WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced passive plant

  1. Natural heat transfer augmentation in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of non condensable gas pressure and steam pressure in the wet well gas space. Since there are no active systems for heat removal in the wet well, energy transmitted to the wet well gas space, by a variety of means, must be removed by passive heat transfer to the walls and suppression pool (SP). The cold suppression pool located below the hotter gas space provides a stable configuration in which convection currents are suppressed thus limiting heat and mass transfer between the gas space and pool. However, heat transfer to the walls results in natural circulation currents that can augment the heat and mass transfer to the pool surface. Using a simplified model, parametric studies are carried out to show that augmentation of the order of magnitude expected can significantly impact the heat and mass transfer to the pool. Additionally a review of available literature in the area of augmentation and mixed convection of this type is presented and indicates the need for additional experimental work in order to develop adequate models for heat and mass transfer augmentation in the configuration of a BWR suppression pool. (author)

  2. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  3. Interim results of the study of control room crew staffing for advanced passive reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbert, B.P.; Sebok, A.; Haugset, K. [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    Differences in the ways in which vendors expect the operations staff to interact with advanced passive plants by vendors have led to a need for reconsideration of the minimum shift staffing requirements of licensed Reactor Operators and Senior Reactor Operators contained in current federal regulations (i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(m)). A research project is being carried out to evaluate the impact(s) of advanced passive plant design and staffing of control room crews on operator and team performance. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and provide data to support the development of design review guidance. Two factors are being evaluated across a range of plant operating conditions: control room crew staffing; and characteristics of the operating facility itself, whether it employs conventional or advanced, passive features. This paper presents the results of the first phase of the study conducted at the Loviisa nuclear power station earlier this year. Loviisa served as the conventional plant in this study. Data collection from four crews were collected from a series of design basis scenarios, each crew serving in either a normal or minimum staffing configuration. Results of data analyses show that crews participating in the minimum shift staffing configuration experienced significantly higher workload, had lower situation awareness, demonstrated significantly less effective team performance, and performed more poorly as a crew than the crews participating in the normal shift staffing configuration. The baseline data on crew configurations from the conventional plant setting will be compared with similar data to be collected from the advanced plant setting, and a report prepared providing the results of the entire study.

  4. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  5. Role of Passive Safety Features in Prevention And Mitigation of Severe Plant Conditions in Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressing demands of economic competitiveness, the need for large-scale deployment, minimizing the need of human intervention, and experience from the past events and incidents at operating reactors have guided the evolution and innovations in reactor technologies. Indian innovative reactor 'AHWR' is a pressure-tube type natural circulation based boiling water reactor that is designed to meet such requirements, which essentially reflect the needs of next generation reactors. The reactor employs various passive features to prevent and mitigate accidental conditions, like a slightly negative void reactivity coefficient, passive poison injection to scram the reactor in event of failure of the wired shutdown systems, a large elevated pool of water as a heat sink inside the containment, passive decay heat removal based on natural circulation and passive valves, passive ECC injection, etc. It is designed to meet the fundamental safety requirements of safe shutdown, safe decay heat removal and confinement of activity with no impact in public domain, and hence, no need for emergency planning under all conceivable scenarios. This paper examines the role of the various passive safety systems in prevention and mitigation of severe plant conditions that may arise in event of multiple failures. For the purpose of demonstration of the effectiveness of its passive features, postulated scenarios on the lines of three major severe accidents in the history of nuclear power reactors are considered, namely; the Three Mile Island (TMI), Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. Severe plant conditions along the lines of these scenarios are postulated to the extent conceivable in the reactor under consideration and analyzed using best estimate system thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/Mod3.2. It is found that the various passive systems incorporated enable the reactor to tolerate the postulated accident conditions without causing severe plant conditions and core degradation

  6. Proceedings of an international workshop on passive system reliability - A challenge to reliability engineering and licensing of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop provided a forum for the exchange of information on the technical issues associated with assessing the reliability of passive systems in the context of nuclear safety, regulatory practices and probabilistic safety analysis. Special emphasis was placed on the reliability of the systems based on thermal hydraulics, for which the methods are still in developing phase. Issues and discussions topics included lessons learned from designing passive systems, developing methodologies, performed studies, field experience with passive systems and need for future development. These proceedings provide a compilation of the papers presented and a summary of the discussions. Designs for Passive Systems have been and are currently being developed for new nuclear power plants. Based on the results of the survey performed by WGRisk and the workshop papers and discussions it is apparent that progress is being made in the development of methodologies to deal with the reliability of the Passive Systems being designed. In the three (3) main areas reviewed during the workshop: development and use, methodologies and licensing, the following conclusions were derived: 1. Development and Use of Passive Systems - Any new reactor being designed will most likely contain passive systems. Testing of passive systems has been performed by several groups but further testing and development is still required. Discussions are already in progress to make clear how passive systems should be introduced in a design; e.g., back-up of an active system, BOPHR strategy, etc. 2. Methodologies - While work is being performed on methodologies and progress is being made, a lack of data exists mainly since very little or no operational experience is available. This is especially true in the area of thermal hydraulics and the result is a large amount of uncertainties. 3. Licensing - Very little progress has been made relating to licensing of passive systems. This mainly due to the fact that it is

  7. Westinghouse advanced passive 600 MWe PWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there has been a sharp downturn in the ordering of commercial nuclear power plants throughout the world, it is nonetheless anticipated that this form of energy will remain vital to the economy of many nations in a long term. One of the important new development activities is that of small plants incorporating passive safety features. The small plants have the merits in terms of low total capital requirement and potentially short lead time. The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the development of an advanced LWR plant in a nine month Westinghouse program, which terminated in March, 1986. Further development at Westinghouse is now in progress on this design called AP 600 under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy. On the basis of the proven 600 MWe PWR plant design, the specific design improvement for increased safety and operational margin, reduced plant capital and operating cost, simplified plant systems and components, and increased certainty of meeting construction schedule and cost is pursued. The Westinghouse two-loop plants are very competitive, and the operating performance is outstanding by the comparison of plant capacity factor. The operation and maintenance costs are low. The specific design and the features of modification and improvement are discussed. (Kako, I)

  8. EP1000 passive plant description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In Phase I of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) will be completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. The second part, 'Phase 2B', includes both the analyses and evaluations required to demonstrate the adequacy of the design, and to support the preparation of Safety Case Report. The second part of Phase 2 of the program will start at the beginning of 1999 and will be completed in the 2001. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 from the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. This paper integrates and updates the plant description reported in the IAEA TECDOC-968. The most significant developments of the EP1000 plant design during Phase 2A of the EPP program are described and reference is made to the key design requirements set by the EUR Rev. B document. (author)

  9. The possibility of building nuclear power plant free from severe accident risk: PWR NPP with advanced all passive safety cooling systems (AAP SCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete set of advanced all passive safety cooling systems (AAP SCS) for PWR NPP, actuated by natural force has been put forward in the article. Here the natural force mainly means the fore, which created by change of pressure distribution in the first loop of PWR as a result of operational regime conversion from one to another, including occurrence of accident situation. Correspondent safety cooling system will be actuated naturally and then put it into passive operation after occurring some kind of accident, so accidental situation will be mitigated right after it's occurrence and core residual heat will be naturally moved from the active core to the ultimate heat sink. There is no need to rely on automatic control system, any active equipment and human actions in all working process of the AAP SCS, which can reduce the probability of severe accident to zero, so as to exclude the need of evacuation plan around AAP nuclear power plant and eliminate the public's concern and doubt about nuclear power safety. Implementation of the AAP SCS concept is only based on use of evolutionary measures and state-of-the-art technology. So at present time it can be used for design of new-type third generation PWR nuclear power plant without severe accident risk, and for modernization of existing second generation nuclear power plant. (authors)

  10. Passive containment cooling for an advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP600 is a 600-MW(electric) pressurized water reactor that is currently being developed by Westinghouse and its subcontractors. The AP600 program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with DOE and Electric Power Research Institute advanced light water reactor programs. The AP600 employs safety features that, when actuated, use natural phenomena and stored energy (gravity, natural circulation, compressed gas) to accomplish all required safety functions. This safety approach results in both improved safety and a significant simplification in the overall plant design since no safety-grade ac power or support systems are required. Also, significant reductions in plant complexity, capital cost, and construction schedule can be achieved. One of the key safety systems in the AP600 passive safety approach is the passive containment cooling system (PCCS). The PCCS provides the safety-grade ultimate heat sink for the removal of reactor-sensible heat and core decay heat following any design-basis event. Analytical models of the PCCS have been developed and transient and accident evaluations have been performed to demonstrate the heat removal capability to the PCCS. These analyses indicate that AP600 postaccident containment response is similar to that achieved with active containment heat removal systems. Also in conjunction with analyses, a test program is under way to demonstrate and verify the heat removal capability of the PCCS design concept

  11. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  13. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  14. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the open-quotes Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Documentclose quotes, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, open-quotes ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirementsclose quotes, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, open-quotes NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summaryclose quotes, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review

  15. Spanish program of advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy Spanish Plan is promoting some actions within the area of advanced reactors. Efforts are focussed onto the European Program of Advanced Reactors, the Program of Passive Plants (EPRI), European Fast Reactor Project and the APWR-1000 Program of INI. Electrical sector utilities and industrial partners supported by the Administration have organized an steering committee. The program of Passive Plants includes activities on Qualification, design and detailed engineering (Qualification project, SBWR project of G.E. and AP600 Project of Westinghouse. The european project on advanced plants has the following Spanish contribution: Analysis of alternative Dossier on European requisites (EUR) and Design of an European Reactor (EPR)

  16. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2. PMID:27058940

  17. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  18. Experimental research progress on passive safety systems of Chinese advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TMI and Chernobyl accidents, having pronounced impact on nuclear industries, triggered the governments as well as interested institutions to devote much attention to the safety of nuclear power plant and public's requirements on nuclear power plant safety were also going to be stricter and stricter. It is obvious that safety level of an ordinary light water reactor is no longer satisfactory to these requirements. Recently, the safety authorities have recommended the implementation of passive system to improve the safety of nuclear reactors. Passive safety system is one of the main differences between Chinese advanced PWR and other conventional PWR. The working principle of passive safety system is to utilize the gravity, natural convection (natural circulation) and stored energy to implement the system's safety function. Reactors with passive safety systems are not only safer, but also more economical. The passive safety system of Chinese advanced PWR is composed of three independent systems, i.e. passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system. This paper is a summary of experimental research progress on passive containment cooling system, passive residual heat removal system and passive core makeup tank injection system

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  20. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  1. Westinghouse Passive Plants - AP600 and S PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original thought behind the AP600 passive design was that if the U. S. nuclear industry was to be revitalized, it would require a new, advanced technology with clearly proven benefits in safety. Response from the international arena indicates that, regardless of local domestic consideration, a revitalization of the U. S. industry is seen as very important, even essential, worldwide. And the potential for scale up of these passive safety features has been clearly established, allowing the benefits of the passive technology to be realized in countries that, for whatever reason, are interested in larger plant sizes only. Government projections indicate that U. S. energy demands in the 1990s will grow steadily, creating the need for approximately 117,000 to 322,000 MW of new generating capacity by the year 2010. Although this growth in electricity demand continues to be strong, orders for new nuclear power plants have not kept pace, in part due to licensing delays, prohibitive construction costs, and public uncertainty about safety. However, with the increased concerns about the environmental and economic security risks involved with an excessive dependence on fossil fuels, there is a growing realization that nuclear power must play a major role in our energy future. Looking to the future, Westinghouse is developing the AP600, a simplified two-loop PWR featuring passive safety systems. Drawing on the results of the AP600 development and testing programs, Westinghouse is also developing the larger S PWR, a passive, three-loop power plant with an output in the 900 to 1000 MW range

  2. Overview of human factors issues associated with advanced passive reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant operators in current plants do just that, they operate the plant. They monitor the state of the process, observe trends, react to system changes and take action to maintain the plant in a safe condition. In order to accomplish these activities, they (1) rely on information available to them from the various instruments and displays in the control room, (2) use hard copy procedures to direct their actions and (3) perform their control actions through the various switches, keyboards and knobs available. Proposals from vendors and observations of activities in other countries indicate that the control room for advanced passive reactors is likely to be quite different from control rooms one would seen in current power plants. These differences will go beyond the immediate appearances, e.g., smaller, more cockpit-like, to issues of automation, function-allocation, the changing role of the operators and their training and qualifications, and software verification and validation. This research paper discusses some of these planned efforts and how they relate to the human factors issues and regulatory user needs

  3. Passive safety features for next generation CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU offers an evolutionary approach to simpler and safer reactors. The CANDU 3, an advanced CANDU, currently in the detailed design stage, offers significant improvements in the areas of safety, design simplicity, constructibility, operability, maintainability, schedule and cost. These are being accomplished by retaining all of the well known CANDU benefits, and by relying on the use of proven components and technologies. A major safety benefit of CANDU is the moderator system which is separate from the coolant. The presence of a cold moderator reduces the consequences arising from a LOCA or loss of heat sink event. In existing CANDU plants even the severe accident - LOCA with failure of the emergency core cooling system - is a design basis event. Further advances toward a simpler and more passively safe reactor will be made using the same evolutionary approach. Building on the strength of the moderator system to mitigate against severe accidents, a passive moderator cooling system, depending only on the law of gravity to perform its function, will be the next step of development. AECL is currently investigating a number of other features that could be incorporated in future evolutionary CANDU designs to enhance protection against accidents, and to limit off-site consequences to an acceptable level, for even the worst event. The additional features being investigated include passive decay heat removal from the heat transport system, a simpler emergency core cooling system and a containment pressure suppression/venting capability for beyond design basis events. Central to these passive decay heat removal schemes is the availability of a short-term heat sink to provide a decay heat removal capability of at least three days, without any station services. Preliminary results from these investigations confirm the feasibility of these schemes. (author)

  4. Progress in Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety System Reliability in Advanced Reactors. Results from the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong reliance on inherent and passive design features has become a hallmark of many advanced reactor designs, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all advanced small and medium sized reactor (SMR) designs. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones — not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to eliminate the possibility of serious accidents. Accordingly, the assessment of the reliability of passive safety systems is a crucial issue to be resolved before their extensive use in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are unknown a priori. The functions of passive systems are based on basic physical laws and thermodynamic principals, and they may not experience the same kind of failures as active systems. Hence, consistent efforts are required to qualify the reliability of passive systems. To support the development of advanced nuclear reactor designs with passive systems, investigations into their reliability using various methodologies are being conducted in several Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. These efforts include reliability methods for passive systems by the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, reliability evaluation of passive safety system by the University of Pisa, Italy, and assessment of passive system reliability by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. These different approaches seem to demonstrate a consensus on some aspects. However, the developers of the approaches have been unable to agree on the definition of reliability in a passive system. Based on these developments and in order to foster collaboration, the IAEA initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Advanced Methodologies for the Assessment of Passive Safety Systems Performance in Advanced Reactors in 2008. The

  5. A Passively Proliferation-Proof Fusion Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates whether a fusion power plant could be designed to be passively proliferation-proof. Even low neutron production rates enable fissile-fuel breeding, so such a fusion reactor must burn neutron-lean fuels. To burn these fuels economically requires a high-power-density fusion concept, and a D-3He field-reversed configuration will be analyzed here. The paper discusses physics and engineering design features that would defeat attempts to modify the reactor to burn the neutron-rich fuels D-T and D-D. These include burning an advanced fusion fuel, utilizing direct energy conversion, minimizing the radius to leave inadequate room for D-T neutron shielding of superconducting magnets, designing a single-module, full-lifetime fusion core requiring no module changeout, and using an organic coolant

  6. The investigation of Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme for advanced PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We put forward a new PAMS and analyze its operation characteristics under SBO. • We conduct comparative analysis between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Side PHRS. • The PAMS could cope with SBO accident and maintain the plant in safe conditions. • PAMS could decrease heat removal capacity of PHRS. • PAMS has advantage in reducing cooling rate and PCCT temperature rising amplitude. - Abstract: To enhance inherent safety features of nuclear power plant, the advanced pressurized water reactors implement a series of passive safety systems. This paper puts forward and designs a new Passive Accident Mitigation Scheme (PAMS) to remove residual heat, which consists of two parts: the first part is Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS), and the other part is Passive Heat Removal System (PHRS). This paper takes the Westinghouse-designed Advanced Passive PWR (AP1000) as research object and analyzes the operation characteristics of PAMS to cope with the Station Blackout Accident (SBO) by using RELAP5 code. Moreover, the comparative analysis is also conducted between PAMS and Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS to derive the advantages of PAMS. The results show that the designed scheme can remove core residual heat significantly and maintain the plant in safe conditions; the first part of PAMS would stop after 120 min and the second part has to come into use simultaneously; the low pressurizer (PZR) pressure signal would be generated 109 min later caused by coolant volume shrinkage, which would actuate the Passive Safety Injection System (PSIS) to recovery the water level of pressurizer; the flow instability phenomenon would occur and last 21 min after the PHRS start-up; according to the comparative analysis, the coolant average temperature gradient and the Passive Condensate Cooling Tank (PCCT) water temperature rising amplitude of PAMS are lower than those of Traditional Secondary Circuit PHRS

  7. Design and development of innovative passive valves for Nuclear Power Plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Passive valves are self-acting valves requiring no external energy to function. • These valves have been developed for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) of India. • Passive valves are core components of passive safety systems of the reactor. • Accumulator Isolation Passive Valve (AIPV) has been developed and tested for ECSS. • AIPV provided passive isolation and flow regulation in ECCS of Integral Test Loop. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has resulted in an increased need for passive safety systems in upcoming advanced reactors. In order to enhance the global contribution and acceptability of nuclear energy, proven evidence is required to show that it is not only green but also safe, in case of extreme natural events. To achieve and establish this fact, we need to design, demonstrate and incorporate reliable ‘passive safety systems’ in our advanced reactor designs. In Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the use of passive safety systems such as accumulators, condensing and evaporative heat exchangers and gravity driven cooling systems provide enhanced safety and reliability. In addition, they eliminate the huge costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active safety systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. As a result, passive safety systems are preferred for numerous advanced reactor concepts. In current NPPs, passive safety systems which are not participating in day to day operation, are kept isolated, and require a signal and external energy source to open the valve. It is proposed to replace these valves by passive components and devices such as self-acting valves, rupture disks, etc. Some of these innovative passive valves, which do not require external power, have been recently designed, developed and tested at rated conditions. These valves are proposed to be used for various passive safety systems of an upcoming Nuclear Power Plant being designed

  8. Design and development of innovative passive valves for Nuclear Power Plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapra, M.K., E-mail: sapramk@barc.gov.in; Kundu, S.; Pal, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Passive valves are self-acting valves requiring no external energy to function. • These valves have been developed for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) of India. • Passive valves are core components of passive safety systems of the reactor. • Accumulator Isolation Passive Valve (AIPV) has been developed and tested for ECSS. • AIPV provided passive isolation and flow regulation in ECCS of Integral Test Loop. - Abstract: The recent Fukushima accident has resulted in an increased need for passive safety systems in upcoming advanced reactors. In order to enhance the global contribution and acceptability of nuclear energy, proven evidence is required to show that it is not only green but also safe, in case of extreme natural events. To achieve and establish this fact, we need to design, demonstrate and incorporate reliable ‘passive safety systems’ in our advanced reactor designs. In Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the use of passive safety systems such as accumulators, condensing and evaporative heat exchangers and gravity driven cooling systems provide enhanced safety and reliability. In addition, they eliminate the huge costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active safety systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. As a result, passive safety systems are preferred for numerous advanced reactor concepts. In current NPPs, passive safety systems which are not participating in day to day operation, are kept isolated, and require a signal and external energy source to open the valve. It is proposed to replace these valves by passive components and devices such as self-acting valves, rupture disks, etc. Some of these innovative passive valves, which do not require external power, have been recently designed, developed and tested at rated conditions. These valves are proposed to be used for various passive safety systems of an upcoming Nuclear Power Plant being designed

  9. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  10. FTTH passive optical networks and fiber plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Steven; Rich, Bill

    2001-10-01

    With extraordinary increase of bandwidth requirement nowadays, service providers are compelled to push fiber deeper into the access networks in order to be able to offer the emerging services that customers are demanding. The economic aspects from the business side also put pressure on operators to deploy single network for multiple applications in order to maximize profitability. There are various technologies used today to increase the capacity of the access network. Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) utilizing ATM Passive Optical Networking (APON) has been developed for and field-tried in numerous networks all over the world. The advantages of APON solution lies in its future proof fiber based access technology (high bandwidth and long service life). Fiber and passive components used in the network are very reliable and low in the maintenance cost. The APON technology is standardized in ITU-T G.983, which is originated from Full Services Access Network (FSAN) initiatives. It supports multiple applications and provides powerful quality of service (QoS). In this paper, the requirements for APON FTTH network architecture, transport protocol and operation are examined in line with G.983 standards. The comparisons of APON to other existing high data rate access network solutions are then briefly discussed. Case studies of APON FTTH field trials are used as examples. These trials represented current status of APON FTTH development in US, on both network system elements and fiber plant components. A complete picture of APON FTTH network system and Outside Plant (OSP) design from CO to the residential homes is illustrated by these field trials. Discussions are given on topics related to APON FTTH system elements, such as OLT/ONT design, lifeline support, optical power budget and operation/fault management. Considerations regarding the design and deployment of OSP components focus on the configuration and construction of the fiber plant. Common issues related to field

  11. Plants for passive cooling. A preliminary investigation of the use of plants for passive cooling in temperate humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirn, A W; Santos, A N; Johnson, D A; Harder, L B; Rios, M W

    1981-04-01

    The potential of vegetation for cooling small, detached residential and commercial structures in temperate, humid climates is discussed. The results of the research are documented, a critical review of the literature is given, and a brief review of energy transfer processes is presented. A checklist of design objectives for passive cooling, a demonstration of design applications, and a palette of selected plant species suitable for passive cooling are included.

  12. Design of integrated passive safety system (IPSS) for ultimate passive safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We newly propose the design concept of integrated passive safety system (IPSS). • It has five safety functions for decay heat removal and severe accident mitigation. • Simulations for IPSS show that core melt does not occur in accidents with SBO. • IPSS can achieve the passive in-vessel retention and ex-vessel cooling strategy. • The applicability of IPSS is high due to the installation outside the containment. -- Abstract: The design concept of integrated passive safety system (IPSS) which can perform various passive safety functions is proposed in this paper. It has the various functions of passive decay heat removal system, passive safety injection system, passive containment cooling system, passive in-vessel retention and cavity flooding system, and filtered venting system with containment pressure control. The objectives of this paper are to propose the conceptual design of an IPSS and to estimate the design characters of the IPSS with accident simulations using MARS code. Some functions of the IPSS are newly proposed and the other functions are reviewed with the integration of the functions. Consequently, all of the functions are modified and integrated for simplicity of the design in preparation for beyond design based accidents (BDBAs) focused on a station black out (SBO). The simulation results with the IPSS show that the decay heat can be sufficiently removed in accidents that occur with a SBO. Also, the molten core can be retained in a vessel via the passive in-vessel retention strategy of the IPSS. The actual application potential of the IPSS is high, as numerous strong design characters are evaluated. The installation of the IPSS into the original design of a nuclear power plant requires minimal design change using the current penetrations of the containment. The functions are integrated in one or two large tanks outside the containment. Furthermore, the operation time of the IPSS can be increased by refilling coolant from the

  13. Design of integrated passive safety system (IPSS) for ultimate passive safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Sang Ho, E-mail: proton@kaist.ac.kr; Choi, Jae Young

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • We newly propose the design concept of integrated passive safety system (IPSS). • It has five safety functions for decay heat removal and severe accident mitigation. • Simulations for IPSS show that core melt does not occur in accidents with SBO. • IPSS can achieve the passive in-vessel retention and ex-vessel cooling strategy. • The applicability of IPSS is high due to the installation outside the containment. -- Abstract: The design concept of integrated passive safety system (IPSS) which can perform various passive safety functions is proposed in this paper. It has the various functions of passive decay heat removal system, passive safety injection system, passive containment cooling system, passive in-vessel retention and cavity flooding system, and filtered venting system with containment pressure control. The objectives of this paper are to propose the conceptual design of an IPSS and to estimate the design characters of the IPSS with accident simulations using MARS code. Some functions of the IPSS are newly proposed and the other functions are reviewed with the integration of the functions. Consequently, all of the functions are modified and integrated for simplicity of the design in preparation for beyond design based accidents (BDBAs) focused on a station black out (SBO). The simulation results with the IPSS show that the decay heat can be sufficiently removed in accidents that occur with a SBO. Also, the molten core can be retained in a vessel via the passive in-vessel retention strategy of the IPSS. The actual application potential of the IPSS is high, as numerous strong design characters are evaluated. The installation of the IPSS into the original design of a nuclear power plant requires minimal design change using the current penetrations of the containment. The functions are integrated in one or two large tanks outside the containment. Furthermore, the operation time of the IPSS can be increased by refilling coolant from the

  14. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  15. Passive safety systems and natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power produces 15% of the world's electricity. Many countries are planning to either introduce nuclear energy or expand their nuclear generating capacity. Design organizations are incorporating both proven means and new approaches for reducing the capital costs of their advanced designs. In the future most new nuclear plants will be of evolutionary design, often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs could help to promote a new era of nuclear power. Since the mid-1980s it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e. those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially improve economics of new nuclear power plant designs. The IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future, which was convened in 1991, noted that for new plants 'the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate'. Some new designs also utilize natural circulation as a means to remove core power during normal operation. The use of passive systems can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance, and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. To support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive systems, investigations of natural circulation are conducted in several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, the IAEA

  16. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the 240Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ''known alpha'' and ''known multiplication'' methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems

  17. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  18. SWR 1000: an advanced boiling water reactor with passive safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SWR 1000, an advanced BWR, is being developed by Siemens under contract from Germany's electric utilities and with the support of European partners. The project is currently in the basic design phase to be concluded in mid-1999 with the release of a site-independent safety report and costing analysis. The development goals for the project encompass competitive costs, use of passive safety systems to further reduce probabilities of occurrence of severe accidents, assured control of accidents so no emergency response actions for evacuation of the local population are needed, simplification of plant systems based on operator experience, and planning and design based on German codes, standards and specifications put forward by the Franco-German Reactor Safety Commission for future nuclear power plants equipped with PWRs, as well as IAEA specifications and the European Utility Requirements. These goals led to a plant concept with a low power density core, with large water inventories stored above the core inside the reactor pressure vessel, in the pressure suppression pool, and in other locations. All accident situations arising from power operation can be controlled by passive safety features without rise in core temperature and with a grace period of more than three days. In addition, postulated core melt is controlled by passive equipment. All new passive systems have been successfully tested for function and performance using large-scale components in experimental testing facilities at PSI in Switzerland and at the Juelich Research Centre in Germany. In addition to improvements of the safety systems, the plant's operating systems have been simplified based on operating experience. The design's safety concept, simplified operating systems and 48 months construction time yield favourable plant construction costs. The level of concept maturity required to begin offering the SWR 1000 on the power generation market is anticipated to be reached, as planned in the year

  19. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2009-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Technologies of national importance, by Tsutomu Ohkubo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan; Modeling and simulation advances brighten future nuclear power, by Hussein Khalil, Argonne National Laboratory, Energy and desalination projects, by Ratan Kumar Sinha, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India; A plant with simplified design, by John Higgins, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; A forward thinking design, by Ray Ganthner, AREVA; A passively safe design, by Ed Cummins, Westinghouse Electric Company; A market-ready design, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada; Generation IV Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, by Jacques Bouchard, French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France, and Ralph Bennett, Idaho National Laboratory; Innovative reactor designs, a report by IAEA, Vienna, Austria; Guidance for new vendors, by John Nakoski, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Road map for future energy, by John Cleveland, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria; and, Vermont's largest source of electricity, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Intelligent monitoring technology, by Chris Demars, Exelon Nuclear.

  20. Thermal hydraulic studies for passive heat transport systems relevant to advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear is the only non-green house gas generating power source that can replace fossil fuels and can be commercially deployed in large scale. However, the enormous developmental efforts and safety upgrades during the past six decades have somewhat eroded the economic competitiveness of water-cooled reactors which form the mainstay of the current nuclear power programme. Further, the introduction of the supercritical Rankine cycle and the gas turbine based advanced fuel cycles have enhanced the efficiency of fossil fired power plants (FPP) thereby reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The ongoing development of ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical turbines aims to further reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and economic competitiveness of FPPs. In the backdrop of these developments, the nuclear industry also initiated development of advanced nuclear power plants (NPP) with improved efficiency, sustainability and enhanced safety as the main goals. A review of the advanced reactor concepts being investigated currently reveals that excepting the SCWR, all other concepts use coolants other than water. The coolants used are lead, lead bismuth eutectic, liquid sodium, molten salts, helium and supercritical water. Besides, some of these are employing passive systems to transport heat from the core under normal operating conditions. In view of this, a study is in progress at BARC to examine the performance of simple passive systems using SC CO2, SCW, LBE and molten salts as the coolant. This paper deals with some of the recent results of these studies. The study focuses on the steady state, transient and stability behaviour of the passive systems with these coolants. (author)

  1. Modelling containment passive safety systems in advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most designs of advanced passive reactors incorporate Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) relying on steam condensation to cope with possible pressure increase that would result in the case of a postulated accident. As a consequence, experimental and analytical research programmes have been launched worldwide to investigate new configurations and conditions involved in these new scenarios. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the joint research of CIEMAT, UPV, and UW in developing predictive models to address anticipated conditions in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactors (CIEMAT-UPV) and in the AP600 (CIEMAT-UW). Even though both models share some of their fundamental characteristics (such as being mass/heat transfer analogy based), samples of their validation against independent databases illustrate their intrinsic differences in formulation according to the scenarios addressed by each one. Relative importance of condensate film or gas mixture velocity are discussed, and the effect of key factors such as noncondensable gas presence and pressure are stated. Experimental data from University of Berkeley (UCB) and from University of Wisconsin - Madison (UW) will be used to support comparisons and discussions held in the paper. In short, this work demonstrates that heat/mass transfer analogy-based models, particularly those relying on diffusion film modelling to account for noncondensable gas presence, are extremely useful in test interpretation and result in good agreement with reliable databases. (author)

  2. Typical technology of mechanics on Gen-III passive NPPs and Gen-IV advanced supercritical light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Technical requirements for Gen-III advanced nuclear power plants, which take passive reactors as the main body, were originally brought forward in American 'Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirement Document' (ALWR-URD) in early 1990's. The primary characteristic of passive nuclear power plant is large amount of simplification to the original active safety systems, replacing or supplementing them with passive safety systems, which enhances safety and economy. However, the replacement of active safety systems by passive safety systems also brings about some mechanics that compel attention, typically, such as load-carrying capability evaluation for steel containment, in-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core debris, seismic design without OBE, thermo-hydraulic issues concerning with coupling between two-phase fluid and solid, etc. At the beginning of this century, six typical Gen-IV advanced reactor types (Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor, Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor, etc.) were put forward. Among these types of reactors, Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor adopts supercritical water as coolant and operates above the thermodynamic critical point of water by increasing temperature and pressure of the coolant, which makes the plant economic and efficient. However, this type of reactor also brings about some mechanical difficulties (e.g. pressure fluctuation caused by the supercritical fluid in the core, creep of materials working at high temperature, etc.) for the design of facility and components. In this paper, the issues mentioned above are outlined for further consideration. (author)

  3. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive... Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of rulemaking for the amendment to the...

  4. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model

  5. Analysis of Heat Removal Capability of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) in APR (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y. J.; Kang, K. H.; Yun, B. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, South Korea has designed PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) for APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus). Because the PAFS replaces a conventional active auxiliary feedwater system and plays a role in the ultimate heat sink for decay heat, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of PAFS under postulated accidents conditions. Therefore, the performance analysis is carried out for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB) accidents. For the analysis, MARS-KS code is used and MARS-KS model is developed by adding PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model.

  6. Advanced passive PWR AC-600: Development orientation of nuclear power reactors in China for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Qinshan II Nuclear Power Plant that is designed and constructed by way of self-reliance, China has developed advanced passive PWR AC-600. The design concept of AC-600 not only takes the real situation of China into consideration, but also follows the developing trend of nuclear power in the world. The design of AC-600 has the following technical characteristics: Advanced reactor: 18-24 month fuel cycle, low neutron leakage, low power density of the core, no any penetration in the RPV below the level of the reactor coolant nozzles; Passive safety systems: passive emergency residual heat removal system, passive-active safety injection system, passive containment cooling system and main control room habitability system; System simplified and the number of components reduced; Digital I and C; Modular construction. AC-600 inherits the proven technology China has mastered and used in Qirtshan 11, and absorbs advanced international design concepts, but it also has a distinctive characteristic of bringing forth new ideas independently. It is suited to Chinese conditions and therefore is expected to become an orientation of nuclear power development by self-reliance in China for the next century. (author)

  7. Advanced light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to be competitive with the other methods of electrical power generation the economic performance should be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on line generating electricity relative to time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described which is used to resolve maintenance related operating cycle length barriers. Advanced light water nuclear power plant is designed with the purpose to maximize online generating time by increasing operating cycle length. (author)

  8. Advances in passive-remote and extractive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 requires the monitoring of air toxics including those from incinerator emissions. Continuous emission monitors (CEM) would demonstrate the safety of incinerators and address public concern about emissions of hazardous organic compounds. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can provide the technology for continuous emission monitoring of stacks. Stack effluent can be extracted and analyzed in less than one minute with conventional FTIR spectrometers. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers can detect certain emission gases over 1 km away from a stack. The authors discuss advances in both extractive and passive-remote FTIR technology. Extractive systems are being tested with EPA protocols, which will soon replace periodic testing methods. Standard operating procedures for extractive systems are being developed and tested. Passive-remote FTIR spectrometers have the advantage of not requiring an extracted sample; however, they have less sensitivity. We have evaluated the ability of commercially available systems to detect fugitive plumes and to monitor carbon monoxide at a coal-fired power plant

  9. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does... Section 19.3, ``Regulatory Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light...

  10. 78 FR 41436 - Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The NRC seeks public...- Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' This area includes a revised...

  11. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error

  12. Improved methodology for integral analysis of advanced reactors employing passive safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, A. Kursad

    After four decades of experience with pressurized water reactors, a new generation of nuclear plants are emerging. These advanced designs employ passive safety which relies on natural forces, such as gravity and natural circulation. The new concept of passive safety also necessitates improvement in computational tools available for best-estimate analyses. The system codes originally designed for high pressure conditions in the presence of strong momentum sources such as pumps are challenged in many ways. Increased interaction of the primary system with the containment necessitates a tool for integral analysis. This study addresses some of these concerns. An improved tool for integral analysis coupling primary system with containment calculation is also presented. The code package is based on RELAP5 and CONTAIN programs, best-estimate thermal-hydraulics code for primary system analysis and containment code for containment analysis, respectively. The suitability is demonstrated with a postulated small break loss of coolant accident analysis of Westinghouse AP600 plant. The thesis explains the details of the analysis including the coupling model.

  13. Advanced Passive Microwave Radiometer Technology for GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Principe, Caleb; Ruf, Christoper; Wilheit, Thomas; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An interferometer-type passive microwave radiometer based on MMIC receiver technology and a thinned array antenna design is being developed under the Instrument Incubator Program (TIP) on a project entitled the Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer (LRR). The prototype single channel aircraft instrument will be ready for first testing in 2nd quarter 2003, for deployment on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and in a ground configuration manner; this version measures at 10.7 GHz in a crosstrack imaging mode. The design for a two (2) frequency preliminary space flight model at 19 and 35 GHz (also in crosstrack imaging mode) has also been completed, in which the design features would enable it to fly in a bore-sighted configuration with a new dual-frequency space radar (DPR) under development at the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) in Tokyo, Japan. The DPR will be flown as one of two primary instruments on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's core satellite in the 2007 time frame. The dual frequency space flight design of the ERR matches the APR frequencies and will be proposed as an ancillary instrument on the GPM core satellite to advance space-based precipitation measurement by enabling better microphysical characterization and coincident volume data gathering for exercising combined algorithm techniques which make use of both radar backscatter and radiometer attenuation information to constrain rainrate solutions within a physical algorithm context. This talk will discuss the design features, performance capabilities, applications plans, and conical/polarametric imaging possibilities for the LRR, as well as a brief summary of the project status and schedule.

