 1.7, p = 0.002, allergy (RR; 2.07, p = 0.03 and running nose (RR; 3.17, p<0.005, compared to non-pharmacy students -resulting in higher probabilities of selecting cough syrups (OR; 2.3, p<0.005, anti-histamines (OR; 1.8, p = 0.036 and anti-inflammatory/anti-pyretic (OR; 2.4, p<0.005 drugs. Likewise, bachelor's degree pupils (OR; 2, p = 0.045, urban area residents (OR; 2.44; p = 0.002 and pharmacy students (OR; 2.9, p<0.005 exhibited higher propensities of antibiotic self-use-notable classes include, b-lactams (45.9% followed by macrolides (26.5% and augmentin (28.94%, respectively. Surprisingly, pharmacy and non-pharmacy students had higher odds of using antibiotics in common cold (OR; 3.2, p<0.005 and pain (OR; 2.37, p = 0.015, respectively. Unlike non-pharmacy students, pharmacy students were likely to select alternative therapy, such as Joshanda (OR; 2.22, p = 0.011 and were well acquainted with antibiotic hazards, with 77% reduction in risk of antibiotics re-use. In conclusion, university students exhibited antibiotic self-prescribing trends in conditions that does not warrant their use, thus are irrational users. The pharmacy education confers very little benefit to rational self-prescribing practices among students, while non-pharmacy students are more vulnerable to repeated antibiotic usage. Thus, the educational and training modules should be designed for university students to disseminate targeted information regarding the potential hazards of antibiotic self-use and importance of consultation with qualified and registered

  3. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.


    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  4. [The foundation and development of the Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad (2000-2007)]. (United States)

    Popović, Jovan


    THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The first 50 pharmacy students were enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad in the academic year 2000/2001. The Institute of Pharmacy was established on July 10, 2001. The Department of Pharmacy was established on December 18, 2001, with more than 150 faculty members. Since then, 82 students have graduated with honours. Visiting professors from Athens, Skopje, Reading (Great Britain) and Banja Luka, and professors of the Faculty of Science and Mathematics and the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, together with the professors and associates of the the Faculty of Medicine, are members of the Faculty of the Department of Pharmacy. ACTIVITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACY: The Department offers a 5-year undergraduate program in pharmacy, practical courses in pharmacy, takes part in higher education reform in accordance with the Bologna objectives, organizes visits to Europen centers of the pharmaceutical industry, and provides mentoring activities in relation to writing a graduation paper. The First Balkan Congress of Phramacy Students was held March 7-12, 2006 in Novi Sad. The Department of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad has achieved the objectives set for it when it was established.

  5. Introduction to Pharmacy Education in Singapore%新加坡的药学教育模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林承翰; 李海瑞; 潘婧; 赵雅姿; 崔炜强; 康立峰


    新加坡的药学教育采用了以患者为中心的教育模式。该文对新加坡的药学教育及实践进行概括性介绍,分别从药学教育学位设置、本科生及研究生的课程设置及药学专业的就业领域三方面进行概述。%Pharmacy education in Singapore adopts a patient-orientated approach. This article provides a general introduction to the education and practice of Pharmacy in Singapore through 3 major aspects,①Professional pharmacy degree;②Curriculum of the undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy education;③Professional pharmacy practice and employment in Singapore.

  6. Towards supporting scholarship in research by clinical pharmacy faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickard AS


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the need for research support, faculty development, and topics of interest to clinical track pharmacy faculty that would facilitate scholarship in research.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy practice-based faculty at University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC completed via the web in November 2005.Results: Of 39 clinical track faculty respondents (48% response rate, 100% indicated they were interested in being co-investigator or 77% lead investigator on a research grant proposal. The majority of respondents expressed “a lot” or “extreme” interest in receiving methodological guidance and administrative support in order to pursue research interests. The greatest interest in research support services related to sample size calculations, selection of appropriate statistical tests, grant writing, and writing for journals. Barriers to research cited by faculty included lack of confidence in ability, the need for balancing responsibilities, and reward for efforts. Suggestions included the creation of specific research interest groups, research seminars, formal mentoring and statistical support services.Conclusions: Clinical-track faculty are interested in research-related scholarship but typically lack the confidence or skills to lead research. While this study was limited to UIC clinical faculty, UIC faculty are attracted from Colleges of Pharmacy across North America and it is notable that such barriers can be quickly identified using a brief web-based survey in order to inform a plan that provides resources and support for research by clinical pharmacy faculty.

  7. Advancing the practice of health impact assessment in Canada: Obstacles and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallum, Lindsay C., E-mail: [University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc., 6605 Hurontario Street, Mississauga, Ontario L5T0A3 (Canada); Ollson, Christopher A., E-mail: [Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc., 6605 Hurontario Street, Mississauga, Ontario L5T0A3 (Canada); Stefanovic, Ingrid L., E-mail: [Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Environment, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)


    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is recognized as a useful tool that can identify potential health impacts resulting from projects or policy initiatives. Although HIA has become an established practice in some countries, it is not yet an established practice in Canada. In order to enable broader support for HIA, this study provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the state of HIA practice. The results of this review revealed that, although there is an abundance of publications relating to HIA, there remains a lack of transparent, consistent and reproducible approaches and methods throughout the process. Findings indicate a need for further research and development on a number of fronts, including: 1) the nature of HIA triggers; 2) consistent scoping and stakeholder engagement approaches; 3) use of evidence and transparency of decision-making; 4) reproducibility of assessment methods; 5) monitoring and evaluation protocols; and, 6) integration within existing regulatory frameworks. Addressing these issues will aid in advancing the more widespread use of HIA in Canada. - Highlights: • Reviewed current state of practice in the field of HIA • Identified key obstacles and opportunities for HIA advancement • Major issues include lack of consistent approach and methodology. • No national regulatory driver hinders opportunity for widespread use of HIA. • Identified research opportunities vital to developing HIA practice in Canada.

  8. The role of the nurse executive in fostering and empowering the advanced practice registered nurse. (United States)

    Talbert, Tukea L


    The nurse executive plays a critical role in the design, oversight, and outcomes of the delivery of care and a key role in the success of the integration of advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) into an organization. The critical areas that nurse executives must consider to foster and empower APRNs are: (1) knowledge and self preparation, especially of political initiatives that affect the role, (2) visionary leadership and development of clear role expectations and appropriate credentialing, (3) strategies to reduce disconnection between the APRN and their practice setting, and (4) appropriate education and marketing of the role to stakeholders.

  9. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Rafie


    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  10. Advanced practice role characteristics of the community/public health nurse specialist. (United States)

    Robertson, Julie Fisher; Baldwin, Karen Brandt


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the advanced practice role of nurses with master's degrees in community/public health nursing using their experiences and perspectives. The purposive sample consisted of 10 nurses who had master's degrees in community/public health nursing and were working in a variety of community health settings. Data were collected using audiotaped interviews and 1-day observations of study participants in their workplaces. An editing analysis technique was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that role characteristics included advocacy and policy setting at the organizational, community, and state levels; a leadership style centered on empowerment; a broad sphere of influence; and high-level skills in large-scale program planning, project management, and building partnerships. Results provide important descriptive data about significant aspects of the advanced practice role of nurses with master's degrees in community/public health nursing.

  11. A practical fabrication method for the advanced heterogeneous fuel with magnesia containing minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shuhei [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail:; Osaka, Masahiko [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)


    Fabrication tests on advanced heterogeneous fuel with MgO were carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Advanced heterogeneous fuel consists of spheres (diameter greater than 100 {mu}m) of a minor actinide oxide and MgO inert matrix (macro-dispersed type fuel). Macro-dispersed type fuel pellets with a high density above 90% T.D. were successfully fabricated. In addition, the fabricated pellets showed a homogeneous dispersion of near spherical host phase granules. These were attained by optimization of the fabrication process and conditions; i.e. a preliminary heat treatment of raw powders of host phase, an adjustment of pressure at the granulation process, deployment of a spray-dry process for MgO sphere preparation and sintering in a He atmosphere. From these results, a practical fabrication method for MgO-based macro-dispersed type fuel based on a simple powder metallurgical technique was established.

  12. Mapping private pharmacies and their characteristics in Ujjain district, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabde Yogesh D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, private pharmacies are ubiquitous yet critical establishments that facilitate community access to medicines. These are often the first points of treatment seeking in parts of India and other low income settings around the world. The characteristics of these pharmacies including their location, drug availability, human resources and infrastructure have not been studied before. Given the ubiquity and popularity of private pharmacies in India, such information would be useful to harness the potential of these pharmacies to deliver desirable public health outcomes, to facilitate regulation and to involve in initiatives pertaining to rational drug use. This study was a cross sectional survey that mapped private pharmacies in one district on a geographic information system and described relevant characteristics of these units. Methods This study of pharmacies was a part of larger cross sectional survey carried out to map all the health care providers in Ujjain district (population 1.9 million, Central India, on a geographic information system. Their location vis-à-vis formal providers of health services were studied. Other characteristics like human resources, infrastructure, clients and availability of tracer drugs were also surveyed. Results A total 475 private pharmacies were identified in the district. Three-quarter were in urban areas, where they were concentrated around physician practices. In rural areas, pharmacies were located along the main roads. A majority of pharmacies simultaneously retailed medicines from multiple systems of medicine. Tracer parenteral antibiotics and injectable steroids were available in 83.7% and 88.7% pharmacies respectively. The proportion of clients without prescription was 39.04%. Only 11.58% of staff had formal pharmacist qualifications. Power outages were a significant challenge. Conclusion This is the first mapping of pharmacies & their characteristics in India. It provides

  13. Customising chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: daily practice and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A C; Sorensen, J B


    of life. We conducted a literature search of tailored treatment already implemented in advanced NSCLC in order to highlight the information required to decide on the optimal oncological treatment for individual patients. 16 studies were identified by literature review. Significantly improved outcome......Treating patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a daunting task but during recent years new options have emerged. By tailoring treatment using either information on histological subtypes of NSCLC or biomarkers it is now possible to improve outcome and maintain stable quality......, respectively. In conclusion, tailoring treatment according to either histological subtype or EGFR mutation status in advanced NSCLC should today be part of daily practice based on current evidence. Future biomarkers need optimisation of methodology and prospective validation before clinical implementation....

  14. Customising chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: daily practice and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A C; Sorensen, J B


    Treating patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a daunting task but during recent years new options have emerged. By tailoring treatment using either information on histological subtypes of NSCLC or biomarkers it is now possible to improve outcome and maintain stable quality...... of life. We conducted a literature search of tailored treatment already implemented in advanced NSCLC in order to highlight the information required to decide on the optimal oncological treatment for individual patients. 16 studies were identified by literature review. Significantly improved outcome......, respectively. In conclusion, tailoring treatment according to either histological subtype or EGFR mutation status in advanced NSCLC should today be part of daily practice based on current evidence. Future biomarkers need optimisation of methodology and prospective validation before clinical implementation....

  15. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise. (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko


    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  16. Impact of a Simulation Exercise on Pharmacy Student Attitude toward Poverty. (United States)

    Clarke, Cheryl; Sedlacek, Renee K; Watson, Susan B


    Objective. To evaluate the impact of a simulation on pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty using the Attitude toward Poverty (ATP) Short Form scale. Methods. Second-year pharmacy students participated in the 3-hour Missouri Association for Community Action Poverty Simulation. Students completed a survey of the ATP Short Form scale prior to and following participation in the simulation. Results. Significant improvements in attitude were noted in 15 of 21 ATP Short Form items. Improvements in the stigma and structural domains were significant while improvement in the personal deficiency domain was not significant. Conclusions. This poverty simulation exercise positively altered pharmacy student attitudes toward poverty. When combined with didactic and experiential curriculum, this simulation may enhance student achievement of the 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcome subdomain of cultural sensitivity.

  17. Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Approaches in Pharmacy Education. (United States)

    Martin, Lindsay C; Donohoe, Krista L; Holdford, David A


    Domain 3 of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) 2013 Educational Outcomes recommends that pharmacy school curricula prepare students to be better problem solvers, but are silent on the type of problems they should be prepared to solve. We identified five basic approaches to problem solving in the curriculum at a pharmacy school: clinical, ethical, managerial, economic, and legal. These approaches were compared to determine a generic process that could be applied to all pharmacy decisions. Although there were similarities in the approaches, generic problem solving processes may not work for all problems. Successful problem solving requires identification of the problems faced and application of the right approach to the situation. We also advocate that the CAPE Outcomes make explicit the importance of different approaches to problem solving. Future pharmacists will need multiple approaches to problem solving to adapt to the complexity of health care.

  18. 21 CFR 1304.55 - Reports by online pharmacies. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports by online pharmacies. 1304.55 Section 1304... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.55 Reports by online pharmacies. (a) Each online pharmacy shall report to the Administrator the total quantity of each controlled substance that the pharmacy has dispensed...

  19. Advanced practice nursing for enduring health needs management: a global perspective. (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Mikkonen, Irma; Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda D; Richardson, Jim; Savage, Eileen; Schorn, Mavis


    Advanced practice nursing expertise has been acknowledged worldwide as one response to the challenges arising from changes in society and health care. The roots of advanced practice nursing education are at the University of Colorado where the first known programme started in 1965. In many countries advanced practice nurses (APNs) have taken responsibility for routine patient care formerly carried out by physicians in order to reduce their workload. However, more and more, APNs have taken responsibility for new service areas and quality programmes not previously provided. Chronic disease management is one of these new service areas because long-term diseases are increasingly challenging service systems globally. This article is based on an international APN partnership. The aim of the article is to describe how the partnership will design a 15 ECTS credit course on Enduring Health Need Management as a cross-cultural collaborative endeavour. The adaptation of an inquiry based learning framework will be described drawing on four main principles of the theory: authentic learning communities; student encouragement in analysing gradually more complicated problems; networking in knowledge creation and; student engagement and activity. The cross-cultural online course aims to increase APNs' intercultural competence as well as their global and international work orientation.

  20. Practice Investigation of PBL Teaching in Analytical Chemistry of Pharmacy%药学专业分析化学教学中实施PBL教学法的实践初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the actual situation of Pharmacy Vocational College Majors and market demand, to make a few of PBL in analytical chemistry application measures provided for information and reference.%本文基于高职院校药学专业学生的实际情况与市场需求,提出几点PBL教学法在分析化学中的应用措施,仅供参考与借鉴。

  1. 21 CFR 1306.27 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for... (United States)


    ... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal; (2) Ensure that... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial and refill prescriptions of Schedule III, IV... Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for initial...

  2. 78 FR 57656 - S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy & Compounding; Decision and Order On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to S & S Pharmacy, Inc., d/b/a Platinum Pharmacy... revocation of Registrant's Certificate of Registration as a retail pharmacy, which before it...

  3. Pharmacy Locations, Pharmacies, licensed - name, address, contact info, Published in 2006, Iowa Dept. of Public Health. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pharmacy Locations dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'Pharmacies, licensed - name,...

  4. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba. (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M


    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings.

  5. Financial evaluation of introduction of the electronic prescription for Latvian individual pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namatevs I.


    Full Text Available Presently, there is a new paradigm for pharmacy practice defined and a concept of the “seven-star pharmacist”given. The establishment of a new pharmacy system is looking for introduction and development of the electronic prescription. The aim of the study: to provide a sound research for individual pharmacies on the bases of discovering necessary financials for introduction of the electronic prescription. Results of the study: Financial aspects of the research have been evaluated by calculating payback time, ROI, NPV, and IRR. On the bases of financial calculations, the primary investment for initial costs for hardware and software has been estimated. Finally, express evaluation model for possible introduction of the electronic prescription at individual pharmacies without additional investment has been created.

  6. [Combination analysis of new drug discovery with "Xiaohe Silian" method and traditional Chinese medicine clinical pharmacy]. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Xiang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Jing-Juan; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Gang; Dong, Hong-Huan; Ouyang, Guo-Qing


    With the kernel of efficacy, "Xiaohe Silian" was a pattern and method for new drug discovery which was constituted with "metabolism-efficacy, toxicity-efficacy, quality-efficacy and structure-efficacy". Its connotation was in keeping with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical pharmacy. This paper systematically summarized the research method of new drug discovery practice process for TCM. To avoid western drug like in TCM new drug discovery, we carried out combination analysis with TCM clinical pharmacy. The correlation analysis between basic elements of "Xiaohe Silian(n) and TCM clinical pharmacy was studied to guarantee this method could integrate closely with TCM clinic from all angles. Hence, this method aimed to provide a new method for TCM new drug discovery on the basis of TCM clinical pharmacy with insisting on holistic view of multicomponent study, kinetic view of metabolic process when the curative effect occurred and molecular material view of quality control and structure-activity exposition.

  7. Teaching the science of safety in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. (United States)

    Holdford, David A; Warholak, Terri L; West-Strum, Donna; Bentley, John P; Malone, Daniel C; Murphy, John E


    This paper provides baseline information on integrating the science of safety into the professional degree curriculum at colleges and schools of pharmacy. A multi-method examination was conducted that included a literature review, key informant interviews of 30 individuals, and in-depth case studies of 5 colleges and schools of pharmacy. Educators believe that they are devoting adequate time to science of safety topics and doing a good job teaching students to identify, understand, report, manage, and communicate medication risk. Areas perceived to be in need of improvement include educating pharmacy students about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) role in product safety, how to work with the FDA in post-marketing surveillance and other FDA safety initiatives, teaching students methods to improve safety, and educating students to practice in interprofessional teams. The report makes 10 recommendations to help pharmacy school graduates be more effective in protecting patients from preventable drug-related problems.

  8. Rural pharmacy in Canada: pharmacist training, workforce capacity and research partnerships


    Soon, Judith A.; Levine, Marc


    Objectives. To characterize rural health care and pharmacy recruitment and retention issues explored in Canadian pharmacy strategic guidelines and Canadian Faculties of Pharmacy curricula; compare the availability of pharmacy workforce across Canadian jurisdictions; and identify models for potential collaborations between universities and rural pharmacies in the North. Methods. Review of Canadian pharmacy strategic documents, Canadian Faculty of Pharmacy websites, Canadian pharmacy workforce ...

  9. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK


    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  10. [Challenges and opportunities: contributions of the Advanced Practice Nurse in the chronicity. Learning from experiences]. (United States)

    Appleby, Christine; Camacho-Bejarano, Rafaela


    Undoubtedly, our society is facing new economic, political, demographic, social and cultural challenges that require healthcare services able to meet the growing health needs of the population, especially in dealing with chronic conditions. In this new context, some countries such as the United Kingdom have made a firm commitment to develop new models for chronic patients care based on the introduction of new figures of Advanced Practice Nurses, which includes 4 cornerstones of professional practice: advanced clinical skills, clinical management, teaching and research. The implementation of this new figures implies a redefinition of professional competencies and has its own accreditation system and a specific catalogue of services adapted to the population requirements, in order to provide chronic care support from Primary Care settings. This trajectory allows us analysing the process of design and implementation of these new models and the organizational structure where it is integrated. In Spain, there are already experiences in some regions such as Andalucia and the Basque Country, focused on the creation of new advanced nursing roles. At present, it is necessary to consider suitable strategic proposals for the complete development of these models and to achieve the best results in terms of overall health and quality of life of patients with chronic conditions, improving the quality of services and cost-effectiveness through a greater cohesion and performance of healthcare teams towards the sustainability of healthcare services and patient satisfaction.

  11. Advancing geriatrics research, education, and practice: policy challenges after the great recession. (United States)

    Zerzan, Judy T; Rich, Eugene C


    The series of articles in this JGIM issue provides a number of policy-relevant recommendations for advancing geriatrics research, education and practice. Despite the unprecedented pressure to reduce state and federal spending, policymakers must concurrently address the challenges of a growing population of older individuals with increasingly complex health care problems. Thus, there may be opportunities to advance this agenda in creative ways. For example, without new spending, federal research agencies can make changes to encourage needed new directions in aging research, and the ACA provides new funding opportunities such as the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute. States and the federal government have an increasing need for the health professions workforce to have collaborative care skills and geriatrics clinical competencies, and are finding ways to invest in relevant initiatives. On the clinical program side, state and federal governments are initiating programs to promote delivery system changes that improve the care of older adults. Nonetheless, in the face of the policy challenges that have persisted after the "great recession," academic geriatrics and general internal medicine will need to join forces with public and private interests to secure the resources needed to advance this ambitious agenda for geriatrics research, education and practice.

  12. PHARMACIES LIVE : The context of the use of medicinal plants and herbal medicines through social actors in Fortaleza


    Leonardo Lopes Rufino


    The practice of Living Pharmacies (FVs) in Fortaleza precedes Phytotherapy Deployment Policy in Public Health in the state of CearÃ, Decree No. 30016 of December 30, 2009. Conceived by Professor Francisco Josà Matos, the FVs make up the practices complementary integrative, anchored in the Municipal Public Policy and National Medicinal Plants and Herbal medicines. To understand how this municipal public policy within living pharmacy emerged and structure, and social actors see this public poli...

  13. Financial performance of the teaching pharmacies in Isfahan: an economic evaluation. (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, A M; Etebari, M; Sajjadi, H; Badri, Sh; Hosseini-Biuki, S M; Sheikhaboumasoudi, R


    Teaching pharmacies are amongst the important cornerstones of a healthcare system for drug supplying, pharmacy education and pharmacy practice research. Assessment of the Iranian healthcare system costs shows that after personnel charges, drug outlay is the second expensive factor. This great financial mass requires integral audit and management in order to provide costumers satisfaction in addition to financial viability. Teaching pharmacies are required to realize financial viability as well as providing several educational and drug servicing goals, which makes microeconomic analysis important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the financial performance of the teaching pharmacies affiliated with the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (with the abrreviated names as: SHM, ISJ, AZH for the confidentialiy of the financial data). This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study done in 2008. The target pharmacies of this study were all the 3 teaching pharmacies affiliated with the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The data collecting template was prepared using the standard scientific methods according to the goals of this research The goals also nominated necessary items needed in economic profit evaluation. The data collection template was completed by reference to the teaching pharmacies financial documents and reports, used as a base for calculating the total income and the total costs in 2007-2008 financial year. The difference between these two balances showed the value of profits or loss. The profit/cost ratio was also calculated, using the proportion of the total income to the total costs. The collected data was statistically analyzed using the Excel software (Microsoft 2007). For the financial year 2007-2008, the difference between the total income and the total costs was -831.6 million Rials (excess costs to income) for the SHM pharmacy, + 25.4 billion Rials for the ISJ pharmacy and -429.5 million Rials for the AZH pharmacy. According to our

  14. The future of pain pharmacy: driven by need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson TJ


    Full Text Available Timothy J Atkinson, Alev H Gulum, William G Forkum Veteran Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Murfreesboro, TN, USA Background: Opioid prescribing has increased by ~400% over the past 20 years in the US and has been correlated with dramatic increases in accidental overdose-related deaths. Emerging evidence of serious dose-dependent side effects of opioid analgesics has led to recommendations from multinational pain societies and governments to decrease opioid doses and increase referrals to pain specialists. Demand for pain specialists of all types has increased; however, training programs for health care professionals struggle to satisfy this need. Objective: The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of clinical pharmacy specialists in pain management and to discuss available residency training programs and subspecialties within each program. Methods: We surveyed all eleven accredited pharmacy postgraduate year two (PGY-2 Pain and Palliative Care Residency programs in the US. Program information was derived from interviews with residency directors, current residents, program brochures, and residency Web sites. Data collected included core, elective, and longitudinal rotations, with the time frame dedicated to each experience. Primary practice areas, as well as inpatient vs outpatient focus, were also documented. Additionally, a review of the available literature was completed to determine the areas in greatest need for future pain specialists. Results: Pharmacy pain specialists have been referenced as highly effective additions to interdisciplinary pain management teams. Pharmacists provide expertise in complex pain medication management, which remains the primary focus of most chronic pain encounters. The PGY-2 programs surveyed differ considerably, with the majority providing significant emphasis to either acute pain management or palliative care with brief or limited exposure to chronic pain management. Four of the eleven

  15. 我院门诊药房绩效分配方案的实践%Practice of Performance Evaluation-related Distribution Program in Outpatient Pharmacy of Our Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着公立医院综合改革的全面展开,现有的人事薪酬模式已不能适应医院药学的发展需求,亟需建立行之有效的薪酬激励制度,变革医院药学工作的现状。根据我院门诊药房的特点,我们采取细化分工,明确岗位职责,制定考评细则,利用360度评价法综合考评量化、质化指标,并且运用PDCA循环的方法对考核方案的可行性进行评估,旨在建立科学合理、公平有效的绩效分配方案,以提高药学服务质量。。%With fully comprehensive reform of public hospital, the existing personnel salary model has been unable to meet the needs of the development of hospital pharmacy. Thus there is an urgent need to establish effective compensation incentive system to change the status quo of hospital pharmacy. According to the characteristics of our hospital outpatient pharmacy, we take a detailed division of labor, a clear job responsibility to formulate detailed rules for examination and assessment, using 360 degree evaluation method for comprehensive evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, and the method of PDCA cycle to evaluate the feasibility of the evaluation scheme. This is aimed at building scientiifc and reasonable, fair and effective performance bonus distribution program to improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  16. What drives inappropriate antibiotic dispensing? A mixed-methods study of pharmacy employee perspectives in Haryana, India (United States)

    Barker, Anna K; Brown, Kelli; Ahsan, Muneeb; Sengupta, Sharmila; Safdar, Nasia


    Objectives There are only 0.70 licensed physicians per 1000 people in India. Thus, pharmacies are a primary source of healthcare and patients often seek their services directly, especially in village settings. However, there is wide variability in a pharmacy employee's training, which contributes to inappropriate antibiotic dispensing and misuse. These practices increase the risk of antibiotic resistance and poor patient outcomes. This study seeks to better understand the factors that drive inappropriate antibiotic dispensing among pharmacy employees in India's village communities. Design We conducted a mixed-methods study of the antibiotic dispensing practices, including semistructured interviews and a pilot cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice survey. All data were transcribed, translated from Hindi into English, and coded for themes. Setting Community pharmacies in villages in Haryana, India. Participants We recruited 24 community pharmacy employees (all male) by convenience sampling. Participants have a range of characteristics regarding village location, monthly income, baseline antibiotic knowledge, formal education and licensure. Results 75% of pharmacy employees in our study were unlicensed practitioners, and the majority had very limited understanding of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, only half could correctly define the term antibiotics. All reported that at times they dispensed antibiotics without a prescription. This practice was more common when treating patients who had limited access to a licensed physician because of economic or logistic reasons. Many pharmacy workers also felt pressure to provide shortened medication courses to poorer clientele, and often dispensed only 1 or 2 days' worth of antibiotics. Such patients rarely returned to the pharmacy for the complete course. Conclusions This study highlights the need for short-term, intensive training programmes on antibiotic prescribing and resistance that can be disseminated to

  17. Trends in radiopharmaceutical dispensing in a regional nuclear pharmacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Johnston, J.; Barker, K.; Ice, R.D.


    Dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals at a regional nuclear pharmacy over a 51-month period were studied. dispensing records of a regional nuclear pharmacy were analyzed with a forecasting procedure that uses univariate time data to produce time trends and autoregressive models. The overall number of prescriptions increased from 3500 to 5500 per quarter. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear cardiology studies increased from less than 0.1% to 17.5% of total prescriptions dispensed, while radiopharmaceuticals used for brain imaging showed a steady decline from 29% to 11% of total prescriptions dispensed. The demand for other radiopharmaceuticals increased in areas such as renal studies, bone studies, lung studies, liver-function studies, and /sup 67/Ga tumor-uptake studies, and declined slightly for static liver studies. Changes in dispensing trends for radiopharmaceuticals will continue as the practice of nuclear medicine concentrates more on functional studies and as newer imaging techniques become used for other purposes.

  18. Innovative scheduling to maintain clinical pharmacy services despite budget retrenchment. (United States)

    Siegel, J; Schneider, P J; Moore, T D


    A process is described in which staff scheduling was adjusted to maintain pharmaceutical services while achieving a 7% cutback in personnel costs. The pharmacy department in a 1000-bed university hospital was unable to achieve the necessary cost savings through reductions in sick leave and overtime hours. The pharmacy administration developed a plan that required pharmacists to work four 10-hour shifts per week and resulted in reduced hours of service. The pharmacists objected and proposed an alternative plan in which clinical service was maintained for 16 hours on weekdays and 12 hours on weekends. Pharmacist teams worked one flexible shift per week. Pharmacists developed an innovative staffing plan that allowed them to maintain a high level of practice and acceptable working hours.

  19. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the K-12 Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. We emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluation of the most promising retrofit measure for each building type. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings.

  20. Attributes of advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity. (United States)

    Cady, Rhonda G; Kelly, Anne M; Finkelstein, Stanley M; Looman, Wendy S; Garwick, Ann W


    Care coordination is an essential component of the pediatric health care home. This study investigated the attributes of relationship-based advanced practice registered nurse care coordination for children with medical complexity enrolled in a tertiary hospital-based health care home. Retrospective review of 2,628 care coordination episodes conducted by telehealth over a consecutive 3-year time period for 27 children indicated that parents initiated the majority of episodes and the most frequent reason was acute and chronic condition management. During this period, care coordination episodes tripled, with a significant increase (p care coordination model has potential for changing the health management processes for children with medical complexity.

  1. Advancing Research and Practice: The Revised APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis. (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David


    This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, being heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.

  2. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Grocery Stores (Revised) (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, B.


    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders successfully plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited in these guides. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. Grocery stores were selected as one of the highest priority sectors, because they represent one of the most energy-intensive market segments.