  14. Activities of passive cooling applications and simulation of innovative nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general insight on activities of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) concerning passive cooling applications and simulation of innovative nuclear power plant design. The condensation mode of heat transfer plays an important role for the passive heat removal application in advanced water-cooled reactor systems. But it is well understood that the presence of noncondesable (NC) gases can greatly inhibit the condensation process due to the build up of NC gas concentration at the liquid/gas interface. The isolation condenser of passive containment cooling system of the simplified boiling water reactors is a typical application area of in-tube condensation in the presence of NC. The test matrix of the experimental investigation undertaken at the METU-CTF test facility (Middle East Technical University, Ankara) covers the range of parameters; Pn (system pressure) : 2-6 bar, Rev (vapor Reynolds number): 45,000-94,000, and Xi (air mass fraction): 0-52%. This experimental study is supplemented by a theoretical investigation concerning the effect of mixture flow rate on film turbulence and air mass diffusion concepts. Recently, TAEA participated to an international standard problem (OECD ISP-42) which covers a set of simulation of PANDA test facility (Paul Scherrer Institut-Switzerland) for six different phases including different natural circulation modes. The concept of condensation in the presence of air plays an important role for performance of heat exchangers, designed for passive containment cooling, which in turn affect the natural circulation behaviour in PANDA systems. (author)

  15. High-inertia hermetically sealed main coolant pump for next generation passive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main coolant pump for the Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive nuclear power plant represents a significant scale-up in power, flow capacity, and physical size from its predecessor designed for the smaller AP600 power plant. More importantly, the AP1000 pump incorporates several innovative features that contribute to improved efficiency, operational reliability, and plant safety. The features include an internals design which provides the highest hydraulic efficiency achieved in commercial nuclear power plant applications. Another feature is the use of a distributed inertial mass system in the rotating assembly to develop the high rotational inertia to meet the extended system flow coastdown requirement for core heat removal in the event of loss of power to the pumps. This advanced canned motor pump also incorporates the latest development in higher operating voltage, providing plant designers with the ability to eliminate plant transformers and operate directly on the site electrical bus in many cases. The salient features of the pump design and performance data are presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Predicting plant attractiveness to pollinators with passive crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, Christie A; Landis, Douglas A

    2016-06-01

    observations were not associated with Internet images, but were slightly associated with BP. Our results suggest that passively crowdsourced image data can potentially be a useful screening tool to identify candidate plants for pollinator habitat restoration efforts directed at wild bee conservation. Increasing our understanding of the attractiveness of a greater diversity of plants increases the potential for more rapid and efficient research in creating pollinator-supportive landscapes. PMID:27429762

  17. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  18. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive ''box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs

  19. Design of condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) was designed. ► The requirement of the heat removal rate and the prevention of water hammer phenomena were considered. ► The proposed design of the heat exchanger satisfied the requirement of the passive heat removal system. - Abstract: The APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), a next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, has adopted the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) on the secondary system of the steam generator (SG) as an advanced safety feature. It is intended to replace the conventional auxiliary feedwater system, which consists of active components for the SG in a passive way. It removes decay heat from the reactor core by cooling down the secondary system of the SG using a condensation heat exchanger installed in the PCCT (Passive Condensation Cooling Tank). The objective of this study is to design a condensation heat exchanger for the PAFS and to evaluate the cooling performance for the proposed design using the thermal hydraulic system analysis code, MARS (Multi-dimensional Analysis for Reactor Safety). Requirements such as the heat removal capacity and the prevention of water hammer were preferentially considered to determine the design parameters of the heat exchanger tube. The MARS code analysis result showed that the proposed design of the PAFS heat exchanger is able to cool down the required amount of decay heat. The distribution of a liquid volume fraction and flow regime predicted by the MARS code shows that the proposed design of the heat exchanger excludes the water hammer inside the tube. Estimation of a two-phase flow pressure drop indicates that the pressure drop inside the tube is negligible compared to the total pressure drop in the PAFS. From the MARS code analysis, it is concluded that the proposed design of the condensation heat exchanger in the PAFS satisfies the overall criteria for the performance of the passive heat removal

  20. New advances in virtual plant research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual plants are computer simulations of the growth, development and deployment of plants in a three-dimensional space. Over the past 20 years, significant pro-gress has been made in virtual plant modeling corresponding to the rapid advances in information technology. Virtual plant research has broad applications in agronomy, forestry, ecology, and remote sensing areas. In this review, we attempt to introduce the significance, modeling methodology, and main advances in virtual plant research and applications. The challenges associated with virtual plant modeling in agronomy applications, including the interaction mechanism between plant and environment and root system modeling, are also discussed. Insights into applications of virtual plants in agronomy are given in the areas of performing virtual experiments to accurately quantify the utilization of soil water and nutrients, to design crop ideotype on computers, and to improve crop planting.

  1. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  2. AP1000TM Nuclear Power Plant - Passive Safety System Actuation using Explosively Opening 'Squib Valves'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades the world demand for energy was growing rapidly and despite the economic crisis no basic change in this development can be expected for the future. Especially the developing countries with fast growing populations and economies will have an increasing need for energy in all forms while available resources are decreasing. The extreme volatility of energy prices in the last years has shown how dependent on cheap and reliable energy we are and how dangerous it is to focus only on few sources. On the other hand the excessive use of fossil fuel in the last century has led to a man made climate change by emission of greenhouse gases. The renaissance of nuclear power is one of the answers to these issues. Global warming cannot be avoided on a short but carbon free nuclear technology can help limiting the effects of climate change and provide billions of people with cheap and reliable energy at the same time. However, a worldwide 'nuclear renaissance' has some prerequisites. Beside economic competitiveness advanced nuclear safety based on proven, evolutionary technologies is the most important condition for the acceptance of new nuclear power plants. Half of the world's nuclear reactors are based on proven Westinghouse design. These plants have more than 10,000 years of operating experience. The AP1000TM plant is the result of an evolutionary development process where advanced, passive safety features have been combined with proven components from operating plants. Significant design simplifications together with the reduction of piping, cabling, pumps, valves and seismic grade building size have led to reduced investment costs. A consequent modularization enables the plant to be constructed within three years. Passive safety functions relying only on natural forces make the plant safer than any existing reactor. Because active decay heat removal systems do not have to be safety grade classified any more, construction, inspection and maintenance are

  3. AP1000TM Nuclear Power Plant Passive Safety System Actuation using Explosively Opening 'Squib Valves'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades the world demand for energy was growing rapidly and despite the economic crisis no basic change in this development can be expected for the future. Especially the developing countries with fast growing populations and economies will have an increasing need for energy in all forms while available resources are decreasing. The extreme volatility of energy prices in the last years has shown how dependent on cheap and reliable energy we are and how dangerous it is to focus only on few sources. On the other hand the excessive use of fossil fuel in the last century has led to a man made climate change by emission of greenhouse gases. The renaissance of nuclear power is one of the answers to these issues. Global warming cannot be avoided on a short but carbon free nuclear technology can help limiting the effects of climate change and provide billions of people with cheap and reliable energy at the same time. However, a worldwide 'nuclear renaissance' has some prerequisites. Beside economic competitiveness advanced nuclear safety based on proven, evolutionary technologies is the most important condition for the acceptance of new nuclear power plants. Half of the world's nuclear reactors are based on proven Westinghouse design. These plants have more than 10,000 years of operating experience. The AP1000TM plant is the result of an evolutionary development process where advanced, passive safety features have been combined with proven components from operating plants. Significant design simplifications together with the reduction of piping, cabling, pumps, valves and seismic grade building size have led to reduced investment costs. A consequent modularization enables the plant to be constructed within three years. Passive safety functions relying only on natural forces make the plant safer than any existing reactor. Because active decay heat removal systems do not have to be safety grade classified any more, construction, inspection and maintenance are

  4. Stored Energy Scaling and Evaluation for Passive Power Plant Test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lian; Ye, Zishen; Chang, Huajian; Li, Yuquan [State Nuclear Power Technology Research and Development Center, Beijing (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The stored energy in pressure vessel would gradually release to coolant in nuclear power plant during the transient of Loss of Coolant Accident. This stored energy should be properly scaled in the integral test facility. Otherwise, the thermal-hydraulic phenomena may distort and safety system behavior may differ. This is especially true for the long time cooling by passive safety systems. bottom-up scaling analysis is preformed to derive criteria to preserve the stored energy similarity of integral test facility from a simplified pressure vessel model. This criterion considered the top-down scaling criteria of the natural circulation similarity and the engineering practice. Several factors that would affect the stored energy are discussed. Thereafter, the stored energy distortion is evaluated for the AP600 test facilities-SPES-2, ROSA/AP600, APEX. The value shows significant stored energy distortion in SPES-2 and ROSA/AP600, which in consistent with the NRC's assessment. Then the distortion is evaluated for the newly designed ACME(Advanced Core-cooling Mechanism Experiment) test facility in China. Theoretically, the criterion is met and stored energy is preserved, which enable it to simulate the long time cooling of passive safety system in nuclear power plant. But the stored energy should be deliberately coped with in engineering practice.

  5. Stored Energy Scaling and Evaluation for Passive Power Plant Test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stored energy in pressure vessel would gradually release to coolant in nuclear power plant during the transient of Loss of Coolant Accident. This stored energy should be properly scaled in the integral test facility. Otherwise, the thermal-hydraulic phenomena may distort and safety system behavior may differ. This is especially true for the long time cooling by passive safety systems. bottom-up scaling analysis is preformed to derive criteria to preserve the stored energy similarity of integral test facility from a simplified pressure vessel model. This criterion considered the top-down scaling criteria of the natural circulation similarity and the engineering practice. Several factors that would affect the stored energy are discussed. Thereafter, the stored energy distortion is evaluated for the AP600 test facilities-SPES-2, ROSA/AP600, APEX. The value shows significant stored energy distortion in SPES-2 and ROSA/AP600, which in consistent with the NRC's assessment. Then the distortion is evaluated for the newly designed ACME(Advanced Core-cooling Mechanism Experiment) test facility in China. Theoretically, the criterion is met and stored energy is preserved, which enable it to simulate the long time cooling of passive safety system in nuclear power plant. But the stored energy should be deliberately coped with in engineering practice

  6. Passive Flora? Reconsidering Nature’s Agency through Human-Plant Studies (HPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been—and, for reasons of human sustenance and creative inspiration, will continue to be—centrally important to societies globally. Yet, plants—including herbs, shrubs, and trees—are commonly characterized in Western thought as passive, sessile, and silent automatons lacking a brain, as accessories or backdrops to human affairs. Paradoxically, the qualities considered absent in plants are those employed by biologists to argue for intelligence in animals. Yet an emerging body of research in the sciences and humanities challenges animal-centred biases in determining consciousness, intelligence, volition, and complex communication capacities amongst living beings. In light of recent theoretical developments in our understandings of plants, this article proposes an interdisciplinary framework for researching flora: human-plant studies (HPS. Building upon the conceptual formations of the humanities, social sciences, and plant sciences as advanced by Val Plumwood, Deborah Bird Rose, Libby Robin, and most importantly Matthew Hall and Anthony Trewavas, as well as precedents in the emerging areas of human-animal studies (HAS, I will sketch the conceptual basis for the further consideration and exploration of this interdisciplinary framework.

  7. The role of ANS in enhancing public understanding of advanced nuclear energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concurrent with the design certification of both evolutionary and passive designs for advanced nuclear energy plants in the US, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) has an extensive nuclear community and public information program under way. The goal of the program is to inform both the technical community and the general public on the following major topics related to the deployment of advanced nuclear energy plants: (1) need for new baseload electrical generation; (2) environmental advantages of nuclear power generation; (3) design of advanced nuclear energy plants; (4) nuclear waste issues; and (5) work force issues

  8. Technology advances in active and passive microwave sensing through 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barath, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of a growing awareness by the remote sensing community of the unique capabilities of passive and active microwave sensors, these instruments are expected to grow in the next decade in numbers, versatility and complexity. The Nimbus-G and Seasat-A Scanning Multichannel Microwave Spectrometer (SMMR), the Seasat-A radar altimeter, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar represent the first systematic attempt at exploring a wide variety of applications utilizing microwave sensing techniques and are indicators of the directions in which the pertinent technology is likely to evolve. The trend is toward high resolution multi-frequency imagers spanning wide frequency ranges and wide swaths requiring sophisticated receivers, real-time data processors and most importantly, complex antennas.

  9. PLANT TRANSFORMATION: ADVANCES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Adriana Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation is a powerful tool for plant breeding and genetical, physiological or biochemical research, consequently it is an extremely dynamic field. Transgenic plants are commonly used to complete or substitute mutants in basic research, helping the studies of complex biological situations such as pathogenesis process, genome organization, light reception and signal transduction. In this review, recent approaches for foreign gene introduction (e.g. Agrobiolistics, whole tissue electroporation, in planta Agrobacterium transformation, screening (reporter gene possibilities and performance and transformant selection (ipt selective marker are discussed. Transgene expression and mechanisms underlying (transgene inactivation are presented. Practical applications of genetically modified plants, field tests and commercial transgenic crops worldwide and in Brazil are listed, as well as the main traits and species modified. Potential uses of transgenic plants for animal compound production, biological remediation and synthetic polymer assembly are also shown.

  10. Advanced Passive Reactors : Leading The U. S. Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one years have passed since Korea Electric Power Corporation and Westinghouse announced plans to build Kori 1. Today, Korea's nuclear program is one of the most successful in the world. The electricity generated from Kori 1 and eight other nuclear plants has helped to spark the remarkable growth and transformation of Korea into a modern industrial power. Westinghouse is proud to have been Korea's partner on six of those plants. It the past is the bast prophet of the future, then you and your countrymen should certainly be excited by your future. Korean industry is poised to continue its steady growth, and that means continued growth for your nuclear industry. Currently, the U. S. nuclear industry is experiencing a similar mood of excitement. In fact, it would be necessary to go almost all the way back to the beginning of the birth of the Korean nuclear industry, in 1969, to find a time when the future of nuclear power in the United States looked as bright as it does today. Part of our excitement stems from the welcome prospect of growth. In recent years, there has not been a market for new nuclear plants in the United States. Utilities either had excess capacity or were building plants they had ordered before 1974. For example, between 1980 and 1989, U. S. utilities completed 46 large nuclear units, but didn't order a single new one in that time. Since 1983, however, strong economic growth in the United States has caused the demand for electric power to grow about twice as fast as utilities had projected. Today, utilities will need to order new busload plants. When they do, utilities won't want technology developed 20 years ago. They'll be looking for plants that can meet the environmental, economic, and safety standards of the 21st century

  11. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States

  12. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

    2003-11-12

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

  13. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  14. Advanced nuclear plants meet the economic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants operated in the baseload regime are economically competitive even when compared with plants burning fossil fuels. As they do not produce emissions when operated, they do not pollute the environment. This is clearly reflected also in the internalized costs. After 2000, many new power plants are expected to be constructed in the USA and worldwide. An important role in this phase will be played by advanced light water reactors of the ABWR and SBWR types representing the future state of the art in technology and safety as well as in cost and plant operations management. (orig.)

  15. Numerical study on seismic response of the reactor coolant pump in Advanced Passive Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An artificial accelerogram of the specified SSE is generated. • A dynamic FE model of the RCP in AP1000 (with gyroscopic and FSI effects) is developed. • The displacement, force, moment and stress in the RCP during the earthquake are summarized. - Abstract: The reactor coolant pump in the Advanced Passive Pressurized Water Reactor is a kind of nuclear canned-motor pump. The pump is classified as Seismic Category I, which must function normally during the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. When the nuclear power plant is located in seismically active region, the seismic response of the reactor coolant pump may become very important for the safety assessment of the whole nuclear power plant. In this article, an artificial accelerogram is generated. The response spectrum of the artificial accelerogram fits well with the design acceleration spectrum of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. By applying the finite element modeling method, the dynamic finite element models of the rotor and stator in the reactor coolant pump are created separately. The rotor and stator are coupled by the journal bearings and the annular flow between the rotor and stator. Then the whole dynamic model of the reactor coolant pump is developed. Time domain analysis which uses the improved state-space Newmark method of a direct time integration scheme is carried out to investigate the response of the reactor coolant pump under the horizontal seismic load. The results show that the reactor coolant pump responds differently in the direction of the seismic load and in the perpendicular direction. During the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, the displacement response, the shear force, the moment and the journal bearing reaction forces in the reactor coolant pump are analyzed

  16. Numerical study on seismic response of the reactor coolant pump in Advanced Passive Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Cheng, E-mail: 0100209064@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhen-Qiang, Yao, E-mail: zqyaosjtu@gmail.com; Ya-bo, Xue; Hong, Shen

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • An artificial accelerogram of the specified SSE is generated. • A dynamic FE model of the RCP in AP1000 (with gyroscopic and FSI effects) is developed. • The displacement, force, moment and stress in the RCP during the earthquake are summarized. - Abstract: The reactor coolant pump in the Advanced Passive Pressurized Water Reactor is a kind of nuclear canned-motor pump. The pump is classified as Seismic Category I, which must function normally during the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. When the nuclear power plant is located in seismically active region, the seismic response of the reactor coolant pump may become very important for the safety assessment of the whole nuclear power plant. In this article, an artificial accelerogram is generated. The response spectrum of the artificial accelerogram fits well with the design acceleration spectrum of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. By applying the finite element modeling method, the dynamic finite element models of the rotor and stator in the reactor coolant pump are created separately. The rotor and stator are coupled by the journal bearings and the annular flow between the rotor and stator. Then the whole dynamic model of the reactor coolant pump is developed. Time domain analysis which uses the improved state-space Newmark method of a direct time integration scheme is carried out to investigate the response of the reactor coolant pump under the horizontal seismic load. The results show that the reactor coolant pump responds differently in the direction of the seismic load and in the perpendicular direction. During the Safe Shutdown Earthquake, the displacement response, the shear force, the moment and the journal bearing reaction forces in the reactor coolant pump are analyzed.

  17. Regulatory review of passive plant design certification test programs. Results and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its review of advanced, passive light water reactor designs for certification, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has almost completed its review of test programs developed by the reactor vendors to demonstrate passive safety system performance and to support development and validation of safety analysis computer codes. Results of the test program reviews are discussed, focusing on the data and its analysis. The NRC's regulatory perspective and important lessons learned are also addressed

  18. Reliability assessment of Passive Containment Cooling System of an Advanced Reactor using APSRA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper deals with the reliability assessment of Passive Containment Cooling System of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor. • Assessment of Passive System ReliAbility (APSRA) methodology is used for reliability assessment. • Performance assessment of the PCCS is initially performed during a postulated design basis LOCA. • The parameters affecting the system performance are then identified and considered for further analysis. • The failure probabilities of the various components are assessed through a classical PSA treatment using generic data. - Abstract: Passive Systems are increasingly playing a prominent role in the advanced nuclear reactor systems and are being utilised in normal operations as well as safety systems of the reactors following an accident. The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) is one of the several passive safety features in an Advanced Reactor (AHWR). In this paper, the APSRA methodology has been employed for reliability evaluation of the PCCS of AHWR. Performance assessment of the PCCS is initially performed during a postulated design basis LOCA using the best-estimate code RELAP5/Mod 3.2. The parameters affecting the system performance are then identified and considered for further analysis. Based on some pre-determined failure criterion, the failure surface for the system is predicted using the best-estimate code taking into account the deviations of the identified parameters from their nominal states as well as the model uncertainties inherent to the best estimate code. Root diagnosis is then carried out to determine the various failure causes, which occurs mainly due to malfunctioning of mechanical components. The failure probabilities of the various components are assessed through a classical PSA treatment using generic data. The reliability of the PCCS is then evaluated from the probability of availability of these components

  19. The role of passive and inherent safety properties in Siemens/KWU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Siemens/KWU Nuclear Power Plants the applied safety concept consist of a well balanced combination of active, passive use well is inherent safety measures. In principle it is not possible to realise a safety concept exclusively with inherent and/or passive safety properties. The respective measures and arguments will be explained in detail in the presentation. In addition the Siemens/KWU safety concept with examples of the role of inherent and passive safety measures will be illustrated. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  20. Simulation of fission products behavior in severe accidents for advanced passive PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A fission product analysis model based on thermal hydraulic module is developed. • An assessment method for fission product release and transport is constructed. • Fission products behavior during three modes of containment response is investigated. • Source term results for the three modes of containment response are obtained. - Abstract: Fission product behavior for common Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been studied for many years, and some analytical tools have developed. However, studies specifically on the behavior of fission products related to advanced passive PWR is scarce. In the current study, design characteristics of advanced passive PWR influencing fission product behavior are investigated. An integrated fission products analysis model based on a thermal hydraulic module is developed, and the assessment method for fission products release and transport for advanced passive PWR is constructed. Three modes of containment response are simulated, including intact containment, containment bypass and containment overpressure failure. Fission products release from the core and corium, fission products transport and deposition in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), fission products transport and deposition in the containment considering fission products retention in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and in the secondary side of steam generators (SGs) are simulated. Source term results of intact containment, containment bypass and containment overpressure failure are obtained, which can be utilized to evaluate the radiological consequences

  1. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  2. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  3. Integrated Passive Safety System (IPSS) for Ultimate Safe Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Jae Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The integrity of reactor core could be preserved if there was a passive safety system enough to remove the decay heat in the Fukushima accident. Also, even if the core was molten and there was no electrical power, the reactor vessel would not be damaged and the release of radioactive materials could be prevented by using safety systems of containment cooling and filtered venting. Not only for the Fukushima accident, there is a possibility that a nuclear power plant can experience a severe accident in a case of SBO (Station Black Out). Even if it is sure that the reasonable proportion of active and passive safety system has to be considered based on the safety and economics of a nuclear power plant, the researches to enhance the safety of a nuclear power plant must be continued for the future. In order to solve the problem and enhance the safety of nuclear power plants, integrated passive safety system (IPSS) is proposed. It is the wholly passive system by natural phenomena like gravity, natural circulation and pressure difference. The purpose of this paper is to propose the conceptual design of the integrated passive safety system and make the overall evaluation of IPSS characters

  4. Design, development and testing of 25 NB size Accumulator Isolation Passive Valve (AIPV) for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is one of the engineered safety system provided to mitigate the consequences of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the event of a break in the pressure boundary of Main Heat Transport (MHT) circuit. High Pressure Injection System of ECCS, is designed to provide coolant injection from advanced accumulators directly into the core for 15 minutes after LOCA. The injection pipe between each accumulator and ECCS header has a newly developed passive valve called Accumulator Isolation Passive Valve (AIPV). During normal reactor operation the MHT pressure will be 70 bar and accumulator pressure will be 55 bar. With rupture of large pipe, when the MHT system pressure falls down below 50 bar, the AIPV located between the accumulators and the ECC Headers, will open to provide coolant to the core. The AIPV is a self-acting type of valve requiring no external energy, i.e.neither air nor electric supply for its actuation. The AIPV serves not only as a passive isolation device but also as a flow control device. It is a non-standard, high pressure and high temperature valve and not manufactured by the valve industry worldwide. In the process of design and development of a 200 NB prototype AIPV for AHWR, a 25 NB size AIPV was designed and developed and successfully tested at Integral Test Loop (ITL). During several experiments carried out at ITL the functional capabilities of AIPV has been proved. The in-situ calibration and testing of AIPV in the plant without removing the same has also been established. This report deals with the role of AIPV in ECCS of AHWR, its design basis, tests performed at simulated conditions and test results with analysis. (author)

  5. ACP100 (China National Nuclear Corporation, China) [Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ACP100 is being developed by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). It is an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with a rated power of 100 MW(e). The reactor is proposed to be utilized for electricity generation, heat or desalination. A plant utilizing the design will have a flexible configuration, with between one and eight modules. A number of passive systems have been incorporated in ACP100. Some of them are described

  6. Advances on Plant Pathogenic Mycotoxin Binding Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao-hua; DONG Jin-gao

    2002-01-01

    Toxin-binding protein is one of the key subjects in plant pathogenic mycotoxin research. In this paper, new advances in toxin-binding proteins of 10 kinds of plant pathogenic mycotoxins belonging to Helminthosporium ,Alternaria ,Fusicoccum ,Verticillium were reviewed, especially the techniques and methods of toxin-binding proteins of HS-toxin, HV-toxin, HMT-toxin, HC-toxin. It was proposed that the isotope-labeling technique and immunological chemistry technique should be combined together in research of toxin-binding protein, which will be significant to study the molecular recognition mechanism between host and pathogenic fungus.

  7. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  8. Information management systems improve advanced plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, R.S.; Serafin, S.A.; Leckey, J.B. [ABB-Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Morgan, J.S. [Duke Engineering & Services, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computer-aided engineering tools are proving invaluable in both the design and operation of nuclear power plants. ABB Combustion Engineering`s Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) features a computerized Information Management System (IMS) as an integral part of the design. The System 80+ IMS represents the most powerful information management tool for Nuclear Power Plants commercially available today. Developed by Duke Power Company specifically for use by nuclear power plant owner operators, the IMS consists of appropriate hardware and software to manage and control information flow for all plant related work or tasks in a systematic, consistent, coordinated and informative manner. A significant feature of this IMS is that it is primarily based on plant data. The principal design tool, PASCE (Plant Application and Systems from Combustion Engineering), is comprised of intelligent databases that describe the design and from which accurate plant drawings are created. Additionally the IMS includes, at its hub, a relational database management system and an associated document management system. During the design phase, the IMS captures all design information in a database as it is generated. Interrelated data are automatically checked for consistency. Engineers and managers from various disciplines are automatically and simultaneously notified of pending changes. The 3-D model automatically checks for interferences and can be used to simulate the removal and replacement of equipment. Thus any potential difficulties can be corrected in the design phase. Document and data search times are greatly reduced by the querying capabilities of the system.

  9. CAREM-25 (National Atomic Energy Commission Argentina) [Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAREM-25 is an Argentine project to achieve the development, design, and construction of an innovative simple and small NPP, which is jointly developed by CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission) and INVAP. This nuclear plant has an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the design, and contributes to a higher safety level. Some of the high level design characteristics of the plant are: integrated primary cooling system, self-pressurized primary system and safety systems relying on passive features

  10. Communicating about advanced nuclear energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of advanced nuclear energy plants, as with any new product, will not depend on design alone. Success will require public support and good communications to achieve that support. In the past, communication weaknesses - including mixed and confusing messages - have sometimes created barriers between the technical community and the public. Several lessons learned from a decade of social science research in the United States of America have implications for communicating effectively about advanced design nuclear energy plants: (1) Most audiences are open-minded and receptive to communications on this topic. They view nuclear energy as a fuel of the future and want to be comfortable about the future. Most people in the USA (82%) expect future nuclear energy plants to be safer, so the improvements being made are simply consistent with public expectations. (2) Few people pay close attention to energy issues. (3) Communications must be simple and free of jargon. Because people do not pay close attention to the issues, their knowledge is limited. Some terms used by the industry to describe advanced design plants are misinterpreted. (4) Good communications focus on consumer wants and values, not industry needs or problems. People care about generational responsibility, planning for the future, environmental protection and security. (5) Benefits and safeguards should be shown instead of risk comparisons. Generic benefits of nuclear energy, such as clean air, are important to consumers. (6) Pictures and hand-on demonstrations help in communicating about nuclear energy plants, because many of the discussion concepts are abstract. (7) Trust is crucial and is established now for tomorrow through word and deed. (author)

  11. Soil Seed Bank and Plant Community Development in Passive Restoration of Degraded Sandy Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renhui Miao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of passive restoration on soil seed bank and vegetation recovery, we measured the species composition and density of the soil seed bank, as well as the species composition, density, coverage, and height of the extant vegetation in sites passively restored for 0, 4, 7, and 12 years (S0, S4, S7, and S12 in a degraded grassland in desert land. Compared with S0, three more species in the soil seed bank at depths of 0–30 cm and one more plant species in the community was detected in S12. Seed density within the topsoil (0–5 cm was five times higher in S12 than that in S0. Plant densities in S7 and S12 were triple and quadruple than that in S0. Plant coverage was increased by 1.5 times (S4, double (S7, and triple (S12 compared with S0. Sørensen’s index of similarity in species composition between the soil seed bank and the plant community were high (0.43–0.63, but it was lower in short-term restoration sites (S4 and S7 than that in no and long-term restoration sites (S0 and S12. The soil seed bank recovered more slowly than the plant community under passive restoration. Passive restoration is a useful method to recover the soil seed bank and vegetation in degraded grasslands.

  12. Modern passive safety system for the advanced fast reactors with sodium cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fast reactors with sodium coolant it is possible to avoid serious damages of a core even at the heaviest scripts of development of accidents if to provide influence on reactance with the help of various type of Passive Safety System (PSS). With input of the PSS the reactor gets an additional negative feedback on the reactance, working at an output of the basic operational parameters (temperature, the coolant flow rate, power) for maximum permissible sizes. The scientific-technical and patent sources analysis has shown, that now it is already offered more than two hundred the various devices, capable to carry out functions of the fast reactors PSS. Comparison of various types of PSS is carried out under 9 generalized characteristics including: passivity, thresholdness, generation of efforts, inertia, multi-channels, stability to operational factors, refusal safety, simplicity and presentation, development conditions. For quantitative comparison of the device ''the perfection degree'' (K≤1) was defined as average size under 9 generalized characteristics. From the considered types of fast reactors PSS the most perfect now are fusible Lyophobic devices, basically meeting the requirements on all characteristics. Results of Lyophobic Passive Safety System development for the advanced fast reactors with sodium cooling are considered. Serviceability of the offered designs is proved experimentally at various operation temperatures on breadboard models sylphon devices and devices of type the sylphon-container with various lyophobic liquids: alloy Wuds (Tmt=80,0 deg C), an alloy lead-bismuth (Tmt=123,5 deg C), cadmium (Ttm=320,0 deg C), aluminium (Tym=660,0 deg C), developed Lyophobic Fusible Passive Safety System on excess of temperature are of interest for nuclear power installations of various type, first of all, as passive devices scram reactor and protection of the process equipment. (author)

  13. Advanced nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) is the largest power company among the six subsidiaries that separated from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in 2001, accounting for approximately 25% of electricity producing facilities, hydro and nuclear combined. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power plants in Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin and Wolsong site and several hydroelectric power generation facilities, providing approximately 36% of the national power supply. As a major source of electricity generation in Korea, nuclear energy contributes greatly to the stability of national electricity supply and energy security. KHNP's commercial nuclear power plant operation, which started with Kori Unit 1 in 1978, has achieved an average capacity factor more than 90% since 2000 and a high record of 93.4% in 2008. Following the introduction of nuclear power plants in the 1970's, Korea accumulated its nuclear technology in the 1980's, developed OPR 1000(Optimized Power Reactor) and demonstrated advanced level of its nuclear technology capabilities in the 2000's by developing an advanced type reactor, APR 1400(Advanced Power Reactor) which is being constructed at Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4 for the first time. By 2022, KHNP will construct additional 12 nuclear power plants in order to ensure a stable power supply according to the Government Plan of Long-Term Electricity supply and Demand. 4 units of OPR 1000 reactor model will be commissioned by 2013 and 8 units of APR 1400 are under construction and planned. At the end of 2022, the nuclear capacity will reach 33% share of total generation capacity in Korea and account for 48% of national power generation. (author)

  14. Comparison of active and passive optical sensors for assessment of plant nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has received attention for a long time as a potential source of ground water pollution. Considerable research has been conducted to investigate use of remote sensing for assessing plant N status to improve N use efficiency. Most of these studies have used passive type sensors...

  15. Providing the Basis for Innovative Improvements in Advanced LWR Reactor Passive Safety Systems Design: An Educational R and D Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project characterizes typical two-phase stratified flow conditions in advanced water reactor horizontal pipe sections, following activation of passive cooling systems. It provides (1) a means to educate nuclear engineering students regarding the importance of two-phase stratified flow in passive cooling systems to the safety of advanced reactor systems and (2) describes the experimental apparatus and process to measure key parameters essential to consider when designing passive emergency core cooling flow paths that may encounter this flow regime. Based on data collected, the state of analysis capabilities can be determined regarding stratified flow in advanced reactor systems and the best paths forward can be identified to ensure that the nuclear industry can properly characterize two-phase stratified flow in passive emergency core cooling systems

  16. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  17. Advances in geodetic surveying of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, M.

    1981-05-01

    Advances have been made in the last few years in geodetic surveying with a view to the following problems: (a) permanent measurement and recording of deformations, and (b) assembly of turbosets by the producer and installation on the power plant foundations. Methods of measurement and recording have been developed in West Germany for the first time. Surveying methods for work as in 'b' have been developed in Poland where, by now, all turbosets produced and assembled in Polish works are installed with the aid of optical methods of measurement. The latter activities receive most attention in the article.

  18. Advances in geodetic surveying of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances have been made in the last few years in geodetic surveying with a view to the following problems: a) permanent measurement and recording of deformations, b) assembly of turbosets by the producer and installation on the power plant foundations. Methods of measurement and recording have been developed in West Germany for the first time. Surveying methods for work as in 'b' have been developed in Poland where, by now, all turbosets produced and assembled in Polish works are installed with the aid of optical methods of measurement. The latter activities receive most attention in the article. (orig.)

  19. Advances in materials for fossil power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external constraints on the electric power industry over the past 10-15 years have resulted in increased demands on the performance and reliability of materials used in fossil power plants. At the same time, the construction of new plants has been at a low ebb, because of reduced capacity growth and surplus capacity. This led to creation of new institutions to support materials research and development during a period of malaise in industrial support. A remarkable surge of new materials and components for turbines, boilers, and auxiliaries have emerged. Some of the materials advances developed during this period are described. These include improved 1 CrMoV and 12 Cr rotors, temper resistant low Mn 3.5 NiCrMoV, super 9 Cr for heavy section piping and castings, super 12 Cr tubing for superheaters, Nimonic 80A high temperature bolting, titanium alloy blading for L.P. turbines, and many others covered by the present conference

  20. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  1. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  2. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MWth, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS

  3. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  4. The Westinghouse AP1000 plant design: a generation III+ reactor with unique proven passive safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetri, K. J.; Leipner, C. I.; Marshall, M. L., E-mail: demetrkj@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The AP1000 plant is an 1100-M We pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications and standardization that simplify construction, operation, maintenance, safety, and cost. The AP1000 plant is based on proven pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology, with an emphasis on safety features that rely solely on natural forces. These passive safety features are combined with simple, active, defense-in-depth systems used during normal plant operations which also provide the first level of defense against more probable events. This paper focuses on specific safety and licensing topics: the AP1000 plant robustness to be prepared for extreme events that may lead to catastrophic loss of infrastructure, such as the Fukushima Dai-ichi event, and the AP1000 plant compliance with the safety objectives for new plants. The first deployment of the AP1000 plant formally began in July 2007 when Westinghouse Electric Company and its consortium partner, the Shaw Group, signed contracts for four AP1000 units on coastal sites of Sanmen and Haiyang, China. Both sites have the planned ability to accommodate at least six AP1000 units; construction is largely concurrent for all four units. Additionally, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued combined licenses (COLs) to allow Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC) and South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE and G) to construct and operate AP1000 plants. Within this paper, the various factors that contribute to an unparalleled level of design, construction, delivery, and licensing certainty for any new AP1000 plant projects are described. These include: 1) How the AP1000 plant design development and reviews undertaken in the United States, China and Europe increase licensing certainty. 2) How the AP1000 passive plant robustness against extreme events that result in large loss of infrastructure further contributes to the licensing certainty in a post

  5. Advanced nuclear power plant solidification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hirayama, S.; Nishi, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Huang, C. T. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    'Slim-Rad' is an advanced radioactive waste treatment system reflecting Hitachi's long experience as a supplier of nuclear plants. The system utilizes new technologies such as a hollow fiber filter, high-performance cement solidification and laundry and shower drain treatment. By adopting this Slim-Rad system, not only the final waste volume but also the number of radwaste tanks can be reduced 1/8 and 1/2, respectively, compared with previous Hitachi radwaste treatment systems. Moreover, release of radioactivity into the environment from the treated waste is reduced effectively. This paper outlines the system and describes its features, as well as the features of the key technology such as volume reduction and solidification technology.

  6. European passive plant program preliminary safety analyses to support system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1994, a group of European Utilities, together with Westinghouse and its Industrial Partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), initiated a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse Passive Nuclear Plant Technology for application in Europe. In the Phase 1 of the European Passive Plant Program which was completed in 1996, a 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was established which conforms to the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and is expected to meet the European Safety Authorities requirements. Phase 2 of the program was initiated in 1997 with the objective of developing the Nuclear Island design details and performing supporting analyses to start development of Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Licensing Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, 'Design Definition' phase (Phase 2A) was completed at the end of 1998, the main efforts being design definition of key systems and structures, development of the Nuclear Island layout, and performing preliminary safety analyses to support design efforts. Incorporation of the EUR has been a key design requirement for the EP1000 form the beginning of the program. Detailed design solutions to meet the EUR have been defined and the safety approach has also been developed based on the EUR guidelines. The present paper describes the EP1000 approach to safety analysis and, in particular, to the Design Extension Conditions that, according to the EUR, represent the preferred method for giving consideration to the Complex Sequences and Severe Accidents at the design stage without including them in the design bases conditions. Preliminary results of some DEC analyses and an overview of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are also presented. (author)

  7. Operating experiences with passive systems and components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experience with passive systems and components is limited to the equipment installed in existing NPPs. In German power plants, this experience is available for equipment of the IAEA categories A, C and D. The presentation is focused on typical examples out of these three categories. An overview is given on the number of reported events and typical failure modes. Selected failures are discussed in detail. 1 ref., 6 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  9. Practical application of passive safety features for the advanced neutron source cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a conceptual design study leading to the definition of a reference design for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) heavy water cooling system are presented. The objective of this study was to define a cooling system that not only met the ANS goals for operating parameters, reliability, availability, and maintainability, but also used inherent, passive, and diverse features and characteristics to satisfy the ANS internal events core melt goal of -5/yr. The approach taken in this study was to define a cooling system configuration having the minimum basic components and characteristics to satisfy the requirements for normal operation, and then to add only those features necessary to meet the requirements for all emergency design-basis events

  10. Jitter Suppression Via Reaction Wheel Passive Isolation for the NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Karl J.; Schauwecker, Chris J.

    1998-01-01

    Text: Third in the series of NASA great observatories, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is scheduled for launch from the Space Shuttle in September 1998. Following in the path of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, this telescope will image light at x-ray wavelengths, facilitating the detailed study of such phenomena as supernovae and quasars. The AXAF program is sponsored by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. Due to exacting requirements on the performance of the AXAF optical system, it is necessary to reduce the transmission of reaction wheel jitter disturbances to the observatory. This reduction is accomplished via use of a passive mechanical isolation system which acts as an interface between the reaction wheels and the spacecraft central structure.