  3. Two Approaches to Vocational Education and Training. A View from Pharmacy Education (United States)

    Waterfield, Jon


    This review focuses on the relationship between theoretical knowledge and professional practice within pharmacy education. The discussion takes two different approaches to examine the selected literature. The first approach is concerned with how curriculum changes may potentially contribute to the improvement of professional practice. This…

  4. Comparative Analysis of Understanding of Pictograms among Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Yasmin


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate awareness and significance of pictograms among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. The study was conducted in two public and private sector institutes of Karachi during July to Oct 2013. Altogether 306 pharmacy and non pharmacy students participated in the study. A self administered questionnaire was used for this purpose. Nineteen pictograms from the USP-DI and corresponding set of 19 locally developed pictograms conveying the same medication instructions or messages were evaluated. Respondents were evaluated for their interpretation of all 38 pictograms. More than 98% of the pharmacy students agreed that pictograms attracts attention of people to provide information about medicine use. 97% considered that pictograms are used as universal language that can be easily understood by everyone and they are effective tools for educating the illiterate patients. 97.87% non pharmacy students agreed that patients are unfamiliar with medical terminologies and pictograms may be used to convey the medically significant information to patients. Both pharmacy and non pharmacy students preferred USP-DI pictograms over the pictograms of local origin. It is a need of time to introduce pictograms as a topic in curriculum of Pharm -D courses like Dispensing Pharmacy, Hospital pharmacy and Community pharmacy so that during professional life pharmacist can use these tools to improve patient counseling techniques. It is a way to maximize patient care and provide patient education regardless of any barrier.

  5. Building the Clinical Bridge to Advance Education, Research, and Practice Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Svejda


    Full Text Available The University of Michigan School of Nursing and the Health System partnered to develop an undergraduate clinical education model as part of a larger project to advance clinical education, practice, and scholarship with education serving as the clinical bridge that anchors all three areas. The clinical model includes clusters of clinical units as the clinical home for four years of a student's education, clinical instruction through team mentorship, clinical immersion, special skills preparation, and student portfolio. The model was examined during a one-year pilot with junior students. Stakeholders were largely positive. Findings showed that Clinical Faculty engaged in more role modeling of teaching strategies as Mentors assumed more direct teaching used more clinical reasoning strategies. Students reported increased confidence and competence in clinical care by being integrated into the team and the Mentor's assignment. Two new full time faculty roles in the Health System support education, practice, and research.

  6. Advancing community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials: principles, practices and evidence. (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara


    Community stakeholder engagement is foundational to fair and ethically conducted biomedical HIV prevention trials. Concerns regarding the ethical engagement of community stakeholders in HIV vaccine trials and early terminations of several international pre-exposure prophylaxis trials have fueled the development of international guidelines, such as UNAIDS' good participatory practice (GPP). GPP aims to ensure that stakeholders are effectively involved in all phases of biomedical HIV prevention trials. We provide an overview of the six guiding principles in the GPP and critically examine them in relation to existing social and behavioral science research. In particular, we highlight the challenges involved in operationalizing these principles on the ground in various global contexts, with a focus on low-income country settings. Increasing integration of social science in biomedical HIV prevention trials will provide evidence to advance a science of community stakeholder engagement to support ethical and effective practices informed by local realities and sociocultural differences.

  7. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians. (United States)

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D


    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4).

  8. Gerontology found me: gaining understanding of advanced practice nurses in geriatrics. (United States)

    Campbell-Detrixhe, Dia D; Grassley, Jane S; Zeigler, Vicki L


    Examining the meanings of the experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) who chose to work with older adults and why they continue to work with this population was the focus of this hermeneutic qualitative research study. Twelve geriatric APNs currently practicing in two South Central states were interviewed using an open-ended interview guide. Using Gadamerian hermeneutics, the researchers identified Gerontology Found Me as the significant expression that reflected the fundamental meaning of the experience as a whole. Four themes emerged that further described the meanings of the participants' personal, educational, and professional experiences: Becoming a Gerontology Nurse, Being a Gerontology Nurse, Belonging to Gerontology, and Bringing Others to Gerontology. This study concluded that APNs' personal and professional experiences were more influential than educational experiences to become geriatric nurses, and having these personal and professional experiences of being in relationship with older individuals further contributed to their choice of gerontology.

  9. A practical approach to nutritional support for patients with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Hill, D; Hart, K


    Palliative care can last from a few days to months and, in some cases, years. Consequently the nutritional needs of palliative care patients also vary, as does the extent to which nutrition intervention is pursued. Anorexia and cachexia are common side-effects of advanced cancer. They are characterized by physical depletion of the patients and an emotional drain on them, their families and carers. Pulling together the practical aspects of nutrition support and the emotional and social significance of food requires a skillful practitioner; an experienced dietitian can be a valued member of the palliative care team. This article examines the role of nutrition support in the palliative care setting, focusing upon practical advice including food modification, the use of oral supplements and enteral feeding.

  10. Health Care Providers’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding the use of Advance Directives in a Military Health Care Setting (United States)


    and skills about advance directives have been cited for low completion rates. Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ), in both civilian and military settings...receive training on ethical and moral implications of advanced nursing practice. These characteristics make the FNP an ideal candidate for promoting...environment (Hunter et al., 1997). Advanced Nursing Role Family nurse practitioners ( FNPs ) are well suited to initiate conversations concerning end-of-life

  11. Strategies for implementation of an effective pharmacogenomics program in pharmacy education. (United States)

    Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Mayhew, Susan L; Rao, Prema S


    Sequencing of the human genome and the evidence correlating specific genetic variations to diseases have opened up the potential of genomics to more effective and less harmful interventions of human diseases. A wealth of pharmacogenomics knowledge is in place for the practice of precision medicine. However, this knowledge is not fully realized in clinical practice. One reason for this impasse is the lack of in-depth understanding of the potential of pharmacogenomics among the healthcare professionals. Pharmacists are the point-of-care providers and are expected to advise clinicians on matters relating to the implementation of pharmacogenomics in patient care. However, current pharmacogenomics instruction in pharmacy schools fails to produce pharmacists with the required knowledge or practical training in this discipline. In this perspective, we provide several strategies to overcome limitations faced by pharmacy schools. Once implemented, pharmacy schools will produce precision medicine-ready pharmacists.

  12. Preparation of faculty members and students to be citizen leaders and pharmacy advocates. (United States)

    Ross, Leigh Ann; Janke, Kristin K; Boyle, Cynthia J; Gianutsos, Gerald; Lindsey, Cameron C; Moczygemba, Leticia R; Whalen, Karen


    To identify characteristics and quality indicators of best practices for leadership and advocacy development in pharmacy education, a national task force on leadership development in pharmacy invited colleges and schools to complete a phone survey to characterize the courses, processes, and noteworthy practices for leadership and advocacy development at their institution. The literature was consulted to corroborate survey findings and identify additional best practices. Recommendations were derived from the survey results and literature review, as well as from the experience and expertise of task force members. Fifty-four institutions provided information about lecture-based and experiential curricular and noncurricular components of leadership and advocacy development. Successful programs have a supportive institutional culture, faculty and alumni role models, administrative and/or financial support, and a cocurricular thread of activities. Leadership and advocacy development for student pharmacists is increasingly important. The recommendations and suggestions provided can facilitate leadership and advocacy development at other colleges and schools of pharmacy.

  13. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations (United States)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina


    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  14. Developing patient education in community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.T.G.


    This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians’ patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy. Thi

  15. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry (United States)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  16. Innovation an Practice of the Humanities Curriculum Group Majored in Pharmacy by Professional Emotion%以职业情感为导向的药学专业人文课程群的创新与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海涛; 张晓杰; 韩翠艳; 李莉


    Professional emotion cultivation is an important part of three-oriented personnel trainning mode in School of Pharmacy,Qiqihar Medical College. This article expounds the design ideas,theaching meth-ods,the role of humanities pharmacy group in talent training and promoting the professional growth of medicine students by professional emotion. This reflects the features of talent training in our school.%职业情感培养是齐齐哈尔医学院药学院“三导向”人才培养模式的重要环节,阐述学院以职业情感为导向的药学专业人文课程群的设计思路、授课方法、在人才培养以及促进药学生专业成长中所起到的作用,体现学院的人才培养特色。

  17. Proposal of the Implementation of an International Pharmacy Graduate Preliminary Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyenghee Kwon


    Full Text Available At present, graduates of international pharmacy schools can apply to take the Korean Pharmacist Licensing Examination after passing a review by the Accreditation Board of the Pharmacy Schools and Licenses. However, since the educational content of different schools and the roles of pharmacists differ from country to country, a preliminary examination might be necessary before the Pharmacist Licensing Examination. To prepare to implement a preliminary examination for foreign pharmacy graduates in Korea, we summarized the preliminary examinations used in four other countries and presented a proposal for a preliminary examination. Data were collected via the internet and through telephone interviews with appropriate persons. The proposal was revised after a public forum. There are preliminary examinations in the USA, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom, and these involve written, oral, practice, and English proficiency tests. We proposed that the Korean preliminary examination consist of a written test on basic pharmacy, a test in the Korean language, and an interview. The preliminary examination should include suitable items that effectively evaluate international graduates. Graduates of international pharmacy schools who have an ability equivalent to graduates of Korean pharmacy schools should be eligible to write the Korean Licensing Examination.

  18. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS


    Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  19. Herb-Herb Combination for Therapeutic Enhancement and Advancement: Theory, Practice and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wai Kei Lam


    Full Text Available Herb-herb combinations have been used in Chinese medicine practice for thousands of years, yet scientific evidence of their therapeutic benefits is lacking. With increasing interest in shifting from the one-drug-one-target paradigm to combination therapy or polypharmacy to achieve therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases, there is momentum to explore new knowledge by tapping the past empirical experiences of herb-herb combinations. This review presents an overview of the traditional concept and practice of herb-herb combination in Chinese medicine, and highlights the available scientific and clinical evidence to support the combined use of herbs. It is hoped that such information would provide a lead for developing new approaches for future therapeutic advancement and pharmaceutical product development. Very likely modern technologies combined with innovative research for the quality control of herbal products, identification of active components and understanding of the molecular mechanism, followed by well-designed animal and clinical studies would pave the way in advancing the wealth of empirical knowledge from herb-herb combination to new therapeutic modalities.

  20. Enhancing presentation skills for the advanced practice nurse: strategies for success. (United States)

    Vollman, Kathleen M


    Professional speaking is a component of the professional practice role of the advanced practice nurse (APN). The skills to communicate effectively to one person or an audience of 100 provide the APN with the essential tools for implementing change, collaborating effectively, presenting information at professional meetings, or communicating the impact of clinical outcomes in the boardroom. Public speaking skills, a professional image, and improved communication can facilitate advancement along any career ladder. The greater your fear, the more self-confidence you will gain by stepping up to a challenge and conquering it. This article describes strategies for organizing and presenting your message in a clear and concise format. Techniques to manage the anxiety produced when attempting to articulate your thoughts is essential for effective communication. Skills for enhancing the delivery of your message through effective body language, professional image, voice modulation, and use of audiovisual aids are addressed. Creative techniques for fielding questions are key in promoting a dynamic closure and provide consistent reinforcement of the key message content.

  1. ICON 2013: Practical consensus recommendations for hormone receptor-positive Her2-negative advanced or metastatic breastcancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Parikh


    Full Text Available The management of hormone receptor-positive Her2-negative breast cancer patients with advanced or metastatic disease is a common problem in India and other countries in this region. This expert group used data from published literature, practical experience, and opinion of a large group of academic oncologists, to arrive at practical consensus recommendations for use by the community oncologists.

  2. ICON 2013: practical consensus recommendations for hormone receptor-positive Her2-negative advanced or metastatic breastcancer. (United States)

    Parikh, P M; Gupta, S; Dawood, S; Rugo, H; Bhattacharyya, G S; Agarwal, A; Chacko, R; Sahoo, T P; Babu, G; Agarwal, S; Munshi, A; Goswami, C; Smruti, B K; Bondarde, S; Desai, C; Rajappa, S; Somani, N; Singh, M; Nimmagadda, R; Pavitran, K; Mehta, A; Parmar, V; Desai, S; Nair, R; Doval, D


    The management of hormone receptor-positive Her2-negative breast cancer patients with advanced or metastatic disease is a common problem in India and other countries in this region. This expert group used data from published literature, practical experience, and opinion of a large group of academic oncologists, to arrive at practical consensus recommendations for use by the community oncologists.

  3. Dryden Flight Research Center Chemical Pharmacy Program (United States)

    Davis, Bette


    The Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Chemical Pharmacy "Crib" is a chemical sharing system which loans chemicals to users, rather than issuing them or having each individual organization or group purchasing the chemicals. This cooperative system of sharing chemicals eliminates multiple ownership of the same chemicals and also eliminates stockpiles. Chemical management duties are eliminated for each of the participating organizations. The chemical storage issues, hazards and responsibilities are eliminated. The system also ensures safe storage of chemicals and proper disposal practices. The purpose of this program is to reduce the total releases and transfers of toxic chemicals. The initial cost of the program to DFRC was $585,000. A savings of $69,000 per year has been estimated for the Center. This savings includes the reduced costs in purchasing, disposal and chemical inventory/storage responsibilities. DFRC has chemicals stored in 47 buildings and at 289 locations. When the program is fully implemented throughout the Center, there will be three chemical locations at this facility. The benefits of this program are the elimination of chemical management duties; elimination of the hazard associated with chemical storage; elimination of stockpiles; assurance of safe storage; assurance of proper disposal practices; assurance of a safer workplace; and more accurate emissions reports.