  11. Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Water Cooled Reactors (AWCRS). Case Studies. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) collaborative project (CP) on Advanced Water Cooled Reactor Case Studies in Support of Passive Safety Systems (AWCR), undertaken under the INPRO Programme Area C. INPRO was launched in 2000 - on the basis of a resolution of the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21) - to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the 21st century in a sustainable manner, and it seeks to bring together all interested Member States to consider actions to achieve innovation. An important objective of nuclear energy system assessments is to identify 'gaps' in the various technologies and corresponding research and development (R and D) needs. This programme area fosters collaboration among INPRO Member States on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Public concern about nuclear reactor safety has increased after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused by the loss of power to pump water for removing residual heat in the core. As a consequence, there has been an increasing interest in designing safety systems for new and advanced reactors that are passive in nature. Compared to active systems, passive safety features do not require operator intervention, active controls, or an external energy source. Passive systems rely only on physical phenomena such as natural circulation, thermal convection, gravity and self-pressurization. Passive safety features, therefore, are increasingly recognized as an essential component of the next-generation advanced reactors. A high level of safety and improved competitiveness are common goals for designing advanced nuclear power plants. Many of these systems incorporate several passive design concepts aimed at improving safety and reliability. The advantages of passive safety systems include simplicity, and avoidance of human intervention, external power or signals. For these reasons, most

  12. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  13. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  14. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS

  15. Inducing drought tolerance in plants: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M

    2010-01-01

    Undoubtedly, drought is one of the prime abiotic stresses in the world. Crop yield losses due to drought stress are considerable. Although a variety of approaches have been used to alleviate the problem of drought, plant breeding, either conventional breeding or genetic engineering, seems to be an efficient and economic means of tailoring crops to enable them to grow successfully in drought-prone environments. During the last century, although plant breeders have made ample progress through conventional breeding in developing drought tolerant lines/cultivars of some selected crops, the approach is, in fact, highly time-consuming and labor- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, marker-assisted breeding (MAB) is a more efficient approach, which identifies the usefulness of thousands of genomic regions of a crop under stress conditions, which was, in reality, previously not possible. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought tolerance have been identified for a variety of traits in different crops. With the development of comprehensive molecular linkage maps, marker-assisted selection procedures have led to pyramiding desirable traits to achieve improvements in crop drought tolerance. However, the accuracy and preciseness in QTL identification are problematic. Furthermore, significant genetic x environment interaction, large number of genes encoding yield, and use of wrong mapping populations, have all harmed programs involved in mapping of QTL for high growth and yield under water limited conditions. Under such circumstances, a transgenic approach to the problem seems more convincing and practicable, and it is being pursued vigorously to improve qualitative and quantitative traits including tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in different crops. Rapid advance in knowledge on genomics and proteomics will certainly be beneficial to fine-tune the molecular breeding and transformation approaches so as to achieve a significant progress in crop improvement in future

  16. Comparison of advanced mid-sized reactors regarding passive features, core damage frequencies and core melt retention features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Light Water Reactors, whose regular safety systems are complemented by passive safety systems, are ready for the market. The special aspect of passive safety features is their actuation and functioning independent of the operator. They add significantly to reduce the core damage frequency (CDF) since the operator continues to play its independent role in actuating the regular safety devices based on modern instrumentation and control (I and C). The latter also has passive features regarding the prevention of accidents. Two reactors with significant passive features that are presently offered on the market are the AP1000 PWR and the SWR 1000 BWR. Their passive features are compared and also their core damage frequencies (CDF). The latter are also compared with those of a VVER-1000. A further discussion about the two passive plants concerns their mitigating features for severe accidents. Regarding core-melt retention both rely on in-vessel cooling of the melt. The new VVER-1000 reactor, on the other hand features a validated ex-vessel concept. (author)

  17. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  18. Mechanism for rapid passive-dynamic prey capture in a pitcher plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ulrike; Paulin, Marion; Robert, Daniel; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-10-27

    Plants use rapid movements to disperse seed, spores, or pollen and catch animal prey. Most rapid-release mechanisms only work once and, if repeatable, regaining the prerelease state is a slow and costly process. We present an encompassing mechanism for a rapid, repeatable, passive-dynamic motion used by a carnivorous pitcher plant to catch prey. Nepenthes gracilis uses the impact of rain drops to catapult insects from the underside of the canopy-like pitcher lid into the fluid-filled trap below. High-speed video and laser vibrometry revealed that the lid acts as a torsional spring system, driven by rain drops. During the initial downstroke, the tip of the lid reached peak velocities similar to fast animal motions and an order of magnitude faster than the snap traps of Venus flytraps and catapulting tentacles of the sundew Drosera glanduligera. In contrast to these active movements, the N. gracilis lid oscillation requires neither mechanical preloading nor metabolic energy, and its repeatability is only limited by the intensity and duration of rainfall. The underside of the lid is coated with friction-reducing wax crystals, making insects more vulnerable to perturbations. We show that the trapping success of N. gracilis relies on the combination of material stiffness adapted for momentum transfer and the antiadhesive properties of the wax crystal surface. The impact-driven oscillation of the N. gracilis lid represents a new kind of rapid plant movement with adaptive function. Our findings establish the existence of a continuum between active and passive trapping mechanisms in carnivorous plants. PMID:26438874

  19. High-sensitivity measurements for low-level TRU wastes using advanced passive neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, both passive- and active-neutron nondestructive assay (NDA) systems have been used to measure the uranium and plutonium content in 200-ell drums. Because of the heterogeneity of the wastes, representative sampling is not possible and NDA methods are preferred over destructive analysis. Active-neutron assay systems are used to measure the fissile isotopes such as 235U, 23Pu, and 241Pu; the isotopic ratios are used to infer the total plutonium content and thus the specific disintegration rate. The active systems include 14-MeV-neutron (DT) generators with delayed-neutron counting, (D,T) generators with the differential die-away technique, and 252Cf delayed-neutron shufflers. Passive assay systems (for example, segmented gamma-ray scanners)5 have used gamma-ray sessions, while others (for example, passive drum counters) used passive-neutron signals. We have developed a new passive-neutron measurement technique to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the NDA of plutonium scrap and waste. This new 200-ell-drum assay system combines the classical NDA method of counting passive-neutron totals and coincidences from plutonium with the new features of ''add-a-source'' (AS) and multiplicity counting to improve the accuracy of matrix corrections and statistical techniques that improve the low-level detectability limits. This paper describes the improvements we have made in passive-neutron assay systems and compares the accuracies and detectability limits of passive- and active-neutron assay systems

  20. Advances in imaging RNA in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Oparka, Karl J.; Tilsner, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that many RNAs are targeted to specific locations within cells, and that RNA-processing pathways occur in association with specific subcellular structures. Compartmentation of mRNA translation and RNA processing helps to assemble large RNA–protein complexes, while RNA...... targeting allows local protein synthesis and the asymmetric distribution of transcripts during cell polarisation. In plants, intercellular RNA trafficking also plays an additional role in plant development and pathogen defence. Methods that allow the visualisation of RNA sequences within a cellular context......, and preferably at subcellular resolution, can help to answer important questions in plant cell and developmental biology. Here, we summarise the approaches currently available for localising RNA in vivo and address the specific limitations inherent with plant systems....

  1. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry. PMID:27040538

  2. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuators for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large stroke and high precision electroactive single crystal and polymer actuators are desired for cryogenic passive optics such as Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI)...

  3. Passive sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through coupled plant-mineral reactions in urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, David A C; Renforth, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere is an important planetary carbon dioxide removal mechanism. Naturally, an amount equivalent to all atmospheric carbon passes through the coupled plant-soil system within 7 years. Plants cycle up to 40% of photosynthesized carbon through their roots, providing a flux of C at depth into the soil system. Root-exuded carboxylic acids have the potential to supply 4-5 micromoles C hr(-1)g(-1) fresh weight to the soil solution, and enhance silicate mineral weathering. Ultimately, the final product of these root-driven processes is CO(2), present in solution as bicarbonate. This combines with Ca liberated by corrosion associated with silicate mineral weathering to enter the soil-water system and to produce pedogenic calcium carbonate precipitates. Combining understanding of photosynthesis and plant root physiology with knowledge of mineral weathering provides an opportunity to design artificial soils or to plan land use in ways that maximize removal and sequestration of atmospheric CO(2) through artificially enhanced pedogenic carbonate precipitation. This process requires relatively low energy and infrastructure inputs. It offers a sustainable carbon dioxide removal mechanism analogous to the use of constructed wetlands for the passive remediation of contaminated waters, and is likely to achieve wide public acceptance. PMID:22616942

  4. Implementation of passive autocatalytic recombiner system as a hydrogen mitigation system in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Sung, Je Joong; Ha, Sang Jun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, In Seon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Ensuring the containment integrity during a severe accident in nuclear power reactor by maintaining the hydrogen concentration below an acceptable level has been recognized to be of critical importance since Three Mile Island and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidents. Although there exist various mitigation measures for hydrogen risk, a passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) has been emphasized as a viable option for the mitigation of hydrogen risk under the extended station blackout conditions due to its passive operation characteristics for the hydrogen removal. To enhance the capability of hydrogen control, the hydrogen mitigation system with various types of PARs has been implemented for all nuclear power plants in Korea. This paper presents an implementation procedure of PAR system and the analysis results to determine the location and capacity of PAR in OPR1000. Various accident scenarios have been adopted considering important event sequences from a combination of probabilistic methods, deterministic methods and sound engineering judgment. A MAAP 4.0.6+ with a multi-compartment model has been used as an analysis tool with conservative hydrogen generation and removal models. The detailed analyses have been performed for selected severe accident scenarios including sensitivity analysis with/without operations of various safety systems. The possibility of global flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration-to-detonation transient (DDT) has been assessed with sigma (flame acceleration potential) and 7-lambda (DDT potential) criterion. It is concluded that the newly designed hydrogen mitigation system with twenty-four (24) PARs can effectively remove hydrogen in the containment atmosphere and prevent global FA and DDT.

  5. Current and future research on passive safety devices and advanced fuels for innovative LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To verify the effectiveness and capacities of the passive safety systems of the SWR 1000 they must be tested under conditions which are as realistic as possible - for this is the only way to confirm that they will, on demand, successfully perform the functions for which they have been designed. The tests carried out for the passive safety systems, together with their results, are described in the following. (authors)

  6. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  7. Advanced designs of VVER reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of VVER reactors, current challenges and approaches to the challenges are highlighted. The VVER-1200 reactor of 3+ generation for AES-2006 units are under construction at the Leningrad 2 nuclear power plant (LNPP-2). The main parameters are listed and details are presented of the vessel, steam generator, and improved fuel. The issue of the NPP safety is discussed. Additional topics include the MIR-1200 reactor unit, VVER-600, and VVER-SCP (Generation 4). (P.A.)

  8. Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Glen; Tillman, Jennifer; Hanna, Keith; Heubusch, Jeff; Ayers, Robert

    2007-04-01

    A complete detection, management, and control security system is absolutely essential to preempting criminal and terrorist assaults on key assets and critical infrastructure. According to Tom Ridge, former Secretary of the US Department of Homeland Security, "Voluntary efforts alone are not sufficient to provide the level of assurance Americans deserve and they must take steps to improve security." Further, it is expected that Congress will mandate private sector investment of over $20 billion in infrastructure protection between 2007 and 2015, which is incremental to funds currently being allocated to key sites by the department of Homeland Security. Nearly 500,000 individual sites have been identified by the US Department of Homeland Security as critical infrastructure sites that would suffer severe and extensive damage if a security breach should occur. In fact, one major breach in any of 7,000 critical infrastructure facilities threatens more than 10,000 people. And one major breach in any of 123 facilities-identified as "most critical" among the 500,000-threatens more than 1,000,000 people. Current visible, nightvision or near infrared imaging technology alone has limited foul-weather viewing capability, poor nighttime performance, and limited nighttime range. And many systems today yield excessive false alarms, are managed by fatigued operators, are unable to manage the voluminous data captured, or lack the ability to pinpoint where an intrusion occurred. In our 2006 paper, "Critical Infrastructure Security Confidence Through Automated Thermal Imaging", we showed how a highly effective security solution can be developed by integrating what are now available "next-generation technologies" which include: Thermal imaging for the highly effective detection of intruders in the dark of night and in challenging weather conditions at the sensor imaging level - we refer to this as the passive thermal sensor level detection building block Automated software detection

  9. Balancing passive and active systems for evolutionary water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced concepts of the water-cooled reactors are intended to improve safety, economics and public perception of nuclear power. The potential inclusion of new passive means in addition or instead of traditional active systems is being considered by nuclear plant designers to reach these goals. With respect to plant safety, application of the passive means is mainly intended to simplify the safety systems and to improve their reliability, to mitigate the effect of human errors and equipment malfunction. However, some clear drawbacks and the limited experience and testing of passive systems may raise additional questions that have to be addressed in the design process for each advanced reactor. Therefore the plant designer should find a reasonable balance of active and passive means to effectively use their advantages and compensate their drawbacks. Some considerations that have to be taken into account when balancing active/passive means in advanced water-cooled reactors are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. MPOWER (B&W Generation mPower Inc., USA) [Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B&W mPower™ reactor module is an integral PWR designed by B&W to generate an output of 180 MW(e). The inherent safety features of the reactor design include a low core linear heat rate which reduces fuel and cladding temperatures during accidents, a large reactor coolant system volume which allows more time for safety system responses in the event of an accident, and small penetrations at high elevations, increasing the amount of coolant available to mitigate a small break LOCA. The emergency core cooling system is connected with the reactor coolant inventory purification system and removes heat from the reactor core after anticipated transients in a passive manner, while also passively reducing containment pressure and temperature. The plant is designed without taking credit for safety related emergency diesel generators, and a design objective is no core uncovering during design basis accidents

  11. Advanced Passivation Technology and Loss Factor Minimization for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheolmin; Balaji, Nagarajan; Jung, Sungwook; Choi, Jaewoo; Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Seunghwan; Kim, Jungmo; Bong, Sungjae; Chung, Sungyoun; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2015-10-01

    High-efficiency Si solar cells have attracted great attention from researchers, scientists, photovoltaic (PV) industry engineers for the past few decades. With thin wafers, surface passivation becomes necessary to increase the solar cells efficiency by overcoming several induced effects due to associated crystal defects and impurities of c-Si. This paper discusses suitable passivation schemes and optimization techniques to achieve high efficiency at low cost. SiNx film was optimized with higher transmittance and reduced recombination for using as an effective antireflection and passivation layer to attain higher solar cell efficiencies. The higher band gap increased the transmittance with reduced defect states that persisted at 1.68 and 1.80 eV in SiNx films. The thermal stability of SiN (Si-rich)/SiN (N-rich) stacks was also studied. Si-rich SiN with a refractive index of 2.7 was used as a passivation layer and N-rich SiN with a refractive index of 2.1 was used for thermal stability. An implied Voc of 720 mV with a stable lifetime of 1.5 ms was obtained for the stack layer after firing. Si-N and Si-H bonding concentration was analyzed by FTIR for the correlation of thermally stable passivation mechanism. The passivation property of spin coated Al2O3 films was also investigated. An effective surface recombination velocity of 55 cm/s with a high density of negative fixed charges (Qf) on the order of 9 x 10(11) cm(-2) was detected in Al2O3 films. PMID:26726397

  12. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  13. Advanced control room design for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power industry has seen a continuous growth of size and complexity of nuclear power plants. Accompanying these changes have been extensive regulatory requirements resulting in significant construction, operation and maintenance costs. In response to related concerns raised by industry members, Combustion Engineering developed the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room. The goal of NUPLEX 80TM is to: reduce design and construction costs; increase plant safety and availability through improvements in the man-machine interface; and reduce maintenance costs. This paper provides an overview of the NUPLEX 80 Advanced Control Room and explains how the stated goals are achieved. (author)

  14. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  15. Software Framework for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Widmann; Sorin Munteanu; Aseem Jain; Pankaj Gupta; Mark Moales; Erik Ferguson; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Yi-dong Lang; Larry Biegler; Michael Locke; Simon Lingard; Jay Yun

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished during the Phase II development effort of the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The objective of the project is to develop the tools to efficiently combine high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with process modeling software. During the course of the project, a robust integration controller was developed that can be used in any CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling environment. The controller mediates the exchange of information between the process modeling software and the CFD software. Several approaches to reducing the time disparity between CFD simulations and process modeling have been investigated and implemented. These include enabling the CFD models to be run on a remote cluster and enabling multiple CFD models to be run simultaneously. Furthermore, computationally fast reduced-order models (ROMs) have been developed that can be 'trained' using the results from CFD simulations and then used directly within flowsheets. Unit operation models (both CFD and ROMs) can be uploaded to a model database and shared between multiple users.

  16. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180∼230 deg. C, pH of 8.0∼8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  17. Preliminary design of an advanced programmable digital filter network for large passive acoustic ASW systems. [Parallel processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, T.; Widdoes, Jr., L. C.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    The design of an extremely high performance programmable digital filter of novel architecture, the LLL Programmable Digital Filter, is described. The digital filter is a high-performance multiprocessor having general purpose applicability and high programmability; it is extremely cost effective either in a uniprocessor or a multiprocessor configuration. The architecture and instruction set of the individual processor was optimized with regard to the multiple processor configuration. The optimal structure of a parallel processing system was determined for addressing the specific Navy application centering on the advanced digital filtering of passive acoustic ASW data of the type obtained from the SOSUS net. 148 figures. (RWR)

  18. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Batista de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops.

  19. Proceedings of the 2006 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the highly successful ICAPP'05 meeting held in Seoul Korea, the 2006 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covers the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. The program covers lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program by technical track deals with: - 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting medium term utility needs; design and regulatory issues; business, political and economic challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. - 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, hydrogen production and other industrial uses; advanced thermal and fast reactors. - 3. Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as, super critical water reactors, liquid metal reactors, gaseous and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. - 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and

  20. Intelligent main control room for advanced PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design targets of the main control room of nuclear power plants are as follows. (1) To make a good working environment where operators can operate easily. (2) To reduce the work load and operators error. To this end, MHI has been improving main control room design for advanced PWR plants. The new intelligent main control room consists of a soft operation console and a large display panel. According to our evaluation, the work load and human error of the new main control room are reduced by about 35% compared with the latest plants. This new design will be used to plan new plants and will have the additional feature of saving costs by standardizing plant design. (author)

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal from advanced LMRs [liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) has investigated the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM passive design. This initial series of experiments simulates the air-side geometry of the PRISM Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS). The NSTF operates in either a uniform heat flux mode and a uniform temperature mode at the air/guard vessel interface. Analysis of the RVACS performance data indicates excellent agreement with pretest analytical predictions. Correlation analysis presents the heat transfer data in a form suitable for use in LMR design and verification of analytical studies

  2. CATSI EDM: recent advances in the development and validation of a ruggedized passive standoff CWA sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Turcotte, Caroline S.; Lacasse, Paul

    2008-04-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier is currently developing a ruggedized passive standoff sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) based on differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometry. This system is referred to as the Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (CATSI) Engineering Development Model (EDM). The CATSI EDM sensor is based on the use of a double-beam FTIR spectrometer that is optimized for optical subtraction. A description of the customized sensor is given along with a discussion on the detection and identification approaches that have been developed. Preliminary results of validation from a number of laboratory measurements and open-air trials are analyzed to establish the capability of detection and identification of various toxic and non-toxic chemical vapor plumes. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the passive differential radiometric approach for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors at distances up to a few kilometers from the sensor.

  3. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  4. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  5. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with

  6. Advanced robot vision system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a robot vision system for advanced robots used in nuclear power plants, under a contract with the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. This work is part of the large-scale 'advanced robot technology' project. The robot vision system consists of self-location measurement, obstacle detection, and object recognition subsystems, which are activated by a total control subsystem. This paper presents details of these subsystems and the experimental results obtained. (author)

  7. Passive and Active Fast-Neutron Imaging in Support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Safeguards Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackston, Matthew A [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    Results from safeguards-related passive and active coded-aperture fast-neutron imaging measurements of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) material configurations performed at Idaho National Laboratory s Zero Power Physics Reactor facility are presented. The imaging measurements indicate that it is feasible to use fast neutron imaging in a variety of safeguards-related tasks, such as monitoring storage, evaluating holdup deposits in situ, or identifying individual leached hulls still containing fuel. The present work also presents the first demonstration of imaging of differential die away fast neutrons.

  8. Advanced plant engineering and construction of Japanese ABWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remarkable improvement has been made in recent nuclear power plant design and construction in Japan. These many improved engineering technologies has been made a good use in the lately commercial operated two world's first 1,356MWe ABW's (Advanced Boiling Water Reactors), and made a great contribution to the smooth progress and the completion of a highly reliable plant construction. Especially, two engineering technologies, (1), three-dimensional computer aided design system through engineering data-base, and (2), large scale modularising construction method, have been successfully applied as the integrated engineering technologies of the plant construction. And two integrated reviews, 'integrated design review, confirmation of new and changed design and prevention of failure recurrence' in the design stage, and 'constructing plant review' at the site, have been widely and systematically conducted as a link in the chain of steady reliability improvement activities. These advanced and/or continuous and steady technologies are one of most important factors for high reliability through the entire lifetime of a nuclear plant, including planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance stages. (author)

  9. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  10. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  11. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    PEDERSEN, OLE; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend a...

  12. Prediction of the Passive Intestinal Absorption of Medicinal Plant Extract Constituents with the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Bujard, Alban; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Cretton, Sylvian; Houriet, Joëlle; Christen, Philippe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-01

    At the early drug discovery stage, the high-throughput parallel artificial membrane permeability assay is one of the most frequently used in vitro models to predict transcellular passive absorption. While thousands of new chemical entities have been screened with the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay, in general, permeation properties of natural products have been scarcely evaluated. In this study, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was used to predict the passive intestinal absorption of a representative set of frequently occurring natural products. Since natural products are usually ingested for medicinal use as components of complex extracts in traditional herbal preparations or as phytopharmaceuticals, the applicability of such an assay to study the constituents directly in medicinal crude plant extracts was further investigated. Three representative crude plant extracts with different natural product compositions were chosen for this study. The first extract was composed of furanocoumarins (Angelica archangelica), the second extract included alkaloids (Waltheria indica), and the third extract contained flavonoid glycosides (Pueraria montana var. lobata). For each medicinal plant, the effective passive permeability values Pe (cm/s) of the main natural products of interest were rapidly calculated thanks to a generic ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-UV detection method and because Pe calculations do not require knowing precisely the concentration of each natural product within the extracts. The original parallel artificial membrane permeability assay through a hexadecane membrane was found to keep its predictive power when applied to constituents directly in crude plant extracts provided that higher quantities of the extract were initially loaded in the assay in order to ensure suitable detection of the individual constituents of the extracts. Such an approach is thus valuable for the high

  13. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally specific requirements arising from nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS. The main features of these systems are a clear task related architecture with adaptable redundancy, a consequent application of standards for interfaces and communication, comprehensive tools for easy design and service and a highly ergonomic screen based man-machine-interface. The engineering tasks are supported by an integrated engineering system, which has the capacity for design, test and diagnosis of all I and C functions and the related equipment. TELEPERM XP is designed to optimally perform all automatic functions, which require no nuclear specific qualification. This includes all sequences and closed-loop controls as well as most man-machine-interface functions. TELEPERM XS is designed for all control tasks which require a nuclear specific qualification. This especially includes all function to initiated automatic countermeasures to prevent or to cope with accidents. By use of the complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS, advanced and likewise economical plant automation and man-machine-interfaces can be implemented into Nuclear Power Plant, assuring compliance with the relevant international safety standards. (author). 10 figs

  14. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally, specific requirements coming from the nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS. The main features of these systems are the clear task related architecture with adaptable redundancy, the consequent application of standards for interfaces and communication, comprehensive tools for easy design and service and a highly ergonomic screen based man-machine-interface. The engineering tasks are supported by an integrated engineering system, which has the capacity for design, test and diagnosis of all I and C functions and the related equipment. TELEPERM XP is designed to optimally perform all automatic functions, which require no nuclear specific qualification. This includes all sequences and closed-loop controls as well as most man-machine-interface functions. TELEPERM XS is designed for all control tasks which require a nuclear specific qualification. This especially includes all functions to initiate automatic countermeasures to prevent or to cope with accidents. By use of the complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS, economical as well as advanced plant automation and man-machine-interfaces can be implemented into Nuclear Plants, assuring the compliance with the relevant international safety standards. (author). 10 figs

  15. Fundamental study on thermo-hydraulic phenomena concerning passive safety of advanced marine reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to investigate the thermo-hydraulic behavior of a fluid region confined in a rectangular parallelepiped cavity equipped with a heater and a cooler. The motivation of this study is to clarify a thermal buffer effect for an innovative marine nuclear reactor to realize passive safety. In the present study, experiments were carried out with conditions of laminar convection. Temperature and flow behavior was visualized by the liquid-crystal suspension method, by which the temperature distribution in liquid can be observed as a colored map. Thermal plumes from the heater and the cooler, global natural circulation in the cavity and thermal stratification were observed as elements of the complicated phenomena. Using a code which solves the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, numerical simulations under steady and unsteady condition were carried out to predict the experimental results for two-dimensional, laminar situations, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  16. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  17. Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Qing Zhang; Chun-Fang Tang; Shi-Zhi Wen; Yun-Guo Liu; Ke-Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.

  18. Fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters in advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, A.U.; Simms, N.J.; Oakey, J.E. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The generation of increasing amounts of electricity while simultaneously reducing environmental emissions (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} particles, etc) has become a goal for the power industry worldwide. Co-firing biomass and coal in new advanced pulverised fuel power plants is one route to address this issue, since biomass is regarded as a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel (i.e. CO{sub 2} uptake during its growth equals the CO{sub 2} emissions produced during its combustion) and such new advanced power plants operate at higher efficiencies than current plants as a result of using steam systems with high temperatures and pressures. However, co-firing has the potential to cause significant operational challenges for such power plants as amongst other issues, it will significantly change the chemistry of the deposits on the heat exchanger surfaces and the surrounding gas compositions. As a result these critical components can experience higher corrosion rates, and so shorter lives, causing increased operational costs, unless the most appropriate materials are selected for their construction. This paper reports the results of a series of 1000 hour laboratory corrosion tests that have been carried out in controlled atmosphere furnaces, to assess the effect of biomass/coal co-firing on the fireside corrosion of superheaters/reheaters. The materials used for the tests were one ferritic alloy (T92), two austenitic alloys (347HFG and HR3C) and one nickel based alloy (alloy 625). Temperatures of 600 and 650 C were used to represent the metal temperatures in advanced power plants. During these exposures, traditional mass change data were recorded as the samples were recoated with the simulated deposits. After these exposures, cross-sections through samples were prepared using standard metallographic techniques and then analysed using SEM/EDX. Pre-exposure micrometer and post-exposure image analyser measurements were used so that the metal wastage could be calculated. These data are

  19. ARIES-AT: An advanced tokamak, advanced technology fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARIES-AT study was initiated to assess the potential of high-performance tokamak plasmas together with advanced technology in a fusion power plant. Several avenues were pursued in order to arrive at plasmas with a higher β and better bootstrap alignment compared to ARIES-RS that led to plasmas with higher βN and β. Advanced technologies that are examined in detail include: (1) Possible improvements to the overall system by using high-temperature superconductors, (2) Innovative SiC blankets that lead to a high thermal cycle efficiency of ∼60%; and (3) Advanced manufacturing techniques which aim at producing near-finished products directly from raw material, resulting in low-cost, and reliable components. The 1000-MWe ARIES-AT design has a major radius of 5.4 m, minor radius of 1.3 M, a toroidal β of 9.2% (βN=6.0) and an on-axis field of 5.6 T. The plasma current is 13 MA and the current drive power is 24 MW. The ARIES-AT study shows that the combination of advanced tokamak modes and advanced technology leads to attractive fusion power plant with excellent safety and environmental characteristics and with a cost of electricity (5c/kWh), which is competitive with those projected for other sources of energy. (author)

  20. CFD simulations of moderator flow inside Calandria of the Passive Moderator Cooling System of an advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Eshita [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Kumar, Mukesh [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B., E-mail: jbjoshi@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 India (India); Nayak, Arun K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vijayan, Pallippattu K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • CFD simulations in the Calandria of an advanced reactor under natural circulation. • Under natural convection, majority of the flow recirculates within the Calandria. • Maximum temperature is located at the top and center of the fuel channel matrix. • During SBO, temperature inside Calandria is stratified. - Abstract: Passive systems are being examined for the future Advanced Nuclear Reactor designs. One of such concepts is the Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS), which is designed to remove heat from the moderator in the Calandria vessel passively in case of an extended Station Black Out condition. The heated heavy-water moderator (due to heat transferred from the Main Heat Transport System (MHTS) and thermalization of neutrons and gamma from radioactive decay of fuel) rises upward due to buoyancy, gets cooled down in a heat exchanger and returns back to Calandria, completing a natural circulation loop. The natural circulation should provide sufficient cooling to prevent the increase of moderator temperature and pressure beyond safe limits. In an earlier study, a full-scale 1D transient simulation was performed for the reactor including the MHTS and the PMCS, in the event of a station blackout scenario (Kumar et al., 2013). The results indicate that the systems remain within the safe limits for 7 days. However, the flow inside a geometry like Calandria is quite complex due to its large size and inner complexities of dense fuel channel matrix, which was simplified as a 1D pipe flow in the aforesaid analysis. In the current work, CFD simulations are performed to study the temperature distributions and flow distribution of moderator inside the Calandria vessel using a three-dimensional CFD code, OpenFoam 2.2.0. First, a set of steady state simulation was carried out for a band of inlet mass flow rates, which gives the minimum mass flow rate required for removing the maximum heat load, by virtue of prediction of hot spots inside the Calandria

  1. CFD simulations of moderator flow inside Calandria of the Passive Moderator Cooling System of an advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CFD simulations in the Calandria of an advanced reactor under natural circulation. • Under natural convection, majority of the flow recirculates within the Calandria. • Maximum temperature is located at the top and center of the fuel channel matrix. • During SBO, temperature inside Calandria is stratified. - Abstract: Passive systems are being examined for the future Advanced Nuclear Reactor designs. One of such concepts is the Passive Moderator Cooling System (PMCS), which is designed to remove heat from the moderator in the Calandria vessel passively in case of an extended Station Black Out condition. The heated heavy-water moderator (due to heat transferred from the Main Heat Transport System (MHTS) and thermalization of neutrons and gamma from radioactive decay of fuel) rises upward due to buoyancy, gets cooled down in a heat exchanger and returns back to Calandria, completing a natural circulation loop. The natural circulation should provide sufficient cooling to prevent the increase of moderator temperature and pressure beyond safe limits. In an earlier study, a full-scale 1D transient simulation was performed for the reactor including the MHTS and the PMCS, in the event of a station blackout scenario (Kumar et al., 2013). The results indicate that the systems remain within the safe limits for 7 days. However, the flow inside a geometry like Calandria is quite complex due to its large size and inner complexities of dense fuel channel matrix, which was simplified as a 1D pipe flow in the aforesaid analysis. In the current work, CFD simulations are performed to study the temperature distributions and flow distribution of moderator inside the Calandria vessel using a three-dimensional CFD code, OpenFoam 2.2.0. First, a set of steady state simulation was carried out for a band of inlet mass flow rates, which gives the minimum mass flow rate required for removing the maximum heat load, by virtue of prediction of hot spots inside the Calandria

  2. Research and development of advanced robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and economic demands have been pressing for automation of inspection tasks, maintenance and repair jobs of nuclear power plants, which are carried out by human workers under circumstances with high radiation level. Since the plants are not always designed for introduction of automatic machinery, sophisticated robots shall play a crucial role to free workers from hostile environments. We have been studying intelligent robot systems and regarded nuclear industries as one of the important application fields where we can validate the feasibility of the methods and systems we have developed. In this paper we firstly discuss on the tasks required in nuclear power plants. Secondly we introduce current status of R and D on special purpose robots, versatile robots and intelligent robots for automatizing the tasks. Then we focus our discussions on three major functions in realizing robotized assembly tasks under such unstructured environments as in nuclear power plants; planning, vision and manipulation. Finally we depict an image of a prototype robot system for nuclear power plants based on the advanced functions. (author) 64 refs

  3. Study on transient hydrogen behavior and effect on passive containment cooling system of the advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A certain amount of hydrogen will be generated due to zirconium-steam reaction or molten corium concrete interaction during severe accidents in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The generated hydrogen releases into the containment, and the formed flammable mixture might cause deflagration or detonation to produce high thermal and pressure loads on the containment, which may threaten the integrity of the containment. The non-condensable hydrogen in containment may also reduce the steam condensation on the containment surface to affect the performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS). To study the transient hydrogen behavior in containment with the PCCS performance during the accidents is significant for the further study on the PCCS design and the hydrogen risk mitigation. In this paper, a new developed PCCS analysis code with self-reliance intellectual property rights, which had been validated by comparison on the transients in the containment during the design basis accidents with other developed PCCS analysis code, is brief introduced and used for the transient simulation in the containment under a postulated small break LOCA of cold-leg. The results show that the hydrogen will flow upwards with the coolant released from the break and spread in the containment by convection and diffusion, and it results in the increase of the pressure in the containment due to reducing the heat removal capacity of the PCCS. (author)

  4. Passive Noise Analysis for Advanced Tamper Indication. End of Year Report 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanders, Jeff [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); West, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Svoboda, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is part of a multi-lab project assessing front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unattended systems. The FEUM development activity provides an opportunity to address tampering detection between FEUM and the detector, signal integrity from FEUM to the data acquisition systems, and data validity – long-standing challenges for the IAEA. This report summarizes the INL activities in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 to characterize and test passive noise analysis as a potential tamper-indicating approach for implementation into FEUM or as a stand-alone method. The project’s primary objectives in FY-15 were to (1) determine detectable tamper scenarios using four pre-amplifier/detector systems, (2) perform tests of tampering scenarios with three common cable types used by the IAEA, (3) separate radio-frequency-induced events from inherent effect by means of an anechoic chamber, and (4) perform tests at an industrial facility. General conclusions were reached in several areas.

  5. Advanced Algorithm for Optimizing the Deployment Cost of Passive Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Lafata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of passive optical networks (PONs is slow today, especially in Europe, because completely new optical infrastructures are necessary to be installed in the last-mile segments of access networks, which is always very expensive process. One of the possibilities is to design economically effective topologies and to optimize the deployment cost. This article describes the method leading to evaluate an algorithm for designing suboptimal economic solutions and topologies for PONs by focusing on optimization of constructional length of distribution networks. While the typical PON topologies are star topologies or tree-star topologies, the first part of this article introduces new sub algorithm for estimating the minimum star topology. The next section brings the evaluation of two sub algorithms for solving minimum constructional length problems. Finally, all these parts will be merged into a complex algorithm by using clusterization technique to solve optimum topologies. However, the current version of presented algorithm is purely based on mathematical theories and was implemented in Matlab environment. Therefore, it is able to design only theoretical optimum topologies without taking external conditions and real limitations into account. These real conditions will be further implemented in the future, so the algorithm could be also used for practical applications.

  6. Passive Noise Analysis for Advanced Tamper Indication. End of Year Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is part of a multi-lab project assessing front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unattended systems. The FEUM development activity provides an opportunity to address tampering detection between FEUM and the detector, signal integrity from FEUM to the data acquisition systems, and data validity – long-standing challenges for the IAEA. This report summarizes the INL activities in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 to characterize and test passive noise analysis as a potential tamper-indicating approach for implementation into FEUM or as a stand-alone method. The project's primary objectives in FY-15 were to (1) determine detectable tamper scenarios using four pre-amplifier/detector systems, (2) perform tests of tampering scenarios with three common cable types used by the IAEA, (3) separate radio-frequency-induced events from inherent effect by means of an anechoic chamber, and (4) perform tests at an industrial facility. General conclusions were reached in several areas.

  7. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  8. Advanced coal based power plants for the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J. van; Burgt, M.J. van der [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The global electric power generation demand from the year 2000 to 2015 is estimated to approach 1700 GWe. The global market share of coal is projected to be 38% - a significant market to penetrate for new clean coal technologies. Coal-based power generation has shown continued and steady growth during recent decades, despite drastic changes in political and general economic conditions. This is due to the abundance of global coal resources, their geographical dispersion and a comparatively low price for extraction, transportation and conversion. Demands for reduction of the environmental impact of power generation have so far been met by appropriate technological development, and efforts are made to face the latest challenge - the reduction of CO{sub 2} - emissions. This report presents a utility view on various advanced coal-based technologies for the next millennium: the pulverized coal-fired plant with advanced steam data (PF-USC), the integrated coal gasification/combined cycle plant (IGCC), and the pressurized fluid-bed combustion combined cycle plant (PFBC-CC). Furthermore, the longer-term perspectives of new coal-based technologies are addressed. Key topics are: energy efficiency, economy and ecology. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of nuclear power plants needs design codes (e.g. ASME or RCC-MR) to allow save and reliable design and operation. To meet the requirements of advanced future plants either existing codes have to be amended or new codes have to be developed. Future Generation IV plants like the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) or the sodium fast reactor (SFR) are currently in this stage of code development. Some important issues to be considered in this context are: design curves (lower bound scatter bands), creep-fatigue, negligible creep, crack growth (fatigue, creep, fast fracture), damage monitoring. The paper will provide some insight into the materials problems behind design rules. Examples will be taken from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Possibilities for the replacement of the linear life fraction rule with advanced creep-fatigue damage assessments will be discussed. Specific emphasize will be put on the role of cyclic softening. Damage assessment and propagation of cracks from flaws under creep and fatigue will be touched upon. Some results from creep at low temperatures (irradiation creep, negligible creep) will be presented. (author)

  10. Advanced nuclear plant design options to cope with external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the stagnation period of nuclear power apparently coming to an end, there is a renewed interest in many Member States in the development and application of nuclear power plants (NPPs) with advanced reactors. Decisions on the construction of several NPPs with evolutionary light water reactors have been made (e.g. EPR Finland for Finland and France) and more are under consideration. There is a noticeable progress in the development and demonstration of innovative high temperature gas cooled reactors, for example, in China, South Africa and Japan. The Generation IV International Forum has defined the International Near Term Deployment programme and, for a more distant perspective, six innovative nuclear energy systems have been selected and certain R and D started by several participating countries. National efforts on design and technology development for NPPs with advanced reactors, both evolutionary and innovative, are ongoing in many Member States. Advanced NPPs have an opportunity to be built at many sites around the world, with very broad siting conditions. There are special concerns that safety of these advanced reactors may be challenged by external events following new scenarios and failure modes, different from those well known for the currently operated reactors. Therefore, the engineering community identified the need to assess the proposed design configurations in relation to external scenarios at the earliest stages of the design development. It appears that an early design optimization in relation to external events is a necessary requirement to achieve safe and economical advanced nuclear power plants. Reflecting on these developments, the IAEA has planned the preparation of a report to define design options for protection from external event impacts in NPPs with evolutionary and innovative reactors. The objective of this publication is to present the state-of-the-art in design approaches for the protection of NPPs with evolutionary and innovative

  11. National project : advanced robot for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The national project 'Advanced Robot' has been promoted by the Agency of Industrial science and Technology, MITI for eight years since 1983. The robot for a nuclear plant is one of the projects, and is a prototype intelligent one that also has a three dimensional vision system to generate an environmental model, a quadrupedal walking mechanism to work on stairs and four fingered manipulators to disassemble a valve with a hand tool. Many basic technologies such as an actuator, a tactile sensor, autonomous control and so on progress to high level. The prototype robot succeeded functionally in official demonstration in 1990. More refining such as downsizing and higher intelligence is necessary to realize a commercial robot, while basic technologies are useful to improve conventional robots and systems. This paper presents application studies on the advanced robot technologies. (author)

  12. NUSCALE (NuScale Power, Inc., USA) [Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A NuScale plant consists of 1 to 12 independent modules, each capable of producing a net electric power of 45 MW(e). Each module includes a Pressurized Light Water Reactor operated under natural circulation primary flow conditions. Each reactor is housed within its own high pressure containment vessel which is submerged underwater in a stainless steel lined concrete pool. The cross-sectional view of NuScale reactor building is shown

  13. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica. PMID:18464654

  14. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Proceedings of the 2008 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants - ICAPP '08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICAPP 2008 congress brought together international experts of the nuclear industry involved in the operation, development, building, regulation and research related to Nuclear Power Plants. The program covered the full spectrum of Nuclear Power Plant issues from design, deployment and construction of plants to research and development of future designs and advanced systems. It covered also lessons learned from power, research and demonstration reactors from over 50 years of experience with operation and maintenance, structures, materials, technical specifications, human factors, system design and reliability. The program comprised 13 technical tracks: 1. Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues: Evolutionary designs, innovative, passive, light and heavy water cooled reactors; issues related to meeting near term utility needs; design issues; business, economical cost challenges; infrastructure limitations and improved construction techniques including modularization. 2. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors: Design and development issues, components and materials, safety, reliability, economics, demonstration plants and environmental issues, fuel design and reliability, power conversion technology, impact of non electricity applications on reactor design; advanced thermal and fast reactors. 3. LMFR and Longer Term Reactor Programs: Reactor technology with enhanced fuel cycle features for improved resource utilization, waste characteristics, and power conversion capabilities. Potential reactor designs with longer development times such as super critical water reactors and liquid fuel reactors, Gen IV, INPRO, EUR and other programs. 4. Operation, Performance and Reliability Management: Training, O and M costs, life cycle management, risk based maintenance, operational experiences, performance and reliability improvements, outage optimization, human factors, plant staffing, outage reduction features, major component reliability, repair and replacement, in

  17. Weijia Zhou Inspects the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Weijia Zhou, director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects the Advanced Astroculture(tm) plant growth unit before its first flight last spring. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Product Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  18. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  19. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS International Consortium) [Passive Safety Systems in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRIS is an integral, modular PWR design with a rated power of 335 MW(e). IRIS has been primarily focused on achieving design with innovative safety characteristics. The first line of defence in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety-by-design' ™ IRIS philosophy, which can be simply described as ‘design the plant in such a way as to eliminate accidents from occurring, rather than coping with their consequences

  20. Overview of global development of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has proven its viability as an energy source in many countries. Nuclear power technology is mature, and has achieved tremendous progress in the last decades. Like any other progressing technology, it continues to pursue improvements. The accumulated experience, which now exceeds 14,000 reactor-years of operation, is being used to develop advanced nuclear power plant designs. This development is proceeding for all reactor lines (water-cooled reactors, gas-cooled reactors, and liquid metal-cooled reactors) so that nuclear power can play an important and increasing role in global energy supply in the future. Improved economic competitiveness and a very high level of safety are common goals for advanced designs. To achieve economic competitiveness for new plants, proven means for achieving cost efficiency are being applied and new approaches are being pursued. There is also considerable potential for nuclear energy to expand beyond production of electricity to other applications such as sea-water desalination and hydrogen production. (author)

  1. Technical feasibility and reliability of passive safety systems for nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting provided an overview of the key issues on passive safety. Technical problems which may affect future deployment, and the operating experience of passive systems and components, as well as, definitions of passive safety terms, were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of passive systems were also highlighted. The philosophy behind different passive safety systems was presented and the range of possibility between fully passive and fully active systems was discussed. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. Advanced Thermodynamic Analysis and Evaluation of a Supercritical Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Tsatsaronis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A conventional exergy analysis can highlight the main components having high thermodynamic inefficiencies, but cannot consider the interactions among components or the true potential for the improvement of each component. By splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts, the advanced exergy analysis is capable of providing additional information to conventional exergy analysis for improving the design and operation of energy conversion systems. This paper presents the application of both a conventional and an advanced exergy analysis to a supercritical coal-fired power plant. The results show that the ratio of exogenous exergy destruction differs quite a lot from component to component. In general, almost 90% of the total exergy destruction within turbines comes from their endogenous parts, while that of feedwater preheaters contributes more or less 70% to their total exergy destruction. Moreover, the boiler subsystem is proven to have a large amount of exergy destruction caused by the irreversibilities within the remaining components of the overall system. It is also found that the boiler subsystem still has the largest avoidable exergy destruction; however, the enhancement efforts should focus not only on its inherent irreversibilities but also on the inefficiencies within the remaining components. A large part of the avoidable exergy destruction within feedwater preheaters is exogenous; while that of the remaining components is mostly endogenous indicating that the improvements mainly depend on advances in design and operation of the component itself.