  4. [1913: A hundred years ago, the Society of the History of Pharmacy was born]. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry


    The "Société d'histoire de la pharmacie" was chronologically the first society for the history of pharmacy in the world. It was initiated by a triumvirate : Eugene-Humbert Guitard (1884-1976), a young graduate of the "Ecole des chartes", Charles Buchet (1848-1933), director of an important pharmaceutical cooperative named "Pharmacie central de France", and Paul Dorveaux (1851-1938), the librarian of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. Those three men were perfectly complementary: the pharmacist Buchet was the "financial", the doctor Dorveaux was the "strategist" and Guitard was in charge of the practical realization. To carry out this project, they appealed to men of good will. Finally, on February 1, 1913, seventy founding members gave birth to the "Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie". These founders came from diverse backgrounds. Some of them, such Dorveaux, belonged to the "Société française d'histoire de la medecine", founded ten years ago. Others were members of the Supervisory Committee of the "Pharmacie centrale de France". A third group consisted of university teachers, as Leon Guignard, the former director of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. There was also some archivists and writers, for example Camille Bloch, Ferdinand Brunot and, of course, Eugene-Humbert Guitard. The largest contingent was made up of French historians and collectors, like Antoine Balland and Charles-Henri Fialon. There was also four foreign founders: the Danish John William Schibbye Johnsson (1868-1929), the American Edward Kremers (1865-1941), and the Germans Hermann Emil Schelenz (1848-1922) and Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938). All of them were correspondents and friends of Paul Dorveaux. As Guitard wrote in 1938, Dorveaux office was, at that time, the "world center" of the studies ofhistory of pharmacy. Morever, according Guitard, the new group could have be called "Societe internationale d'histoire de la pharmacie". The term "international" seemed unfortunately too

  5. Educational outcomes necessary to enter pharmacy residency training. (United States)

    Hester, Elizabeth Kelly; McBane, Sarah E; Bottorff, Michael B; Carnes, Tristan A; Dell, Kamila; Gonyeau, Michael J; Greco, Angelo J; McConnell, Karen J; Skaar, Debra J; Splinter, Michele Y; Trujillo, Toby C


    It is the position of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) that formal postgraduate residency training, or equivalent experience, is required to enter direct patient care practice. Therefore, it is important to align professional degree educational outcomes with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to enter residency training. This position statement addresses the outcomes necessary in the professional degree program curriculum to ensure the ability of pharmacy graduates to transition effectively into postgraduate year one residency training. Five key outcome areas are identified: communication, direct patient care, professionalism, research, and practice management. The position statement examines how performance in each of the five outcome areas should be addressed by professional degree programs. The ACCP believes that for the student to achieve the clinical proficiency necessary to enter residency training, the professional degree program should emphasize, assess, and provide adequate opportunities for students to practice: communication with patients, caregivers, and members of the health care team in direct patient care environments; provision of direct patient care in a wide variety of practice settings, especially those involving patient-centered, team-based care; professionalism under the supervision and guidance of faculty and preceptors who model and teach the traits of a health care professional; application of principles of research that engender an appreciation for the role of research and scholarship in one's professional development; and application of practice management, including documentation of direct patient care activities that affect drug-related outcomes.

  6. 临床药师参与1例难治性哮喘患儿治疗的药学实践%Pharmacy practice of clinical pharmacist participating in the treatment of 1 child with refractory asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To investigate the pharmaceutical care key points of clinical pharmacist participating in the treatment of child with refractory asthma, in order to guide clinical rational drug use. Clinical pharmacist took part in the treatment process of refractory asthma, so as to analyze pathogenesis of refractory asthma and explore the relation between medicine, dose and curative effect for formulating rational use of drug and dose. Clinical effects and condition changes of disease were needed to be considered for adjusting pharmacy scheme timely, and providing individualized pharmacy service. Through joining the pharmaceutical care for refractory asthma, clinical pharmacist could enhance safety and curative effect of pharmacy for children. The participation of clinical pharmacist in formulation of treating refractory asthma can make the treatment become standard and rational, and provide reference for the control and treatment of refractory asthma.%探讨临床药师参与难治性哮喘患儿治疗药学监护要点,以指导临床合理用药。临床药师参与难治性哮喘的治疗过程,分析产生难治性哮喘原因,寻找疗效与药物、剂量与疗效的关系,制定合理药物及合适剂量,并根据药物的临床疗效和病情变化及时调整用药方案,提供个体化的药学服务。临床药师通过对难治性哮喘的药学监护,可提高患儿的用药安全性及治疗效果。临床药师参与难治性哮喘的治疗的制定,使治疗更加规范、合理,为难治性哮喘的控制治疗提供参考。

  7. 21 CFR 1301.19 - Special requirements for online pharmacies. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special requirements for online pharmacies. 1301... Special requirements for online pharmacies. (a) A pharmacy that has been issued a registration under § 1301.13 may request that the Administrator modify its registration to authorize the pharmacy...

  8. 21 CFR 1304.40 - Notification by online pharmacies. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification by online pharmacies. 1304.40 Section... REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.40 Notification by online pharmacies. (a) Thirty days prior to offering a... pharmacy shall: (1) Notify the Administrator of its intent to do so by submitting an application for...

  9. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is...

  10. The Relationship between Student Engagement and Professionalism in Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Flaherty, Anne Guerin


    This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…

  11. 21 CFR 1311.205 - Pharmacy application requirements. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pharmacy application requirements. 1311.205... ELECTRONIC ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.205 Pharmacy application requirements. (a) The pharmacy may only use a pharmacy application that meets the requirements in paragraph...

  12. 提高药学类本科实训教学质量的实践与探索%Practice and Exploration of Improving the Pharmacy Undergraduate Training Teaching Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    新世纪我国医药行业发展迅猛,如何按药企标准培养符合需要的药学人才是一项艰巨和紧迫的任务。基于公用工程岗位的实训教学建设,文章对提高药学类本科实训教学质量的可行性作了探讨。%In the new century,China's pharmaceutical industry is developing rapidly,and the standard training with pharmaceutical companies pharmaceutical talents need becomes an arduous and urgent task. For the construction of public project is based on the post training teaching,the feasibility of improving the pharmacy undergraduate training teaching quality is explored.

  13. 21 CFR 1306.15 - Provision of prescription information between retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for... (United States)


    ... prescription has been transmitted, the name of the retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription... retail pharmacy pharmacist transmitting the prescription, and the date of transmittal must be added to... retail pharmacies and central fill pharmacies for prescriptions of Schedule II controlled...

  14. Pharmaceutical consultations in community pharmacies: utility of the Roter Interaction Analysis System to study pharmacist-patient communication. (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso; Roter, Debra


    Communication is a key issue in the delivery of healthcare services. In the pharmacy context, pharmacist-patient communication may vary from brief counselling episodes to extensive pharmaceutical care consultations. Many community pharmacies have developed practices to facilitate the effective delivery of pharmacy care, in particular to chronic patients, although the nature and extent of the services differ widely from country to country. Diabetes-focused pharmaceutical care is an example highlighting both the opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of pharmacy services from product dispensing to pharmaceutical consultations. An area of particular challenge of such an expansion of pharmaceutical services is the development of expertise in the delivery of patient-centred pharmaceutical consultations. Although well known to medicine and nursing, patient-centredness has not been routinely incorporated into the training of pharmacists, evaluation of pharmacy practice or conduct of pharmacy-related research. There are few studies of the communication process based on analysis of an objective record such as an audio or video recording and the common perspective is largely a one-way information flow from pharmacist to patient. This has hampered the field's ability to link pharmacy communication to outcomes, including patient adherence and satisfaction with services. An extensive body of communication research on physician-patient interaction, employing the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), exists and the system presents a potentially useful tool in the pharmacy context. The purpose of this essay is to explore the utility of the RIAS for analysis of pharmacist-patient interaction and its implication for improving patient care and optimizing pharmacy-specific outcomes.

  15. Pharmacy student driven detection of adverse drug reactions in the community pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig


    of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through...... direct encountering and questioning with drug users. METHOD: Pharmacy students undertaking internship in a community pharmacy were approached. Thirteen students from nine community pharmacies participated in the project as data collectors. Prior to the study students attended an educational seminar...... focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Hundred...

  16. Geographic Medical History: Advances in Geospatial Technology Present New Potentials in Medical Practice (United States)

    Faruque, F. S.; Finley, R. W.


    Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes) and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour), but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, "Airs, Waters, Places", yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient's medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient's "Geographic Medical History". In order to accomplish this we need information on: a) relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b) location of the individual in that person's dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual's location can be tracked in real time if


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Faruque


    Full Text Available Genes, behaviour, and the environment are known to be the major risk factors for common diseases. When the patient visits a physician, typical questions include family history (genes and lifestyle of the patient (behaviour, but questions concerning environmental risk factors often remain unasked. It is ironic that 25 centuries ago Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine, noted the importance of environmental exposure in medical investigation as documented in his classic work, “Airs, Waters, Places”, yet the practice of routinely incorporating environmental risk factors is still not in place. Modern epigenetic studies have found that unhealthy lifestyle and environmental factors can cause changes to our genes that can increase disease risk factors. Therefore, attempting to solve the puzzle of diseases using heredity and lifestyle alone will be incomplete without accounting for the environmental exposures. The primary reason why environmental exposure has not yet been a routine part of the patient’s medical history is mostly due to our inability to provide clinicians useful measures of environmental exposures suitable for their clinical practices. This presentation will discuss advances in geospatial technology that show the potential to catalyse a paradigm shift in medical practice and health research by allowing environmental risk factors to be documented as the patient’s “Geographic Medical History”. In order to accomplish this we need information on: a relevant spatiotemporal environmental variables, and b location of the individual in that person’s dynamic environment. Common environmental agents that are known to interact with genetic make-up include air pollutants, mold spores, pesticides, etc. Until recently, the other component, location of an individual was limited to a static representation such as residential or workplace location. Now, with the development of mobile technology, changes in an individual’s location

  18. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    -executed instructional interventions will advance work practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes contemporary social-psychological and educational research in the creation of a model of intervention-based change. In addition, the findings from an empirical study of online teacher professional...... development simultaneously inspire and exemplify the model. Findings The paper suggests that increased attention to individual motivational drivers is needed, especially post intervention, to help ensure meaningful learning transfer and sustainable behavior change. The importance of individualized on...... interventions currently. It conceptualizes intervention-based change and the key motivational drivers of such change. In doing so, it illuminates highly contextual dynamics presumed to have a critical impact on the effectiveness of e-Learning for PD....

  19. Factors driving customers to seek health care from pharmacies for acute respiratory illness and treatment recommendations from drug sellers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo


    Background Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. Results We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. Conclusion People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of

  20. Pharmacy or PharmaNBIC: Thinking about 50 years ahead of pharmacy today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Azadi


    Full Text Available The contemporary trends and concepts in pharmacy are widely affected by the emergence of Nano-, Bio- or Info- technologies (NBI as an attempt to develop different principles of medicine. This commentary is trying to make a think tank room for 50 years ahead of today’s pharmacy, where the ambience of pharmacy will be affected by such technologies together with cognition (NBIC to achieve intelligent, low adverse reaction and holistic action medicals.

  1. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide (AERG): Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Healthcare Facilities (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Shekhar, D.; Pless, S.


    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities is part of a series of retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures (EEMs), the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) are intended to address key segments of the U.S. commercial building stock: retail stores, office buildings, K-12 schools, grocery stores, and healthcare facilities. The guides' general project planning considerations are applicable nationwide; the energy and cost savings estimates for recommended EEMs were developed based on energy simulations and cost estimates for an example hospital tailored to five distinct climate regions. These results can be extrapolated to other U.S. climate zones. Analysis is presented for individual EEMs, and for packages of recommended EEMs for two project types: existing building commissioning projects that apply low-cost and no-cost measures, and whole-building retrofits involving more capital-intensive measures.

  2. ABC and VED Analysis of the Pharmacy Store of a Tertiary Care Teaching, Research and Referral Healthcare Institute of India. (United States)

    Devnani, M; Gupta, Ak; Nigah, R


    The ABC and VED (vital, essential, desirable) analysis of the pharmacy store of Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, was conducted to identify the categories of items needing stringent management control. The annual consumption and expenditure incurred on each item of pharmacy for the year 2007-08 was analyzed and inventory control techniques, i.e. ABC, VED and ABC-VED matrix analysis, were applied. The drug formulary of the pharmacy consisted of 421 items. The total annual drug expenditure (ADE) on items issued in 2007-08 was Rs. 40,012,612. ABC analysis revealed 13.78%, 21.85% and 64.37% items as A, B and C category items, respectively, accounting for 69.97%, 19.95% and 10.08% of ADE of the pharmacy. VED analysis showed 12.11%, 59.38% and 28.51% items as V, E, and D category items, respectively, accounting for 17.14%, 72.38% and 10.48% of ADE of the pharmacy. On ABC-VED matrix analysis, 22.09%, 54.63% and 23.28% items were found to be category I, II and III items, respectively, accounting for 74.21%, 22.23% and 3.56% of ADE of the pharmacy. The ABC and VED techniques need to be adopted as a routine practice for optimal use of resources and elimination of out-of-stock situations in the hospital pharmacy.

  3. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization. (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K


    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  4. [Pharmacy compounding of medicinal shampoos: an update]. (United States)

    Varçin, M; Vandael, A; Zier-Vercammen, J


    Delivery of magistral (extemporaneous) preparations must comply with quality standards, as described in the "Guide to Good Officinal Pharmaceutical Practice" and the pharmacy's Quality Manual (Royal Decree of 21 January 2009). In this study, the shampoo Simplex Herdewijn, prepared with Texapon NSO, is compared with commercially available basic shampoos (Shampoo Fagron and Shampoo Simplex Conforma) with respect to its composition as well as its physicochemical properties. These basic shampoos were used to develop medicinal shampoos. The active compounds of these shampoos were: 0.5% hexachlorophene, 1% ichtammol, 1% cade oil or 2% liquor carbonis detergens. The necessary concentration of Cetomacrogol 1000, required to solubilise the active compounds was determined, as well as the amount of sodium chloride needed to adjust the viscosity of the shampoo. The viscosity of the basic and medicinal shampoos was determined by means of rheograms and by calculating their apparent viscosity. Additionally, a number of fundamental aspects of the formulation of shampoos are discussed in this paper. The results can be useful to pharmacists as guidelines for the preparation of medicinal shampoos. Beside patient instruction and pharmaceutical care, the intrinsic quality of magistral preparations is a prerequisite for therapeutic activity.

  5. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit energy efficiency measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings nationwide. U.S. K-12 school districts spend more than $8 billion each year on energy - more than they spend on computers and textbooks combined. Most occupy older buildings that often have poor operational performance - more than 30% of schools were built before 1960. The average age of a school is about 42 years - which is nearly the expected serviceable lifespan of the building. K-12 schools offer unique opportunities for deep, cost-effective energy efficiency improvements, and this guide provides convenient and practical guidance for exploiting these opportunities in the context of public, private, and parochial schools.

  6. [Development of advanced educational programs, including research programs, for undergraduate students in National Universities: the facts in 2010]. (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yuji; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Santa, Tomofumi; Kitamura, Yoshihisa


    This article summarizes detailed facts obtained from the questionnaire conducted in 2010 at about 14 National Universities on the topic of "Research programs and advanced educational programs for undergraduate students". The contents of the questionnaire included: (1) Research programs based on the coalition of university and hospital and/or community pharmacy, other Graduate Schools, such as School of Medicine etc., and the University Hospital, (2) Educational systems for the achievement of research programs and their research outcomes, (3) Research programs based on pharmacist practices, (4) Ongoing advanced educational programs for undergraduate students, taking advantage of the coalition with Graduate School, School of Medicine (and Dentistry), and University Hospital. Some of the advanced educational programs outlined in this questionnaire will be carried out by our group in the coming years and the educational benefits together with associated problems shall as well be clarified. This approach will be informative for the development of the leader-oriented pharmacist programs for the college of Pharmacy.

  7. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark


    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  8. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heller


    Full Text Available Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1 the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2 the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3 the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4 the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  9. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.