  3. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  4. Generic evaluation of operating experience with regard to the ageing behaviour of passive mechanical components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-90s, GRS has been dealing systematically with the assessment of the influences of ageing on the safety of nuclear power plants. This also involves the generic evaluation of operating experience. In the following, the procedure, methodological approaches and relevant results are presented in an exemplary manner for passive mechanical components. The results show that the number of events influenced by ageing phenomena that have so far occurred in German plants is low and that measures were taken where necessary to detect, monitor and control any changes due to ageing. As new insights may emerge over time concerning the assessment of the ageing behaviour of the components, it is considered necessary to continue with the ongoing generic evaluation of operating experience in order to obtain timely indications of any safety-relevant changes. (orig.)

  5. Wastewater treatment plants and landfills emit volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs) to the atmosphere: Investigations using a new passive air sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yu [Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Shoeib, Mahiba, E-mail: Mahiba.Shoeib@ec.gc.ca [Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Ahrens, Lutz [Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Harner, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Harner@ec.gc.ca [Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Ma, Jianmin [Air Quality Research Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs) are a class of chemicals with an increasing range of applications and widespread distribution in the environment. Passive air samplers (PAS) comprising sorbent-impregnated polyurethane-foam (SIP) disks were first calibrated and then deployed around two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and at two landfill sites to investigate inputs of VMSs to air. SIP-derived air concentrations for {Sigma}VMSs (ng/m{sup 3}) at background sites on the perimeter of the WWTP were 479 {+-} 82.3 and comparable to results for the upwind samples at the landfills (333 {+-} 194). Order of magnitude higher concentrations of {Sigma}VMSs (ng/m{sup 3}) were found for on-site samples at the WWTPs (3980 {+-} 2620) and landfills (4670 {+-} 3360). Yearly emissions (kg/yr) to air were estimated and ranged from 60-2100 and 80-250, respectively, for the cyclic VMSs. These findings demonstrate and quantify for the first time, waste sector emissions of VMSs to the atmosphere. - Highlights: > A new passive air sampler is calibrated for volatile methyl siloxanes (VMSs). > The SIP disk sampler is used to map VMS levels around WWTPs and landfills. > The waste sector is shown to be a key emission source of VMSs to air. > This is the first study to quantify this emission pathway. - Wastewater treatment plants and landfills are shown to emit large quantities of chemicals used in personal care products (volatile methyl siloxanes) to the atmosphere.

  6. The Application of Advanced Cultivation Techniques in the Long Term Maintenance of Space Flight Plant Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the International Space Station (ISS) presents extensive opportunities for the implementation of long duration space life sciences studies. Continued attention has been placed in the development of plant growth chamber facilities capable of supporting the cultivation of plants in space flight microgravity conditions. The success of these facilities is largely dependent on their capacity to support the various growth requirements of test plant species. The cultivation requirements for higher plant species are generally complex, requiring specific levels of illumination, temperature, humidity, water, nutrients, and gas composition in order to achieve normal physiological growth and development. The supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen to the plant root system is a factor, which has proven to be particularly challenging in a microgravity space flight environment. The resolution of this issue is particularly important for the more intensive crop cultivation of plants envisaged in Nasa's advanced life support initiative. BioServe Space Technologies is a NASA, Research Partnership Center (RPC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. BioServe has designed and operated various space flight plant habitat systems, and placed specific emphasis on the development and enhanced performance of subsystem components such as water and nutrient delivery, illumination, gas exchange and atmosphere control, temperature and humidity control. The further development and application of these subsystems to next generation habitats is of significant benefit and contribution towards the development of both the Space Plant biology and the Advanced Life Support Programs. The cooperative agreement between NASA Ames Research center and BioServe was established to support the further implementation of advanced cultivation techniques and protocols to plant habitat systems being coordinated at NASA Ames Research Center. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of passive

  7. Advanced Neutron Source reactor control and plant protection systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the reactor control and plant protection systems' conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). The Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Data Systems and the Reactor Instrumentation and Control System of the ANS are planned as an integrated digital system with a hierarchical, distributed control structure of qualified redundant subsystems and a hybrid digital/analog protection system to achieve the necessary fast response for critical parameters. Data networks transfer information between systems for control, display, and recording. Protection is accomplished by the rapid insertion of negative reactivity with control rods or other reactivity mechanisms to shut down the fission process and reduce heat generation in the fuel. The shutdown system is designed for high functional reliability by use of conservative design features and a high degree of redundance and independence to guard against single failures. Two independent reactivity control systems of different design principles are provided, and each system has multiple independent rods or subsystems to provide appropriate margin for malfunctions such as stuck rods or other single failures. Each system is capable of maintaining the reactor in a cold shutdown condition independently of the functioning of the other system. A highly reliable, redundant channel control system is used not only to achieve high availability of the reactor, but also to reduce challenges to the protection system by maintaining important plant parameters within appropriate limits. The control system has a number of contingency features to maintain acceptable, off-normal conditions in spite of limited control or plant component failures thereby further reducing protection system challenges

  8. Enhanced High Temperature Corrosion Resistance in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems by Nano-Passive Layer Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold R. Marder

    2007-06-14

    Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, iron aluminum alloys are currently being considered for use as weld claddings in fossil fuel fired power plants. The susceptibility to hydrogen cracking of these alloys at higher aluminum concentrations has highlighted the need for research into the effect of chromium additions on the corrosion resistance of lower aluminum alloys. In the present work, three iron aluminum alloys were exposed to simulated coal combustion environments at 500 C and 700 C for both short (100 hours) and long (5,000 hours) isothermal durations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the corrosion products. All alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the short term tests. For longer exposures, increasing the aluminum concentration was beneficial to the corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the binary iron aluminum alloy prevented the formation iron sulfide and resulted in lower corrosion kinetics. A classification of the corrosion products that developed on these alloys is presented. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of the as-corroded coupons revealed that chromium was able to form chromium sulfides only on the higher aluminum alloy, thereby preventing the formation of deleterious iron sulfides. When the aluminum concentration was too low to permit selective oxidation of only aluminum (upon initial exposure to the corrosion environment), the formation of chromium oxide alongside the aluminum oxide led to depletion of chromium beneath the oxide layer. Upon penetration of sulfur through the oxide into this depletion layer, iron sulfides (rather than chromium sulfides) were found to form on the low aluminum alloy. Thus, it was found in this work that the role of chromium on alloy corrosion resistance was strongly effected by the aluminum concentration of the alloy. STEM analysis also revealed the encapsulation of external iron sulfide products with a thin layer of aluminum oxide, which may provide a

  9. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  10. Advanced techniques using the plant as indicator of irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara dos Santos Esteves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The methodologies which are considered the most promising for irrigation management are those based on the analysis of the water status of the plants themselves. This justifies the study and improvement of indicators based on automatic and continuous measures to enable real-time monitoring data, as indices from sap flow, dendrometry and leaf turgor pressure techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze such methodologies in order to demonstrate their principles, advantages and challenges. In conclusion, the methodologies analyzed still have many technological advances and challenges before being presented to the final user. The future research should work these tools for elaboration of technical indexes that allow their simplification, on the instrumental point of view, and the interpretation of their results.

  11. Advanced applications of water cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By August 2007, there were 438 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation worldwide, with a total capacity of 371.7 GW(e). Further, 31 units, totaling 24.1 GW(e), were under construction. During 2006 nuclear power produced 2659.7 billion kWh of electricity, which was 15.2% of the world's total. The vast majority of these plants use water-cooled reactors. Based on information provided by its Member States, the IAEA projects that nuclear power will grow significantly, producing between 2760 and 2810 billion kWh annually by 2010, between 3120 and 3840 billion kWh annually by 2020, and between 3325 and 5040 billion kWh annually by 2030. There are several reasons for these rising expectations for nuclear power: - Nuclear power's lengthening experience and good performance: The industry now has more than 12 000 reactor years of experience, and the global average nuclear plant availability during 2006 reached 83%; - Growing energy needs: All forecasts project increases in world energy demand, especially as population and economic productivity grow. The strategies are country dependent, but usually involve a mix of energy sources; - Interest in advanced applications of nuclear energy, such as seawater desalination, steam for heavy oil recovery and heat and electricity for hydrogen production; - Environmental concerns and constraints: The Kyoto Protocol has been in force since February 2005, and for many countries (most OECD countries, the Russian Federation, the Baltics and some countries of the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) greenhouse gas emission limits are imposed; - Security of energy supply is a national priority in essentially every country; and - Nuclear power is economically competitive and provides stability of electricity price. In the near term most new nuclear plants will be evolutionary water cooled reactors (Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs), often pursuing economies of scale. In the longer term, innovative designs that

  12. Review of passive groundwater remediation systems: Lessons learned Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    One of the proposed solutions for treatment of the contaminated groundwater in the Bear Creek Valley is the installation of a passive treatment system. Such a system would use a reactive media installed in a continuous trench or in a gate as part of a barrier wall and gate system. This report evaluates information on five similar systems [no information was available on two additional systems] and evaluates the shortcomings and the advantages of each. Section 5 provides a short summary of the findings and presents some recommendations on how to avoid some of the common problems encountered with the existing systems.

  13. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  14. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Advanced Solar-Fossil Combined Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Allani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Hybrid solar thermal power plants (with parabolic trough type of solar collectors featuring gas burners and Rankine steam cycles have been successfully demonstrated by California's Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS. This system has been proven to be one of the most efficient and economical schemes to convert solar energy into electricity. Recent technological progress opens interesting prospects for advanced cycle concepts: a the ISCCS (Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System that integrates the parabolic trough into a fossil fired combined cycle, which allows a larger exergy potential of the fuel to be converted. b the HSTS (Hybrid Solar Tower System which uses high concentration optics (via a power tower generator and high temperature air receivers to drive the combined cycle power plant. In the latter case, solar energy is used at a higher exergy level as a heat source of the topping cycle. This paper presents the results of a thermoeconomic investigation of an ISCCS envisaged in Tunisia. The study is realized in two phases. In the first phase, a mixed approach, based on pinch technology principles coupled with a mathematical optimization algorithm, is used to minimize the heat transfer exergy losses in the steam generators, respecting the off design operating conditions of the steam turbine (cone law. In the second phase, an economic analysis based on the Levelized Electricity Cost (LEC approach was carried out for the configurations, which provided the best concepts during the first phase. A comparison of ISCCS with pure fossil fueled plants (CC+GT is reported for the same electrical power load. A sensitivity analysis based on the relative size of the solar field is presented.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS'00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000

  15. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water fabrication plants. Control of iron content at the final stage of passivation. Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is part of a series which corresponds to the carbon steel behaviour as construction material for Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. The present work analyses the iron concentration study during passivation in the passivating fluid. At the beginning, during the formation of the most soluble sulfide -that is the mackinawite-, the iron concentration reaches more than 10 ppm. After some days, this iron concentration begins to decrease up to its stabilization under 0.1 ppm. This process, which occurs in the 9th. and 11th days, indicates that passivation is over, and that a pyrite and pyrrhotite-pyrite layer exists on the iron. Some differences exist between the results obtained and those previsible for the iron sulfides solubilities. In spite of these difficulties, the procedure is perfectly adequate to judge the passivation final stage. (Author)

  16. A study on advanced man-machine interface system for autonomous nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A man-machine interface(MMI) system of an autonomous nuclear power plant has an advanced function compared with that of the present nuclear power plants. The MMI has a function model of a plant state, and updates and revises this function model by itself. This paper describes the concept of autonomous nuclear power plants, a plant simulator of an autonomous power plant, a contracted function model of a plant state, three-dimensional color graphic display of a plant state, and an event-tree like expression for plant states. (author)

  17. The ARIES-AT advanced tokamak, Advanced technology fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARIES-AT study was initiated to assess the potential of high-performance tokamak plasmas together with advanced technology in a fusion power plant and to identifying physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving attractive and competitive fusion power in order to guide fusion R and D. The 1000-MWe ARIES-AT design has a major radius of 5.2 m, a minor radius of 1.3 m, a toroidal β of 9.2% (β N = 5.4) and an on-axis field of 5.6 T. The plasma current is 13 MA and the current-drive power is 35 MW. The ARIES-AT design uses the same physics basis as ARIES-RS, a reversed-shear plasma. A distinct difference between ARIES-RS and ARIES-AT plasmas is the higher plasma elongation of ARIES-AT (κ x = 2.2) which is the result of a 'thinner' blanket leading to a large increase in plasma β to 9.2% (compared to 5% for ARIES-RS) with only a slightly higher β N. ARIES-AT blanket is a simple, low-pressure design consisting of SiC composite boxes with a SiC insert for flow distribution that does not carry any structural load. The breeding coolant (Pb-17Li) enters the fusion core from the bottom, and cools the first wall while traveling in the poloidal direction to the top of the blanket module. The coolant then returns through the blanket channel at a low speed and is superheated to ∼1100 deg. C. As most of the fusion power is deposited directly into the breeding coolant, this method leads to a high coolant outlet temperature while keeping the temperature of the SiC structure as well as interface between SiC structure and Pb-17Li to about 1000 deg. C. This blanket is well matched to an advanced Brayton power cycle, leading to an overall thermal efficiency of ∼59%. The very low afterheat in SiC composites results in exceptional safety and waste disposal characteristics. All of the fusion core components qualify for shallow land burial under U.S. regulations (furthermore, ∼90% of components qualify as Class-A waste, the lowest level). The ARIES

  18. Generic approach for designing and implementing a passive autocatalytic recombiner PAR-system in nuclear power plant containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSOAR project is one of the scientific projects on hydrogen risk in nuclear power plants co-sponsored by the European Commission in the Fifth Euratom Framework Program and the Swiss government. It is one of the components of the 'Safety Accident Management' (SAM) cluster that is focusing on review of severe accident risks and on development of countermeasures for defence-in-depth. The first objective is to carry out a state-of-the-art on passive autocatalytic recombiners (PAR) to constitute a database helpful for the PAR-designers, nuclear power plant designers and utilities, and safety authorities. The second objective is to elaborate a handbook guide that defines an approach for implementing catalytic recombiners in nuclear power plants, and that proposes recommended practices to support the detailed implementation by individual nuclear actors. The third objective is to identify the needs in terms of complementary experimental qualification or computer code developments about the hydrogen risk in nuclear power plants. It is also recommended that future experimental tests and numerical modelling should concentrate on the remaining issues of (a) lowering of existing uncertainties about hydrogen sources as core reflood or the reactions between boron carbide and steam or uranium and steam, (b) completing the experimental qualification of catalytic recombiners for existing and future nuclear power plant applications, and (c) performing well-qualified couplings between computational fluid dynamics computer codes and numerical models simulating PAR-behaviour (thanks to some global and well-instrumented experiments reproducing a complete reference accident sequence in presence of catalytic recombiners). Such areas to be considered for future work could be integrated in the scope of a European hydrogen network of excellence, in the framework of the Sixth Euratom Framework Program (2002-2006)

  19. An advanced fluorescence LIDAR system for the acquisition of interleaved active (LIF) and passive (SIF) fluorescence measurements on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Di Ninni, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence is regarded as a valuable tool to investigate the eco-physiological status of vegetation. Chlorophyll a, which emits a typical fluorescence in the red/far-red region of the e.m. spectrum, plays a key role in the photosynthetic process and its fluorescence is considered an effective proxy of photosynthetic activity of plants. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) has been studied for several decades both at leaf- and canopy-level by means of optical fibers-coupled instrumentation and fluorescence LIDAR systems. On the other hand, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) has been the object of several scientific studies quite recently, with the aim to investigate the feasibility of measuring the fluorescence of vegetation using passive spectroradiometers in view of global scale monitoring from satellite platforms. This paper presents the main technical features and preliminary tests of a fluorescence LIDAR, recently upgraded to acquire maps of interleaved LIF and SIF measurements at canopy level. In-house developed electronics and software permits the acquisition of interleaved LIF and SIF spectra by switching on/off the laser, the selection of the suitable grating, the setting of the integration time and the synchronization of the Intensified CCD (ICCD) gate opening time. For each pixel of the map, a fluorescence dataset can be acquired containing a LIF spectrum - from 570 nm to 830 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm - and radiance spectra from 685.53 nm to 690.30 nm with subnanometric spectral resolution containing the molecular oxygen O2-B telluric absorption band. The latter can be exploited for polynomial regression data fit and SIF retrieval.

  20. Inherent failure modes of passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses inherent failure modes of passive safety systems and their influence on passive system reliability. With 'inherent failures' means a failure of the system to perform its intended function due to physical reasons and/or phenomena. Such phenomena may occur inside the system, or be due to an external cause. Focus will be on passive cooling or heat removal systems that rely on natural circulation or stored pressure energy. The paper discusses the physical mechanisms due to which system malfunctions can arise, gives examples of phenomenological analyses for several model systems that are typical to proposed advanced passive reactors, discusses various external influences that may cause system malfunctions (drawing insights from operational experience of current plants), and concludes with a discussion of the relevance of such phenomena regarding the reliability of passive safety systems. This work shows that the reliability of passive systems can be strongly influenced by external factors, although comprehensive quantification of external disturbance frequencies is not yet available. Passive safety systems use natural circulation and stored pressure energy as power sources. These power sources have small capacities, which cause their sensitiveness to internal and external physical and thermodynamic conditions. The major advantage of passive safety system is their independence of external power sources and human factors. In this paper inherent failures of passive safety systems were discussed. There are two main types of these failures. Those failures are a failure due to unexpected internal change of physical state and a failure due to environment of the system, e.g. foreign material. When dealing with passive safety systems the environment of these systems plays bigger role compared to active systems. Thorough development, verification and review testing of passive systems should be considered including the environment and surrounding systems. This

  1. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5,a βtotalN of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, an n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m2. The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced-activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a βtotalN of 2.5, an H98 of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m2. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m2. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here

  2. Advanced handbook for accident analyses of German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced handbook of safety analyses (HSA) comprises a comprehensive electronic collection of knowledge for the compilation and conduction of safety analyses in the area of reactor, plant and containment behaviour as well as results of existing safety analyses (performed by GRS in the past) with characteristic specifications and further background information. In addition, know-how from the analysis software development and validation process is presented and relevant rules and regulations with regard to safety demonstration are provided. The HSA comprehensively covers the topic thermo-hydraulic safety analyses (except natural hazards, man-made hazards and malicious acts) for German pressurized and boiling water reactors for power and non-power operational states. In principle, the structure of the HSA-content represents the analytical approach utilized by safety analyses and applying the knowledge from safety analyses to technical support services. On the basis of a multilevel preparation of information to the topics ''compilation of safety analyses'', ''compilation of data bases'', ''assessment of safety analyses'', ''performed safety analyses'', ''rules and regulation'' and ''ATHLET-validation'' the HSA addresses users with different background, allowing them to enter the HSA at different levels. Moreover, the HSA serves as a reference book, which is designed future-oriented, freely configurable related to the content, completely integrated into the GRS internal portal and prepared to be used by a growing user group.

  3. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  4. Advanced surveillance of Resistance Temperature Detectors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A two time constant transfer function is proposed to describe the Resistance Temperature Detector dynamics. • One constant is only related to the inner dynamics whereas the other one is related to the process and to the inner dynamics. • The two time constants have been found in several RTDs from a Nuclear Power Plant. • A Monte Carlo simulation is used to properly adjust the sampling time to find both constants. - Abstract: The dynamic response of several RTDs located at the cold leg of a PWR has been studied. A theoretical model for the heat transfer between the RTDs and the surrounding fluid is derived. It proposes a two real poles transfer function. By means of noise analysis techniques in the time domain (autoregressive models) and the Dynamic Data System methodology, the two time constants of the system can be found. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to choose the proper sampling time to obtain both constants. The two poles are found and they permit an advance in situ surveillance of the sensor response time and the sensor dynamics performance. One of the poles is related to the inner dynamics whereas the other one is linked to the process and the inner dynamics. So surveillance on the process and on the inner dynamics can be distinguished

  5. An approach for assessing ALWR passive safety system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) concepts proposed for the next generation of nuclear power plants rely on passive rather than active systems to perform safety functions. Despite the reduced redundancy of the passive systems as compared to active systems in current plants, the assertion is that the overall safety of the plant is enhanced due to the much higher expected reliability of the passive systems. In order to investigate this assertion, a study is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the reliability of ALWR passive safety features in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the approach to this study. The quantification of passive system reliability is not as straightforward as for active systems, due to the lack of operating experience, and to the greater uncertainty in the governing physical phenomena. Thus, the adequacy of current methods for evaluating system reliability must be assessed, and alternatives proposed if necessary. For this study, the Westinghouse Advanced Passive 600 MWe reactor (AP600) was chosen as the advanced reactor for analysis, because of the availability of AP600 design information. This study compares the reliability of AP600 emergency cooling system with that of corresponding systems in a current generation reactor

  6. The rhizosphere microbiota of plant invaders: an overview of recent advances in the microbiomics of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eCoats

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants in terrestrial systems have evolved in direct association with microbes functioning as both agonists and antagonists of plant fitness and adaptability. As such, investigations that segregate plants and microbes provide only a limited scope of the biotic interactions that dictate plant community structure and composition in natural systems. Invasive plants provide an excellent working model to compare and contrast the effects of microbial communities associated with natural plant populations on plant fitness, adaptation, and fecundity. The last decade of DNA sequencing technology advancements opened the door to microbial community analysis, which has led to an increased awareness of the importance of an organism’s microbiome and the disease states associated with microbiome shifts. Employing microbiome analysis to study the symbiotic networks associated with invasive plants will help us to understand what microorganisms contribute to plant fitness in natural systems, how different soil microbial communities impact plant fitness and adaptability, specificity of host-microbe interactions in natural plant populations, and the selective pressures that dictate the structure of above-ground and below-ground biotic communities. This review discusses recent advances in invasive plant biology that have resulted from microbiome analyses as well as the microbial factors that direct plant fitness and adaptability in natural systems.

  7. Advanced plant maintenance and surveillance system for the nuclear power plants of the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional approach to nuclear power plant maintenance and surveillance employs a preventive maintenance philosophy that can result in excessive labor being expended and in unnecessary and potentially damaging testing being performed. Plant downtime may also be increased and availability reduced because of the large number of critical tasks that need to be accomplished during a maintenance outage. In addition, modern control equipment is increasingly computerized and software-driven, and thus is not readily accessible or understandable to an operator using conventional surveillance techniques. The proposed advanced approach uses a diagnostic system based on the advanced and still emerging technologies of neural networks and fuzzy expert systems. This system monitors operating conditions of control equipment in real time and also monitors past performance based on maintenance records and equipment specifications entered into a computerized database. Plant system availability can be enhanced and maintenance costs can be reduced by automatically adjusting surveillance periods and maintenance schedules to actual trends in equipment performance. Equipment in multiple redundant instrument channels may need calibration and testing at different times to maintain a system in an optimal state of readiness. Moreover, redundant systems generally use the same type of equipment in the separate channels. Manufacturing defects, wear-out effects, or changes in environmental conditions may result in common-cause failures over a short period of time, thus degrading the protection capability of the safety systems. Normal surveillance may not uncover many of these incipient equipment failures, but a neural-fuzzy expert system that continuously oversees the complex relationships of operating parameters among system equipment can rapidly discern deviations from normal behavior and make maintenance recommendations, including replace-or-repair decisions

  8. Application of Advanced Technology to Improve Plant Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in computer technologies, signal processing, analytical modeling, and the advent of wireless sensors have provided the nuclear industry with ample means to automate and optimize maintenance activities and improve safety, efficiency, and availability, while reducing costs and radiation exposure to maintenance personnel. This paper provides a review of these developments and presents examples of their use in the nuclear power industry and the financial and safety benefits that they have produced. As the current generation of nuclear power plants have passed their mid-life, increased monitoring of their health is critical to their safe operation. This is especially true now that license renewal of nuclear power plants has accelerated, allowing some plants to operate up to 60 years or more. Furthermore, many utilities are maximizing their power output through uprating projects and retrofits. This puts additional demand and more stress on the plant equipment such as the instrumentation and control (I and C) systems and the reactor internal components making them more vulnerable to the effects of aging, degradation, and failure. In the meantime, the nuclear power industry is working to reduce generation costs by adopting condition-based maintenance strategies and automation of testing activities. These developments have stimulated great interest in on-line monitoring (OLM) technologies and new diagnostic and prognostic methods to anticipate, identify, and resolve equipment and process problems and ensure plant safety, efficiency, and immunity to accidents. The foundation for much of the required technologies has already been established through 40 years of research and development (R and D) efforts performed by numerous organizations, scientists, and engineers around the world including the author. This paper provides examples of these technologies and demonstrates how the gap between some of the more important R and D efforts and end users have been filled

  9. Advanced Surveillance, Diagnostic and Prognostic Techniques in Monitoring Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    during LTO. It should be pointed out here that LTO has different meanings in different countries. For example, in the United States of America, LTO refers to operation beyond the original 40 year licence period. That is, a nuclear plant in the USA can add 20 years to its licensed length of operation, extending the plant life to 60, 80, or more years in 20 year increments. In other countries such as Japan, LTO refers to operations beyond 30 years; while advanced gas cooled reactors (AGRs) in the United Kingdom may extend their licensed life by five years at a time beyond the original 30 years of licensed length. One may divide the SSCs of a nuclear plant into two general classes: those that are active components, such as pumps, motors, turbogenerators, valves, compressors, sensors and actuators, and those that are passive components, such as the reactor vessel, piping, reactor internals, containment structure, cables and the like. For active components (e.g. rotating machinery), there are plenty of SDP techniques, with the exception of prognostics, that are proven and routinely used. The advances in this area have occurred in the ability to see the degradation more quickly and more clearly through the use of high resolution data and improved data processing and visualization techniques. The same is not true for passive components. For passive components, periodic in-service inspections (ISIs) are implemented in accordance with ageing management plans, using non-destructive examination (NDE) techniques, such as eddy current testing and ultrasonic wave measurements. These measurements are defined in numerous codes and standards that have been available and used for years, not only in the nuclear industry but also in aerospace and other fields. While effective, the NDE techniques do not normally provide in situ, continuous on-line, or remote testing capabilities

  10. Development of Advanced Plant Efficiency Monitoring System Using Data Reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal efficiency of power plants is determined by the measured values of instruments. It is known that the measured values have uncertainty depending on the accuracy of instrument and process fluctuations. There have been many efforts to reduce uncertainties to improve the quality of thermal efficiency management. ASME performance test codes recommend the average of the measured values to minimize random errors and the periodic calibration to exclude systematic errors. While a recent trend tends to concentrate on on-line efficiency monitoring, which is different from the conventional off-line thermal performance tests, unforeseen features became troublesome: Since the on-line efficiency monitoring is performed during daily operation, it has high possibility of including random errors and/or systematic errors. The data reconciliation (DR) has been expected to be a candidate for managing uncertainty in on-line efficiency monitoring. The DR is developed using a physical model with the first principles such as mass/energy balance. Due to this nature, it has the advantage in eliminating random errors. However, the DR based on a physical model has several problems: One issue is the accuracy of the turbine cycle model. The conventional DR algorithm is difficult to apply for turbine cycle with which a large size matrix and non-linear equations are involved. Furthermore, since the minimum number of instruments for operation is generally installed in a turbine cycle, the redundancy requirement for the DR algorithm is unlikely to be satisfied. This study aims at developing an advanced efficiency monitoring method using the simulation-assisted DR. We proposed the idea to periodically establish a turbine cycle model and set up boundary conditions to generate the multiple candidates of reconciled datasets using a developed turbine cycle model. In this study, the conventional DR algorithm was followed to find a reconciled dataset, but we introduced the concept of minimum

  11. Safety assessment for the passive system of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) using safety margin estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for gas-cooled nuclear power plants has been investigated where the operational data are deficient, because there is not any commercial gas-cooled nuclear power plant. Therefore, it is necessary to use the statistical data for the basic event constructions. Several estimations for the safety margin are introduced for the quantification of the failure frequency in the basic event, which is made by the concept of the impact and affordability. Trend of probability of failure (TPF) and fuzzy converter (FC) are introduced using the safety margin, which shows the simplified and easy configurations for the event characteristics. The mass flow rate in the natural circulation is studied for the modeling. The potential energy in the gravity, the temperature and pressure in the heat conduction, and the heat transfer rate in the internal stored energy are also investigated. The values in the probability set are compared with those of the fuzzy set modeling. Non-linearity of the safety margin is expressed by the fuzziness of the membership function. This artificial intelligence analysis of the fuzzy set could enhance the reliability of the system comparing to the probabilistic analysis. (author)

  12. Passive ALWR source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide technical support for the physically-based source term which is proposed as the licensing design basis fission product release from a major core accident for the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) in Volume 3, Section 5 of the ALWR Requirements Document. A substantial body of new research motivated by the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident is maturing, and the ALWR Requirements Document provides an opportunity to incorporate this experience in an updated source term. This update will provide a more rational basis for Passive ALWR accident mitigation system designs, particularly where the designs afford opportunities for improvement and innovation. Great attention has been paid to accident prevention in the ALWR Requirements Document which will reduce the likelihood of core damage by an order of magnitude or more compared to earlier LWR designs. Nonetheless, for defense-in-depth the Passive ALWR source term is based on evaluation of a core damage event. Selection of this core damage event and the associated quantification of the fission product release were done in a conservative, yet physically-based manner so as to provide significant margin to the expected releases, given an ALWR accident, while avoiding non-physical assumptions which could produce mitigation system designs not well-suited to the important accidents. The physically-based source term presented in this report is intended for use in ALWR design basis analysis defining the radiological environment for plant systems and equipment and evaluating the offsite dose for emergency planning considerations. 100 refs., 18 figs., 44 tabs

  13. Proceedings of 2009 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM is the collection of the paper presented at the 2009 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'09) . The 365 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2104, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water...

  15. The Westinghouse AP600 -- An update on the advanced simplified nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, government and industry are working together on advanced nuclear power plant designs that take advantage of valuable lessons learned from the experience to date and promise to reconcile the demands of economic expansion with the laws of environmental protection. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a design certification program in 1989 to develop and commercialize advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) for the next round of power plant construction. Advanced, simplified technology is one approach under development to end the industry's search for a simpler, more forgiving, and less costly reactor. As part of this program, Westinghouse is developing the AP600, a new standard 600 MWe advanced, simplified plant. The design strikes a balance between the use of proven technology and new approaches. The result is a greatly streamlined plant that can meet safety regulations and reliability requirements, be economically competitive, and promote broader public confidence in nuclear energy

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS FOR PASSIVE AFTERHEAT REMOVAL FROM REACTOR CONTAINMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WITH WATER-COOLED POWER REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaled

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  17. Classification of systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of nuclear power plant with water-cooled power reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, N.; D. V. Shevelev; A. S. Balashevsky

    2014-01-01

    A classification on systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment has been developed in the paper.  The classification permits to make a detailed analysis of various concepts pertaining to systems for passive afterheat removal from reactor containment of new generation. The paper considers main classification features of the given systems.

  18. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  19. Advances in Melatonin and Its Functions in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na ZHANG; Haijun ZHANG; Rongchao YANG; Yunyu HUANG; Yangdong GUO

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Melatonin (N-acetyi-5-methoxytryptamine) is a well-known animal hormone, which is synthesized and secreted by pineal gland and takes part in the regulation of circadian rhythm in animals. At present it has been observed that melatonin is widely existed in higher plants while there have no enough studies on functions of melatonin in plants. Researches have already indicated that the possible functions of melatonin in plants include regulating photoperiod, participating in growth regulation, clearing active oxygen, and promoting activity of antioxidase. General reviews upon functions of melatonin in plants are made upon experiments in recent years. We fo-cus on the demonstrated and predicted biological functions of melatonin in plants to bring researchers up to date on this field. The weakness in present studies and the main research directions are also pointed out.

  20. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques Victor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Farris, Ronald Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  1. ESCRIME: testing bench for advanced operator workstations in future plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of optimal task allocation between man and computer for the operation of nuclear power plants is of major concern for the design of future plants. As the increased level of automation induces the modification of the tasks actually devoted to the operator in the control room, it is very important to anticipate these consequences at the plant design stage. The improvement of man machine cooperation is expected to play a major role in minimizing the impact of human errors on plant safety. The CEA has launched a research program concerning the evolution of the plant operation in order to optimize the efficiency of the human/computer systems for a better safety. The objective of this program is to evaluate different modalities of man-machine share of tasks, in a representative context. It relies strongly upon the development of a specific testing facility, the ESCRIME work bench, which is presented in this paper. It consists of an EDF 1300MWe PWR plant simulator connected to an operator workstation. The plant simulator model presents at a significant level of details the instrumentation and control of the plant and the main connected circuits. The operator interface is based on the generalization of the use of interactive graphic displays, and is intended to be consistent to the tasks to be performed by the operator. The functional architecture of the workstation is modular, so that different cooperation mechanisms can be implemented within the same framework. It is based on a thorough analysis and structuration of plant control tasks, in normal as well as in accident situations. The software architecture design follows the distributed artificial intelligence approach. Cognitive agents cooperate in order to operate the process. The paper presents the basic principles and the functional architecture of the test bed and describes the steps and the present status of the program. (author)

  2. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants feedback of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally specific requirements arising from nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS.(author)

  3. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Improved plant availability by advanced condition based inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An industrial plant has to operate safely, reliably and efficiently at the lowest possible cost. Plant availability plays an important role regarding economic life optimisation. Industrial installations that are under pressure and are operating at high temperatures have a limited life due to creep and fatigue. It is, therefore, of critical importance to know the location of any possible weak spots in the installation. To avoid safety risks, unplanned plant shutdown and, as a consequence, high costs for unavailability, cycling and repair, periodic inspections and strain measurements are recommended. A Speckle Image Correlation Analysis (SPICA) system enables on-stream measurement of deformation due to creep in critical areas like the heat-affected zone in welds. Plant management and operators use the strain measurements to take action when necessary and, consequently, prevent failures. In those plants that have been provided with SPICA-technology for some years plant availability has improved significantly as a result. Another important development for yielding improved availability concerns steam drums. During some 20 years, KEMA has been performing automated ultrasonic steam drum inspections from outside. The Dutch authorities accepted this methodology in this period as an alternative (rather than an addition) after several pilot projects. An advantage of this inspection methodology is the possibility to record of the inspection results and possibility of thus trending these data. The resulting reduction of through time appeared a major benefit for plant owners. Since the authorities adopted the RBI approach during the last 10 years, another advantage of the inspection methodology became apparent: complete scanning and recording of the inspection data of circumferential and longitudinal (butt and fillet) welds, inspection of nozzle welds and inner radius as well as corrosion mapping has been covering all higher risk areas in these drums. This enhanced inspection

  6. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  7. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  8. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  9. Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  10. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição LV Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g. Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage.