    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  10. Quality safeguards and regulation of online pharmacies


    Arruñada, Benito


    Using econometric evidence, this article confirms that distribution of medicines online is split into two market segments of very diverse quality, and identifies the factors that drive quality and quality assurance in this activity. Unlike fraudulent, ‘rogue,’ websites, which offer scant guarantees and usually sell just a few medicines without prescription, online pharmacies offering insurance coverage and linked to conventional pharmacies typically sell a whole range of drugs, require third-...

  11. Pharmacy services at admission and discharge in adult, acute, public hospitals in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, Tamasine


    OBJECTIVES: to describe hospital pharmacy involvement in medication management in Ireland, both generally and at points of transfer of care, and to gain a broad perspective of the hospital pharmacy workforce. METHODS: a survey of all adult, acute, public hospitals with an accident and emergency (A&E) department (n = 36), using a semi-structured telephone interview. KEY FINDINGS: there was a 97% (n = 35) response rate. The majority (n = 25, 71.4%) of hospitals reported delivery of a clinical pharmacy service. On admission, pharmacists were involved in taking or verifying medication histories in a minority (n = 15, 42.9%) of hospitals, while few (n = 6,17.1%) deployed staff to the A&E\\/acute medical admissions unit. On discharge, the majority (n = 30,85.7%) did not supply any take-out medication, a minority (n =5,14.3%) checked the discharge prescription, 51.4% (n = 18) counselled patients, 42.9% (n = 15) provided medication compliance charts and one hospital (2.9%) communicated with the patient\\'s community pharmacy. The number of staff employed in the pharmacy department in each hospital was not proportionate to the number of inpatient beds, nor the volume of admissions from A&E. There were differences identified in service delivery between hospitals of different type: urban hospitals with a high volume of admissions from A&E were more likely to deliver clinical pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: the frequency and consistency of delivering pharmacy services to facilitate medication reconciliation at admission and discharge could be improved. Workforce constraints may inhibit service expansion. Development of national standards of practice may help to eliminate variation between hospitals and support service development.

  12. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy. (United States)

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J


    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  13. Developing a Business Plan for Critical Care Pharmacy Services. (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J


    Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.

  14. Student-Creation of eCases for Clinical Reasoning in Pharmacy (United States)

    Yeung, Mary Au; Lam, Paul; McNaught, Carmel


    Case-based activities are widely proclaimed to enable better learning through allowing students to practice application of concepts in real-life situations. This paper reports an investigation into the learning benefits derived from engaging students in the development of Pharmacy eCases. This is a small scale pilot study. Two student-developers…

  15. Adherence: a review of education, research, practice, and policy in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown TA


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the United States.Methods: Authors used MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (since 1990 to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. The authors also searched the primary literature using Ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. The bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. We searched the tables of content of three US pharmacy education journals and reviewed the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. Policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals.Results: Research and Practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. There was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. Many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. The positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. Although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence. Education: National pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. Educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students’ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral

  16. Survey of Advanced Education in Prosthodontics Directors and Residents on Practices in Esthetic Dentistry. (United States)

    Sheets, James L; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Wee, Alvin G


    The aim of this study was to determine the difference between the intended education by advanced education in prosthodontics (AEP) program directors and the perceived education received by AEP residents with respect to concepts of esthetic dentistry. Residents' confidence levels and current practices were also determined based on program level, with first- and second-year residents combined into "junior residents" and third- and fourth-year residents combined into "senior residents." Surveys were distributed to all U.S. and Canadian AEP program directors (N=52) in 2014 and residents (N=393) in 2015. The seven questions asked of directors and 20 asked of residents assessed resident training. The response rate for directors was 59.6% and for residents was 27.3%. Statistically significant results were found between the responding program directors' perceived education on esthetic principles and the responding residents' perceived education. The senior-level residents were more confident in each of the categories than residents at the junior level, although the difference was only significant for selecting porcelain systems to match inherent translucency, transfer of information to the laboratory, and surface staining or characterization. There was a difference between the program directors' intended teaching and the residents' perceptions with regards to bleaching, shade matching, selection of porcelain systems, transfer of information to the laboratory, and surface staining or characterization. The residents' confidence levels were higher at the senior level than those at the junior level in selecting porcelain systems, transfer of information to the laboratory, and staining/characterization. Faculty members in advanced prosthodontics programs may be able to use these findings to improve their residents' education in these areas.

  17. Prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among pharmacy students at nine U.S. schools of pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English C


    Full Text Available Hazardous use of alcohol continues to be recognized as a problem at the university level. Knowledge regarding alcohol consumption in healthcare professional students is limited, especially in regards to pharmacy students. Much of the information available focuses on pharmacy student drinking patterns in specific geographic regions or is simply outdated.Objectives: This study was designed to assess levels of alcohol consumption and estimate the level of hazardous drinking among pharmacy students in a larger sample size that is representative of US pharmacy schools.Methods: An anonymous survey regarding alcohol usage was offered to students at nine school of pharmacy across the United States. The survey consisted of demographic questions, the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, and questions that assess particular alcohol-induced behaviorsResults: More than 25% of 1161 respondents had a total AUDIT score = 8, which indicates a risk of alcohol-related problems. Students that were male, in their first or second professional year of school, not married, and without children were statistically more likely to have AUDIT scores in the hazardous drinking range. Grade point average and student housing did not statistically affect student’s AUDIT scores.Conclusion: These results indicate that over one-fourth of pharmacy students surveyed have indicators of harmful alcohol use. Pharmacy schools should continue to address and confront hazardous alcohol use on campuses in order to curtail heavy alcohol consumption and reduce the risk of alcohol-related problems in pharmacy students.

  18. The Economic, Social and Administrative Pharmacy (ESAP) Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M.; Latif, David A.; Adkins, Rachel


    Schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States have struggled over the past several decades with identifying a consistent title for the broad body of knowledge related to the social, economic, behavioral, and administrative aspects of pharmacy. This paper examines the educational background and professional experience of those teaching…

  19. The evaluation of pharmacist-technician teams applied to a satellite pharmacy. (United States)

    Kershaw, B P; Zarowitz, B J; Solomon, D K; Mouzakis, M M


    The team work group design has been suggested as a mechanism to integrate clinical and distributive pharmacy services, expand clinical roles, enhance staff satisfaction, and promote resource efficiency. A pharmacist-technician team was created at Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, and the effects of the team were assessed via pre and post data collection of attitudinal, behavioral and pharmacy service aspects. Each of three satellite teams were responsible for all pharmacy services to a target group of patients. The results of the team design include a significant decrease in pharmacist and technician perceptions of role stress, especially in the categories of role overload, role isolation, and role ambiguity, and less total hours of work lost by pharmacists (54% improved) and technicians (29% improved). The nurses perceived slightly better pharmacy services upon survey, although not statistically significant, and IV solution wastage decreased 5.6%. Clinical pharmacist compliance to standards of practice was unchanged in spite of increased supervisional responsibilities. We were able to show that the pharmacist-technician team design decreased stress and created more efficient pharmacy services.

  20. Planning a pharmacy-led medical mission trip, part 2: servant leadership and team dynamics. (United States)

    Brown, Dana A; Brown, Daniel L; Yocum, Christine K


    While pharmacy curricula can prepare students for the cognitive domains of pharmacy practice, mastery of the affective aspects can prove to be more challenging. At the Gregory School of Pharmacy, medical mission trips have been highly effective means of impacting student attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, these trips have led to transformational changes in student leadership capacity, turning an act of service into an act of influence. Additionally, building team unity is invaluable to the overall effectiveness of the trip. Pre-trip preparation for teams includes activities such as routine team meetings, team-building activities, and implementation of committees, as a means of promoting positive team dynamics. While in the field, team dynamics can be fostered through activities such as daily debriefing sessions, team disclosure times, and provision of medical services.

  1. [Assistance for customers with sexually transmitted diseases at pharmacies in the Federal District, Brazil: an intervention study]. (United States)

    Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de; Melo, Gislane Ferreira de; Giavoni, Adriana; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar


    A quantitative survey was conducted to analyze the type of assistance provided by pharmacy employees for cases of STDs. Simulated customer visits and interviews were conducted in 70 pharmacies in Brasilia and Taguatinga, Brazil, randomly assigned to two groups, one of which participated in educational activities on STDs. There were 411 simulated client visits to the pharmacies, with the following results: recommendation to seek medical care in 30% of cases, while in 70% of cases the pharmacy employees themselves recommended some drug treatment (although only 16.4% admitted to such practice). None of these suggested treatments was appropriate, based on the syndromic approach. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of partners were rare. Pharmacists recommended consulting a physician more frequently than attendants, and the latter recommended medicines more frequently than the former. Pharmacy workers had only superficial knowledge of STDs. After an educational intervention, none of the indicators showed a significant improvement in either group. The observations point to the need for regulation and intervention to publicize educational practices for the control of diseases like STDs and for the rational use of medicines in pharmacies.

  2. Pharmacy and generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs: missing in action? (United States)

    Welty, Timothy E


    Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is an issue that is gathering a lot of attention in the neurology community but is not receiving much attention within pharmacy. Several proposals have been drafted that restrict a pharmacist's decision-making in generic substitution. These proposals highlight concerns about the pharmacy community related to generic substitution. Careful consideration needs to be given to these issues by pharmacists and pharmacy professional organizations. Unless pharmacy as a profession takes strong positions in support of a pharmacist's ability to make decisions about pharmacotherapy and addresses many of the pharmacy-related problems of generic substitution, policies that negatively impact pharmacy will be established.

  3. Inter-professional work based learning within an MSc in Advanced Practice: lessons from one UK higher education programme. (United States)

    Gaskell, Lynne; Beaton, Susan


    This paper will describe the implementation of inter-professional work based education (IPE) in one postgraduate Advanced Practitioner programme in the UK. The concept of Advanced Practice has developed as a response of a number of drivers including change in junior doctor training; government policy and increasing demands on the central government funded UK health service (the NHS). The programme was commissioned by the then greater Manchester Strategic Health Authority (now NHS North West) to meet service needs. The educational philosophy underpinning the MSc Advanced Practice (health and social care) provided by the University of Salford is IPE linked to work based learning. The process of work based learning (WBL) and inter-professional learning underpinning the programme will be discussed in relation to feedback from university staff, Advanced Practitioner (AP) students and employer feedback taken from programme and module evaluations. We argue that IPE at this level facilitates a greater understanding of the connectivity between professionals working in the health care system in the UK; a better understanding of the skills and knowledge base of colleagues; more inter-professional working and appropriate referrals in the work place. This has raised the profile of Advanced Practice (AP) in the region and ultimately resulted in better patient care with more effective and efficient use of resources (Acton Shapiro, 2006, 2008).

  4. A conceptual framework for advanced practice nursing in a pediatric tertiary care setting: the SickKids' experience. (United States)

    LeGrow, Karen; Hubley, Pam; McAllister, Mary


    Advanced practice nurses (APNs) at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) are pediatric healthcare providers who integrate principles and theories of advanced nursing with specialty knowledge to provide autonomous, independent, accountable, ethical and developmentally appropriate care in complex, often ambiguous and rapidly changing healthcare environments. Caring for children and adolescents requires culturally sensitive and family-centred approaches to care that incorporate a unique body of knowledge. Family-centred care is an approach to planning, delivery and evaluation of healthcare that is governed by the establishment of mutually beneficial partnerships among APNs, health professionals and children/families. The cornerstone of APN practice at SickKids is the recognition of "family" as the recipients of care. By valuing and developing relationships with families, APNs promote excellence in healthcare across the care continuum to optimize the child's and family's physical, emotional, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. This paper outlines the evolution of advanced practice nursing at SickKids, beginning with the introduction of APN roles in the 1970s and culminating in the current critical mass of APNs who have been integrated throughout the hospital's infrastructure. We describe the process used to create a common vision and a framework to guide pediatric advanced nursing practice.

  5. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology. (United States)

    Brown, C. R.


    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  6. Feeding Tube Placement in Patients with Advanced Dementia: The Beliefs and Practice Patterns of Speech-Language Pathologists (United States)

    Sharp, Helen M.; Shega, Joseph W.


    Purpose: To describe the beliefs and practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) among patients with advanced dementia and dysphagia. Method: A survey was mailed to a geographically stratified random sample of 1,050 medical SLPs. Results: The response rate was 57%, and 326 surveys met…

  7. A Model of Small-Group Problem-Based Learning In Pharmacy Education: Teaching in the Clinical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerisuda Khumsikiew


    Full Text Available Problem-based Learning (PBL is an alternate method of instruction that incorporates basic elements of cognitive learning theory. Colleges of pharmacy use PBL to aid anticipated learning outcomes and practice competencies for pharmacy student. The purpose of this study were to implement and evaluate a model of small group PBL for 5th year pharmacy students in the clinical environment that facilitated by pharmacy instructors. A PBL model was implemented in 1-day periods each week in total of 15 weeks at clinical practice sites. PBL activities consisted of providing pharmaceutical care service, collecting patients based clinical data, evaluation therapeutic regimens, developing SOAP note, peer feedback and case wrap-up sessions. In data collection, 36 students who had participated model completed a 17-items questionnaire using 5- point Likert scale (Cronbach's Alpha is 0.96 about their pharmacy student competencies at before and after finished course. They also completed 11-items questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale (Cronbach's Alpha is 0.87 about their satisfaction. Data of pharmacy student competencies and satisfaction were analyzed by paired sample t-test and descriptive statistics in respectively. From the result of this study indicated that pharmacy student's competencies have been increased through PBL course and also statistical significant (P < 0.05 have found in every items mainly in clinical skills regarding apply didactic knowledge to direct patients care activities such as identifying, prioritization, solving therapy-drug related problem as well as clinical communication with patients or other members of interdisciplinary team. Moreover, in the part of satisfaction found that all of questions were scored range from high to highest level of mean score and most of modes were 4. Overall concluded that the PBL model enhances pharmacy student competencies and students were satisfied with PBL course.

  8. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies (United States)

    Delmont, Tom O.


    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes. PMID:27069789

  9. Advanced practice registered nurse usability testing of a tailored computer-mediated health communication program. (United States)

    Lin, Carolyn A; Neafsey, Patricia J; Anderson, Elizabeth


    This study tested the usability of a touch-screen-enabled Personal Education Program with advanced practice RNs. The Personal Education Program is designed to enhance medication adherence and reduce adverse self-medication behaviors in older adults with hypertension. An iterative research process was used, which involved the use of (1) pretrial focus groups to guide the design of system information architecture, (2) two different cycles of think-aloud trials to test the software interface, and (3) post-trial focus groups to gather feedback on the think-aloud studies. Results from this iterative usability-testing process were used to systematically modify and improve the three Personal Education Program prototype versions-the pilot, prototype 1, and prototype 2. Findings contrasting the two separate think-aloud trials showed that APRN users rated the Personal Education Program system usability, system information, and system-use satisfaction at a moderately high level between trials. In addition, errors using the interface were reduced by 76%, and the interface time was reduced by 18.5% between the two trials. The usability-testing processes used in this study ensured an interface design adapted to APRNs' needs and preferences to allow them to effectively use the computer-mediated health-communication technology in a clinical setting.