  11. Use of simulators for validation of advanced plant monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how the full-scope nuclear power plant simulator of Doel (Belgium) was used to assess Situation Awareness for the validation of a process monitoring and supervision system, named DIMOS. The method (derived from a method originally developed for the aerospace industry) has been adapted and applied to compare the efficiency of two versions of the monitoring system: Alarm-masking and non alarm-masking versions of DIMOS have been analysed in their ability to support Situation Awareness, to improve performance and to fulfil the satisfaction of operators. Both normal power plant operating conditions and abnormal operating conditions were simulated and a large number of power plant operators were involved in the evaluation. The paper focuses on the rationale behind the 'Situation Awareness' evaluation, the experiment environment and the results regarding the added value of the alarm masking version of the monitoring system. (author)

  12. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  13. [Research advance in medicinal plants from genus Coreopsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Mourboul, Ablise; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    There are about 100 species in the genus Coreopsis which distributed in the America, south of Africa and Hawaiian Islands, and 7 species are distributed in China. The inflorescences of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is the Uigur herb 'Snow chrysanthemum' which is named 'Shemuju' with the effects of heat-cleaning, detoxicating, dampness-dissipating and dysentery-curing in the Xinhua Herbal Scheme. The chemical constituents from Coreopsis plants mainly contain flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, and sterols, which show anti-inflammatory activities in modern pharmaceutical research. This article presents an overview of the chemical constituents and pharmaceutical activities, prospects of development and exploitation of Coreopsis plants, hopefully to provide a basis for further research and development of Coreopsis plants. PMID:24228578

  14. Advances in Effects of Sound Waves on Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda H. E. Hassanien; HOU Tian-zhen; LI Yu-feng; and LI Bao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Sound waves technology has been applied to different plants. It has been found that sound waves were at different frequencies, sound pressure levels (SPLs), exposure periods, and distances from the source of sound inlfuence plant growth. Experiments have been conducted in the open ifeld and under greenhouse growing conditions with different levels of audible sound frequencies and sound pressure levels. Sound waves at 1 kHz and 100 dB for 1 h within a distance of 0.20 m could signiifcantly promote the division and cell wall lfuidity of callus cells and also signiifcantly enhance the activity of protective enzymes and endogenous hormones. Sound waves stimulation could increase the plant plasma-membrane H+-ATPase activity, the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and amylase activity of callus. Moreover, sound waves could increase the content of RNA and the level of transcription. Stress-induced genes could switch on under sound stimulation. Sound waves at 0.1-1 kHz and SPL of (70±5) dB for 3 h from plant acoustic frequency technology (PAFT) generator within a distance ranged from 30 to 60 m every other day signiifcantly increased the yieldof sweet pepper, cucumber and tomato by 30.05, 37.1 and 13.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the yield of lettuce, spinach, cotton, rice, and wheat were increased by 19.6, 22.7, 11.4, 5.7, and 17.0%, respectively. Sound waves may also strengthen plant immune systems. It has been proved that spider mite, aphids, gray mold, late blight and virus disease of tomatoes in the greenhouses decreased by 6.0, 8.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 8.0%, respectively, and the sheath blight of rice was reduced by 50%. This paper provides an overview of literature for the effects of sound waves on various growth parameters of plant at different growth stages.

  15. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Conceição L. V.; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use ...

  16. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  17. Functional and performance evaluation of 28 bar hot shutdown passive valve (HSPV) at integral test loop (ITL) for advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During reactor shutdown in advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR), core decay heat is removed by eight isolation condensers (IC) submerged in gravity driven water pool. Passive valves are provided on the down stream of each isolation condenser. On increase in steam drum pressure beyond a set value, these passive valves start opening and establish steam flow by natural circulation between the four steam drums and corresponding isolation condensers under hot shutdown and therefore they are termed as Hot Shut Down Passive Valves (HSPVs). The HSPV is a self acting type valve requiring no external energy, i.e. neither air nor electric supply for actuation. This feature makes the valve functioning independent of external systems such as compressed air supply or electric power supply, thereby providing inherent safety feature in line with reactor design philosophy. The high pressure and high temperature HSPV s for nuclear reactor use, are non-standard valves and therefore not manufactured by the valve industry worldwide. In the process of design and development of a prototype valve for AHWR, a 28 bar HSPV was configured and successfully tested at Integral Test Loop (ITL) at Engineering Hall No.7. During ten continuous experiments spread over 14 days, the HSPV has proved its functional capabilities and its intended use in decay heat removal system. The in-situ pressure setting and calibration aspect of HSPV has also been successfully established during these experiments. This report gives an insight into the HSPV's functional behavior and role in reactor decay heat removal system. The report not only provides the quantitative measure of performance for 28 bar HSPV in terms of valve characteristics, pressure controllability, linearity and hysteresis but also sets qualitative indicators for prototype 80 bar HSPV, being developed for AHWR. (author)

  18. Advanced Thermodynamic Analysis and Evaluation of a Supercritical Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    George Tsatsaronis; Yongping Yang; Tatiana Morosuk; Ligang Wang

    2012-01-01

    A conventional exergy analysis can highlight the main components having high thermodynamic inefficiencies, but cannot consider the interactions among components or the true potential for the improvement of each component. By splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous/exogenous and avoidable/unavoidable parts, the advanced exergy analysis is capable of providing additional information to conventional exergy analysis for improving the design and operation of energy conversion systems. Thi...

  19. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to: (1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, (2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and (3) develop mathematical model and heat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal-hydraulic codes assessment

  20. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  1. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  2. Development of advanced RFID application system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late years there comes to be close request for traceability of the information such as production control, construction and maintenance record and work history of nuclear power plants. On the other hand, the Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology that can specify a product and personnel by an electric wave has raised the functionality and versatility as the base technology that can support ubiquitous information society around the mass production industry. In such a background, this article described the developed system, which applied the RFID to nuclear power plants in the areas of production control of the piping manufacture, the construction management and condition monitoring for maintenance works in order to improve their quality and reliability. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Advanced technologies for plant cell wall evolution and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    cannot really be synthesised or sequenced. The work described in this thesis is focused to a large extent on the development of a microarray-based high-throughput method for cell wall analysis known as Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling or CoMPP. The procedure uses highly specific molecular...... produced has provided new insight into cell wall evolution and biosynthesis and has contributed to the commercial development of cell wall materials. A major focus of the work has been the wide scale sampling of cell wall diversity across the plant kingdom, from unicellular algae to highly evolved......Plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides, glycoproteins and phenolic polymers interlinked together in a highly complex network. The detailed analysis of cell walls is challenging because of their inherent complexity and heterogeneity. Also, complex carbohydrates, unlike proteins and nucleotides...

  4. Analytical and Experimental Study of The Effects of Non-Condensable in a Passive Condenser System for The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the project is to study analytically and experimentally condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system relevant to the safety of next generation nuclear reactor such as Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The objectives of this three-year research project are to: (1) obtain experimental data on the phenomenon of condensation of steam in a vertical tube in the presence of non-condensable for flow conditions of PCCS, (2) develop a analytic model for the condensation phenomena in the presence of non-condensable gas for the vertical tube, and (3) assess the RELAP5 computer code against the experimental data. The project involves experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involves graduate and undergraduate students' participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems

  5. Analytical and Experimental Study of The Effects of Non-Condensable in a Passive Condenser System for The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Seungmin Oh

    2003-09-30

    The main goal of the project is to study analytically and experimentally condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system relevant to the safety of next generation nuclear reactor such as Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The objectives of this three-year research project are to: (1) obtain experimental data on the phenomenon of condensation of steam in a vertical tube in the presence of non-condensable for flow conditions of PCCS, (2) develop a analytic model for the condensation phenomena in the presence of non-condensable gas for the vertical tube, and (3) assess the RELAP5 computer code against the experimental data. The project involves experiment, theoretical modeling and a thermal-hydraulic code assessment. It involves graduate and undergraduate students' participation providing them with exposure and training in advanced reactor concepts and safety systems

  6. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  7. Advanced multi-stud tensioners for Convoy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple stud tensioners for the reactor vessels of the new Emsland and Neckarwestheim 2 convoy plants in FR Germany are built to handle 52 reactor pressure vessel studs with an M210X8 thread. They are equipped with two stud turning robots and a total of four stud elongation measuring devices so as to reduce the time taken for multi-stud tensioner operations on the vessel. (author)

  8. South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant. Advanced Computer Information System Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Ukraine upgrade is the first of many that will take place in the former eastern bloc countries over the next several years. Westron is currently developing a similar system for the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant. In addition, there are eleven other WWER type units in operation in the Ukraine, as well as twenty seven others in operation throughout Eastern and Central Europe and Russia - all potential upgrade projects. (author)

  9. AP1000 passive safety system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Company has designed an advanced 600 MW nuclear power plant called the AP600. The AP600 uses passive safety systems to enhance plant safety and to satisfy US licensing requirements. The use of passive safety systems has provided significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The overnight capital cost for the first AP600 plant is calculated to be between 1300- 1500 $/kw depending on the site selection. Although the AP600 is the most cost effective plant ready for deployment, it is still more expensive than the $1000/kw needed to compete in the United States today. In order to develop a cost competitive nuclear power plant Westinghouse has completed design studies which demonstrate that it is feasible to increase the power output of the AP600 to at least 1000 MW, maintaining its current design configuration, use of proven components and licensing basis. The AP1000 reactor and passive safety features retain the same configuration as the AP600. The approach to designing the passive core cooling features is to evaluate each feature to determine if changes are necessary to provide proper safety margins at the higher power rating. Both design basis and PRA based accidents sequences are considered in this evaluation. Insights from the extensive AP600 test and analysis program are used to assist in this process. The results of preliminary accident analysis for DBA and PRA sequences are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. (author)

  10. Advancement of mutation breeding on ornamental plants in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along with the increasing demand of ornamental plants in Indonesia and the change of consumers preference, Indonesian breeders have released 102 varieties in the last 5 year. However, the resulted varieties were not enough to substitute the imported varieties. A breeding method for a new variety was carried out through induced mutation. Many researches have been conducted in Indonesia, but these activities have not been comprehensively designed to create the potential genotypes that ready to be released as new superior varieties. Commonly, these activities were still in the stage of basic researches about the type and the most effective dose or lethal dose (LD50), the sensitivity of both the plants cultured in-vitro and in-vivo to mutagen; and genetic or phenotypic diversity due to the mutagen treatments. Chrysanthemum and rose were the most of the ornamental plants that had been conducted. Some mutants have been released as new national superior varieties namely Julikara, Rosanda and Rosmarun (mini rose); Rosma (cut rose) and Mustika Kania (chrysanthemum). (author)

  11. The EU power plant conceptual study - neutronic design analyses for near term and advanced reactor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power plant conceptual study (PPCS) has been conducted in the framework of the European fusion programme with the main objective to demonstrate the safety and environmental advantages and the economic viability of fusion power. Power plant models with limited (''near term concepts'') and advanced plasma physics and technological extrapolations (''advanced concepts'') were considered. Two near term plant models were selected, one employing a water cooled lithium-lead (WCLL), and the other one a helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket. Two variants were also considered for the advanced power plant models, one adopting a liquid metal blanket with a self-cooled lithium-lead breeder zone and a helium cooled steel structure (''dual coolant lithium lead'', DCLL), and the other one a self-cooled lithium-lead (SCLL) blanket with SiCf/SiC composite as structural material. This report provides a detailed documentation of the neutronics design analyses performed as part of the PPCS study for both the near term and advanced power plant models. Main issues are the assessment of the tritium breeding capability, the evaluation of the nuclear power generation and its spatial distribution, and the assessment and optimisation of the shielding performance. The analyses were based on three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code using suitable torus sector models developed for the different PPCS plant variants. (orig.)

  12. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  13. Weldability and weld properties for advanced power plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerjak, H.; Letofsky, E. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria); Jochum, C. [Thyssen Schweisstechnik, Hamm (Germany); Nies, H. [Oerlikon Schweisstechnik, Eisenberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    This paper shows the contributions of the suppliers of consumables, foundries and research institutes to the European COST program 522 for the development of new Co modified 9-12% Cr-steels. The characterisation of welded joints in advanced high creep resistant steels is of decisive importance in the design of modern power stations. The key to solve these takes in the understanding of the metallurgical behaviour of the different microstructures appearing in the welded joint - base material, heat affected zone and weld deposit under creep exposure conditions. (orig.)

  14. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  15. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  16. Advanced surveillance of resistance temperature detectors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of several RTDs located at the cold leg of a PWR has been studied. A theoretical model for the heat transfer between the RTDs and the surrounding fluid is derived. It proposes a two real poles transfer function. By means of noise analysis techniques in the time domain (autoregressive models) and the Dynamic Data System methodology, the two time constants of the system can be found. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed in order to choose the proper sampling time to obtain both constants. The two poles are found and they permit an advance in situ surveillance of the sensor response time and the sensor dynamics performance. One of the poles is related to the inner dynamics whereas the other one is linked to the process and the inner dynamics. So surveillance on the process and on the inner dynamics can be distinguished. (author)

  17. Ceramic membranes for gas separation in advanced fossil power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulenberg, W.A.; Baumann, S.; Ivanova, M.; Gestel, T. van; Bram, M.; Stoever, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction or elimination of CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity generation power plants fuelled by coal or gas is a major target in the current socio-economic, environmental and political discussion to reduce green house gas emissions such as CO{sub 2}. This mission can be achieved by introducing gas separation techniques making use of membrane technology, which is, as a rule, associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with the conventional separation technologies. Depending on the kind of power plant process different membrane types (ceramic, polymer, metal) can be implemented. The possible technology routes are currently investigated to achieve the emission reduction. They rely on different separation tasks. The CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation is the main target in the post-combustion process. Air separation (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) is the focus of the oxyfuel process. In the pre-combustion process an additional H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation is included. Although all separation concepts imply different process requirements they have in common a need in membranes with high permeability, selectivity and stability. In each case CO{sub 2} is obtained in a readily condensable form. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes or polymer membranes are applicable in post-combustion stages. In processes with oxyfuel combustion, where the fuel is combusted with pure oxygen, oxygen transport membranes i.e. mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes with mainly perovskite or fluorite structure can be integrated. In the pre-combustion stages of the power plant process, H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation membranes like microporous membranes e.g. doped silica or mixed protonic electronic conductors or metal membranes can be applied. The paper gives an overview about the considered ceramic materials for the different gas separation membranes. The manufacturing of bulk materials as well as supported thin films of these membranes along

  18. Hiberarchy of requirement analysis of reactor protection system for advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the security and the margin of safety of nuclear power plant, the research on requirement analysis of digital reactor protection system for advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant was developed. Based on the known technology, a requirement analysis report was performed. A kind of three-levels pyramidal hierarchy was adopted in the requirement analysis, and the design characteristics of the requirement analysis were described in the analysis report. This hiberarchy can directly illuminate the design characters and logical achievement of the requirement analysis for advanced pressurized water reactor digital protection system. (authors)

  19. Development and validation process of the advanced main control board for next Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of main control room improvement is to reduce operator workload and potential human errors by offering a better working environment where operators can maximize their abilities. Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) utilities and Mitsubishi group have developed a touch -screen-based main control console (i.e. advanced main control room) the next generation PWRs to further improve the plant operability using a state of the art electronics technology. The advanced main control room consists of an operator console, a supervisor console and large display panels. The functional specifications were evaluated by utility operators using a prototype main control console connected to a plant simulator. (author)

  20. Siemens' steam turbine generator packages for advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the current economic crisis and the increasing share of renewable energy, the long term perspective predicts an increasing global demand for nuclear power generation applications. [1] In response to the growing demand for new nuclear power plants (NPPs), Siemens is implementing and further developing a modular platform of half speed steam turbines and generators covering the most relevant power range from 1000 - 1900 MWe. The paper presents details of the Siemens' Steam Turbine Generator Packages (turboset - Fig. 1) consisting of: Modular Steam Turbine Platform: SST-9000 series 4 pole turbo generator fleet SGEN5-4000W The design of the turbosets for NPPs is based on excellent operational experience with Siemens KONVOI saturated steam turbosets together with service and retrofit experience as well as on experience gained during the project execution of the world largest turboset in Olkiluoto 3. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear plants control: towards an more advanced automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor operation appears to have a lower automation level than other fields of production industry. Compiled data point out that human factors are implied in about 70 % of un acceptable errors happening in a nuclear plant. But no obvious conclusion can result from these data. Human factor are so numerous and unlike that no mathematical model can be achieved. For instance, instead of assuming a whole automated control, a computerized aided control system can lower human faults probability by lowering attention requirements and hence fatigue. Man-machine system engineering and interactive display devices appear to be the best tools to determine the optimal automation level for the highest safety level. CEA and EDF use them in their ''ESCRIME'' coordinated research program. (D.L.)

  2. Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin

    OpenAIRE

    Bankova, Vassya; Castro, Solange de; Marcucci, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Récents progrès dans la chimie de la propolis et son origine végétale. La propolis est un matériau multifonctionnel utilisé par les abeilles pour la construction et la maintenance de leurs ruches. Elle est utilisée par l'Homme depuis longtemps. En raison de ses activités biologiques variées et précieuses, la propolis est actuellement utilisée en apithérapie et comme composant des cosmétiques et des " produits de santé ". L'article discute des plantes qui fournissent la propolis. Pour cela on ...

  3. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Jim Fisher; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-01-28

    During this quarter work was continued on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes under a variety of conditions. Membrane permeation was tested up to 100 hours at constant pressure, temperature, and flow rates. In addition, design parameters were completed for a scale-up hydrogen separation demonstration unit. Evaluation of microstructure and effect of hydrogen exposure on BCY/Ni cermet mechanical properties was initiated. The fabrication of new cermets containing high permeability metals is reported and progress in the preparation of sulfur resistant catalysts is discussed. Finally, a report entitled ''Criteria for Incorporating Eltron's Hydrogen Separation Membranes into Vision 21 IGCC Systems and FutureGen Plants'' was completed.

  4. Biology and biotechnological advances in Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic

  5. Advances in Omics and Bioinformatics Tools for Systems Analyses of Plant Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mochida, Keiichi; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Omics and bioinformatics are essential to understanding the molecular systems that underlie various plant functions. Recent game-changing sequencing technologies have revitalized sequencing approaches in genomics and have produced opportunities for various emerging analytical applications. Driven by technological advances, several new omics layers such as the interactome, epigenome and hormonome have emerged. Furthermore, in several plant species, the development of omics resources has progre...

  6. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses. - Passive sampling and biomonitoring were used to determine the amounts of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters.

  7. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Magi, E., E-mail: magie@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Di Carro, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Suter, M.J.-F.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses. - Passive sampling and biomonitoring were used to determine the amounts of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters.

  8. Advancement of safeguards inspection technology for CANDU nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, W. S.; Cha, H. R.; Ham, Y. S.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, K. P.; Hong, Y. D

    1999-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop both inspection technology and safeguards instruments, related to CANDU safeguards inspection, through international cooperation, so that those outcomes are to be applied in field inspections of national safeguards. Furthermore, those could contribute to the improvement of verification correctness of IAEA inspections. Considering the level of national inspection technology, it looked not possible to perform national inspections without the joint use of containment and surveillance equipment conjunction with the IAEA. In this connection, basic studies for the successful implementation of national inspections was performed, optimal structure of safeguards inspection was attained, and advancement of safeguards inspection technology was forwarded. The successful implementation of this project contributed to both the improvement of inspection technology on CANDU reactors and the implementation of national inspection to be performed according to the legal framework. In addition, it would be an opportunity to improve the ability of negotiating in equal shares in relation to the IAEA on the occasion of discussing or negotiating the safeguards issues concerned. Now that the national safeguards technology for CANDU reactors was developed, the safeguards criteria, procedure and instruments as to the other item facilities and fabrication facilities should be developed for the perfection of national inspections. It would be desirable that the recommendations proposed and concreted in this study, so as to both cope with the strengthened international safeguards and detect the undeclared nuclear activities, could be applied to national safeguards scheme. (author)

  9. Advancement of safeguards inspection technology for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project are to develop both inspection technology and safeguards instruments, related to CANDU safeguards inspection, through international cooperation, so that those outcomes are to be applied in field inspections of national safeguards. Furthermore, those could contribute to the improvement of verification correctness of IAEA inspections. Considering the level of national inspection technology, it looked not possible to perform national inspections without the joint use of containment and surveillance equipment conjunction with the IAEA. In this connection, basic studies for the successful implementation of national inspections was performed, optimal structure of safeguards inspection was attained, and advancement of safeguards inspection technology was forwarded. The successful implementation of this project contributed to both the improvement of inspection technology on CANDU reactors and the implementation of national inspection to be performed according to the legal framework. In addition, it would be an opportunity to improve the ability of negotiating in equal shares in relation to the IAEA on the occasion of discussing or negotiating the safeguards issues concerned. Now that the national safeguards technology for CANDU reactors was developed, the safeguards criteria, procedure and instruments as to the other item facilities and fabrication facilities should be developed for the perfection of national inspections. It would be desirable that the recommendations proposed and concreted in this study, so as to both cope with the strengthened international safeguards and detect the undeclared nuclear activities, could be applied to national safeguards scheme. (author)

  10. Operating experience driven advancements in plant chemistry practices and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved water chemistry control is essential to: Minimize materials degradation (e.g., stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator (SG) tubes, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), corrosion of fuel); Minimize corrosion product transport (e.g., transport into the SGs where it can foul tube surfaces and create crevice environments for the concentration of corrosive impurities, transport and deposition on the fuel); and, Minimize dose rates. Water chemistry control must be optimized to provide overall improvement considering the sometimes variant constraints of the goals listed above. New approaches to mitigate materials degradation, reduce corrosion product transport, and minimize plant dose rates are continually sought. The industry needs to address system integrity issues through application of promising, innovative chemistry initiatives; focusing on long-term integrity and viability while maintaining fuel integrity and minimizing dose rates. This presentation will summarize some of the major initiatives with respect to PWR primary and secondary system chemistry to effectively address these goals, as they pertain to SGs. (author)

  11. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  12. Advanced superconducting MHD magnet design for a retrofit power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnet system has been designed for an MHD topping cycle retrofit of a conventional power plant. The channel power output wil be --35 MWe. The 4.5 T peak on-axis field magnet will be constructed of an unusual NbTi superconductor wound into four subunits per dipole half. These will be three 450 saddle coils with circular or ellipsoidal end turns and a single planar coil with a modified racetrack shape that will serve principally as a field shaping coil. This planar coil also enables a substantial reduction in the ratio of peak to central field strength. Among the unique features of this design will be the use of flexible bands in tension as the primary element of the transverse force containment structure. The conductor will be of the cable-in-conduit type with a low copper-to-superconductor ratio cable and a thick-walled aluminum conduit sheath. The sheath will support the axial loads on the saddles and will also provide thermal mass for protection against overheating in the event of an energy dump. The analysis and design of this magnet system and its projected advantages in both performance and economics are discussed

  13. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators--introducing inter-plant life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important goals of competing power plant operators is to ensure safe operation of their plants, characterized by maximum availability throughout the entire life cycle and minimized specific generating costs. One parameter crucial to the total price of electricity--and one that can be actively influenced by the power plant operators--is maintenance. Up to 30% of all electricity generating costs accrue from maintenance. In the past years maintenance measures have been optimized particularly by the application and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, by the increased level of system and component automation as well as more efficient organization structures. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. But the risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analyzed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realized. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the implementation of structured life cycle management are essential requirements. An inter-plant approach is recommended to make a quick implementation of maintenance optimization potentials possible. Plant-specific improvement potentials can be established with the help of a best-practice comparison, and measures and priorities can be defined for realizing them. Creating an inter-plant database will allow experience and findings to be analyzed quickly and efficiently by experts and made available to all participants on a neutral platform. Despite--or maybe owing to--the increasingly competitive marketplace, a sustained reduction in the maintenance costs of power plant operators can only be achieved through a structured, inter-plant exchange of experience. The ZES offers the industry a suitable platform for cooperation with its 'Condition-Based Maintenance' research focus. The introduction

  14. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies. PMID:24824586

  15. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: RECENT ADVANCES IN TRANSFORMATION THROUGH SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sidorov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic transformation has become an important biotechnology tool for the improvement of many crops. A solid foundation for the fast development and implementation of biotechnology in agriculture was provided by achievements in plant tissue culture. On the 30th anniversary of plant transformation, I report the advancements, recent challenges and shifts in methodology of transformation. The main focus of this paper will be on conventional and novel approaches for genetic improvements of soybean, cotton and corn. I will also highlight results on the transformation of these crops that have considerably been improved by modern biotechnology.

  16. Recent advances in application of intelligent decision suport software systes for inspection planning in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the BE5935 joint project of the Commission of the European Communities and European industry a new concept of advanced multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) has been developed and applied onto several selected practical problems (bridges, offshore structures, power plants). The example in the area of power plants concerns the planning of periodic inspections (overhauls). The paper describes the concept as applied and customized for power plant related practical applications, and presents the results obtained in 1994 and early 1995. The results confirm the high relevance of the concept for the practice. (author). 6 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades

  18. Advanced qualification process of ANAV NPP integral dynamic models for supporting plant operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive technical literature exists aimed at establishing the requirements needed to qualify a Nuclear Power Plant model. Most of this literature is focused on qualifying a model for licensing uses. Less documentation is available nowadays on the requirements needed when an Integral Plant Model is used for supporting plant operation and control of an actual commercial facility, while fulfilling its goals of safety and competitiveness. For the last 15 years the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) has been working in this field along with Asociacion Nuclear Asco-Vandellos (ANAV), which is a utility that presently runs three operating PWRs. The paper develops an advanced qualification process (AQP) of plant models for operation support, introduces the concept of plant configuration and explains how this activity complements other usual validation tasks

  19. Using the DSNP Modular Modeling System for the Safety Assessment of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced nuclear reactor concepts require even in their inception or preliminary conceptual design a safety assessment and a coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic analysis. Often, such analyses cannot be performed with standard system analysis and simulation codes, because in most cases advanced reactor concepts, particularly in what is considered to be Gen-IV rectors, include unusual design features, which cannot be modeled with available simulation packages. The unusual features can be specially designed heat exchangers integrated in the core vessel wall, reactor vessel air cooling systems employing natural circulation phenomena, unusual fuel elements such as pebbles of different sizes and construction, fluidized bed fuel, exotic coolant such as led-bismuth eutectic for which special equations of state are needed, and accelerator driven systems with unique control features. The combination of new reactor components, fuels and coolants in advanced nuclear power plants require a specific modeling system such as the DSNP. (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants)

  20. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power.

  1. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power

  2. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation. PMID:22239071

  3. Corrosion Inhibiting Mechanism of Nitrite Ion on the Passivation of Carbon Steel and Ductile Cast Iron for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. T. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While NaNO2 addition can greatly inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel and ductile cast iron, in order to improve the similar corrosion resistance, ca. 100 times more NaNO2 addition is needed for ductile cast iron compared to carbon steel. A corrosion and inhibition mechanism is proposed whereby NO2- ion is added to oxidize. The NO2- ion can be reduced to nitrogen compounds and these compounds may be absorbed on the surface of graphite. Therefore, since nitrite ion needs to oxidize the surface of matrix and needs to passivate the galvanic corroded area and since it is absorbed on the surface of graphite, a greater amount of corrosion inhibitor needs to be added to ductile cast iron compared to carbon steel. The passive film of carbon steel and ductile cast iron, formed by NaNO2 addition showed N-type semiconductive properties and its resistance, is increased; the passive current density is thus decreased and the corrosion rate is then lowered. In addition, the film is mainly composed of iron oxide due to the oxidation by NO2- ion; however, regardless of the alloys, nitrogen compounds (not nitrite were detected at the outermost surface but were not incorporated in the inner oxide.

  4. Calculations concerning the capability of passive recombiners to control hydrogen concentration in the containment of an advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Constructions of the University of Pisa has developed a computer code, HOCRA, which is able to make an initial evaluation of the capability of catalytic recombiners to remove hydrogen from the atmosphere of the safety containments of nuclear reactors in accident conditions. The code allows the analysis of the average concentration transient of hydrogen in a generic compartment of a safety containment in a nuclear reactor. The software is structured into two groups. The first, mode-1, analyses the average concentration in all the free volume of the containment before a possible venting., whereas the second, mode-2, analyses the average concentration transient in a containment compartment, assuming input and output flow rates into and from the compartment itself The first part of this paper outlines the physical and mathematical model of the code, the second part reports calculations made for an advanced PWR in cooperation with ENEL. (author)

  5. Development of advanced digital control and monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the latest Operating Japanese PWR Plant, to enhance reliability, operability and maintainability, the state of the art computer technology and human factors engineering has been applied for Main Control Boards, and the digital technology has been applied for main control system of the latest operating Japanese PWR plant. For the next Japanese PWR plant (APWR; Advanced PWR), it is planed to apply digital technology for all the instrumentation and control (I and C) system including the safety grade system and also apply advanced Main Control Boards which utilize soft operation, to enhance the system capability. This paper describes the system concepts, configuration, features and enhanced maintainability of integrated digital I and C system. And also describes prototype system validation. (author)

  6. Development and utilization of the NRC policy statement on the regulation of advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 26, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued for public comment a ''Proposed Policy for Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (50 FR 11884). This report presents and discusses the Commission's final version of that policy as titled and published on July 8, 1986 ''Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants, Statement of Policy'' (51 FR 24643). It provides an overview of comments received from the public, of the significant changes from the proposed Policy Statement to the final Policy Statement, and of the Commission's response to six questions contained in the proposed Policy Statement. The report also discusses the definition for advanced reactors, the establishment of an Advanced Reactors Group, the staff review approach and information needs, and the utilization of the Policy Statement in relation to other NRC programs, including the policies for safety goals, severe accidents and standardization. In addition, guidance for advanced reactors with respect to operating experience, technology development, foreign information and data, and prototype testing is provided. Finally, a discussion on the use of less prescriptive and nonprescriptive design criteria for advanced reactors, which the Policy Statement encourages, is presented

  7. Evaluation of contaminant removal of reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation in full-scale operation by combining passive sampling with chemical analysis and bioanalytical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Lawrence, Michael; Macova, Miroslava; Mueller, Jochen F; Poussade, Yvan; Robillot, Cedric; Roux, Annalie; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2011-06-15

    Advanced water treatment of secondary treated effluent requires stringent quality control to achieve a water quality suitable for augmenting drinking water supplies. The removal of micropollutants such as pesticides, industrial chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), pharmaceuticals, and personal care products (PPCP) is paramount. As the concentrations of individual contaminants are typically low, frequent analytical screening is both laborious and costly. We propose and validate an approach for continuous monitoring by applying passive sampling with Empore disks in vessels that were designed to slow down the water flow, and thus uptake kinetics, and ensure that the uptake is only marginally dependent on the chemicals' physicochemical properties over a relatively narrow molecular size range. This design not only assured integrative sampling over 27 days for a broad range of chemicals but also permitted the use of a suite of bioanalytical tools as sum parameters, representative of mixtures of chemicals with a common mode of toxic action. Bioassays proved to be more sensitive than chemical analysis to assess the removal of organic micropollutants by reverse osmosis, followed by UV/H₂O₂ treatment, as many individual compounds fell below the quantification limit of chemical analysis, yet still contributed to the observed mixture toxicity. Nonetheless in several cases, the responses in the bioassays were also below their quantification limits and therefore only three bioassays were evaluated here, representing nonspecific toxicity and two specific end points for estrogenicity and photosynthesis inhibition. Chemical analytical techniques were able to quantify 32 pesticides, 62 PCPPs, and 12 EDCs in reverse osmosis concentrate. However, these chemicals could explain only 1% of the nonspecific toxicity in the Microtox assay in the reverse osmosis concentrate and 0.0025% in the treated water. Likewise only 1% of the estrogenic effect in the E-SCREEN could be

  8. An Assessment of Wind Plant Complex Flows Using Advanced Doppler Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, W. S.; Schroeder, J.; Hirth, B.; Duncan, J.; Guynes, J.

    2015-12-01

    As installed wind energy capacity continues to steadily increase, the need for comprehensive measurements of wind plant complex flows to further reduce the cost of wind energy has been well advertised by the industry as a whole. Such measurements serve diverse perspectives including resource assessment, turbine inflow and power curve validation, wake and wind plant layout model verification, operations and maintenance, and the development of future advanced wind plant control schemes. While various measurement devices have been matured for wind energy applications (e.g. meteorological towers, LIDAR, SODAR), this presentation will focus on the use of advanced Doppler radar systems to observe the complex wind flows within and surrounding wind plants. Advanced Doppler radars can provide the combined advantage of a large analysis footprint (tens of square kilometers) with rapid data analysis updates (a few seconds to one minute) using both single- and dual-Doppler data collection methods. This presentation demonstrates the utility of measurements collected by the Texas Tech University Ka-band (TTUKa) radars to identify complex wind flows occurring within and nearby operational wind plants, and provide reliable forecasts of wind speeds and directions at given locations (i.e. turbine or instrumented tower sites) 45+ seconds in advance. Radar-derived wind maps reveal commonly observed features such as turbine wakes and turbine-to-turbine interaction, high momentum wind speed channels between turbine wakes, turbine array edge effects, transient boundary layer flow structures (such as wind streaks, frontal boundaries, etc.), and the impact of local terrain. Operational turbine or instrumented tower data are merged with the radar analysis to link the observed complex flow features to turbine and wind plant performance.

  9. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  10. Improvement of environmental aspects of thermal power plant operation by advanced control concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulandrić Robert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, as formulated in the Kyoto Protocol, imposes the need for improving environmental aspects of existing thermal power plants operation. Improvements can be reached either by efficiency increment or by implementation of emission reduction measures. Investments in refurbishment of existing plant components or in plant upgrading by flue gas desulphurization, by primary and secondary measures of nitrogen oxides reduction, or by biomass co-firing, are usually accompanied by modernisation of thermal power plant instrumentation and control system including sensors, equipment diagnostics and advanced controls. Impact of advanced control solutions implementation depends on technical characteristics and status of existing instrumentation and control systems as well as on design characteristics and actual conditions of installed plant components. Evaluation of adequacy of implementation of advanced control concepts is especially important in Western Balkan region where thermal power plants portfolio is rather diversified in terms of size, type and commissioning year and where generally poor maintenance and lack of investments in power generation sector resulted in high greenhouse gases emissions and low efficiency of plants in operation. This paper is intended to present possibilities of implementation of advanced control concepts, and particularly those based on artificial intelligence, in selected thermal power plants in order to increase plant efficiency and to lower pollutants emissions and to comply with environmental quality standards prescribed in large combustion plant directive. [Acknowledgements. This paper has been created within WBalkICT - Supporting Common RTD actions in WBCs for developing Low Cost and Low Risk ICT based solutions for TPPs Energy Efficiency increasing, SEE-ERA.NET plus project in cooperation among partners from IPA SA - Romania, University of Zagreb - Croatia and Vinca

  11. Development of advanced I and C in nuclear power plants: ADIOS and ASICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper Automatic Startup Intelligent Control System (ASICS) that automatically controls the PWR plant from cold shutdown to 5% of reactor power and Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System (ADIOS) that is integrated with alarms, process values, and diagnostic information to an expert system focused on alarm processing are described. Nuclear Power Plant is manually controlled from cold shutdown to 5% according to the general operation procedures for startup operation of nuclear power plant. Alarm information is the primary sources to detect abnormalities in nuclear power plants or other process plants. The conventional hardwired alarm systems, characterized by one sensor-one indicator may lead the control room operators to be confused with avalanching alarms during plant transients. ASICS and ADIOS are designed to reduce the operator burden. The advances in computer software and hardware technology and also in information processing provide a good opportunity to improve the control systems and the annunciator systems of nuclear power plants or other similar process plants. It is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the function of the computer- or software-based systems like ASICS and ADIOS. The performance and the function of ASICS and ADIOS are evaluated with the real-time functional test facility and the results have shown that the developed systems are efficient and useful for operation and operator support

  12. Development of advanced I and C in nuclear power plants: ADIOS and ASICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung-Taek E-mail: jtkim@nanum.kaeri.re.kr; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Hwang, In-Koo; Lee, Dong-Young; Park, Won-Man; Kim, Jung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Jeong

    2001-07-01

    In this paper Automatic Startup Intelligent Control System (ASICS) that automatically controls the PWR plant from cold shutdown to 5% of reactor power and Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System (ADIOS) that is integrated with alarms, process values, and diagnostic information to an expert system focused on alarm processing are described. Nuclear Power Plant is manually controlled from cold shutdown to 5% according to the general operation procedures for startup operation of nuclear power plant. Alarm information is the primary sources to detect abnormalities in nuclear power plants or other process plants. The conventional hardwired alarm systems, characterized by one sensor-one indicator may lead the control room operators to be confused with avalanching alarms during plant transients. ASICS and ADIOS are designed to reduce the operator burden. The advances in computer software and hardware technology and also in information processing provide a good opportunity to improve the control systems and the annunciator systems of nuclear power plants or other similar process plants. It is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the function of the computer- or software-based systems like ASICS and ADIOS. The performance and the function of ASICS and ADIOS are evaluated with the real-time functional test facility and the results have shown that the developed systems are efficient and useful for operation and operator support.