  10. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O. Delmont


    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today’s microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes.

  11. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith


    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

  12. Identifying contamination with advanced visualization and analysis practices: metagenomic approaches for eukaryotic genome assemblies. (United States)

    Delmont, Tom O; Eren, A Murat


    High-throughput sequencing provides a fast and cost-effective mean to recover genomes of organisms from all domains of life. However, adequate curation of the assembly results against potential contamination of non-target organisms requires advanced bioinformatics approaches and practices. Here, we re-analyzed the sequencing data generated for the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, and created a holistic display of the eukaryotic genome assembly using DNA data originating from two groups and eleven sequencing libraries. By using bacterial single-copy genes, k-mer frequencies, and coverage values of scaffolds we could identify and characterize multiple near-complete bacterial genomes from the raw assembly, and curate a 182 Mbp draft genome for H. dujardini supported by RNA-Seq data. Our results indicate that most contaminant scaffolds were assembled from Moleculo long-read libraries, and most of these contaminants have differed between library preparations. Our re-analysis shows that visualization and curation of eukaryotic genome assemblies can benefit from tools designed to address the needs of today's microbiologists, who are constantly challenged by the difficulties associated with the identification of distinct microbial genomes in complex environmental metagenomes.

  13. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health (United States)

    Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda


    ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. PMID:28146177

  14. Advanced practice nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Kelley; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Ritchie, Judith A; Lamothe, Lise


    This article summarizes the results of an extensive review of the organizational and health care literature of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Teams have a long history in health care. Managers play an important role in mobilizing resources, guiding expectations of APN roles in teams and within organizations, and facilitating team process. Researchers have identified a number of advantages to the addition of APN roles in health care teams. The process within health care teams are dynamic and responsive to their surrounding environment. It appears that teams and perceptions of team effectiveness need to be understood in the broader context in which the teams are situated. Key team process are identified for team members to perceive their team as effective. The concepts of teamwork, perceptions of team effectiveness, and the introduction of APN roles in teams have been studied disparately. An exploration of the links between these concepts may further our understanding the health care team's perceptions of team effectiveness when APN roles are introduced. Such knowledge could contribute to the effective deployment of APN roles in health care teams and improve the delivery of health care services to patients and families.

  15. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bryant-Lukosius

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.

  16. Evaluating an online pharmaceutical education system for pharmacy interns in critical care settings. (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Cheng, Kuei-Ju; Hou, Ssu-An; Yen, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Chien-Tsai


    Incorporating electronic learning (eLearning) system into professional experimental programs such as pharmacy internships is a challenge. However, none of the current systems can fully support the unique needs of clinical pharmacy internship. In this study we enhanced a commercial eLearning system for clinical pharmacy internship (The Clinical Pharmacy Internship eLearning System, CPIES). The KAP questionnaire was used to evaluate the performance of group A with the traditional teaching model and group B with the CPIES teaching model. The CPIES teaching model showed significant improvement in interns' knowledge and practice (p = 0.002 and 0.031, respectively). The traditional teaching model only demonstrated significant improvement in practice (p = 0.011). Moreover, professionalism, such as attitudes on cooperating with other health professionals, is developed by learning from a good mentor. The on-line teaching and traditional teaching methods should undoubtedly be blended in a complete teaching model in order to improve learners' professional knowledge, facilitate correct attitude, and influence good practice.

  17. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.


    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  18. [The role of home palliative care by health insurance pharmacy]. (United States)

    Kato, Taneko


    Our Pharmacy has been practicing pharmaceutical management guidance for 69 homecare patients in the last 13 years. After we started a home parenteral nutrition service, an opportunity to work with the end-stage cancer patient was increased. To contribute to the patient and community health team, we have practiced pharmaceutical management guidance for homecare patient based on the medical and pharmacology point of view with other area of occupational people. We distributed a pain diary and medical usage of drug guidance to the end-stage cancer outpatients. We also made a drug instructional manual and provided a proper prescription to the patient. Because of our efforts, we believe that we had good consistent results from the end-stage cancer outpatients. On the other hand, we have a lot of problems that have to be resolved. They are associated with medical treatment fee, drug dispensing fee, pharmacy management pressure felt from a low dispensing fee, poor quality stocked narcotic drugs and a low recognition of the pharmacist from the patients and regional community medical team. We believe that we can contribute more to the patients, if we can overcome these problems.

  19. Tobacco sales in pharmacies: a survey of attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of pharmacists employed in student experiential and other worksites in Western New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Danielle M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacies are venues in which patients seek out products and professional advice in order to improve overall health. However, many pharmacies in the United States continue to sell tobacco products, which are widely known to cause detrimental health effects. This conflict presents a challenge to pharmacists, who are becoming increasingly more involved in patient health promotion activities. This study sought to assess Western New York (WNY area pharmacists’ opinions about the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies, and pharmacists’ opinions on their role in patient smoking cessation. Methods Participants responded to two parallel surveys; a web-based survey was completed by 148 university-affiliated pharmacist preceptors via a list based sample, and a mail-based survey was completed by the supervising pharmacist in 120 area pharmacies via a list-based sample. The combined response rate for both surveys was 31%. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to determine any significant differences between the preceptor and supervising pharmacist survey groups. Results Over 75% of respondents support legislation banning the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. Over 86% of respondents would prefer to work in a pharmacy that does not sell tobacco products. Differences between preceptor and supervising pharmacist groups were observed. Action regarding counseling patients was uncommon among both groups. Conclusions Pharmacists support initiatives that increase their role in cessation counseling and initiatives that restrict the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies. These data could have important implications for communities and pharmacy practice.

  20. Perseverance Pays Off: Albert Bowie, Doctor of Pharmacy. (United States)

    Wakshul, Barbra


    Describes the experiences of Albert Bowie of San Juan Pueblo, who became the first Native American to graduate from the University of New Mexico's Doctor of Pharmacy program. A sidebar discusses academic opportunities in the field of pharmacy. (TD)

  1. Conceptions of homeopathy teaching in the faculties of pharmacy in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Holandino


    Full Text Available Introduction: Homeopathy is a pharmaceutical and medical specialty practiced in Brazil since 1840 and known by the Federal Council of Medicine since 1980. The homeopathic pharmacy is a recognized part of the pharmaceutical profession regulated and supervised by the Federal Council of Pharmacy (CFF and the Regional Councils of Pharmacy throughout Brazil (CFF 319/97 and CFF 440/05. Despite the existence of a Federal Law (number 1552, published in 1952 which implemented the teaching of “Notions of Homeopathic Pharmaceutical Techniques” in all colleges of pharmacy, these lectures are still not present in the majority of Brazilian Pharmacy curricula. This reluctance in the implementation of the teaching of homeopathy consists in an obstacle to the formation of new pharmaceutical homeopaths in Rio de Janeiro. Aim: To evaluate how the teaching of homeopathy is being taught in undergraduate courses in pharmacy in Rio de Janeiro and register through a specific questionnaire, the students' interest, as well as the availability of internships in the field of homeopathy. Methodology: The survey was started in May 2011 with a sample of ten pharmacy colleges in the state of Rio de Janeiro (UNIG, UNIGRANRIO, UNIABEU, UNIPLI, Universo Niterói, Universo São Gonçalo, UFRJ, UNISUAM, Estácio de Sá and UFF. A specific previously developed questionnaire was applied to undergraduate students to register their interest and availability for internships in the field of homeopathy. Moreover, the students were interviewed for relevant information about their interests in the area of homeopathy. Results: Preliminary results showed that 57% of the respondents presented interest so far in qualifying in homeopathy pharmacy, 32% of them did not show any interest in the area and 11% reported not having a definite position. Regarding working with homeopathy, 51% expressed interest in working in this area, 36

  2. Practice skill development through the use of human patient simulation. (United States)

    Crea, Kathryn A


    Human patient simulation (HPS) is used in health care education to enhance the transition from classroom learning to competent performance. It has been used frequently in nursing and medical schools and less often in pharmacy and other allied health professions. HPS is used to improve the development of pharmacy practice skills such as physical assessment, pharmacotherapy plan development, and monitoring plans. Engaging multiple health care disciplines in simulations enables participants to practice teamwork and communication skills that are essential in preventing errors and events of harm to patients. This article reviews current literature and use of simulation in pharmacy curricula for the development, enhancement, and assessment of pharmacy practice skills.

  3. Internet Pharmacy: Need to be implemented in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Songara


    Full Text Available

    In this era of science and technology, computer plays an important role in community. Today, computer is so ubiquitous in pharmaceutical research and development. The advent of the internet has had a significant impact on the formation of an information-driven, rapid-paced society. The number of internet users reached 150 million in only five years compared to 13 years for television and 38 years for radio. Consumer expectation for access, convenience, and speed has made the cyberspace superhighway a medium for knowledge exchange and for e-commerce. The internet offers a wide variety of health services and products to healthcare professionals as well as to the public. Online pharmaceutical sales have reached more than nearly $50 billion. This is a dramatic increase when compared to the $1.9 billion in 1999. At the click of the mouse, medications can be ordered and delivered conveniently to your door. Internet has evolved into a self-organizing media, capable of multiple interactions within. A large number of consumer products including drugs are being advertised and sold over the Internet. Though the marketing of drugs over the Internet is an inevitable outcome of the booming e-economy, it poses unique ethical, legal and quality challenges- the prime cause being the anarchic structure of the Internet. These challenges are important from the consumer, physician and regulator perspectives.This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of internet pharmacy practice are listed. Internet pharmacy is not only affordable but also can be source of easy availability of medicine.

  4. Internet pharmacy: Need to be implemented in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand


    Full Text Available In this era of science and technology, computer plays an important role in community. Today, computer is so ubiq-uitous in pharmaceutical research and development. The advent of the internet has had a significant impact on the formation of an information-driven, rapid-paced society. The number of internet users reached 150 million in only five years compared to 13 years for television and 38 years for radio. Consumer expectation for access, conven-ience, and speed has made the cyberspace superhighway a medium for knowledge exchange and for e-commerce. The internet offers a wide variety of health services and products to healthcare professionals as well as to the pub-lic. Online pharmaceutical sales have reached more than nearly $50 billion. This is a dramatic increase when com-pared to the $1.9 billion in 1999. At the click of the mouse, medications can be ordered and delivered conveniently to your door. Internet has evolved into a self-organizing media, capable of multiple interactions within. A large number of consumer products including drugs are being advertised and sold over the Internet. Though the market-ing of drugs over the Internet is an inevitable outcome of the booming e-economy, it poses unique ethical, legal and quality challenges- the prime cause being the anarchic structure of the Internet. These challenges are important from the consumer, physician and regulator perspectives. This paper begins with a summary of historical considera-tions and the shifting organization of internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of internet pharmacy practice are listed. Internet pharmacy is not only affordable but also can be source of easy availability of medicine.

  5. Advances in management of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: Consequences for clinical practice. (United States)

    Netter, Jeanne; Douard, Richard; Durdux, Catherine; Landi, Bruno; Berger, Anne; Taieb, Julien


    More than half the patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal disease at diagnosis with a high risk of recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and standardized radical surgery with total mesorectal excision have been established as the 'gold standard' for treating these patients. Pathological staging using the ypTNM classification system to decide on adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) is widely used in clinical practice, but the delivery of ACT is still controversial, as many discrepancies persist in the conclusions of different trials, due to heterogeneity of the inclusion criteria between studies, lack of statistical power, and variations in preoperative and adjuvant regimens. In 2014, a meta-analysis of four randomized phase-III trials (EORTC 22921, I-CNR-RT, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, CHRONICLE) failed to demonstrate any statistical efficacy of fluorouracil (5FU)-based ACT. Three recent randomized trials aimed to compare 5FU with 5FU plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Two of them (ADORE, CAO/ARO/AIO-04) appeared to find a disease-free survival benefit for patients treated with the combination therapy. Thus, while awaiting new data, it can be said that, as of 2015, patients with yp stage I tumors or histological complete response derived no benefit from adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, the FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen should be proposed for yp stage III patients, and may be considered for yp stage II tumors in fit patients with high-risk factors. Nevertheless, well-designed and sufficiently powered clinical trials dedicated to adjuvant treatments for rectal cancer remain justified in future to achieve a high level of proof in keeping with evidence-based medical standards.

  6. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design (United States)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.


    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  7. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bots


    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  8. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System (United States)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)


    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  9. 75 FR 65667 - Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Lincoln Pharmacy; Revocation of Registration On March 26, 2010, I, the Deputy... Registration (Order) to Lincoln Pharmacy (Respondent), of Edison, New Jersey. The Order proposed the revocation... the following findings. Findings Respondent is a retail pharmacy located at 52 Lincoln Highway,...

  10. 78 FR 69441 - Wheatland Pharmacy; Decision and Order (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Wheatland Pharmacy; Decision and Order On July 17, 2012, the Deputy Assistant... Wheatland Pharmacy (Applicant), of Dallas, Texas. The Show Cause Order proposed the denial of Applicant's pending application for a DEA Certificate of Registration as a retail pharmacy on the ground that...

  11. 76 FR 66965 - Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy Decision and Order On September 14, 2011... Registration, BT9856002, issued to Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, be, and it hereby is, revoked. I further order that any pending application of Treasure Coast Specialty Pharmacy, to renew or modify...

  12. 78 FR 26069 - Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Top RX Pharmacy; Decision and Order On November 8, 2012, Chief Administrative Law... ALJ's reasoning suggests that ``inaction'' on the part of a pharmacy's principals in dispensing.../Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195, 77 FR 62316, 62317-22 (2012). Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me...

  13. The general pharmacy work explored in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mark, M. P.


    Objective To determine the frequency and nature of general pharmacy work at three Dutch community pharmacies. Methods In a purposive and convenience sample of three Dutch community pharmacies the general work was investigated. Multi-dimensional work sampling (MDWS) was used. The study took six weeks

  14. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddix Jason


    . Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

  15. Job satisfaction among community pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay YB


    Full Text Available Yared Belete Belay Pharmacoepidemiology and Social Pharmacy Course and Research Team, Department of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia Introduction: Job satisfaction is a multidimensional, enduring, important, and much-researched concept in the field of organizational behavior and has been identified as recognition in one’s field of work, level of salary, opportunities for promotion, and achievement of personal goals. Job satisfaction directly affects the labor market behavior and economic efficiency by means of the impact on productivity and turnover of staff. The aim of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city. Methods: This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey and only included voluntary participants. Those participants who did not volunteer to participate were excluded from the study. A structured questionnaire was used as a data collection tool; it was developed from different literature in the English language, and then the original tool was translated to the local language for the purpose of understanding. Results: In Mekelle, ~100 pharmacy professionals work in private medicine retail outlets. From those, only 60 volunteered to participate in this study. Significant difference in job satisfaction and job stress were observed between those working full-time and part-time, with P-values of 0.031 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: From the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that around two-thirds of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city were satisfied with their professional practice. Keywords: job satisfaction, pharmacy professionals and retail outlets 

  16. Advanced grammar in use a self-study reference and practice book for advanced students of English : with answers and CD-ROM

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    Hewings, Martin


    An updated version of the highly successful Advanced Grammar in Use. This third edition, with answers and CD-ROM, is ideal for self-study. The book contains 100 units of grammar reference and practice materials, with illustrations in full colour and a user-friendly layout. It is ideal for learners preparing for the Cambridge Advanced, Proficiency or IELTS examinations, and is informed by the Cambridge International Corpus, which ensures the language is authentic and up-to-date. The CD-ROM includes 200 interactive exercises to reinforce the language learned in the book, plus customised tests and audio recordings to accompany the main exercises. Versions without answers and without the CD-ROM are available to purchase separately.

  17. Understanding and perceptions of final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students about generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan: a quantitative insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed SQ


    Full Text Available Shazia Qasim Jamshed,1 Mohamad Izham Mohamad Ibrahim,2 Mohamad Azmi Hassali,3 Adheed Khalid Sharrad,4 Asrul Akmal Shafie,3 Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar5 1Pharmacy Practice, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Pahang, Malaysia; 2College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Penang, Malaysia; 4College of Pharmacy, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq; 5School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand General objective: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.62. Results: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute. When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04. Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001. With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001. More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001. Conclusion: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in

  18. Blended Simulation Progress Testing for Assessment of Practice Readiness (United States)

    Smithburger, Pamela; Donihi, Amy Calabrese; Empey, Philip; Kobulinsky, Lawrence; Seybert, Amy; Waters, Thomas; Drab, Scott; Lutz, John; Farkas, Deborah; Meyer, Susan


    Objective. To design an assessment of practice readiness using blended-simulation progress testing. Design. A five-station, blended simulation assessment was developed to evaluate patient care outcomes in first- and third-year pharmacy (P1 and P3) students, as well as first-year postgraduate (PGY1) pharmacy residents. This assessment of practice readiness included knowledge and performance evaluations administered as a progress test. Assessment. Eighteen PGY1 residents, 108 P3 students, and 106 P1 students completed the assessment. P3 students scored significantly higher than P1 students across all evaluations. Third-year pharmacy students scored significantly lower than PGY1 residents in interprofessional communications and attitudes of ownership in a standardized colleague/mannequin model station, and in patient communication in a standardized patient station. Conclusion. Learners demonstrated evolving skills as they progressed through the curriculum. A blended simulation integrated progress test provides data for improvement of individual student clinical skills, informs curricular advancement, and aligns curricular content, process, and outcomes with accreditation standards.

  19. Advancing the Interdisciplinary Collaborative Health Team Model: Applying Democratic Professionalism, Implementation Science, and Therapeutic Alliance to Enact Social Justice Practice. (United States)

    Murphy, Nancy


    This essay reframes the interdisciplinary collaborative health team model by proposing the application of 3 foundational pillars-democratic professionalism, implementation science, and therapeutic alliance to advance this practice. The aim was to address challenges to the model, enhance their functional capacity, and explicate and enact social justice practices to affect individual health outcomes while simultaneously addressing health inequities. The pillars are described and examples from the author's dissertation research illustrate how the pillars were used to bring about action. Related theories, models, and frameworks that have negotiation, capacity building, collaboration, and knowledge/task/power sharing as central concepts are presented under each of the pillars.

  20. The Attending Nurse Caring Model: integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice. (United States)

    Watson, Jean; Foster, Roxie


    This paper presents a proposed model: The Attending Nursing Caring Model (ANCM) as an exemplar for advancing and transforming nursing practice within a reflective, theoretical and evidence-based context. Watson's theory of human caring is used as a guide for integrating theory, evidence and advanced therapeutics in the area of children's pain. The ANCM is offered as a programme for renewing the profession and its professional practices of caring-healing arts and science, during an era of decline, shortages, and crises in care, safety, and hospital and health reform. The ANCM elevates contemporary nursing's caring values, relationships, therapeutics and responsibilities to a higher/deeper order of caring science and professionalism, intersecting with other professions, while sustaining the finest of its heritage and traditions of healing.

  1. A Review on Different Virtual Learning Methods in Pharmacy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Noori


    Full Text Available Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to the students. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is time saving with lower costs compared to traditional methods. It can be self-paced, it is suitable for distance learning and it is flexible. It is a great learning style for continuing education and students can independently solve their problems but it has its disadvantages too. Thereby, blended learning (combination of conventional and virtual education is being used worldwide and has improved knowledge, skills and confidence of pharmacy students.The aim of this study is to review, discuss and introduce different methods of virtual learning for pharmacy students.Google scholar, Pubmed and Scupus databases were searched for topics related to virtual, electronic and blended learning and different styles like computer simulators, virtual practice environment technology, virtual mentor, virtual patient, 3D simulators, etc. are discussed in this article.Our review on different studies on these areas shows that the students are highly satisfied withvirtual and blended types of learning.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.


    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  3. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.


    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  4. 住院药房基于胜任力岗前培训模式的建立与实践%Establishment and practice of the competency based on pre-job training mode in hospital pharmacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴保香; 单文治; 徐艳萍; 张楠; 黄静; 龚虹霖; 孙艳; 郭代红


    Objective:To establish the competency based on pre-job training mode in hospital pharmacy and observe the effect.Methods: Detailed work index was developed, and pre-job training mode was established based on the index requirements as well as competency. The training content, training methods, assessment requirements, assessment methods and teaching process were written in the form of schedule. The training process was standardized and whole quantitative evaluation was taken. After one year, check and evaluation were carried out again according to the standardized schedules of pharmacists.Results: The training program was approved by both teaching staffs and trainees. Compared with the control group, trainees in the observed group were better in the theory and operation skill examination scores, pass rate and reevaluation scores.Conclusion:The training mode based on competency, combined with the reevaluation method, greatly improved the responsibility and initiative of new employees. The detailed and clear form was helpful for the pharmacists to master the training contents and cooperate with the trainers during the whole process. The training program played an important role in improving the integral level of the pharmaceutical group.%目的:建立住院药房基于胜任力的岗前培训模式,并观察实施效果。方法:制定详细工作指标,并围绕实现指标要求建立基于胜任力的培训方案。以日程表的形式将培训内容、培训方法、考核要求、考核方式及带教流程详细列入,实施全程量化测评的规范化培训。一年后以医院药学系列专业技术人员规范化培训考核细则要求进行再考评。结果:基于胜任力的培训方案得到带教与受训人员的认可;观察组理论、操作技能考核成绩、通过率和再评价成绩均高于对照组。结论:基于胜任力培训模式的实施和再考评相结合的方法,充分发挥了新员工的责任

  5. Best Practices in Weathering Climate Risks: Advancing Corporate and Community Resilience (United States)

    Klima, K.; Winkelman, S.


    As the annual costs of severe weather events in the US grow into the billions of dollars, companies and communities are examining how best to plan ahead to protect their assets and bolster their bottom line. The Center for Clean Air Policy's Weathering Climate Risks program aims to help cities and companies enhance resilience to the economic impacts of severe weather and a changing climate. This presentation will highlight three communication techniques aimed at different types of audiences such as businesses, policymakers, the media, and society. First, we find that although planning for natural hazards now saves money later, stakeholders must fi¬nd their own self-interest if they are going to engage in a solution. Thus we research best practices and hold informational, off-the-record interviews to better understand the different stakeholders' perspectives, key concerns, and issues surrounding adaptation, resilience, and/or hazard mitigation. Diverse stakeholders find it attractive when a solution has multiple co-benefits such as climate resilience, greenhouse gas reduction, reduced costs, and social benefits. Second, we use off-the-record dialogues emphasizing candid public-private discussion to promote collaborative problem solving. Our high-level workshops typically consist of 30-40 scientists, companies, communities, and policymakers. We begin with presenting background material, such as geographic information systems (GIS) maps. Then we move to informal conservation. Topics include ideas such as "Ask the Climate Question": How will infrastructure, land development, and investment decisions affect GHG emissions and resilience to climate change impacts? We find these dialogues help stakeholders share their perspectives and advance public-private collaboration on climate resilience to protect critical urban infrastructure, ensure business continuity, and increase extreme weather resilience. Third, we find that communication to the general public must capture

  6. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies. (United States)

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  7. NASA LaRC Hazardous Material Pharmacy (United States)

    Esquenet, Remy


    In 1993-1994 the Office of Environmental Engineering contracted SAIC to develop NASA Langley's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. One of the priority projects identified in this contract was the development of a hazardous waste minimization (HAZMIN)/hazardous materials reutilization (HAZMART) program in the form of a Hazardous Materials Pharmacy. A hazardous materials pharmacy is designed to reduce hazardous material procurement costs and hazardous waste disposal costs. This is accomplished through the collection and reissue of excess hazardous material. Currently, a rarely used hazardous material may be stored in a shop area, unused, until it passes its expiration date. The material is then usually disposed of as a hazardous waste, often at a greater expense than the original cost of the material. While this material was on the shelf expiring, other shop areas may have ordered new supplies of the same material. The hazardous material pharmacy would act as a clearinghouse for such materials. Material that is not going to be used would be turned in to the pharmacy. Other users could then be issued this material free of charge, thereby reducing procurement costs. The use of this material by another shop prevents it from expiring, thereby reducing hazardous waste disposal costs.

  8. Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King ED


    Full Text Available During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient. However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome. Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA, the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made. The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students. Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting. Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.

  9. The inclusion of a business management module within the master of pharmacy degree: a route to asset enrichment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming H


    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models. Objective: This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery.Methods: Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600, MPharm undergraduates (n=441 and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44. The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18.Results: The majority of pharmacists (84.9% confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8% believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79% agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy. Conclusions: Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting.

  10. Blended Learning: Reflections on Teaching Experiences across the Pharmacy Education Continuum


    Schindel, Theresa J.; Hughes, Christine A.; Sadowski, Cheryl A


    Experiences with online learning in higher education have grown due to advancements in technology, technological savviness of students, changes in student expectations, and evolution of teaching approaches in higher education. Blended learning, the thoughtful fusion of face-to-face instruction with online learning, can enhance student learning and provide rewarding teaching experiences for faculty members. Pharmacy educators are beginning to employ blended learning across the continuum of pro...

  11. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City. (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M


    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  12. Assessment and use of drug information references in Utah pharmacies

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    Moorman KL


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine which drug references Utah pharmacists use most frequently. To determine which types of drug information questions are most commonly asked, and whether Utah pharmacists have access to adequate references to respond to these questions. Methods: A 19-question survey was created using Qualtrics, LLC (Provo, Utah software. An electronic survey link was sent to 1,431 pharmacists with a valid e-mail address listed in the Department of Professional Licensing database. Questions focused on available references in the participant’s pharmacy, how current the references are, and the participant’s use of the references. Surveys were analyzed for participants practicing in either community or hospital pharmacies in the state of Utah. Results: A total of 147 responses were included in the analysis. Approximately 44% of respondents practiced in the community, and 56% practiced in a hospital setting. The most commonly used references by Utah pharmacists are Micromedex, Lexicomp, UpToDate, Clinical Pharmacology, and Drug Facts & Comparisons. Pharmacists in the community frequently receive questions related to adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, and over-the-counter medications. Pharmacists in the hospital frequently receive questions relating to dosage and administration, drug interactions, and adverse drug reactions. About 89% of community pharmacists and 96% of hospital pharmacists feel available references are adequate to answer the questions they receive. Conclusions: Utah pharmacists generally use large reference suites to answer drug information questions. The majority of pharmacists consider the references available to them to be adequate to answer the questions they receive.

  13. Power and promise of narrative for advancing physical therapist education and practice. (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M; Delany, Clare M; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Knab, Mary; Jampel, Ann


    This perspective article provides a justification for and an overview of the use of narrative as a pedagogical tool for educators to help physical therapist students, residents, and clinicians develop skills of reflection and reflexivity in clinical practice. The use of narratives is a pedagogical approach that provides a reflective and interpretive framework for analyzing and making sense of texts, stories, and other experiences within learning environments. This article describes reflection as a well-established method to support critical analysis of clinical experiences; to assist in uncovering different perspectives of patients, families, and health care professionals involved in patient care; and to broaden the epistemological basis (ie, sources of knowledge) for clinical practice. The article begins by examining how phronetic (ie, practical and contextual) knowledge and ethical knowledge are used in physical therapy to contribute to evidence-based practice. Narrative is explored as a source of phronetic and ethical knowledge that is complementary but irreducible to traditional objective and empirical knowledge-the type of clinical knowledge that forms the basis of scientific training. The central premise is that writing narratives is a cognitive skill that should be learned and practiced to develop critical reflection for expert practice. The article weaves theory with practical application and strategies to foster narrative in education and practice. The final section of the article describes the authors' experiences with examples of integrating the tools of narrative into an educational program, into physical therapist residency programs, and into a clinical practice.

  14. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika


    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community...... pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Methods: Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects...... no significant differences. Conclusions: The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation...

  15. Orienting patients to greater opioid safety: models of community pharmacy-based naloxone. (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Dauria, Emily F; Bratberg, Jeffrey; Davis, Corey S; Walley, Alexander Y


    The leading cause of adult injury death in the U.S.A. is drug overdose, the majority of which involves prescription opioid medications. Outside of the U.S.A., deaths by drug overdose are also on the rise, and overdose is a leading cause of death for drug users. Reducing overdose risk while maintaining access to prescription opioids when medically indicated requires careful consideration of how opioids are prescribed and dispensed, how patients use them, how they interact with other medications, and how they are safely stored. Pharmacists, highly trained professionals expert at detecting and managing medication errors and drug-drug interactions, safe dispensing, and patient counseling, are an under-utilized asset in addressing overdose in the U.S. and globally. Pharmacies provide a high-yield setting where patient and caregiver customers can access naloxone-an opioid antagonist that reverses opioid overdose-and overdose prevention counseling. This case study briefly describes and provides two US state-specific examples of innovative policy models of pharmacy-based naloxone, implemented to reduce overdose events and improve opioid safety: Collaborative Pharmacy Practice Agreements and Pharmacy Standing Orders.

  16. Evaluating the Quality of Competency Assessment in Pharmacy: A Framework for Workplace Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailly Shah


    Full Text Available Demonstration of achieved competencies is critical in the pharmacy workplace. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of the competency assessment program for pharmacy residents at an academic medical center. The competency assessment program (CAP survey is a validated, 48-item instrument that evaluates the quality of an assessment program based on 12 criteria, each measured by four questions on a scale of 0 to 100. The CAP was completed by residents (n = 23 and preceptors (n = 28 from the pharmacy residency program between 2010 and 2013. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, and non-parametric tests. Educational Consequences was the only quality criteria falling below the standard for “good quality.” Participants that completed residency training elsewhere rated the Comparability (0.04 and Meaningfulness (0.01 of the assessment program higher than those that completed residency at the academic medical center. There were no significant differences between resident and preceptor scores. Overall, the quality of the assessment program was rated highly by residents and preceptors. The process described here provides a useful framework for understanding the quality of workplace learning assessments in pharmacy practice.