  13. Development of an advanced man-machine system for Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Man Machine System for Japanese PWR plants (MMS - PWR) is a prototype system of the operator supporting system that has been developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Mitsubishi Electric Co. and Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. for five years from 1987 to 1991, under the financial support of MITI (the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japanese government). The aim of this system development is to further increase operation reliability and operability of PWR plants. For this purpose the knowledge engineering and the up-to-date computer technologies have been introduced into the design of a prototype system that can offer the information, infer and judge according to operator's thinking process in grasping the plant status and the operations. Also the system has been verified. A prototype system has the following supporting functions: (1) Operator Supporting Function for Normal Operation: Flexible operator supporting function for re-start-up and load following operation that will be needed for Japanese PWR plants in the future. (2) Operator Supporting Function for Abnormalities and Accidents: Early detection and identification of abnormality or accident of the plant, and guidance to appropriate countermeasures. (3) Operator Supporting Function for Maintenance: Supporting function for evaluation of the influence of maintenance on plant components, as well as for the isolation and restoration procedures during plant operation. (4) Optimum Operation Surveillance Function: Intelligence man machine interface that enables operators to understand various plant data precisely and offers the proper answers of what they need to know. (author). 6 figs, 2 refs

  14. Advanced design nuclear power plants: Competitive, economical electricity. An analysis of the cost of electricity from coal, gas and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an updated analysis of the projected cost of electricity from new baseload power plants beginning operation around the year 2000. Included in the study are: (1) advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants; (2) low emissions coal-fired power plants; (3) gasified coal-fired power plants; and (4) natural gas-fired power plants. This analysis shows that electricity from advanced-design, standardized nuclear power plants will be economically competitive with all other baseload electric generating system alternatives. This does not mean that any one source of electric power is always preferable to another. Rather, what this analysis indicates is that, as utilities and others begin planning for future baseload power plants, advanced-design nuclear plants should be considered an economically viable option to be included in their detailed studies of alternatives. Even with aggressive and successful conservation, efficiency and demand-side management programs, some new baseload electric supply will be needed during the 1990s and into the future. The baseload generating plants required in the 1990s are currently being designed and constructed. For those required shortly after 2000, the planning and alternatives assessment process must start now. It takes up to ten years to plan, design, license and construct a new coal-fired or nuclear fueled baseload electric generating plant and about six years for a natural gas-fired plant. This study indicates that for 600-megawatt blocks of capacity, advanced-design nuclear plants could supply electricity at an average of 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour versus 4.8 cents per kilowatt-hour for an advanced pulverized-coal plant, 5.0 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gasified-coal combined cycle plant, and 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour for a gas-fired combined cycle combustion turbine plant

  15. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components

  16. Advanced phenotyping and phenotype data analysis for the study of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md Matiur; Chen, Dijun; Gillani, Zeeshan; Klukas, Christian; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Due to an increase in the consumption of food, feed, fuel and to meet global food security needs for the rapidly growing human population, there is a necessity to breed high yielding crops that can adapt to the future climate changes, particularly in developing countries. To solve these global challenges, novel approaches are required to identify quantitative phenotypes and to explain the genetic basis of agriculturally important traits. These advances will facilitate the screening of germplasm with high performance characteristics in resource-limited environments. Recently, plant phenomics has offered and integrated a suite of new technologies, and we are on a path to improve the description of complex plant phenotypes. High-throughput phenotyping platforms have also been developed that capture phenotype data from plants in a non-destructive manner. In this review, we discuss recent developments of high-throughput plant phenotyping infrastructure including imaging techniques and corresponding principles for phenotype data analysis. PMID:26322060

  17. Recent advances in plant-virus interaction with emphasis on small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namisha; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Puranik, Swati; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Regulation of several biological functions in plants has now been known to involve diverse RNA silencing pathways. These vital pathways involve various components such as dsRNA, Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and Argonaute proteins, which lead to the production of several small RNAs (sRNAs) varying in their sizes. These sRNAs have significant role in the regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and translational levels. Among them, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs; majorly 21, 22 and 24 nt) have been shown to play an important role in plants' resistance against many viruses by inhibiting the viral gene expression. Furthermore, it has also been highlighted that siRNA-mediated methylation of viral DNA confers resistance to various plant DNA viruses. In this review, we have outlined the recent advances made using the siRNA-mediated antiviral strategy, along with methylation-based epigenetic defensive mechanisms as a protective measure against diverse plant viruses. PMID:23086491

  18. Advanced exergy analysis and exergoeconomic performance evaluation of thermal processes in an existing industrial plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis of a complex industrial energy supply plant is presented. • Unavoidable exergy destruction is used to identify efficiency increase potential. • Measures for plant improvements are evaluated with respect to efficiency and costs. • Measures result with higher exergy efficiency and reduced fuel and product costs. - Abstract: Exergy analysis and exergoeconomics are often used to evaluate industrial energy systems performance from the thermodynamic and economic points of view. While the classical exergy analysis can be used to recognize the sources of inefficiency and irreversibilities, so called advanced exergy analysis is convenient for identifying real potential for thermodynamic improvements of the system by splitting exergy destruction into avoidable and unavoidable parts. In this paper, the advanced exergy analysis is used to identify performance critical components and the potential for exergy efficiency improvement of a complex industrial energy supply plant. This plant is a part of a rubber factory and its role is to provide steam, compressed air and cooling water to the production facilities, as well as hot water for space heating and sanitary use. The plant is first analyzed as is and the avoidable (and the unavoidable) part of exergy destruction is identified for each observed component. Then, the measures for removing the avoidable destruction are defined. Finally, the plant is analyzed as if the measures were implemented and avoidable losses eliminated. Numerical analysis is based on real data, some of which are collected during on site measurements. Large system of nonlinear and linear equations is defined and solved numerically using the Engineering Equation Solver. Results of the presented analysis show the difference in thermodynamic and economic operational parameters of the plant for the cases without and with the efficiency measures implemented, i.e. the current state and the state with the avoidable

  19. Experiments on the Heat Transfer and Natural Circulation Characteristics of the Passive Residual Heat Removal System for the Advanced Integral Type Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of the passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) for the SMART-P have been performed using the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility (VISTA). The VISTA facility consists of the primary loop, the secondary loop, the PRHRS loop, and auxiliary systems to simulate the SMART-P, a pilot plant of the SMART. The primary loop is composed of the steam generator (SG) primary side, a simulated core, a main coolant pump, and loop piping, and the PRHRS loop consists of the SG secondary side, a PRHRS heat exchanger, and loop piping. The natural circulation performance of the PRHRS, the heat transfer characteristics of the PRHRS heat exchangers and the emergency cooldown tank (ECT), and the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary loop are intensively investigated. The experimental results show that the coolant flows steadily in the PRHRS loop and the heat transfers through the PRHRS heat exchanger and the emergency cooldown tank are sufficient enough to enable the natural circulation of the coolant. The results also show that the core decay heat can be sufficiently removed from the primary loop with the operation of the PRHRS. (authors)

  20. Preliminary analysis of the inclusion of security passive systems to reduce the impact of accidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is presented a conceptual analysis of possible benefits and limitations that potentially represents the introduction of security passive systems to reduce the events impact of very low probability and high risk to the systems of radioactive material confinement of a light water reactor. These events are related with the possibility that a hydrogen explosion is presented as consequence of the accumulation of the same hydrogen in the contention of the reactor, in a scenario of severe accident. This accumulated hydrogen can be liberated in the reactor building or primary contention, where the conditions of their atmosphere make but prone the combustion. The catalytic recombination represents a viable option for the hydrogen concentrations decrease and because this recombination is highly exothermic, is important to analyze and to know if the recombined vapor to high temperature can be used in combination with vapor injectors that in turn, they are passive systems. In the following sections an explanation is presented about the use of the mentioned systems, as well as some results on the behavior of the vapor injectors. (Author)

  1. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  3. Computer visualization for enhanced operator performance for advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operators of nuclear power plants are presented with an often uncoordinated and arbitrary array of displays and controls. Information is presented in different formats and on physically dissimilar instruments. In an accident situation, an operator must be very alert to quickly diagnose and respond to the state of the plant as represented by the control room displays. Improvements in display technology and increased automation have helped reduce operator burden; however, too much automation may lead to operator apathy and decreased efficiency. A proposed approach to the human-system interface uses modern graphics technology and advances in computational power to provide a visualization or ''virtual reality'' framework for the operator. This virtual reality comprises a simulated perception of another existence, complete with three-dimensional structures, backgrounds, and objects. By placing the operator in an environment that presents an integrated, graphical, and dynamic view of the plant, his attention is directly engaged. Through computer simulation, the operator can view plant equipment, read local displays, and manipulate controls as if he were in the local area. This process not only keeps an operator involved in plant operation and testing procedures, but also reduces personnel exposure. In addition, operator stress is reduced because, with realistic views of plant areas and equipment, the status of the plant can be accurately grasped without interpreting a large number of displays. Since a single operator can quickly ''visit'' many different plant areas without physically moving from the control room, these techniques are useful in reducing labor requirements for surveillance and maintenance activities. This concept requires a plant dynamic model continuously updated via real-time process monitoring. This model interacts with a three-dimensional, solid-model architectural configuration of the physical plant

  4. Advanced control systems to improve nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TECDOC is the result of a series of an advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1995-1996 in Vienna (March 1995), in Erlangen Germany (December 1995), in Garching, Germany (June 1996) and in Vienna (November 1996). It was prepared with the participation and contributions of experts from Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea, Norway, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The publication not only describes advanced control systems for the improvement of nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency, but also provides a road map to guide interested readers to plan and execute an advanced instrumentation and control project. The subjects include: identification of needs and requirements, justification for safety and user acceptance, and the development of an engineering process. The report should be of interest to nuclear power plant staff, I and C system designers and integrators as well as regulators and researchers. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Manipulating photorespiration to increase plant productivity: recent advances and perspectives for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marco; Bauwe, Hermann; Busch, Florian A; Fernie, Alisdair R; Keech, Olivier; Levey, Myles; Ort, Donald R; Parry, Martin A J; Sage, Rowan; Timm, Stefan; Walker, Berkley; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of the 2-phosphoglycolate generated by the oxygenase reaction of Rubisco requires a complex and energy-consuming set of reactions collectively known as the photorespiratory cycle. Several approaches aimed at reducing the rates of photorespiratory energy or carbon loss have been proposed, based either on screening for natural variation or by means of genetic engineering. Recent work indicates that plant yield can be substantially improved by the alteration of photorespiratory fluxes or by engineering artificial bypasses to photorespiration. However, there is also evidence indicating that, under certain environmental and/or nutritional conditions, reduced photorespiratory capacity may be detrimental to plant performance. Here we summarize recent advances obtained in photorespiratory engineering and discuss prospects for these advances to be transferred to major crops to help address the globally increasing demand for food and biomass production. PMID:26951371

  6. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  7. Passive containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a containment system that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is prevented from over-heating by a high containment back-pressure and a reactor vessel refill system. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high sub-atmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means. 20 claims, 14 figures

  8. Removal of hormones and pharmaceuticals in the Advanced Water Recycling Demonstration Plant in Queensland, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S. J.; Wintgens, T.; Sherman, P; Zaricky, J.; Schaefer, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    An advanced water recycling demonstration plant was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a number of treatment technologies in the removal of some residuals of commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals as well as natural and synthetic hormones found in sewage. Analysis of targeted compounds was carried out by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initial tests were undertaken to determine the background concentrations of the analytes during various s...

  9. Advanced Control Structures of Turbo Generator System of Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Sokólski; Karol Kulkowski; Anna Kobylarz; Kazimierz Duzinkiewicz; Tomasz A. Rutkowski; Michał Grochowski

    2015-01-01

    In the paper a synthesis of advanced control structures of turbine and synchronous generator for nuclear power plant working under changing operating conditions (supplied power level) is presented. It is based on the nonlinear models of the steam turbine and synchronous generator cooperating with the power system. The considered control structure consists of multi-regional fuzzy control systems with local linear controllers, including PID controllers, in particular control loops of turbine...

  10. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls technologies in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the US and Canadian nuclear industries was carried out by a team from Oak Ridge national laboratory to provide background for the development of regulatory policy, criteria, and guides for review of advanced I ampersand C systems as well as human engineering guidelines for evaluating these systems. The survey found those components of the US nuclear industry surveyed to be quite interested in advanced I ampersand C, but very cautious in implementing such systems in nuclear facilities and power plants. The trend in the facilities surveyed is to experiment cautiously when there is an intuitive advantage or short-term payoff. In the control room, the usual practice is direct substitution of digital and microprocessor-based instruments or systems that are functionally identical to the analog instruments or systems being replaced. The most advanced I ampersand C systems were found in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant has digital system in almost 100% of its control systems and in over 70% of its plant protection system. The hypothesis that properly 'introducing digital systems increases safety' is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems was achieved using an appropriate quality assurance program for the software development. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action, is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to every US utility as well as to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (orig.)

  11. Human factors issues associated with advanced instrumentation and controls technologies in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of advanced instrumentation and controls (I ampersand C) technologies and associated human factors issues in the US and Canadian nuclear industries was carried out by a team from Oak Ridge national laboratory to provide background for the development of regulatory policy, criteria, and guides for review of advanced I ampersand C systems as well as human engineering guidelines for evaluating these systems. The survey found those components of the US nuclear industry surveyed to be quite interested in advanced I ampersand C, but very cautious in implementing such systems in nuclear facilities and power plants. The trend in the facilities surveyed is to experiment cautiously when there is an intuitive advantage or short-term payoff. In the control room, the usual practice is direct substitution of digital and microprocessor-based instruments or systems that are functionally identical to the analog instruments or systems being replaced. The most advanced I ampersand C systems were found in the Canadian CANDU plants, where the newest plant has digital system in almost 100% of its control systems and in over 70% of its plant protection system. The hypothesis that properly ''introducing digital systems increases safety'' is supported by the Canadian experience. The performance of these digital systems was achieved using an appropriate quality assurance program for the software development. The ability of digital systems to detect impending failures and initiate a fail-safe action, is a significant safety issue that should be of special interest to every US utility as well as to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 12 refs. 5 tabs

  12. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  13. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system

  14. MARS calculation of PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) heat exchanger in APR+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Byoung Uhn; Yun, Byong Jo; Bae, Sung Won; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus), the next generation nuclear power plant in Korea, adopts PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) as one of the advanced safety feature. To design the condensation heat exchanger in PAFS, the two-phase flow phenomena in horizontal U-tube and PCCT (Passive Condensate Cooling Tank) were investigated by MARS calculation. By benchmarking with NOKO experimental result, MARS code showed a reasonable capability to quantitatively predict the condensation in horizontal tube heat exchanger. And the design of PAFS heat exchanger was proved to sufficiently remove the decay heat by the condensation heat transfer without any active auxiliary feedwater system.

  15. Advanced modeling and simulation of integrated gasification combined cycle power plants with CO2-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an extensive description of the correlations in some of the most crucial sub-processes for hard coal fired IGCC with carbon capture (CC-IGCC). For this purpose, process simulation models are developed for four industrial gasification processes, the CO-shift cycle, the acid gas removal unit, the sulfur recovery process, the gas turbine, the water-/steam cycle and the air separation unit (ASU). Process simulations clarify the influence of certain boundary conditions on plant operation, performance and economics. Based on that, a comparative benchmark of CC-IGCC concepts is conducted. Furthermore, the influence of integration between the gas turbine and the ASU is analyzed in detail. The generated findings are used to develop an advanced plant configuration with improved economics. Nevertheless, IGCC power plants with carbon capture are not found to be an economically efficient power generation technology at present day boundary conditions.

  16. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project on ''Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance'' was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds

  17. Approach to advanced diagnosis of rechargable batteries at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many number of rechargable batteries are installed as an electrical power supply system to maintain the function of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. These batteries have an important role to keep the safety of the plant, so at the case of loss of normal and external alternating power supply, electrical circuits should be switched to battery powered system automatically and instantaneously. Exchange and replacement plan of these batteries are scheduled mainly based upon the capacity test data checked by battery vendors, expected life length, and the periodical inspection data. However it is difficult to remove all batteries from circuits and send them to battery vendor's facilities at the same time to diagnose their capacity whether plant is in service or not. The authors introduce the advanced inspection technology as called 'Short time discharge voltage measurement of batteries' which realize to diagnose the capacity of all them without removing off from the circuits. (author)

  18. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  19. Passive PWR plants. Results of the effect of an Aircraft impact on the EPP. the DTN approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft impact on a nuclear power plant produces local effects regarding the structural integrity of the buildings, as well as a vibrational state which may affect the correct operation of the necessary equipment for plant safety. The evaluation of these effects must include both the local structural analysis and the obtainment of loads in equipment location points within the plant, so as to compare them with their capability to withstand dynamic stresses. The capacity of equipment items can be determined on the basis of dynamic tests performed on them, particularly in the plant seismic qualification process. A load caused by aircraft impact requires detailed analysis of the impact wave transmission through the structures of the plant. The local study may be carried out based on simplified formulae contained in the documentation, or on more detailed analysis of non-linear materials. This paper describes tasks undertaken and results obtained by DTN during the study of this impact on AP-600. These tasks are included in the activities performed in the EPP LAY-OUT WORKING GROUP. (Author)

  20. A Procedure for Determination of Degradation Acceptance Criteria for Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y-S.; Hahm, D.; Choi, I-K.

    2012-01-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory since 2007 to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This collaboration program aims at providing technical support to a five-year KAERI research project, which includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment: (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. The understanding and assessment of age-related degradations of structures, systems, and components and their impact on plant safety is the major goal of this KAERI-BNL collaboration. Four annual reports have been published before this report as a result of the collaboration research.

  1. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Judd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  2. An advanced nuclear power plant for heavy oil exploitation in the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important characteristics of the Orinoco Oil Belt (OOB) and of its heavy oil content, together with the main requirements for its exploitation, are presented here for analyzing the possibilities of the application of advanced nuclear power as main energy source in the heavy oil exploitation in the OOB. A steamsupply advanced nuclear cogeneration plant based on high temperature reactors is suggested for both the extraction and upgrading of the crude oil. The model consists of a plant for a 100 km2 oil field producing 100.000 barrels per day of refinery ready synthetic oil during 25 years. Three 1200 MW(th) reactors, built successively, supply a great portion of the required process heat, injection steam and electricity. Steam conditions are: for the process heat, a maximum pressure of 10 MPa at a temperature of 500deg C, and, for the injection steam, pressures between 12 and 17 MPa at saturation temperatures. Clear advantages for an advanced nuclear option application in the OOB development are substantiated, and a feasibility study is recommended. (orig.)

  3. The Physics Basis For An Advanced Physics And Advanced Technology Tokamak Power Plant Configuration, ARIES-ACT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Kessel, et al

    2014-03-05

    The advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n=3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, and requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reached βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle MHD stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling show that about 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while over 95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring about ~ 1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ICRF/FW and 40 MW of LHCD. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ~ 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~ 0.9x1020 /m3 and the temperature is ~ 4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the net power to LH threshold power is 2.8- 3.0 in the flattop.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic modeling needs for passive reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.M. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has received an application for design certification from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for an Advanced Light Water Reactor design known as the AP600. As part of the design certification process, the USNRC uses its thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes to independently audit the vendor calculations. The focus of this effort has been the small break LOCA transients that rely upon the passive safety features of the design to depressurize the primary system sufficiently so that gravity driven injection can provide a stable source for long term cooling. Of course, large break LOCAs have also been considered, but as the involved phenomena do not appear to be appreciably different from those of current plants, they were not discussed in this paper. Although the SBLOCA scenario does not appear to threaten core coolability - indeed, heatup is not even expected to occur - there have been concerns as to the performance of the passive safety systems. For example, the passive systems drive flows with small heads, consequently requiring more precision in the analysis compared to active systems methods for passive plants as compared to current plants with active systems. For the analysis of SBLOCAs and operating transients, the USNRC uses the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. To assure the applicability of RELAP5 to the analysis of these transients for the AP600 design, a four year long program of code development and assessment has been undertaken.

  5. Advancements in Risk-Informed Performance-Based Asset Management for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, ABSG Consulting Inc. (ABS Consulting) and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) have developed a decision support process and associated software for risk-informed, performance-based asset management (RIPBAM) of nuclear power plant facilities. RIPBAM applies probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tools and techniques in the realm of plant physical and financial asset management. The RIPBAM process applies a tiered set of models and supporting performance measures (or metrics) that can ultimately be applied to support decisions affecting the allocation and management of plant resources (e.g., funding, staffing, scheduling, etc.). In general, the ultimate goal of the RIPBAM process is to continually support decision-making to maximize a facility's net present value (NPV) and long-term profitability for its owners. While the initial applications of RIPBAM have been for nuclear power stations, the methodology can easily be adapted to other types of power station or complex facility decision-making support. RIPBAM can also be designed to focus on performance metrics other than NPV and profitability (e.g., mission reliability, operational availability, probability of mission success per dollar invested, etc.). Recent advancements in the RIPBAM process focus on expanding the scope of previous RIPBAM applications to include not only operations, maintenance, and safety issues, but also broader risk perception components affecting plant owner (stockholder), operator, and regulator biases. Conceptually, RIPBAM is a comprehensive risk-informed cash flow model for decision support. It originated as a tool to help manage plant refueling outage scheduling, and was later expanded to include the full spectrum of operations and maintenance decision support. However, it differs from conventional business modeling tools in that it employs a systems engineering approach with broadly based probabilistic analysis of organizational 'value

  6. Development of an advanced thermal hydraulics model for nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the development of an advanced digital computer thermal hydraulics model for nuclear power plant simulation. A review of thermal hydraulics code design options is presented together with a review of existing engineering models. CAE has developed an unequal temperatures-unequal velocities five equation model based on the drift flux formalism. CAE has selected the model on the basis that phase separation and thermal non-equilibrium are required to simulate complex and important phenomena occurring in systems such as reactor cooling systems (RCS) and steam generators (SG). The drift flux approach to phase separation and countercurrent flow was selected because extensive testing and validation data supports full-range drift flux parameters correlations. The five equation model was also chosen because it conserves important quantities, i.e. mass and energy of each phase, and because of numerical advantages provided by the case of coupling phasic mass conservation equations with phasic energy conservation equations. The basis of CAE's model as well as supporting models for convection and conduction heat transfer, break flow, interphase mass and heat transfer are described. Comparison of code calculations with experimental measurements taken during a small break LOCA test with the OTIS facility are presented. The use of such advanced thermal hydraulics model as plant analyzer considerably improves simulation capabilities of severe transient as well as of normal operation of two phase systems in nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  7. Advanced treatment of landfill leachate by a new combination process in a full-scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced treatment of mature landfill leachate from a municipal landfill located in southern China (Jiangmen) was carried out in a full-scale plant using a new process. The combined process has a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) serving as the primary treatment, with polyferric sulfate (PFS) coagulation coupled with a Fenton system as secondary treatment, and a pair of upflow biological aerated filters (UBAFs) in parallel as tertiary treatment. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in this process was 97.3%, with an effluent COD less than 100 mg/L. Up to 99% ammonia (N-NH3) removal efficiency was achieved in the SBR, with an effluent of less than 3 mg/L, which meets the discharge standard (≤25 mg/L) with only primary treatment. The total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solids (SS) in the final effluent were reduced to less than 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The experience gained in the operation and maintenance will lead to a more stable performance of this combined process. An economic analysis shows that the overall operating cost of the advanced treatment was $2.70/m3. This new combination process was proved to be highly compatible and efficient in a small-scale landfill leachate treatment plant and is recommended for small-scale landfill leachate treatment plants.

  8. Laguna Verde nuclear power plant: an experience to consider in advanced BWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna Verde is a BWR 5 containment Mark II. Designed by GE, two external re-circulation loops, each of them having two speed re-circulation pump and a flow control valve to define the drive flow and consequently the total core flow an power control by total core flow. Laguna Verde Design and operational experience has shown some insights to be considering in design for advanced BRW reactors in order to improve the potential of nuclear power plants. NSSS and Balance of plant design, codes used to perform nuclear core design, margins derived from engineering judgment, at the time Laguna Verde designed and constructed had conducted to have a plant with an operational license, generating with a very good performance and availability. Nevertheless, some design characteristics and operational experience have shown that potential improvements or areas of opportunity shall be focused in the advanced BWR design. Computer codes used to design the nuclear core have been evolved relatively fast. The computers are faster and powerful than those used during the design process, also instrumentation and control are becoming part of this amazing technical evolution in the industry. The Laguna Verde experience is the subject to share in this paper. (author)

  9. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  10. Safety and economical requirements of conceptual fusion power reactors in co-existing advanced fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EPR fission plant is expected to operate from 2010 to 2070. In this time range a new generation of advanced fission reactors and several stages of fusion reactors from ITER to DEMO will emerge. Their viability in the competitive socio-economic environment and also their possible synergy benefits are discussed in this paper. The studied cases involve the Finnish EPR, Generation IV, and the EFDA Power Plant Conceptual Study Models A-D. The main focus is on economic and safety assessments. Some cross-cutting issues of technologies are discussed. Concerning the economic potential of both conceptual fusion power plants and those of Generation IV candidates, we have used the present Finnish EPR as a reference. Comparisons using various pricing methods are made for fusion and Generation IV: mass flow analyses together with engineering, construction and financial margins form one method and another one is based on simple scaling relations between components or structures with common technology level. In all these studies fusion competitiveness has to be improved in terms of plant availability and internal power recirculation. At present the best fission plants have a plant availability close to 95% and an internal power recirculation of the order of 3-4%. The operation and maintenance solutions of Model C and D show the right way for fusion. A remarkable rise of the fuel costs of present LWRs would first make the Generation IV breeder options and thereafter the fusion plants more competitive. The costs of safety related components, such as the containment and the equipment for severe accident mitigation (e.g. the core catcher in a LWR), should be accounted for and the extent to which the inherent fusion safety features could compensate such expenses should be analysed. For an overall assessment of the various nuclear options both internal and external costs are considered. (author)

  11. An advanced field experimental design to assess plant tolerance to heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopata, Barbara; Szarek-Łukaszewska, Grażyna; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja

    2016-04-01

    Only a limited number of vascular plant species can survive and reproduce in toxic metalliferous environments. Among these species, pseudometallophytes are particularly interesting, as their metallicolous (M) populations on metalliferous soils and non-metallicolous (NM) populations on non-metalliferous soils show very pronounced ecological differences. Pseudometallophytes thus provide excellent opportunities for multidisciplinary research to improve phytoremediation and phytomining. Numerous methods have been developed to investigate plant adaptation to metal pollution, the majority of which has been conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Although these efforts have significantly advanced our understanding of mechanisms underlying metal tolerance in plants, populations must be reciprocally transplanted to clearly identify natural selection. Only then is it possible to test, whether the fitness of native plants is higher than that of nonnative populations and thereby prove local adaptation. Here, we present an enhanced field experimental design aimed at verification of local adaptation to habitats with different levels of heavy metal soil contamination. At two M and two NM sites, we established a total of 12 plots (4 sites x 3 plots each), removed the existing local vegetation, and collected soil samples for chemical analyses (5 samples per plot). Plant collection (N= 480) from all four selected populations was established under laboratory conditions prior to the transplant experiment. Genotypes were randomly distributed within each plot (240 x 270 cm) and planted along a regulary spaced grid (30x30cm cell size) in spring 2015. Measurements will start in spring 2016, by which time plants are expected to have acclimatized to the local conditions. For the two subsiquent years, growth, survival, fitness, life cycle and herbivory consumption will be monitored for each transplant. On a weekly basis, we will record: 1) pictures of each transplant to determine

  12. Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

  13. Advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchanger tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhareva, T.P.; Tchizhik, A.A.; Chavchanidze, N.N. [Polzanov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The advances in processing technologies for titanium heat exchangers with rolled and welded tubes of fossil and nuclear power plants in Russia are presented. The special methodology of investigations with constant small strain rate have been used to study the effects of mixed corrosion and creep processes in condensers cooled by sea or synthetic sea waters. The results of corrosion creep tests and K1scc calculations are given. The Russian science activities concerning condensers manufactured from titanium show the possibilities for designing structures with very high level service reliability in different corrosion aggressive mediums with high total salt, Cl-ion and oxygen contents. (orig.)

  14. Axial enrichment profile in advance nuclear energy power plant at supercritical-pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashakor, S. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School; Islamic Azad Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Zarifi, E. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School; Salehi, A.A. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Energy

    2015-12-15

    The High-Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) is the European version of the advance nuclear energy power plant at Supercritical-pressure. A light water reactor at supercritical pressure, being currently under design, is the new generation of nuclear reactors. The aim of this study is to predict the HPLWR neutronic behavior of the axial enrichment profile with an average enrichment of 5 w/o U-235. Neutronic calculations are performed using WIMS and CITATION codes. Changes in neutronic parameter, such as Power Peaking Factor (PPF) are discussed in this paper.

  15. Intelligent software system for the advanced control room of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intelligent software system for nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been conceptually designed in this study. Its design goals are to operate NPPs in an improved manner and to support operator's cognitive tasks. It consists of six major modules such as 'Information Processing,' 'Alarm Processing,' 'Procedure Tracking,' 'Performance Diagnosis', and 'Event Diagnosis' modules for operators and 'Malfunction Diagnosis' module for maintenance personnel. Most ot the modules have been developed for several years and the others are under development . After the completion of development, they will be combined into one system that would be main parts of advanced control rooms in NPPs

  16. Advances in the Plant Isoprenoid Biosynthesis Pathway and Its Metabolic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Hong WANG; He-Chun YE; Guo-Feng LI

    2005-01-01

    Although the cytosolic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, mavolonate pathway, in plants has been known for many years, a new plastidial 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) pathway was identified in the past few years and its related intermediates, enzymes, and genes have been characterized quite recently.With a deep insight into the biosynthetic pathway of isoprenoids, investigations into the metabolic engineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis have started to prosper. In the present article, recent advances in the discoveries and regulatory roles of new genes and enzymes in the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis path way are reviewed and examples of the metabolic engineering of cytosolic and plastidial isoprenoids biosnthesis are discussed.

  17. Bumpless Transfer Between Advanced Controllers with Applications to Power Plant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with bumpless transfer between a number of advanced controllers, e.g. in a gain-scheduling architecture. Linear observer-based controllers are designed for a number of linear approximations of the system model in a set of operating points, and gain scheduling control can subseque....... In this paper we propose a systematic approach to achieve bumpless transfer between different nominal controllers. The approach is tested on a simple, but highly nonlinear model of a coal-fired power plant....

  18. Enhanced Passive Cooling for Waterless-Power Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Recent advances in the literature and at SNL indicate the strong potential for passive, specialized surfaces to significantly enhance power production output. Our exploratory computational and experimental research indicates that fractal and swirl surfaces can help enable waterless-power production by increasing the amount of heat transfer and turbulence, when compared with conventional surfaces. Small modular reactors, advanced reactors, and non-nuclear plants (e.g., solar and coal) are ideally suited for sCO2 coolant loops. The sCO2 loop converts the thermal heat into electricity, while the specialized surfaces passively and securely reject the waste process heat in an environmentally benign manner. The resultant, integrated energy systems are highly suitable for small grids, rural areas, and arid regions.

  19. Main design aspects of an advanced nuclear plant for the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main design aspects of a steam-supply advanced nuclear plant proposed for both the extraction and the preprocessing of extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt are presented. The model consists of a nuclear power plant in cogeneration mode able to supply a large fraction of the energy demand of an oil field producing 100,000 barrels of oil per day. Three 1200 MW(th) high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, built successively, supply a great portion of the process heat, the injection steam and the electricity required. Steam conditions are: for process heat, a pressure of 10 MPa at 5000C, and for injection steam, pressure between 12 and 17 MPa at saturation temperatures. (author)

  20. Deepwell water system control and monitoring in a nuclear power plant by telemetry and advanced instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potable water in the Philippine Nuclear Power Plant is supplied by a network of ten interconnected deepwell turbine pumps. These underground submersible pumps are installed very deep in the ground. The region is hilly and large. Adequate protection of the expensive pumps, a high degree of automation, reliability and flexibility were the overall goals of the control and instrumentation. The advanced instrumentation consisted of: digital control and digital monitoring; a telemetry system for transmission of all signals between the master station and the ten satellite stations; radiofrequency water level measurement in the wells. This paper describes the system in details. It also points out the characteristics of the system which may be considered as unique or uncommon in a Nuclear Power Plant

  1. PWRs with passive safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development activities in the area of nuclear plant design in recent years have caused widespread interest in the plants incorporating passive safety features and simplified system designs. In recent years, design studies were undertaken to use passive phenomena such as natural circulation and gravity to provide safety functions, rather than to rely on the active systems requiring power supply and control systems. The resulting simplification leads to reduced capital costs and shortened construction period. Westinghouse developed the AP600 plant, which is a 600 MWe PWR and features passive safety systems, simplified plant design and the decreased reliance on operator interface. In 1988, the program was initiated to investigate the application of AP600 technology to the use in Japan with more appropriate design features. This plant with 960 MWe rating is designated 'Simplified pressurized water reactor' (SPWR). The key objectives of the SPWR design are shown. The reactor cooling system, the plant instrumentation and control, the passive engineered safety features, the testing program, the plant arrangement and seismic consideration, the safety analysis and the plant simplification and economics of the SPWR are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Maintenance Cycle Extension in the IRIS Advanced Light Water Reactor Plant Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New nuclear power generation in the United States will be realized only if the economic performance can be made competitive with other methods of electrical power generation. The economic performance of a nuclear power plant can be significantly improved by increasing the time spent on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Maintenance includes planned actions (surveillances) and unplanned actions (corrective maintenance) to respond to component degradation or failure. A methodology is described that can be used to resolve, in the design phase, maintenance-related operating cycle length barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the International Reactor, Innovative and Secure (IRIS) design. IRIS is an advanced light water nuclear power plant that is being designed to maximize this on-line generating time by increasing the operating cycle length. This is consequently a maintenance strategy paper using the IRIS plant as the example.Potential IRIS operating cycle length maintenance-related barriers, determined by modification of an earlier operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant cycle length analysis to account for differences between the design of IRIS and this operating PWR, are presented. The proposed methodology to resolve these maintenance-related barriers by the design process is described. The results of applying the methodology to two potential IRIS cycle length barriers, relief valve testing and emergency heat removal system testing, are presented

  3. Advanced virtual energy simulation training and research: IGCC with CO2 capture power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.; Liese, E.; Mahapatra, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Provost, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this presentation, we highlight the deployment of a real-time dynamic simulator of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture at the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM) Center. The Center was established as part of the DOE's accelerating initiative to advance new clean coal technology for power generation. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option, generating low-cost electricity by converting coal and/or other fuels into a clean synthesis gas mixture in a process that is efficient and environmentally superior to conventional power plants. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Fueled with coal, petroleum coke, and/or biomass, the gasification island of the simulated IGCC plant consists of two oxygen-blown, downward-fired, entrained-flow, slagging gasifiers with radiant syngas coolers and two-stage sour shift reactors, followed by a dual-stage acid gas removal process for CO{sub 2} capture. The combined cycle island consists of two F-class gas turbines, steam turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator with three-pressure levels. The dynamic simulator can be used for normal base-load operation, as well as plant start-up and shut down. The real-time dynamic simulator also responds satisfactorily to process disturbances, feedstock blending and switchovers, fluctuations in ambient conditions, and power demand load shedding. In addition, the full-scope simulator handles a wide range of abnormal situations, including equipment malfunctions and failures, together with changes initiated through actions from plant field operators. By providing a comprehensive IGCC operator training system, the

  4. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Passive ALWR requirements to prevent containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document a systematic evaluation of the Passive Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design requirements which address severe accident mitigation. This evaluation was performed concurrent with completion of the ALWR Requirements Document to assure the adequacy of these mitigation requirements. The passive plant approach to containment integrity assurance reflects an expansion of the approach established earlier for evolutionary ALWRs. The report identifies containment challenges that might occur coincident with or result from a core damage event, compiles the set of passive ALWR design requirements which addresses each challenge, and evaluates each set of requirements on an integrated basis to confirm that the requirements provide substantial assurance that coincident core damage and containment failure are precluded. Based on past PRAs, a review of pertinent safety functions, severe accident analyses, current regulatory requirements, and reviews by ALWR design personnel, twenty-three (23) potential containment challenges were identified. The report concludes that the relevant ALWR requirements severe to limit the likelihood and magnitude of the challenges, and to assure the capability of the containment to accommodate all challenges which remain potentially risk-significant

  7. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  8. The use of nuclear energy for district heating. The branch program of activities. NIKIET design efforts on the advanced nuclear co-generation plant with VK-300 reactor, the Ruta nuclear heating plant and small power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: District heating is among the top priorities of the state economic and energy policy of Russia and is the largest and expanding sector of the national power industry. The nuclear sources of energy are regarded as the promising option for this sector of the power industry. The branch program of activities which is being implemented is intended for developing the policy and program of nuclear district heating. The priority task is to provide co-generated heat from the NPPs and nuclear co-generation plants to the amount of 30 mln Gcal/year by 2020 as specified in the Energy Policy of Russia for the period until 2020. NIKIET named after N.A. Dollezhal has been developing the special purpose reactor facilities for the power units of the nuclear co-generation plants and nuclear heating plants. The detailed design of the power unit with the simplified passive boiling water reactor VK-300 has been developed for the nuclear co-generation plant (NCP) intended to be deployed in the large-scale power industry. It has been demonstrated that NCP with VK-300 reactor is competitive with respect to the operating and advanced fossil thermal co-generation plants. It is envisaged to construct the four-unit first of-the-kind NCP with VK-300 reactor in Arkhangelsk region. The nuclear heating plant based on the pool RUTA reactors operating under atmospheric pressure is being developed for the small towns. It is planned to construct the pilot plant of such kind on the site of RF State Research Center FEI, Obninsk. In the frame of conversion of the defense-oriented works NIKIET has developed the UNITHERM reactor facility for a small NPP to be located in the distant and difficult-to access regions of Russia. To provide heat and electricity to the small communities, meteorological observatories, lighthouses and radio navigation stations in a reliable and safe way, it is possible to use non-attended small nuclear power plants based on the self-regulating water-water reactor and

  9. Development of advanced human-machine system for plant operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the worldwide deregulation of the power industry, and the aging of the nuclear power plants (NPPs), concerns are growing over the reliability and safety of the NPPs, because the regulation of man power may lower the current high level of reliability and safety. In this paper, a concept of overall integrated plant management mechanism is proposed, in order to meet the requirements of cutting costs of NPPs and the requirements of maintaining or increasing safety and reliability. The concept is called as satellite operation maintenance center (SOMC). SOMC integrates the operation and maintenance activities of several NPP units by utilizing advanced information technologies to support cooperation activities between workers allocated at SOMC and the field workers. As for the operation activities, a framework called as Advanced Operation System (AOS) is proposed in this paper. AOS consists of three support sub-systems: dynamic operation permission system(DyOPS), supervisor information presentation system using interface agent, and crew performance evaluation system. As for the maintenance activities, a framework called as Ubiquitous-Computing-based Maintenance support System (UCMS) is proposed next. Two case studies are described, in order to show the way of how UCMS support field workers to do maintenance tasks efficiently, safely, and infallibly as well. Finally, a prospect of SOMC is shown in order to explain the way of how the technology elements developed in this project could be integrated as a whole one system to support maintenance activities of NPPs in the future. (author)

  10. Advances in the Glass Formulations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    The Department of Energy-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site in Washington. The WTP that is being designed and constructed by a team led by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) will separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fractions with the majority of the mass (~90%) directed to LAW and most of the activity (>95%) directed to HLW. The pretreatment process, envisioned in the baseline, involves the dissolution of aluminum-bearing solids so as to allow the aluminum salts to be processed through the cesium ion exchange and report to the LAW Facility. There is an oxidative leaching process to affect a similar outcome for chromium-bearing wastes. Both of these unit operations were advanced to accommodate shortcomings in glass formulation for HLW inventories. A by-product of this are a series of technical challenges placed upon materials selected for the processing vessels. The advances in glass formulation play a role in revisiting the flow sheet for the WTP and hence, the unit operations that were being imposed by minimal waste loading requirements set forth in the contract for the design and construction of the plant. Another significant consideration to the most recent revision of the glass models are the impacts on resolution of technical questions associated with current efforts for design completion.

  11. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  12. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules

  13. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  14. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval

  15. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  16. Advanced pulverized-coal power plants: A U.S. export opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) power generation systems and its potential for generating power worldwide. Based on the fuel availability, power requirements, and environmental regulations, countries have been identified that need to build advanced, clean, efficient, and economical power generation, systems. It is predicted that ''more electrical generation capacity will be built over the next 25 years than was built in the previous century''. For example, China and India alone, with less than 10% of today's demand, plan to build what would amount to a quarter of the world's new capacity. For the near- to mid-term, the LEBS program of Combustion 2000 has the promise to fill some of the needs of the international coal-fired power generation market. The high efficiency of LEBS, coupled with the use of advanced, proven technologies and low emissions, make it a strong candidate for export to those areas whose need for additional power is greatest. LEBS is a highly advanced version of conventional coal-based power plants that have been utilized throughout the world for decades. LEBS employs proven technologies and doesn't require gasification and/or an unconventional combustion environment (e.g., fluidized bed). LEBS is viewed by the utility industry as technically acceptable and commercially feasible

  17. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  18. New reactor programs from passive to pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, H.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The market for new nuclear power plants is small and challenged by alternative means of electric power generation. Customers and countries may vary in their requirements for a new nuclear plant; but all have a common theme of seeking a design that possesses favorable economics. This paper sets forth the economic challenges a new nuclear plant must overcome. In particular, it delineates the capital cost, construction time, and generation cost required to compete with combined cycle gas electric power generation. The U.S. power generation market is used as a point of comparison. Following this, the portfolio of BNFL/ Westinghouse plant designs are described and the methods by which they will meet the economic challenges previously delineated will be discussed. The portfolio includes the family of passive plants originated by the AP600 Design Certification process in the U.S. These plants are marked by a high degree of safety and simplicity, short construction times, and superior economics. In addition, the effort to meet European requirements for passive plants will be described. Lastly, the paper explores some advanced nuclear designs that are not yet licensed, and the hope that they hold for meeting the industry challenge ahead. (author)

  19. 'Passive fire protection in nuclear power plants' - German technologies of the company svt Brandschutz in future as well in Korean NPPs? -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fires in NPPs are unfortunately not avoidable and to consider during the planning and operation period of the plants. The multitude of combustible materials which are used especially cables, oils and other building materials describe a potential source of danger. In Germany recently a new planning guideline for the fire protection field in NPPs has been adopted: the nuclear guideline KTA 1401. This document certainly is one of the most progressive guidelines for the fire protection field and has united · structural engineering elements of fire protection · electrotechnical and machine components · as well as questions of fire alarm and organisation measures. Passive and active fire protection measures are explained and layed down in their complexity within this document. Our group of companies has realised quit a lot of fire protection projects in Europe during the last years, especially within retrofitting measures for NPPs in Germany, Switzerland, Russia, the Ukraine and Lithuania, the Czech and Slovak Republic as well as within decommissioning projects of NPPs. We have carried out international fire protection projects of the EBRD, London, and within the framework of TACIS projects of the European Commission, i. a. linked with the working out of fire protection analyses for NPPs realised in close co-operation with the Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg. We especially have wide experiences in improving the fire protection of cable installations where a 100% separation of the different safety systems is not any longer possible

  20. Variations in AOC and microbial diversity in an advanced water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B. M.; Liu, J. K.; Chien, C. C.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Kao, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe objective of this study was to evaluate the variations in assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbial diversities in an advanced water treatment plant. The efficiency of biofiltration on AOC removal using anthracite and granular activated carbon (GAC) as the media was also evaluated through a pilot-scale column experiment. Effects of hydrological factors (seasonal effects and river flow) on AOC concentrations in raw water samples and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biofiltration on AOC treatment were also evaluated. Results show that AOC concentrations in raw water and clear water of the plant were about 138 and 27 μg acetate-C/L, respectively. Higher AOC concentrations were observed in wet seasons probably due to the resuspension of organic-contained sediments and discharges of non-point source (NPS) pollutants from the upper catchment. This reveals that seasonal effect played an important role in the variations in influent AOC concentrations. Approximately 82% and 70% of AOC removal efficiencies were observed in GAC and anthracite columns, respectively. Results from column experiment reveal that the applied treatment processes in the plant and biofiltration system were able to remove AOC effectively. Microbial colonization on GAC and anthracite were detected via the observation of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. Results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and nucleotide sequence analysis reveal significant decrease in microbial diversities after the ozonation process. Higher HRT caused higher microbial contact time, and thus, more microbial colonies and higher microbial diversity were observed in the latter part of the biofilters. Some of the dominant microbial species in the biofiltration columns belonged to the beta- proteobacterium, which might contribute to the AOC degradation. Results of this study provide us insight into the variations in AOC and microbial diversity in the advanced

  1. Methodological advances in predicting flow-induced dynamics of plants using mechanical-engineering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Langre, Emmanuel

    2012-03-15

    The modeling of fluid-structure interactions, such as flow-induced vibrations, is a well-developed field of mechanical engineering. Many methods exist, and it seems natural to apply them to model the behavior of plants, and potentially other cantilever-like biological structures, under flow. Overcoming this disciplinary divide, and the application of such models to biological systems, will significantly advance our understanding of ecological patterns and processes and improve our predictive capabilities. Nonetheless, several methodological issues must first be addressed, which I describe here using two practical examples that have strong similarities: one from agricultural sciences and the other from nuclear engineering. Very similar issues arise in both: individual and collective behavior, small and large space and time scales, porous modeling, standard and extreme events, trade-off between the surface of exchange and individual or collective risk of damage, variability, hostile environments and, in some aspects, evolution. The conclusion is that, although similar issues do exist, which need to be exploited in some detail, there is a significant gap that requires new developments. It is obvious that living plants grow in and adapt to their environment, which certainly makes plant biomechanics fundamentally distinct from classical mechanical engineering. Moreover, the selection processes in biology and in human engineering are truly different, making the issue of safety different as well. A thorough understanding of these similarities and differences is needed to work efficiently in the application of a mechanistic approach to ecology. PMID:22357585

  2. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  3. Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

    2010-06-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work, BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. In the Year 2 scope of work, BNL carried out a research effort to identify and assess degradation models for the long-term behavior of dominant materials that are

  4. The rhizosphere microbiota of plant invaders: an overview of recent advances in the microbiomics of invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa eCoats; Rumpho, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Plants in terrestrial systems have evolved in direct association with microbes functioning as both agonists and antagonists of plant fitness and adaptability. As such, investigations that segregate plants and microbes provide only a limited scope of the biotic interactions that dictate plant community structure and composition in natural systems. Invasive plants provide an excellent working model to compare and contrast the effects of microbial communities associated with natural plant popula...

  5. Progress of nuclear safety for symbiosis and sustainability advanced digital instrumentation, control and information systems for nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human?machine interface technologies (ii) Risk? monitoring methods for large and? complex? plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and val

  6. Development of an advanced human-machine interface for next generation nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced human-machine interface (HMI) has been developed to enhance the safety and availability of a nuclear power plant (NPP) by improving operational reliability. The key elements of the proposed HMI are the large display panels which present synopsis of plant status and the compact, computer-based work stations for monitoring, control and protection functions. The work station consists of four consoles such as a dynamic alarm console (DAC), a system information console (SIC), a computerized operating-procedure console (COC), and a safety system information console (SSIC). The DAC provides clean alarm pictures, in which information overlapping is excluded and alarm impacts are discriminated, for quick situation awareness. The SIC supports a normal operation by offering all necessary system information and control functions over non-safety systems. In addition, it is closely linked to the other consoles in order to automatically display related system information according to situations of the DAC and the COC. The COC aids operators with proper operating procedures during normal plant startup and shutdown or after a plant trip, and it also reduces their physical/mental burden through soft automation. The SSIC continuously displays safety system status and enables operators to control safety systems. The proposed HMI has been evaluated using the checklists that are extracted from various human factors guidelines. From the evaluation results, it can be concluded that the HMI is so designed as to address the human factors issues reasonably. After sufficient validation, the concept and the design features of the proposed HMI will be reflected in the design of the main control room of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR)

  7. Advanced Light Water Reactor Plants System 80+trademark Design Certification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+trademark during the US government's 1993 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MWt (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design consists of an essentially complete plant. It is based on evolutionary improvements to the Standardized System 80 nuclear steam supply system in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3, and the Duke Power Company P-81 balance-of-plant (BOP) that was designed and partially constructed at the Cherokee plant site. The System 80/P-81 original design has been substantially enhanced to increase conformance with the EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD). Some design enhancements incorporated in the System 80+ design are included in the four units currently under construction in the Republic of Korea. These units form the basis of the Korean standardization program. The full System 80+ standard design has been offered to the Republic of China, in response to their recent bid specification. The ABB-CE Standard Safety Analysis Report (CESSAR-DC) was submitted to the NRC and a Draft Safety Evaluation Report was issued by the NRC in October 1992. CESSAR-DC contains the technical basis for compliance with the EPRI URD for simplified emergency planning. The Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) is the standard ABB-Combustion Engineering two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard plant includes a sperical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual containment

  8. Proceedings of the GCNEP-IAEA course on natural circulation phenomena and passive safety systems in advanced water cooled reactors. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status and prospect, economics, advanced designs and applications of reactors in operation and construction, safety of advanced water cooled reactors is discussed. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  11. Intelligent software system for the advanced control room of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Jin Kyun; Heo, Gyung Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Gon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The intelligent software system for nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been conceptually designed in this study. Its design goals are to operate NPPs in an improved manner and to support operators` cognitive takes. It consists of six major modules such as {sup I}nformation Processing,{sup {sup A}}larm Processing,{sup {sup P}}rocedure Tracking,{sup {sup P}}erformance Diagnosis,{sup a}nd {sup E}vent Diagnosis{sup m}odules for operators and {sup M}alfunction Diagnosis{sup m}odule for maintenance personnel. Most of the modules have been developed for several years and the others are under development. After the completion of development, they will be combined into one system that would be main parts of advanced control rooms in NPPs. 5 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  12. Investigation on the design of human-system interface for advanced nuclear plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Project (LMNPP), under construction in Taiwan, consists of two GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) units, each with 1350 MW electrical output. Major Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) of LMNPP are different from traditional ones. Video display units (VDUs) are the main human-system interface for operators to manipulate and to know the status of the equipment and plant information. Based upon NUREG-0711, the applicable human factors engineering (HFE) guideline in the design of HSIs has been adopted. An important aspect of the Lungmen HFE program has been the direct involvement of the end user, Taiwan Power Company (TPC), throughout the design development and implementation to ensure not only that the process for the design is compliant with the HFE principles, but also that the necessary displays, control, and alarms are provided to support the identified personnel tasks. This paper reviews the applicable HFE principles and verification and validation (V and V) processes in the design of HSIs for the advanced LMNPP. This paper also presents three investigated topics of the LMNPP HSI design development and implementation process. From the perspective of licensing concern and experience feedback, the focus of this paper is on the topics of validation with simulator, alarm auto reset, and VDU operational configuration strategy. The objectives of investigating the latter topic were to ensure the VDU operational configuration strategy, after appropriate V and V, achieves its goals of reinforcing operation discipline and distributing operator crew task assignments and workload during typical operations, and to confirm the need for an intensive training program that addresses the knowledge and skill requirements of the operators to meet the task characteristics and the responses of the plant processes. The results to date and implications for going forward from this process are also presented. (authors)

  13. Performance Assessment of Passive Heat Exchanger with Horizontal Tube using RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world nuclear industry to enhance safety and reliability of nuclear power plant, passive safety system design has been introducing. Especially, passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) has been applied to the advanced power reactor plus (APR+) in our domestic industry. According to PAFS design concept, PAFS makes role completely for the existing auxiliary feedwater system. PAFS can remove the residual heat in the core and then prevent the core damage when the feedwater is not available. The passive heat removal system has essentially heat exchanger with vertical or horizontal tubes. PAFS is a kind of passive heat exchanger with an inclined horizontal U tube bundle. Heat transfer phenomena in horizontal tubes play an important role in passive safety systems for the next generation of nuclear power plants. To assess the performance of the system, it is required to carry experiment and code analysis. NOKO experiment facility for investigating the emergency condenser effectiveness in SWR1000, is similar to PAFS. So the experiment result can be useful to evaluate the cooling performance of passive system like PAFS. The purpose of this study is to simulate the TH phenomena such as natural circulation and horizontal condensation heat transfer in NOKO experiment using RELAP5, and to compare the results between experimental data and RELAP5 code analysis

  14. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  15. Commercial scale performance predictions for high-temperature electrolysis plants coupled to three advanced reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen-production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor - power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable hydrogen production rates with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor. (authors)

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the

  17. Use of an advanced document system in post-refuelling updating of nuclear power plant documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the results of the extensive use of an advanced document system to update documentation prepared by traditional methods and affected by changes in the period between two plant refuellings. The implementation of a system for the capture, retrieval and storage of drawings using optical discs is part of a plan to modernize production and management tools and to thus achieve better control of document configuration. These processes are consequently optimized in that: 1. The deterioration of drawings is detained with the help of an identical, updated, legible, reliable support for all users. 2. The time required to update documentation is reduced. Given the large number of drawings, the implementation method should effectively combine costs and time. The document management tools ensure optical disc storage control so that from the moment a drawing resides in the system, any modification to it is made through the system utilities, thus ensuring quality and reducing schedules. The system described was used to update the electrical drawings of Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant. Changes made during the eighth refuelling of Unit I were incorporated and the time needed to issue the updated drawings was reduced by one month. (author)

  18. Plant functional groups of potential restoration use in advancing edges of high Andean forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of plant functional groups constitutes a useful tool in the identification of ecological characteristics relevant in community regeneration. The aim of this study was to identify plant's functional groups in high Andean forest advance edges and to evaluate their role during secondary succession in abandoned pasture lands. Based on 10 x 10 m vegetation relevees for the shrubby-arboreal stratum and 1 x 1 m plots for the herbaceous stratum and the revision of vital attributes for each of the species found, this study uses a multivariate approach to construct a trait-based emergent group's classification. The most important attributes in the definition of the groups were the dispersion mechanism and the presence of basal trunk ramification in woody species; in addition differences in the presence of vegetative propagation, specific leaf area index and the ratio height/diameter at breast height were found between groups of the shrubby-arboreal stratum. Four distinct groups were defined in the herbaceous layer and five in the shrubby-arboreal layer, each group contains species with similar colonization strategies. Among the defined groups, the herbaceous species dispersed by various abiotic factors, the shrubby species with basal ramification and dispersed by wind and the species dispersed by birds constitute key strategies in forest recovery in adjacent abandoned pasture lands dominated by Holcus lanatus, and facilitate the establishment of secondary forest species.

  19. Passive heat removal in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU has a tradition of incorporating passive systems and passive components whenever they are shown to offer performance that is equal to or better than that of active systems, and to be economic. Examples include the two independent shutdown systems that employ gravity and stored energy respectively, the dousing subsystem of the CANDU 6 containment system, and the ability of the moderator to cool the fuel in the event that all coolant is lost from the fuel channels. CANDU 9 continues this tradition, incorporating a reserve water system (RWS) that increases the inventory of water in the reactor building and profiles a passive source of makeup water and/or heat sinks to various key process systems. The key component of the CANDU 9 reserve water system is a large (2500 cubic metres) water tank located at a high elevation in the reactor building. The reserve water system, while incorporating the recovery system functions, and the non-dousing functions of the dousing tank in CANDU 6, embraces other key systems to significantly extend the passive makeup/heat sink capability. The capabilities of the reserve water system include makeup to the steam generators secondary side if all other sources of water are lost; makeup to the heat transport system in the event of a leak in excess of the D2O makeup system capability; makeup to the moderator in the event of a moderator leak when the moderator heat sink is required; makeup to the emergency core cooling (ECC) system to assure NPSH to the ECC pumps during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), and provision of a passive heat sink for the shield cooling system. Other passive designs are now being developed by AECL. These will be incorporated in future CANDU plants when their performance has been fully proven. This paper reviews the passive heat removal systems and features of current CANDU plants and the CANDU 9, and briefly reviews some of the passive heat removal concepts now being developed. (author)

  20. Model of dispersion of a passive species in a reservoir with application to radionuclides discharged from the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accidental release of a quantity of radioactive material took place from the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant RHRS into Wheeler Reservoir from 1945 CST on January 4, 1977, until 0200 CST on January 5. The Water Systems Development Branch was requested to predict both the location of the effluent patch as it progressed down Wheeler Reservoir and the concentration distribution within the patch. Of particular interest were the time of arrival and concentrations expected at the nearest downstream public water supply, located on the left bank at TRM 282.2. Preliminary calculations indicated that a two-dimensional (horizontal plane), unsteady model was required to adequately model the diffusion and advection processes. A Gaussian Puff type model was developed for this purpose, employing the existing TVA Simulated Open Channel Hydraulic Model for the calculation of the unsteady reservoir flows. Major results from this model were as follows: (1) the effluent patch was predicted to reach the nearest downstream public water supply at 1800 CST on January 6, approximately 46 hours after the start of the release; (2) the maximum radionuclide concentration in the reservoir at this time was predicted to be approximately 10-4 of the initial concentration; this would occur at the right bank; and because of the relatively slow transverse mixing, it was predicted that, for practical purposes, the effluent would not have reached the left bank by the time it reached TRM 282.2. In addition, hourly predictions for the location of the effluent patch were made. It was felt that the concentration predictions were somewhat conservative, but were realistic. The model presented in this report is applicable to any passive species and will be further refined to provide more accurate mixing estimates in future applications

  1. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  2. Looking back on safety management in construction of advanced thermal nuclear power plant 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety management of the advanced thermal nuclear power plant ''Fugen'' during the period from the preparation of plant construction in October, 1970, to the full power operation in March, 1979, is looked back and explained. Any large human and material accidents did not occur during the long construction time. The total numbers of persons and hours were 1.397 x 106 workers and 11.55 x 106 hours, respectively. The number of labor accidents was twenty with no dead person, the number of loss days was 645 days, the number of accident rate was 1.73, the intensity rate was 0.06, and the mean rate of labor accidents per year per 1000 workers was 6.4. The radiation exposure dose was 65.27 man-rem for the managed 1804 workers in total, during the testing and operating periods. These data show that the safety management for ''Fugen'' is very excellent, considering the following special features: 1) there were many works which were carried out for the first time, 2) the construction of the plant was conducted by five contractors taking partial charge, there were many kinds of construction works, the construction and testing periods were long, and the workers had to go to the site from Tsuruga city by car and bus. The organization of preventing disasters, the concrete implementation items for safety management, including the planning of activities, various meetings, patrol, education and training, the honoring system, the prevention of traffic accident and so on, and the results of actual safety management are explained with the reflection. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Investigation on the advanced control room design for next generation nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced human-machine interface (HMI) has been developed to enhance the safety and availability of a nuclear power plant (NPP) by improving operational reliability. The key elements of the proposed HMI are the large display panels which present synopsis of plant status and the compact, computer-based work stations for monitoring, control and protection functions. The work station consists of four consoles such as a dynamic alarm console (DAC), a system information console (SIC), a computerized operating-procedure console (COC), and a safety system information console (SSIC). The DAC provides clean alarm pictures, in which information overlapping is excluded and alarm impacts are discriminated, for quick situation awareness. The SIC supports a normal operation by offering all necessary system information and control functions over non-safety systems. In addition, it is closely linked to the other consoles in order to automatically display related system information according to situations of the DAC and the COC. The COC aids operators with proper operating procedures during normal plant startup and shutdown or after a plant trip, and it also reduces their physical/mental burden through soft automation. The SSIC continuously displays safety system status and enables operators to control safety systems. With regard to automation, the automating strategies of emergency operation are developed for achieving safe shutdown in pressurized water reactors. These strategies can make emergency operation optimal, and as well they considerably lengthen the operator response time. Decision-making and control are investigated in order to develop the automating strategies. In decision-making, diagnostic trees are established to automate the diagnostic tasks for selecting appropriate emergency operations, and the decision-making procedure is developed to automate some decisions which must be made on a plant- and event-specific basis. In control, cooldown is planned by

  4. Nuclear Power Plant with VK-300 Reactor. Simplicity and Passivity as a Way to Provide Enhanced Safety and Economic Competitive Ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP with simplified boiling reactors with coolant natural circulation is developed by RDIPE. removal of residual heat releases under any emergency conditions is supposed to be put into effect with maximum application of passive systems and devices. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a partially-underground tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of tower-type boilers have been selected for advanced double reheat power plants, due to the uniform flue gas profile and the smooth steam temperature increase. The tall height and long steam pipelines lengths will however, result in dramatic increases in the difficulty of construction, as well as increased power plant investment cost. Given these factors, a novel partially-underground tower-type boiler design has been proposed in this study, which has nearly half of the boiler embedded underground, thereby significantly reducing the boiler height and steam pipeline lengths. Thermodynamic and economic analyses were quantitatively conducted on a 1000 MW advanced double reheat steam cycle. Results showed that compared to the reference power plant, the power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design could reduce the net heat rate by 18.3 kJ/kWh and could reduce the cost of electricity (COE) by $0.60/MWh. The study also investigated the effects of price fluctuations on the cost-effectiveness of the reference power plant, for both the conventional and the proposed tower-type boilers designs, and found that the double reheat power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design would be even more competitive and price-effective when the coal price and the investment costs increase. The research of this paper may provide a promising tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants with lower construction complexity and better cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • A partially-underground tower-type boiler in double reheat power plants is proposed. for double reheat power plants is proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Better energetic efficiency and greater economic benefits are achieved. • The impacts of price fluctuations on the economic feasibility are discussed

  6. Ash chemistry in MSW incineration plants: Advanced characterization and thermodynamic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Flemming J.; Laursen, Karin; Arvelakis, S. (and others)

    2004-07-15

    A number of ash samples where collected at four Danish municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants. Samples of bottom ash/slag, 2nd-3rd pass ashes and ESP/E-filter ash were collected at the plants. The ashes were analyzed by a number of standard chemical analyses, and a number of advanced analytical techniques. The wet chemical analyses of the different ash fractions revealed that residual ash is formed on the grate by interaction of the main ash forming elements, Al, Ca, Fe and Si. Some of this ash is entrained from the grate and carried with the flue gas along the flue gas duct, where volatile species of K, Na, Pb, Zn, Cl and S starts to condense heterogeneously on the fly ash, thereby causing a dilution of the main ash forming elements. When compared plant-by-plant, the ash chemical analyses showed that the plant with the highest S-content in the fly ash is the one with the most often operational problems in relation to deposition, while a high Cl-content is indicative of a high corrosive potential. An existing Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) algorithm was extended with chemical classes covering Pb- and Zn-rich phases. This has made it possible also to analyze MSW-derived ashes by use of CCSEM. Representative samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ashes from the four plants have been analyzed by Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis. Only a few crystalline phases were identified: KCl, NaCl, CaSO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3} being the main ones. No crystalline phases containing Pb or Zn were identified by QXRD. A comparison between CCSEM and QXRD revealed the expected surface nature of the CCSEM analysis. Samples of 2nd-3rd pass and ESP/E-filter ash from the four plants where investigated for melting behavior in the Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer (STA). It was shown that it is possible to quantify the melting behavior of these ashes, and that the melting goes on in two steps (salts followed by silicates/oxides). The

  7. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  8. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  9. Recent advances in the research for the homolog of breast cancer associated gene AtROW1 in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue; Zhang, Yuzhou; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2016-08-01

    BARD1 (BRCA1 associated RING domain protein 1), as an important animal tumor suppressor gene associated with many kinds of cancers, has been intensively studied for decades. Surprisingly, homolog of BARD1 was found in plants and it was renamed AtROW1 (repressor of Wuschel-1) according to its extremely important function with regard to plant stem cell homeostasis. Although great advances have been made in human BARD1, the function of this animal tumor-suppressor like gene in plant is not well studied and need to be further elucidated. Here, we review and summarize past and present work regarding this protein. Apart from its previously proposed role in DNA repair, recently it is found essential for shoot and root stem cell development and differentiation in plants. The study of AtROW1 in plant may provide an ideal model for further elucidating the functional mechanism of BARD1 in mammals. PMID:27502904

  10. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system based on APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plant left a profound message toward the need for a passive cooling system which can operate under the extended station blackout. These days, nuclear institutions in Korea are developing Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+). Its distinct characteristic lies on the passive auxiliary feed water system (PAFS) which removes decay heat to a passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT) by natural convection. Though the system is expected to work well under station blackout, the system becomes useless under the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) combined with station blackout. This paper aims at using existing heat exchangers of PAFS and PCCT under LOCA to cool the reactor as well as the containment in a fully passive way. To enhance the condensation rate of heat exchangers in PCCT, we need to produce convective flow in the PCCS heat exchangers. Therefore, the whole region of the concrete containment is divided into 3 chambers: inner, outer, PCCS chambers. An outer chamber is disposed to collect non-condensable gas. The condensate is stored in a condensate storage tank (CST) and injected into the reactor by gravity. This system makes a closed circuit to work indefinitely. A scoping analysis for the containment pressure is performed as a function of various parameters: outer chamber volume and number of tubes in heat exchangers. (author)

  11. Natural Circulation Phenomena and Modelling for Advanced Water Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of natural circulation in advanced water cooled reactor design has been extended with the adoption of passive safety systems. Some designs utilize natural circulation to remove core heat during normal operation. Most passive safety systems used in evolutionary and innovative water cooled reactor designs are driven by natural circulation. The use of passive systems based on natural circulation can eliminate the costs associated with the installation, maintenance and operation of active systems that require multiple pumps with independent and redundant electric power supplies. However, considering the weak driving forces of passive systems based on natural circulation, careful design and analysis methods must be employed to ensure that the systems perform their intended functions. Several IAEA Member States with advanced reactor development programmes are actively conducting investigations of natural circulation to support the development of advanced water cooled reactor designs with passive safety systems. To foster international collaboration on the enabling technology of passive systems that utilize natural circulation, in 2004 the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on Natural Circulation Phenomena, Modelling and Reliability of Passive Systems that Utilize Natural Circulation. Three reports were published within the framework of this CRP. The first report (IAEA-TECDOC-1474) contains the material developed for the first IAEA training course on natural circulation in water cooled nuclear power plants. The second report (IAEA-TECDOC-1624) describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water cooled nuclear power plant designs, with the goal of gaining insights into system design, operation and reliability. This third, and last, report summarizes the research studies completed by participating institutes during the CRP period.

  12. U. S. Utility Leadership in Requirements For Passive Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utility leadership from both U.S. utilities and international utilities, is a key element in the U. S. Advanced Light Water Reactor Program. International utilities have played a very import Design reviews by the utilities participating in the ALRR Program will ensure that all of the utility requirements are met while design work is being carried out. Our mission is to achieve NRC certification of designs that reflect the needs of the utilities and we believe that this will play an important role in the resurgence of nuclear plant construction in the United States. As stated in the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan For Building New Nuclear Power Plants : 'The extensive operating experience with today's light water reactors (LWRs), and the promise shown in recent technical developments, leads the industry to the conclusion that the next nuclear plants ordered in the United States will be advanced light water reactors (A LWRs). Two types are under development : units of large output (1300 MW) called 'evolutionary' A LWRs and units of mid-size output (600 MW) called 'Passive' A LWRs. The term 'passive' refers to the safety features which depend more on natural processes such as gravity and buoyancy than on powered equipment such as pumps

  13. A Visual Basic simulation software tool for performance analysis of a membrane-based advanced water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, P; Kumar, R; Srivastava, N; Chowdhury, J

    2014-02-01

    A Visual Basic simulation software (WATTPPA) has been developed to analyse the performance of an advanced wastewater treatment plant. This user-friendly and menu-driven software is based on the dynamic mathematical model for an industrial wastewater treatment scheme that integrates chemical, biological and membrane-based unit operations. The software-predicted results corroborate very well with the experimental findings as indicated in the overall correlation coefficient of the order of 0.99. The software permits pre-analysis and manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. It allows quick performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:23982824

  14. Advanced techniques for rationalization of the construction of Montalto di Castro nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the steps taken at the Alto Lazio (Montalto di Castro) nuclear power plant construction site in order to rationalize construction methods and work control systems. They consist mainly of: (a) using models for studying construction sequences and for identifying in advance any modifications that may have to be made in the design; (b) using pre-assembling and prefabrication for civil structures and plant components; and (c) using computerized management and work control procedures. As regards the first of the above measures, models of the more complex civil engineering structures were developed. This made it possible to foresee interferences between reinforcing bars and embedments, thus avoiding delays during the construction phase. As regards the second type of measures, large scale prefabrication and/or pre-assembling was planned and carried out for the following elements: reinforcing bar assemblies of walls, floor slabs and particularly complex and heavy structures; metal structures such as the primary steel container, fuel pool and drywell liners, the dome of the shield building, as well as wholly prefabricated reinforced concrete elements and assemblies of mechanical components. Lastly, computerized systems were devised for rational management of quality and work progress control. It was thus possible to determine the work status in real time and hence to adopt any corrective action necessary. The results of these measures applied in Montalto were positive, in spite of initial difficulties deriving from the fact that prefabrication (and/or pre-assembling) was introduced when work was already under way, so that both the design and the site organization had to be adapted. In addition to reducing construction time, prefabrication also meant a great step forward as regards safety and quality, thanks to better working conditions and ease of control. (author). 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics to Studies of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC Produced by Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Iijima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In many plants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs are produced as specialized metabolites that contribute to the characteristics of each plant. The varieties and composition of BVOCs are chemically diverse by plant species and the circumstances in which the plants grow, and also influenced by herbivory damage and pathogen infection. Plant-produced BVOCs are receptive to many organisms, from microorganisms to human, as both airborne attractants and repellants. In addition, it is known that some BVOCs act as signals to prime a plant for the defense response in plant-to-plant communications. The compositional profiles of BVOCs can, thus, have profound influences in the physiological and ecological aspects of living organisms. Apart from that, some of them are commercially valuable as aroma/flavor compounds for human. Metabolomic technologies have recently revealed new insights in biological systems through metabolic dynamics. Here, the recent advances in metabolomics technologies focusing on plant-produced BVOC analyses are overviewed. Their application markedly improves our knowledge of the role of BVOCs in chemosystematics, ecological influences, and aroma research, as well as being useful to prove the biosynthetic mechanisms of BVOCs.

  16. 核电厂不锈钢设备电化学钝化技术%Electrochemical Passivation Technique for Stainless Steel Equipment in Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林泽泉; 郭志; 林斌; 刘爽; 张磊; 韩留红; 高玉柱

    2013-01-01

    The most important property of stainless steel is corrosion resistance,which is related to the passive film closely.By employing electrochemical passivation technique,a dense and intact passive film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel,which can improve the corrosion resistance effectively.In this paper,the theory of corrosion occurring is described,and the principle of anti-corrosion by passivation treatment is discussed.Furthermore,the processes of electrochemical passivation and points which need to pay attention to are introduced in detail for providing a systematic and complete theoretical basis for actual application.%不锈钢耐蚀性的优劣与不锈钢表面的钝化膜有关.经电化学钝化处理的不锈钢表面将生成致密、完整的钝化膜,能有效提升其耐蚀性能.笔者从理论上阐述了不锈钢发生腐蚀和表面钝化提高耐蚀性的原理,详细介绍了核电厂不锈钢设备电化学钝化工艺的步骤及其注意事项,为该工艺的应用提供较系统的依据.

  17. Human factors verification and validation of the advanced nuclear plant control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design has implemented the applicable human factors engineering (HFE) principles in the design of human-system interfaces (HSI). The ABWR uses unique features such as large mimic and touch-screen technology to present plant overviews and system operating details to the control room operating staff. The HSI designs, both in the console panels and the software generated graphical user interfaces, have been developed and evaluated using HFE guidelines. In addition to HFE guidelines reviews performed during design and implementation, broader reviews have been performed under the HFE Verification and Validation Implementation Plan (HFE V and VIP). Based upon the NUREG-0711, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) (Reference 1), the HFE V and VIP, hereafter also referred to as V and V, has provided feedback during the various phases of design, implementation, and integration of the HSI. As one of the ten elements of the HFE PRM, the V and V activities reaffirm that the design of the HSI conforms to the HFE design principles and that the plant operating staff in the control room can perform their assigned tasks. This rigorous HFE V and V process is now being applied in the implementation of the ABWR design for Taiwan Power Company's Lungmen Power Station. Two 1350 MWe ABWR units are currently under construction at Lungmen. The HFE V and V ensures that the process for the design is compliant with the HFE principles. An important aspect of the Lungmen HFE program has been the direct involvement of the end user, Taiwan Power Company (TPC), throughout the design development and implementation. These HFE V and V activities, performed in three phases, ensures that the necessary displays, control, and alarms are provided to support the identified personnel tasks. The HFE V and V also checks to determine that the design of each identified component is compliant with the HFE principles. The V and V ensures

  18. ALMR plant design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) plant, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and being developed by a General Electric Company lead industrial team, features simple and reliable safety systems, seismic isolation, passive decay heat removal, passive reactivity control, and substantial margins to structural and fuel damage limits during potential accident situations. These features will result in significant gains for public safety and protection of the owner's investment. Standardized modular construction and extensive factory fabrication will result in a plant design that is economically competitive. The reference commercial ALMR plant utilizes nine reactor modules arranged in three identical 480-MW(electric) power blocks for an overall plant net electrical rating of 1440 MW(electric). Each power block features three identical reactor modules, each with its own steam generator, that jointly supply power to a single turbine generator

  19. Main design parameters for an advanced nuclear plant for the Venezuelan Orinoco Oil Belt development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main design requirements for a steam-supply advanced nuclear plant proposed for both the extraction and the preprocessing of extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt are presented here. The model under consideration is a modular co-generation concept able to supply a large fraction of the energy required by an oil field producing 100,000 barrels per day of refinery ready synthetic oil. Three 1200 Mw(th) high-temperature gas cooled reactors, built successively, would supply most of the process heat, the injection steam and the electricity required, this in accordance with the main design criteria of a high variability of steam demand along the field life-time. The energy balance would be supplied by burning oil processing residues. Although design parameters depend on particular oil deposit characteristics and crude properties which may change with the field location in the OOB, the values established for this model are: process heat maximum conditions of pressure 100 bars at a temperature of 500 deg. C, and for injection steam pressures between 120 to 170 bars to saturation temperatures. Current design studies performed elsewhere, based on high-temperature gas cooled reactors, present design characteristics which could satisfy the requirements of the model under consideration. Further more detailed studies are recommended. (author). 19 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Microstructural aspects on the creep behaviour of advanced power plant steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerjak, H.; Hofer, P.; Schaffernak, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Schweisstechnik

    2000-07-01

    There is a world-wide substantial demand to increase the application temperature and design stresses of advanced creep resistant ferritic-martensitic 9-12% Cr steels to increase the efficiency of thermal power plants. These alloys show during service conditions pronounced microstructural changes in the aged as well as in the stressed conditions. Therefore an intensive investigation and modelling of the microstructure of the cast steel material G-X12CrMoVWNbN10-1-1, was applied to understand the mechanisms. Hardness tests, optical microscopy, TEM methods and thermodynamic equilibrium phase diagram calculations were performed. By means of the EFTEM (energy filtering TEM) method a quantification of the precipitation sequence of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, MX, Laves phase and Z - phase could be established at 600 C as a function of exposure time. A new approach (''graz model'') was proposed for the improvement of the creep resistant alloys in terms of the {alpha}/{gamma} - transformation temperature and diffusion behaviour respectively, which influence the microstructural stability. Both were found as important influencing factors. (orig.)

  1. Microstructural aspects on the creep behaviour of advanced power plant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a world-wide substantial demand to increase the application temperature and design stresses of advanced creep resistant ferritic-martensitic 9-12% Cr steels to increase the efficiency of thermal power plants. These alloys show during service conditions pronounced microstructural changes in the aged as well as in the stressed conditions. Therefore an intensive investigation and modelling of the microstructure of the cast steel material G-X12CrMoVWNbN10-1-1, was applied to understand the mechanisms. Hardness tests, optical microscopy, TEM methods and thermodynamic equilibrium phase diagram calculations were performed. By means of the EFTEM (energy filtering TEM) method a quantification of the precipitation sequence of M23C6, MX, Laves phase and Z - phase could be established at 600 C as a function of exposure time. A new approach (''graz model'') was proposed for the improvement of the creep resistant alloys in terms of the α/γ - transformation temperature and diffusion behaviour respectively, which influence the microstructural stability. Both were found as important influencing factors. (orig.)

  2. The advanced pulverized coal-fired power plant - status and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark). Boiler and Turbine Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Construction work on two seawater-cooled 400 MW pulverized coal-fired and gas-fired power plants with advanced design parameters for operation in 1997 and 1998 has been initiated by the Danish power utility ELSAM. Main steam pressure at the turbine inlet will be 285 bar (4130 psia) and main steam temperature will be 580{degree}C (1076{degree}F). Double reheat is expected to be 580{degree}C (1076{degree}F) and final feedwater temperature will be 300{degree}C (572{degree}F). Net efficiency will be 47% for coal and 49% for gas. Detailed information on the design of the sliding pressure-controlled once-through tower boilers designed by Danish Burmeister and Wain Energy (BWE) and the five casing turbo groups from MAN-Energie and GEC/Alsthom are presented. ELSAM`s investigations into further improvements of the conversion from coal to electricity up to an efficiency of approx. 50% are also presented. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Metallurgical considerations in the design of creep exposed, high temperature components for advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic components in advanced power generating plants are subjected to temperatures at which the material properties are significantly time-dependent, so that the creep properties become dominant for the design. In this investigation, methods by which such components are to be designed are given, taking into account metallurgical principles. Experimental structure mechanics testing of component related specimens carried out for representative loading conditions has confirmed the proposed methods. The determination of time-dependent design values is based on a scatterband evaluation of long-term testing data obtained for a number of different heats of a given alloy. The application of computer-based databank systems is recommendable. The description of the technically important secondary creep rate based on physical metallurgy principles can be obtained using the exponential relationship originally formulated by Norton, εmin = k.σn. The deformation of tubes observed under internal pressure with a superimposed static or cyclic tensile stress and a torsion loading can be adequately described with the derived, three-dimensional creep equation (Norton). This is also true for the description of creep ratcheting and creep buckling phenomena. By superimposing a cyclic stress, the average creep rate is increased in one of the principal deformation axes. This is also true for the creep crack growth rate. The Norton equation can be used to derive this type of deformation behaviour. (orig.)

  4. Gas centrifuge enrichment plants inspection frequency and remote monitoring issues for advanced safeguards implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erpenbeck, Heather H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimold, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, Steven L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, John [GLASGOW UNIV.