  17. [The pharmacist's perceptions about their job at communitarian pharmacies of the state of Rio de Janeiro]. (United States)

    Bastos, Cláudia Regina Garcia; Caetano, Rosângela


    The aim of this study was to understand the pharmacist's perceptions that work at communitarian pharmacies from Rio de Janeiro about their professional practices and how this vision can be related to the practice implementation of Pharmaceutical Attention. A qualitative research was developed with the execution of semi-structured interviews; subsequently discourse was submitted to content analysis, through the thematic analysis. This research have been made with 15 pharmaceuticals of Rio de Janeiro state pharmacies with proportional distribution corresponding to the following typology: state pharmacy network; local network; and familiar, without branches. The speech classification which was made here has shown at least three convergences: the continue difficulties of the population about the use of medicines, certain migration of the pharmaceutical practice, in the meaning of (re)valuing the patient and the superficial knowledge about the Attention Pharmaceutical conception. It is necessary to intensify a reflection on this issue to lead us to identify elements that can guarantee that this pharmaceutical practice can be implemented as a complementary health service.

  18. Practical Intelligence and Tacit Knowledge: Advancements in the Measurement of Developing Expertise (United States)

    Cianciolo, Anna T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Jarvin, Linda; Gil, Guillermo; Drebot, Michael E.; Sternberg, Robert J.


    Practical intelligence as measured by tacit-knowledge inventories generally has shown a weak relation to other intelligence constructs. However, the use of assessments capturing specialized, job-related knowledge may obscure the generality of practical intelligence and its relation to general intelligence. This article presents three studies in…

  19. Re-Storying Practice: Using Stories about Students to Advance Mathematics Education Reform (United States)

    Sengupta-Irving, Tesha; Redman, Elizabeth; Enyedy, Noel


    We apply a literary definition of story (struggle, protagonist, and resolution) to an American primary school teacher's reflections on experimenting with new teaching practices. This definition makes issues of equity explicit and revealed what the teacher saw as possible for changing her practice. By re-storying her stories--offering evidence from…

  20. Making a success of providing NHS Health Checks in community pharmacies across the Tees Valley: a qualitative study

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    Heywood Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England and Wales, the Department of Health introduced a primary prevention programme, NHS Health Checks, to provide screening for cardiovascular risk amongst people aged 40-74. The aim of this programme is to offer treatment and advice to those identified with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The North East of England has some of the highest rates of CVD in the UK and prevention is therefore a priority. NHS Tees funded this programme of work under the local branding of Healthy Heart Checks (HHC. These were initially implemented principally through GP practices from October 2008 but, in order to mitigate the possibility that some hard to reach communities would be reluctant to engage with some primary care settings, plans were also developed to deliver the programme through workplace settings and through community pharmacies. This paper reports specifically on the findings from the evaluation in respect of the setting up of HHCs in community pharmacies and aims to offer some lessons for other service settings where this option is seen as a way of providing low threshold services which will minimise inequalities in intervention uptake. Methods In assessing the community pharmacy component of HHCs, a selection of staff having direct involvement in the process was invited to take part in the evaluation. Interviews were carried out with representatives from community pharmacy, staff members from the commissioning Primary Care Trusts and with Local Pharmaceutical Committee members. Results Evaluation and analysis identified challenges which should be anticipated and addressed in initiating HHC in community pharmacies. These have been categorised into four main themes for discussion in this paper: (1 establishing and maintaining pharmacy Healthy Heart Checks, (2 overcoming IT barriers, (3 developing confident, competent staff and (4 ensuring volume and through flow in pharmacy. Conclusions Delivering NHS health

  1. Marketing strategy adjustments in the ambulatory care center industry: implications for community pharmacy. (United States)

    Phillips, J H


    Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice.

  2. Attitude of Pharmacy Students Towards a Nutrition Course (United States)

    Syed Abdul, Majid Mufaqam

    Today's pharmacists are likely to encounter questions about nutritional products sold in the pharmacy. This is due, in part, to the increased number of pharmacies attached to grocery stores and the availability of pharmacists. Many pharmacists report they lack nutritional knowledge and believe the best time to educate pharmacists about nutrition is during pharmacy school. This study was conducted to determine if today's pharmacy students receive education in nutrition and if they realize the importance of nutrition education. Two hundred and twenty five students from India and ninety five students from the United States currently attending pharmacy school were surveyed. Results showed only 3.5% of students from India and 13.6% of students from the United States received nutrition education during their pharmacy degree curriculum. In addition, 81.8% of students from India and 82.9% of students from the United States who had taken a course in nutrition believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. When pharmacy-related experience was taken into account, 92.9% of students from India and 73.3% of students from the United States also believed a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum. Overall, 88% of students from India and 70.5% of students from the United States believed nutrition education was important and should be included in the pharmacy degree curriculum. Results of this study suggest the majority of today's pharmacy students believe a nutrition course should be incorporated into the pharmacy degree curriculum regardless of past nutrition education or pharmacy-related experience.

  3. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter


    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  4. [Domains in the clinical practice of Clinical Nursing Experts in Germany and their correspondence with the internationally described "Advanced Nursing Practice"]. (United States)

    Mendel, Simon; Feuchtinger, Johanna


    In spite of a growing trend toward academic education and increasing numbers of "nursing experts" functioning as change agents in Germany, actual nursing experts as in the internationally described Advanced Nursing Practice (ANP) are scarce. Drawing from a ten-year experience in implementing the international concept, the University Hospital Freiburg (UKF), Germany, constitutes a notable exception, as it presently employs ten clinically practicing nursing experts. Based on this background of educating nursing experts, this presentation aims at describing the implementation of the nursing expert's role and its fit and conformance with the international ANP. A 3-stage Delphi design was used for interviewing all the nursing experts at the hospital (n = 10) about their expert opinions; in addition, all nursing managers (n = 7) as well as unit and team leaders (n = 49) were asked about their opinion to relevant functions and domains of nursing experts. The following clinical practice domains of nursing experts were identified: Direct patient care, patient education, support and supervision of nurses, maintenance and expansion of professional skills and knowledge of the nursing staff, counselling of managers, quality assurance and organizational development, theory to practice transfer, nursing research, maintenance of own professional skills and knowledge and continuing education, and publicity work. Additionally, a three-year nursing education, a longer lasting professional experience, a degree in nursing science or nursing education, and specialist skills in the respective area of expertise were identified as credentials for nursing expert practice. The nursing expert concept at UKF shows elements of the international ANP with similarities to the role of a Clinical Nurse Specialist.

  5. The ConNECT Framework: a model for advancing behavioral medicine science and practice to foster health equity. (United States)

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Sly, Jamilia; Ashing, Kimlin; Fleisher, Linda; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Ford, Sabrina; Yi, Jean C; Lu, Qian; Meade, Cathy D; Menon, Usha; Gwede, Clement K


    Health disparities persist despite ongoing efforts. Given the United States' rapidly changing demography and socio-cultural diversity, a paradigm shift in behavioral medicine is needed to advance research and interventions focused on health equity. This paper introduces the ConNECT Framework as a model to link the sciences of behavioral medicine and health equity with the goal of achieving equitable health and outcomes in the twenty-first century. We first evaluate the state of health equity efforts in behavioral medicine science and identify key opportunities to advance the field. We then discuss and present actionable recommendations related to ConNECT's five broad and synergistic principles: (1) Integrating Context; (2) Fostering a Norm of Inclusion; (3) Ensuring Equitable Diffusion of Innovations; (4) Harnessing Communication Technology; and (5) Prioritizing Specialized Training. The framework holds significant promise for furthering health equity and ushering in a new and refreshing era of behavioral medicine science and practice.

  6. Using critical realism as a framework in pharmacy education and social pharmacy research. (United States)

    Oltmann, Carmen; Boughey, Chrissie


    This article challenges the idea that positivism is capable of representing the complexity of social pharmacy and pharmacy education. It is argued that critical realism provides a framework that allows researchers to look at the nature of reality and at mechanisms that produce, or have the tendency to produce, events and experiences of those events. Critical realism is a framework, not a method. It allows researchers to make observations about phenomena and explain the relationships and connections involved. The researcher has to look for mechanisms and structures that could explain why the phenomena, the connections, and the relationships exist (or do not) and then try to show that these mechanisms do exist. This article first contextualizes critical realism, then briefly describes it, and lastly exemplifies the use of critical realism in a discussion of a research project conducted in pharmacy education. Critical realism may be particularly useful in interdisciplinary research, for example, where practitioners and researchers are working together in a social pharmacy or pharmacy education setting. Critical realism requires the practitioners and the researchers to question and make known their assumptions about their own realities and to think of a complex problem or phenomenon in terms of a stratified reality, generative mechanisms, and tendencies. Critical realism may make research more rigorous and also allow researchers to conceive of a greater breadth of research designs for their work.

  7. Factor Analysis of a Modified Version of the California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale with Minority Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Echeverri, Margarita; Brookover, Cecile; Kennedy, Kathleen


    While most of the more frequently used self-report measures of cultural competence in health professionals are targeted to practicing physicians and mental health providers from the majority-white population, no measures have been specifically developed for minority pharmacy students. With the objective to find a suitable tool to be used for…

  8. Content, Preparation, and Formative Evaluation of an Interactive Videodisc System to Enhance Communication Skills in Pharmacy Students. (United States)

    McKenzie, Michael W.; And Others


    The process of developing and evaluating an interactive videodisc system to teach communication skills for community and institutional pharmacy practice settings is described. An interdisciplinary team was used to integrate therapeutics, communication theory, media design, video production, and computer programing in the software development…

  9. Journal club: an opportunity to advance the art and science of home health practice. (United States)

    Fowler, Susan B; Druist, Kim A; Dillon-Zwerdling, Lisa


    A journal club is more than a club. It is an opportunity for staff to gather, learn, share, brainstorm, challenge thinking and ways of doing business, and set future direction. These activities have the potential to advance the art and science of nursing and other disciplines. Developing and implementing a successful journal club requires planning, communication, facilitation, and evaluation.

  10. Assessment Practices of Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP): Investigating Student Advancement through Third and Fourth Levels (United States)

    Obaid, Rana


    This small-scale mixed method research focuses on investigating the way Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP) female students in a Saudi tertiary level institution context are assessed and how they are advanced from level three (Pre-intermediate) and level four (Intermediate). A four-point agreement scale survey was conducted with fifteen…

  11. 78 FR 28717 - Advancing Pay Equality in the Federal Government and Learning From Successful Practices (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of May 10, 2013 Advancing Pay Equality in the Federal Government and Learning... departments and agencies (agencies) affect the compensation of similarly situated men and women, and to... memorandum in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, May 10, 2013. [FR...

  12. [Literature, history and pharmacy: a possible dialogue]. (United States)

    Rezende, Irene Nogueira de


    In the Memory Center of the Pharmacy School of UFMG there are documents relating to the passage of Carlos Drummond de Andrade through the institution, a fact that has led to reflection on the presence of the pharmacy and the pharmaceutical expert in literature. By means of interdisciplinary dialogue and research into elements that prove this presence, active participation and presence in the literature, an attempt was made to historicize these ties, not only of the poet from Itabira, but other men of letters, be they pharmaceutical professionals or people inspired by them. The objective was also to highlight some evidence that supports and demonstrates the importance of this professional in Brazilian society of the late-nineteenth century and early-twentieth century.

  13. [Art nouveau: pharmacy shops in Nancy]. (United States)

    Leclerc, Florence; Labrude, Pierre


    At the beginning of the 20th century, an important artistic activity develops in Nancy. The "Ecole de Nancy" transforms a provincial city into one of the metropolis of "Art Nouveau". The pharmacists participate at the activity of their town and eight of them choose the new style for their pharmacy. In 1902, Rosfelder is the first to modify his shop, and later, Jacques, Delidon, Mouzin, Godfrin brothers, Monal and Fandre, before, during and after the First World War, have a same step. For the ornament, the artists use plants derived from local medicinal flora. "Art Nouveau", adept of curves, appears to be ideal to symbolize vegetable kingdom. In these pharmacy shops, fine arts join materia medica.

  14. [Medical equipment product lines in basic pharmacies]. (United States)

    Macesková, B; Lipská, J


    Medical appliances dispensed in basic type pharmacies for cash or vouchers for medical or orthopedic appliances require expertise of pharmacists and laboratory assistants concerning the assortment, payment, construction of prices, conditions for prescription, ordering, properties, and functions of individual appliances. Using the method of frequency analysis, the analysis of data from five pharmacies within a period of three months (more than 17,000 records) revealed how individual subgroups of medical appliances and their concrete items are represented in both types of dispensation. The method of the semistructured questionnaire (10 respondents) was used to find what problems are encountered in dispensation, and which medical appliances and their subgroups are the sources of the problems. The respondents regard the contemporary level of knowledge concerning medical appliances gained in pregradual studies as insufficient.

  15. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies (United States)

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W


    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  16. Curriculum for pharmacology in pharmacy institutions in India: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Goyal, Ramesh K; Bhise, Satish B; Srinivasan, B P; Rao, C Mallikarjun; Sen, Tuhinadri; Koneri, Raju


    The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a

  17. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Elmore, PharmD, BCPS


    . Additional dialogue is needed among pharmacy leaders to determine best practices.

  18. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse. (United States)

    Cooper, Richard


    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  19. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice. (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G


    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  20. Implementing an operating room pharmacy satellite. (United States)

    Powell, P J; Maland, L; Bair, J N; McCall, J D; Wong, K C


    Implementation of an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite is described, and its impact on cost-effectiveness and efficiency of drug distribution is analyzed. The OR satellite provided pharmacy coverage for 30-35 patients per day in 10 centralized surgical suites, 2 obstetric suites, and 1 burn-unit suite in a 401-bed teaching hospital. Objectives of the satellite were to consolidate accountability for drug distribution and control, reduce controlled substance loss and waste, reduce inventory costs, and improve recording of patient charges. Stock on the OR supply cart was reduced, controlled substances were dispensed to anesthesiologists from the satellite, and a system of standardized anesthesiology exchange trays was developed. A new billing form served as both the charging document and replacement list. Reduction in the medication cart stock resulted in smaller discrepancies in patient charges. For the five most commonly used controlled substances, accounting discrepancies were reduced. Inventory turnover increased and inventory dollar value and cost per patient were reduced. The percent of nurses who believed that a pharmacist should work in the area increased from 31% before implementation of the satellite to 95% after. The pilot OR pharmacy satellite was a financial success. Efficiency and effectiveness in drug distribution and control were improved, and communication between pharmacists and other medical personnel working in the OR areas was enhanced.