    2010-09-13

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to verify declared low enriched uranium (LEU) production, detect undeclared LEU production and detect high enriched uranium (BEU) production with adequate probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of declared cylinders of uranium hexafluoride that are used in the process of enrichment at GCEPs. This paper contains an analysis of how possible improvements in unattended and attended NDA systems including process monitoring and possible on-site destructive analysis (DA) of samples could reduce the uncertainty of the inspector's measurements providing more effective and efficient IAEA GCEPs safeguards. We have also studied a few advanced safeguards systems that could be assembled for unattended operation and the level of performance needed from these systems to provide more effective safeguards. The analysis also considers how short notice random inspections, unannounced inspections (UIs), and the concept of information-driven inspections can affect probability of detection of the diversion of nuclear material when coupled to new GCEPs safeguards regimes augmented with unattended systems. We also explore the effects of system failures and operator tampering on meeting safeguards goals for quantity and timeliness and the measures needed to recover from such failures and anomalies.

  5. Containment vessel, its auxiliary system and plant air conditioning system of advanced thermal reactor Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional requirement for, the design and the construction of, and the functional test on the containment vessel, its auxiliary system, the plant air conditioning and ventilation system of the advanced thermal reactor, Fugen, are described in detail. The main specifications of the containment vessel are as follows: The type enclosed cylinder, the maximum operating pressure 1.35 kg/cm2g, the maximum operating temperature 100 deg C, the leak rate 0.4%/day, the inner diameter 36 m. The height 64 m, the volume 40,900 m3, and the material JIS G3118, SGV-49. The containment vessel is provided with an hatch of 5 m diameter for carrying equipments in two air locks, many high and low voltage cable penetrations, pipe penetrations, a transfer shoot and isolation values. The functions and the specifications of the containment vessel and its auxiliary equipments are explained. The relating auxiliary systems are composed of the containment vessel spray system, the pool facility for steam blow-down, the recirculation system for the air in the vessel, the annulus evacuation system and its pressure control devices, the pressure measuring instruments and pressure relief valves and the temperature measuring devices for the containment vessel, and the object, function, layout and installation of these systems are explained. Concerning the air conditioning system, each main building has the special subsystem, and they are introduced. The progress stage of construction works and the procedure and results of the functional test at the site are described. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Interface technology based on human cognition and understanding for the operation and maintenance of advanced human cooperative plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Development of Intelligent Systems Technology for Advanced Human Cooperative Plants' was implemented as 'Nuclear Energy Fundamentals Crossover Research' by 3 institutes (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research; RIKEN, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; AIST and National Maritime Research Institute; NMRI). Aiming at appropriate interaction between human and agents in Digital Maintenance Field which spreads widely in time and space, NMRI developed technologies on contraction of plant information, generalization and intuition of the information through visual presentation. Intuitive presentation gave on-site information for identifying the source of abnormalities to human operators. And a human-machine cooperation infrastructure for plant maintenance was proposed and developed, where an overview display was used to show position and state information of all the agents in the plant and each agent view was used to show the corresponding agent's information in detail. A part of this technology was implemented in a demonstration program. Two agents were developed to support human operators' plant maintenance activities in this program. This demonstration showed the effectiveness of human-agent cooperation for early plant abnormality detection. (author)

  7. Stress analysis of passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner is a device for eliminating hydrogen in the containment of the nuclear power plant when severe accident occurs, avoiding hydrogen explosion. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the nuclear power plants pay more attention to the role of Passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner. Purpose: This paper studies the stresses of passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner under the seismic and LOCA conditions, Methods: Modeling by using the finite element software ANSYS, the impacts of airflow load under the LOCA conditions are considered reasonably and the strength of passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner is also evaluated according RCC-M, Results: The results show that the model can meet the requirement of the standard document. Conclusions: This paper will provide technical support for stress analysis and evaluation of passive hydrogen autocatalytic recombiner. (authors)

  8. Molybdate based passivation of zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1997-01-01

    In order to reduce corrosion rates, zinc plated parts are usually chromated. Recently chromates have caused increasingly environmental concern, for both allergic effects among workers touching chro-mated parts and toxic effects on fish, plants and bacteria. A molybdate based alternative has been...... developed to replace chromates in several passivation applica-tions. Depending on the environment in which the passivated parts are to be exposed, the protection that this alternative treatment provides range from less efficient to more efficient as compared to chromate. These aspects as well as issues such...

  9. Using accident management to address phenomenological uncertainties related to lower plenum debris bed chemistry and mixing during in-vessel retention (IVR) of molten core debris in the AP1000 passive plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core debris via external reactor vessel cooling is an important severe accident management strategy that is inherent in the AP1000 passive nuclear power plant. Uncertainties in molten debris bed chemistry and mixing behavior in the lower plenum of a RPV (reactor pressure vessel), at the extreme bounding limits, have been suggested to potentially result in lower plenum debris bed configurations that may challenge vessel integrity during IVR. To resolve epistemic uncertainties related to severe accident phenomena, the uncertainties are addressed via engineered severe accident management solutions that are shown to be reliable using a probabilistic framework to quantify success. Vessel failure probability and large release frequency in the AP1000 plant design are demonstrated to be as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP), and the IVR strategy is demonstrated to provide a robust approach to severe accident management in the AP1000 plant, capable of addressing postulated uncertainties and concerns

  10. Qualification issues associated with the use of advanced instrumentation and control systems hardware in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber-optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light water reactor. The template was then used to address reliability issues for microprocessor-based protection systems. Standards (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems were also identified. This approach addresses in part issues raised in Nuclear Regulatory Commission policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are open-quotes being developed without consensus standards, as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.close quotes

  11. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  12. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis

  13. The importance of carry out studies about the use of passive autocatalytic recombiners for hydrogen control in reactors type ESBWR; La importancia de realizar estudios sobre el uso de recombinadores autocataliticos pasivos para control de hidrogeno en reactores tipo ESBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, J.; Morales S, J. B. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: jersonsanchez@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    A way to satisfy and to guarantee the energy necessities in the future is increasing in a gradual way the creation of nuclear power plants, introducing advanced designs in its systems that contribute in way substantial in the security of the same nuclear plants. The tendency of new designs of these nuclear plants is the incorporation of systems more reliable and sure, and that the operation does not depend on external factors as the electric power, motors diesel or the action of the operator of nuclear plant, what is known as security passive systems. In this sense, the passive autocatalytic recombiners are a contribution toward the use of this type of systems. At the present time it is had studies of the incorporation of passive autocatalytic recombiners in nuclear plants in operation and that they have contributed to minimize the danger associated to hydrogen. The present work contains a first approach to the study of hydrogen recombiners incorporation in advanced nuclear plants, for this case in a nuclear power plant of ESBWR type. To achieve our objective it seeks to use specialized codes as RELAP/SCDAP to obtain simulations of passive autocatalytic recombiners behaviour and we can to estimate their operation inside the reactor contention, contemplating the possibility to use other codes like SCILAB and/or MATLAB for the simulation of a passive autocatalytic recombiner. (Author)

  14. Study on diverse passive decay heat removal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important principles for nuclear safety is the decay heat removal in accidents. Passive decay heat removal systems are extremely helpful to enhance the safety. In currently design of many advanced nuclear reactors, kinds of passive systems are proposed or developed, such as the passive residual heat removal system, passive injection system, passive containment cooling system. These systems provide entire passive heat removal paths from core to ultimate heat sink. Various kinds of passive systems for decay heat removal are summarized; their common features or differences on heat removal paths and design principle are analyzed. It is found that, these passive decay heat removal paths are similarly common on and connected by several basic heat transfer modes and steps. By the combinations or connections of basic modes and steps, new passive decay heat removal approach or diverse system can be proposed. (authors)

  15. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  16. Physics Basis for the Advanced Tokamak Fusion Power Plant ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced tokamak is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. The ARIES-AT design has an aspect ratio of A always equal to R/a = 4.0, an elongation and triangularity of kappa = 2.20, delta = 0.90 (evaluated at the separatrix surface), a toroidal beta of beta = 9.1% (normalized to the vacuum toroidal field at the plasma center), which corresponds to a normalized beta of bN * 100 x b/(I(sub)P(MA)/a(m)B(T)) = 5.4. These beta values are chosen to be 10% below the ideal-MHD stability limit. The bootstrap-current fraction is fBS * I(sub)BS/I(sub)P = 0.91. This leads to a design with total plasma current I(sub)P = 12.8 MA, and toroidal field of 11.1 T (at the coil edge) and 5.8 T (at the plasma center). The major and minor radii are 5.2 and 1.3 m, respectively. The effects of H-mode edge gradients and the stability of this configuration to non-ideal modes is analyzed. The current-drive system consists of ICRF/FW for on-axis current drive and a lower-hybrid system for off-axis. Tran sport projections are presented using the drift-wave based GLF23 model. The approach to power and particle exhaust using both plasma core and scrape-off-layer radiation is presented

  17. Physics Basis for the Advanced Tokamak Fusion Power Plant ARIES-AT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; T.K. Mau; R.L. Miller; F. Najmabadi; V.S. Chan; M.S. Chu; R. LaHaye; L.L. Lao; T.W. Petrie; P. Politzer; H.E. St. John; P. Snyder; G.M. Staebler; A.D. Turnbull; W.P. West

    2003-10-07

    The advanced tokamak is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. The ARIES-AT design has an aspect ratio of A always equal to R/a = 4.0, an elongation and triangularity of kappa = 2.20, delta = 0.90 (evaluated at the separatrix surface), a toroidal beta of beta = 9.1% (normalized to the vacuum toroidal field at the plasma center), which corresponds to a normalized beta of bN * 100 x b/(I(sub)P(MA)/a(m)B(T)) = 5.4. These beta values are chosen to be 10% below the ideal-MHD stability limit. The bootstrap-current fraction is fBS * I(sub)BS/I(sub)P = 0.91. This leads to a design with total plasma current I(sub)P = 12.8 MA, and toroidal field of 11.1 T (at the coil edge) and 5.8 T (at the plasma center). The major and minor radii are 5.2 and 1.3 m, respectively. The effects of H-mode edge gradients and the stability of this configuration to non-ideal modes is analyzed. The current-drive system consists of ICRF/FW for on-axis current drive and a lower-hybrid system for off-axis. Tran sport projections are presented using the drift-wave based GLF23 model. The approach to power and particle exhaust using both plasma core and scrape-off-layer radiation is presented.

  18. Effects of Plant Capital Costs on Market Introduction of Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. This paper focuses on the effects of capitals cost of the nuclear power plants, to which the scenario analyses appear very sensitive. Departing from estimated costs of Generation II and III reactors currently under construction and in planning, cost projections for advanced reactors from literature are assessed. In practice, this means an increase of the estimated capital costs in most cases. As a decreasing factor however, the effect of real options analysis on the capital cost is taken into account. This financial technique attributes a value to a specific attribute of the advanced reactor, like being able to vary different energy products (electricity, hydrogen) according to market demand, to delay investments by modular construction, or to switch between fuels. These advantages could be valued as a capital cost decrease. The effects of these capital cost variations on the European new-build scenarios are shown in the paper. (authors)

  19. Performance of a passive emergency heat removal system of advanced reactors in two-phase flow and with high concentration of non-condensable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research and the development of passive emergency cooling systems are necessary for the new generation of thermo-nuclear systems. Some basic information on the operation of these systems require the research of some relative processes to the natural circulation, mainly in conditions of two-phase flow involving processes of condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases, because many found situations are new. The experimental facility called Bancada de Circulacao Natural (BCN) was used for the realization of tests with diverse concentrations of non-condensable and power levels. The non-condensable gas present in the circuit decreases the rate of heat transfer for the secondary of the heat exchanger, determining low efficiency of the heat exchanger. High concentration of non-condensable in the vapor condensation, determines negative pressure, and cause the inversion of the flow in the circuit. The initial concentration of non-condensable and the geometry of the circuit, in the inlet of the heat exchanger, determines the establishment of transitory with two-phase flow. The BCN was performed with the computational code of Analysis of Accidents and Thermal-Hydraulics RELAP5/MOD 3.3 and, the calculated values had been compared with the experimental data, presenting good agreement for small non-condensable concentrations. The values calculated for high concentrations of non-condensable had been satisfactory after the circuit to have reached the temperature of saturation in the electric heater. (author)

  20. Description of the tasks of control room operators in German nuclear power plants and support possibilities by advanced computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In course of the development of nuclear power plants the instrumentation and control systems and the information in the control room have been increasing substantially. With this background it is described which operator tasks might be supported by advanced computer aid systems with main emphasis to safety related information and diagnose facilities. Nevertheless, some of this systems under development may be helpful for normal operation modes too. As far as possible recommendations for the realization and test of such systems are made. (orig.)

  1. Experience and regulatory activities on advanced instrumentation and control systems applied to nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the status for applying microprocessor-based systems to nuclear power plants in Korea and the regulatory activities performed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). And this presents the development of safety and regulatory technology for advanced I and C systems that has been carried out as a part of the next generation reactor development program in Korea. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Advances in plant virus evolution: Translating evolutionary insights into better disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...

  3. Recent Advances in the Emission and Functions of Plant Vegetative Volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize and emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds, which possess extremely important ecological functions. In most case, most plant volatiles are liquids, rather than gases, at room temperature. Some volatiles are emitted “on demand” when plants, especially vegetative parts, are exposed to abiotic or biotic stress. In this review, we summarize some of the highlights of plant vegetative volatile emission and functions research published during the past few years.

  4. Transition core DNBR penalty determination for Angra-1 nuclear power plant mixed cores consisting of standard and advanced fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When two (or more) types of Fuel Assemblies (FA) are inserted in a nuclear reactor core, a flow redistribution occurs, due to the different hydraulic resistances of these assemblies. This way, the FA's with higher hydraulic resistance will get a Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) penalty since a part of the total flow will diverge to the FA's with lower hydraulic resistance. Regarding Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is planned in a next cycle to insert a new Advanced FA that is a result from a joint-venture project of the companies INB - Industrias Nucleares do Brasil, WEC - Westinghouse Electric Company and KNF - Korean Nuclear Fuel. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to show the work done to determine the DNBR penalty to be applied to the Advanced FA's present in a mixed (or transition) core consisting of Advanced and Standard FA's. (author)

  5. A Review of Methods for Sensing the Nitrogen Status in Plants: Advantages, Disadvantages and Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia V. Ocampo-Velazquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N plays a key role in the plant life cycle. It is the main plant mineral nutrient needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components (proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids. Crop yield is affected by plant N status. Thus, the optimization of nitrogen fertilization has become the object of intense research due to its environmental and economic impact. This article focuses on reviewing current methods and techniques used to determine plant N status. Kjeldahl digestion and Dumas combustion have been used as reference methods for N determination in plants, but they are destructive and time consuming. By using spectroradiometers, reflectometers, imagery from satellite sensors and digital cameras, optical properties have been measured to estimate N in plants, such as crop canopy reflectance, leaf transmittance, chlorophyll and polyphenol fluorescence. High correlation has been found between optical parameters and plant N status, and those techniques are not destructive. However, some drawbacks include chlorophyll saturation, atmospheric and soil interference, and the high cost of instruments. Electrical properties of plant tissue have been used to estimate quality in fruits, and water content in plants, as well as nutrient deficiency, which suggests that they have potential for use in plant N determination.

  6. An Investigation for Arranging the Video Display Unit Information in a Main Control Room of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current digital instrumentation and control and main control room (MCR) technology has extended the capability of integrating information from numerous plant systems and transmitting needed information to operations personnel in a timely manner that could not be envisioned when previous generation plants were designed and built. A MCR operator can complete all necessary operating actions on the video display unit (VDU). It is extremely flexible and convenient for operators to select and to control the system display on the screen. However, a high degree of digitalization has some risks. For example, in nuclear power plants, failures in the instrumentation and control devices could stop the operation of the plant. Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches would be a manner to solve this problem. Under HFE considerations, there exists 'population stereotype' for operation. That is, the operator is used to operating a specific display on the specific VDU for operation. Under emergency conditions, there is possibility that the operator will response with this habit population stereotype, and not be aware that the current situation has already changed. Accordingly, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the MCR VDU configuration plan to meet the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. On the other hand, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the human factors verification and validation plan of the MCR VDU configuration to verify and validate the configuration of the MCR VDUs, and to ensure that the MCR VDU configuration allows the operator shift to meet the HFE consideration and the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. This paper is one of the HF V V plans of the MCR VDU configuration of the advanced nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the VDU configuration meets the human factors principles and the consistent

  7. An Investigation for Arranging the Video Display Unit Information in a Main Control Room of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chong Cheng; Yang, Chih Wei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Current digital instrumentation and control and main control room (MCR) technology has extended the capability of integrating information from numerous plant systems and transmitting needed information to operations personnel in a timely manner that could not be envisioned when previous generation plants were designed and built. A MCR operator can complete all necessary operating actions on the video display unit (VDU). It is extremely flexible and convenient for operators to select and to control the system display on the screen. However, a high degree of digitalization has some risks. For example, in nuclear power plants, failures in the instrumentation and control devices could stop the operation of the plant. Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches would be a manner to solve this problem. Under HFE considerations, there exists 'population stereotype' for operation. That is, the operator is used to operating a specific display on the specific VDU for operation. Under emergency conditions, there is possibility that the operator will response with this habit population stereotype, and not be aware that the current situation has already changed. Accordingly, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the MCR VDU configuration plan to meet the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. On the other hand, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the human factors verification and validation plan of the MCR VDU configuration to verify and validate the configuration of the MCR VDUs, and to ensure that the MCR VDU configuration allows the operator shift to meet the HFE consideration and the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. This paper is one of the HF V V plans of the MCR VDU configuration of the advanced nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the VDU configuration meets the human factors principles and the consistent

  8. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke eTodaka; Kazuo eShinozaki; Kazuko eYamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants ...

  9. Development of new type passive autocatalytic recombiner. Part 2. Proposal of conceptual structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type passive autocatalytic recombiner to mitigate released hydrogen gas at the accident of nuclear power plants and related facilities has been developed. In order to realize easy and anywhere installation, this new recombiner has advanced automotive catalysts with features such as light and small, high durability, and high performance. Downsizing and light-weighting of recombiner has been conducted with thermal hydraulic and structural analysis incorporating an automotive catalyst model and its characterization results obtained through experiments. Thermal hydraulic and structural analysis show PAR concept proposed is feasible for hydrogen mitigation in nuclear power plants and related facilities. (author)

  10. Passive systems for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the most original concepts that have been considered in Italy for the back-fitting of the nuclear power plants in order to reduce the probability and the importance of the release to the environment in case of a core melt. With reference either to BWR or PWR, passive concepts have been considered for back-fitting in the following areas: pump seals damage prevention and ECCS passive operation; reactor passive depressurization; molten reactor core passive cooling; metal containment passive water cooling through a water tank located at high level; containment isolation improvement through a sealing system; containment leaks control and limitation of environmental release. In addition some considerations will be made on the protection against external events introduced from the beginning on the PUN design either on building and equipment lay-out either on structure design. (author). 5 figs

  11. Study on diverse passive decay heat removal approach and principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decay heat removal in post-accident is one of the most important aspects concerned in the reactor safety analysis. Passive decay heat removal approach is used to enhance nuclear safety. In advanced reactors, decay heat is removed by multiple passive heat removal paths through core to ultimate heat sink by passive residual heat removal system, passive injection system, passive containment cooling system and so on. Various passive decay heat removal approaches are summarized in this paper, the common features and differences of their heat removal paths are analyzed, and the design principle of passive systems for decay heat removal is discussed. It is found that. these decay heat removal paths is combined by some basic heat transfer processes, by the combination of these basic processes, diverse passive decay heat removal approach or system design scheme can be drawn. (authors)

  12. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  13. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-01-01

    Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevan...

  14. Advances in phenolic compounds analysis of aromatic plants and their potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Costa, Denise; Costa, H.S.; Albuquerque, T.G.; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aromatic plants may contribute for human health promotion due to their antioxidant properties and also by replacing added salt in foods. Phenolic compounds are one of the major groups contributing for aromatic plants properties, including the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Scope and approach: This review focuses on the main uses of aromatic plants generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and overviews the extraction, purification and analytical ...

  15. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-08-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses.

  16. Interlanguage Passive Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simargool, Nirada

    2008-01-01

    Because the appearance of the passive construction varies cross linguistically, differences exist in the interlanguage (IL) passives attempted by learners of English. One such difference is the widely studied IL pseudo passive, as in "*new cars must keep inside" produced by Chinese speakers. The belief that this is a reflection of L1 language…

  17. Toward the ultimate goal of tritium self-sufficiency: Technical issues and requirements imposed on ARIES advanced power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the lack of external tritium sources, all fusion power plants must demonstrate a closed tritium fuel cycle. The tritium breeding ratio (TBR) must exceed unity by a certain margin. The key question is: how large is this margin and how high should the calculated TBR be? The TBR requirement is design and breeder-dependent and evolves with time. At present, the ARIES requirement is 1.1 for the calculated overall TBR of LiPb systems. The Net TBR during plant operation could be around 1.01. The difference accounts for deficiencies in the design elements (nuclear data evaluation, neutronics code validation, and 3D modeling tools). Such a low Net TBR of 1.01 is potentially achievable in advanced designs employing advanced physics and technology. A dedicated R and D effort will reduce the difference between the calculated TBR and Net TBR. A generic breeding issue encountered in all fusion designs is whether any fusion design will over-breed or under-breed during plant operation. To achieve the required Net TBR with sufficient precision, an online control of tritium breeding is highly recommended for all fusion designs. This can easily be achieved for liquid breeders through online adjustment of Li enrichment.

  18. Performance and costs of advanced sustainable central power plants with CCS and H2 co-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Thermo-economic analyses of co-producing electricity and H2 with CO2 capture. ► Gasification plants with solid oxide fuel cells and combined cycles are compared. ► 66 wt.% Utah coal, 17 wt.% corn stover and 17 wt.% cereal straw are gasified. ► H2 production cost is lowered by >50% with fuel cell based gasification plant. ► 70% more net electricity due to synergy between hydrogasification and fuel cells. -- Abstract: With increasing concerns over global climate change caused by GHG emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) has become imperative for coal based power plants. Meanwhile, with the development and deployment of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and alternative fuel vehicles, GHG reduction efforts in the power industry can also benefit the transportation sector. Power plants with H2 co-production capability can contribute significantly in such development trends because H2 powered fuel cell hybrid vehicles are very promising for future “zero emissions vehicles”. This work investigates the thermodynamic performance and cost advantage of employing advanced technologies currently under development for central power plants that (1) employ coal and biomass as feed stock; (2) co-produce power and high purity H2; (3) capture most of the CO2 evolved within the plants. Two system designs are developed: the first “base” case is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system consisting of commercially ready technologies; the second “advanced” case is an integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) system. The feedstock employed consists of Utah bituminous coal along with two typical biomass resources, corn stover and cereal straw. The IGFC plant produces significantly higher amount of electricity for the same amounts of feedstock and H2 export while the cost of producing the H2 using a cost of electricity of $135/MW h is $1178/tonne for the IGFC case versus $2620/tonne for the IGCC case.

  19. AP-1000 passive in-vessel retention design for a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AP-1000 is a Westinghouse two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. One of the passive safety features of the AP-1000 is In-Vessel Retention. In-Vessel Retention passively provides sufficient external cooling of the reactor vessel to retain a molten core inside the vessel in the unlikely event of a severe accident. This concept was proven by a series of tests and analyses, and offers numerous advantages over other severe accident core management designs. The testing that proved the In-Vessel Retention Concept for AP-1000 also identified a series of features and functions for the reactor vessel insulation, making it different from the reactor vessel insulation in any other nuclear power plant. This paper presents the key functional and interface requirements for the AP-1000 reactor vessel insulation and the design configuration that meets those requirements. Requirements are identified for both normal and severe accident conditions. The requirements for normal conditions are similar to those for any other reactor vessel insulation. The severe accident requirements include features that passively allow containment flood water in the reactor cavity to freely flow between the insulation and reactor vessel and other features that passively allow the resulting steam to freely vent. The AP-1000 reactor vessel insulation must also provide the appropriate annulus to optimally cool the reactor vessel and be structurally adequate to withstand the loads that occur during the severe accident and during certain pipe breaks in containment. (authors)

  20. Advanced Condenser Boosts Geothermal Power Plant Output (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.

  1. Passive Hydrogen Mitigation and Cooling System for Containment Systems during Prolonged Station Black Out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent accident at Fukushima Daiichi plants has brought attention to beyond design basis accident scenario where station black out could lead to severe accident with hydrogen release from the core to the containment, hydrogen explosions and containment pressurization. Here a passive containment cooling combined with hydrogen mitigation system is suggested that will passively remove containment heat load as well as mitigate hydrogen from the containment atmospheres during prolonged station blackout. One of the engineered safety systems in the advanced light water reactor is a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) which is composed of either a shell and tube heat exchanger such as the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) or an external air cooling system under various accident conditions to remove the energy make use of atmosphere air as ultimate heat sink to reject the PCCS heat, which in turn transfer hear from the containment. Passive autocatalytic recombiners have been proposed in the past to mitigate hydrogen in the containment. In the proposed design a finned vertical tube type PCCS system submersed in pool water is considered. The supply of pool water may last for three days following which airflow is initiated that will cool the PCCS tubes for long term. The PCCS inlet flow path will have catalytic recombiner that is effective during first few days should there be any hydrogen generation and accumulation in the containment

  2. Advance purex process for the new reprocessing plants in France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early Eighties, Japanese utilities formed the Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co (JNFS), which is in charge of the construction and the operation of the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan to be erected in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. Following a thorough worldwide examination of available processes and technologies, JNFS selected the French technology developed for UP3 and UP2 800 for the plants' main facilities. For these three new plants, the 40-year old PUREX process which is used worldwide for spent fuel reprocessing, has been significantly improved. This paper describes some of the innovative features of the selected processes

  3. ADVANCES OF BASIC MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES: POTENTIAL TO APPLY IN PLANT VIROID DETECTION IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapa M.A.M. Wijerathna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viroids are the smallest pathogens of plants. They are the cause of serious diseases on economic plants worldwide. Prevention and detection of the pathogens are the best method to reduce the economic loss from viroid infection. During last decade, genetics and molecular biology techniques have gained an increasing presence in plant pathology research. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most upgrade molecular biology techniques that have been used and studied recently. Most relevant published reports and hand skilled techniques have presented here with emphasis on suitable Viroid detection technique should be used for Sri Lanka.

  4. Performance Assessment of Passive Gaseous Provisions (PGAP). Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000 on the basis of IAEA General Conference resolution GC(44)/RES/21. INPRO helps to ensure the availability of sustainable nuclear energy in the 21st century and seeks to bring together all interested Member States - both technology holders and technology users - to consider joint actions to achieve desired innovations. To contribute to an international consensus on the definition of the reliability of passive systems that involve natural circulation, and on a methodology to assess this reliability, INPRO initiated a collaborative project on Performance Assessment of Passive Gaseous Provisions (PGAP) in 2007. Advanced nuclear reactor designs incorporate several passive systems in addition to active ones, not only to enhance the operational safety of the reactors but also to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident should one occur. However, the reliability of passive safety systems is crucial and must be assessed before they are used extensively in future nuclear power plants. Several physical parameters affect the performance of a passive safety system, and their values at the time of operation are a priori unknown. The functions of many passive systems are based on thermohydraulic principles, which until recently were considered as not being subject to any kind of failure. Hence, large and consistent efforts are required to quantify the reliability of such systems. Three participants from three INPRO Member States were involved in this collaborative project. Reliability methods for passive systems (RMPS) and assessment of passive system reliability (APSRA) methodologies were used by the participants to assess the performance and reliability of the passive decay heat removal system of the French gas cooled fast reactor design for station blackout and a loss of coolant accident combined with loss of off-site power, respectively. This publication presents the

  5. Finite mixture models for sensitivity analysis of thermal hydraulic codes for passive safety systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Uncertainties of TH codes affect the system failure probability quantification. • We present Finite Mixture Models (FMMs) for sensitivity analysis of TH codes. • FMMs approximate the pdf of the output of a TH code with a limited number of simulations. • The approach is tested on a Passive Containment Cooling System of an AP1000 reactor. • The novel approach overcomes the results of a standard variance decomposition method. - Abstract: For safety analysis of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), Best Estimate (BE) Thermal Hydraulic (TH) codes are used to predict system response in normal and accidental conditions. The assessment of the uncertainties of TH codes is a critical issue for system failure probability quantification. In this paper, we consider passive safety systems of advanced NPPs and present a novel approach of Sensitivity Analysis (SA). The approach is based on Finite Mixture Models (FMMs) to approximate the probability density function (i.e., the uncertainty) of the output of the passive safety system TH code with a limited number of simulations. We propose a novel Sensitivity Analysis (SA) method for keeping the computational cost low: an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to calculate the saliency of the TH code input variables for identifying those that most affect the system functional failure. The novel approach is compared with a standard variance decomposition method on a case study considering a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) of an Advanced Pressurized reactor AP1000

  6. Finite mixture models for sensitivity analysis of thermal hydraulic codes for passive safety systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaio@polimi.it [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Nicola, Giancarlo [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Chair on System Science and Energetic Challenge Fondation EDF, Ecole Centrale Paris and Supelec, Paris (France); Yu, Yu [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Uncertainties of TH codes affect the system failure probability quantification. • We present Finite Mixture Models (FMMs) for sensitivity analysis of TH codes. • FMMs approximate the pdf of the output of a TH code with a limited number of simulations. • The approach is tested on a Passive Containment Cooling System of an AP1000 reactor. • The novel approach overcomes the results of a standard variance decomposition method. - Abstract: For safety analysis of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), Best Estimate (BE) Thermal Hydraulic (TH) codes are used to predict system response in normal and accidental conditions. The assessment of the uncertainties of TH codes is a critical issue for system failure probability quantification. In this paper, we consider passive safety systems of advanced NPPs and present a novel approach of Sensitivity Analysis (SA). The approach is based on Finite Mixture Models (FMMs) to approximate the probability density function (i.e., the uncertainty) of the output of the passive safety system TH code with a limited number of simulations. We propose a novel Sensitivity Analysis (SA) method for keeping the computational cost low: an Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to calculate the saliency of the TH code input variables for identifying those that most affect the system functional failure. The novel approach is compared with a standard variance decomposition method on a case study considering a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) of an Advanced Pressurized reactor AP1000.

  7. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  8. Using microbial community interactions within plant microbiomes to advance an evergreen agricultural revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...

  9. Advances and perspectives on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in plant genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Degao; Hu, Rongbin; Palla, Kaitlin J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-04-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases has become a powerful tool for functional characterization of plant genes and genetic improvement of agricultural crops. Among the various site-specific nuclease-based technologies available for genome editing, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems have shown the greatest potential for rapid and efficient editing of genomes in plant species. This article reviews the current status of application of CRISPR/Cas9 to plant genomics research, with a focus on loss-of-function and gain-of-function analysis of individual genes in the context of perennial plants and the potential application of CRISPR/Cas9 to perturbation of gene expression, and identification and analysis of gene modules as part of an accelerated domestication and synthetic biology effort. PMID:26896588

  10. 植物类胡萝卜素研究进展%Advances of Carotenoid Research in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯耀兵; 康保珊; 黄进勇

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviewed the advances of research on carotenoid structure,enzyme and genes regulating carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in plant,especially in watermelon. The challenges and prospect of carotenoid research are also discussed.%结合西瓜介绍植物中类胡萝卜素的结构、生物合成途径中的酶及基因、合成调控研究进展,提出目前研究存在的问题,并展望未来的研究方向.

  11. Recent Advances in the Role of the Elongator Complex in Plant Physiology and tRNA Modiifcation:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xu; JIN Xiao-huan; WANG You-mei; ZHENG Bo; CHEN Peng

    2014-01-01

    The Elongator complex is a multifunction protein complex which has been shown to be involved in transcriptional elongation, DNA replication and repair, tubulin and histone acetylation, gene silencing and tranfer RNA uridine modiifcation. The composition of the Elongator complex is found to be highly conserved in eukaryotes, protein homologs of various subunits have been identiifed in fungi, plant, animal, and human. Remarkably, mutation in genes encoding the Elongator complex structural components all results in defects of transfer RNA wobble uridine modiifcation, and this function of the Elongator complex is also conserved in eukaryotes. The Elongator complex mutants in higher plants have pleiotropic phenotypes including defects in vegetative growth, abiscisic acid hypersensitivity, elevated tolerance to drought and oxidative stress. What is the relationship between the Elongator complex’s function in nucleoside modiifcation and its activity in other cellular pathways? This review summarizes the recent advances in study of function of the Elongator complex, in the aspects of cell physiology and molecular biology.

  12. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Dang, Vinh N [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method.

  13. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method

  14. 药用植物三叶青研究进展%Advances on herbal plant Tetrastigmatis hemsleyani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付金娥

    2014-01-01

    Tetrastigmatis hemsleyan is a kind of perennial liana plant from rubiaceae and also is one of the traditional Chinese medicines. The advances in Tetrastigmatis hemsleyani, such as its resource distribution, Chemical Constituents, medicinal function and clinical application, are introduced in this paper. It provides some references for further research of this medicinal plant.%三叶青为葡萄科崖爬藤属多年生藤本植物,是我国传统的常用中药材之一。文章分析近年来国内外三叶青的研究概况,对三叶青的资源分布、化学成分、药理活性及临床应用进行了阐述。为该三叶青的进一步深入开发利用研究提供了参考依据。

  15. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. PMID:25403494

  16. Optimisation of sinter plant operating conditions and BF burden material resources using advanced multivariate statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, P.; Mochon, J.; Saxen, H. (and others) [Corus UK, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    The project has demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between the effects of sinter blend, plant, process operations and their resultant effects on quality and productivity. This has enabled an improved window for process operation and blend optimisation to be defined. Developments related to blast furnace requirements have established the effects that sinter of different physical, mineralogy and chemistry and coke have on its operation. Defining the sinter and coke requirements for the blast furnace operating regime sinter quality, coke quality and productivity have been optimised as a function of cost and energy usage. The classification of sintering ores demonstrated by use of data clustering techniques gives the ability and confidence to assess new ores without undertaking pilot or plant based assessments. Tools developed and deployed for improved monitoring of sinter plant and blast furnace operation give permanent monitoring and provide a facility to identify deviations in performance. The tools meet the need of providing complex analysis and model development to plant technologists without having to have extensive knowledge of the underlying principles. Techniques applied including genetic algorithms, fuzzy systems, have been linked to traditional statistical techniques to refine the accuracy of the models. Reverse engineering of models has been developed to enable predict of the inputs, to achieve a required process output. The methods employed are transferable to other production facilities, or similar design and capacity. Where plant configurations are different, data associated with normal plant operations will have to be used to tune the models. 79 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  18. Analytical studies of the heat removal capability of a passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The MARS model was developed by adding the PAFS model to the APR1400 model. ► Analysis results show that the capacity of PAFS is sufficient to remove the decay heat in the LOCV and FLB accident cases. ► The PAFS control logic for MSIV has the advantages of maintaining the feedwater inventory in the intact side. - Abstract: As passive safety features for nuclear power plants receive increasing attention, various studies have been conducted to develop safety systems for third-generation (GEN-III) nuclear power plants that are driven by passive systems, such as natural circulation, gravity, and resistance to high temperatures. Thus, South Korea has designed the Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) with a two-loop PWR and 1500 MWe by adding passive safety features to the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400). The Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS) is one of several passive safety systems being designed for the APR+, and extensive studies are being conducted to complete its design and to verify its feasibility. Because the PAFS removes decay heat from the reactor core under transient and accident conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the heat removal capability of the PAFS under hypothetical accident conditions. Therefore, in this paper, after introducing the characteristics of the PAFS and its design requirements, a performance analysis of the PAFS is performed for two accident cases: Loss of Condenser Vacuum (LOCV) and Feedwater Line Break (FLB). For the analysis, the Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety (MARS) code is used, and a MARS model is developed by adding the PAFS model to the existing APR1400 model. The analysis results show that the PAFS has enough capacity to remove decay heat under the postulated accident conditions. In addition, the adequacy of modified control logic for main steam isolation valve (MSIV) is validated by comparing the traditional control logic.

  19. Recent advances and future prospects of phyto-phospholipid complexation technique for improving pharmacokinetic profile of plant actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid; Alexander, Amit; Ajazuddin; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2013-05-28

    The phyto-phospholipid complexation technique has emerged as one of the leading methods of improving bioavailability of phytopharmaceuticals having poor competency of solubilizing and crossing the biological membranes. Several plant actives in spite having potent in vitro pharmacological activities have failed to demonstrate similar in vivo response. Such plant actives have been made more effective systemically by incorporating them with dietary phospholipids forming new cellular structures which are amphipathic in nature. In the last few years phospholipids have been extensively explored for improved bioavailability and efficacy of plant drugs. Further, it is also much relevant to mention that phospholipids show unique compatibility with biological membranes and have inherent hepatoprotective activity. Different methods have been adopted to formulate phospholipid complexes of plant extractives utilizing varying solvent systems, molar ratios of drug/phospholipids and different drying techniques. Some methods of formulating such drug-phospholipid complexes have been patented as well. However, the stability of phyto-phospholipid complexes is still a matter of concern which needs attention. But still a number of products exploiting this technique are under clinical trials and some of them are now in market. The current review highlights key findings of recent years with our own viewpoints which can give the new directions to this strategy and also includes advancements in the technical aspects of phyto-phospholipid formulations which have been done in the recent past with future challenges. PMID:23474031

  20. Development of advanced direct perception displays for nuclear power plants to enhance monitoring, control and fault management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent theoretical and empirical research in basic and applied psychology, human factors, and engineering, it is now sufficient to define an integrated approach to the deign of advanced displays for present and future nuclear power plants. Traditionally, the conventional displays have shown operators the individual variables on gauges, meters, strip charts, etc. This design approach requires the operators to mentally integrate the separately displayed variables and determine the implications for the plant state. This traditional approach has been known as the single-sensor-single-indicator display design and it places an intolerable amount of mental workload on operators during transients and abnormal conditions. This report discusses a new alternative approach which is the use of direct perception interfaces. Direct perception a interfaces display the underlying physical and system constraints of the situation in a directly perceptual way, such that the viewer need not reason about what is seen to identify system states, but can identify the state of the system perceptually. It is expected that displays which show the dynamics of fundamental physical laws should better support operator decisions and diagnoses of plant states. The purpose of this research project is to develop a suite of direct perception displays for PWR nuclear power plant operations

  1. Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

  2. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiolo, Pablo R. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Conway, Lawarence E. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Oriani, Luca [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Lahoda, Edward J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; DeSilva, Greg [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Dept.; Hu, Min H. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Hartz, Josh [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Bachrach, Uriel [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Smith, Larry [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Dudek, Daniel F. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Services Division; Toman, Gary J. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Feng, Dandong [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  3. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a ''standard'' 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (∼600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output

  4. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  5. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  6. Advanced PUREX process for the new reprocessing plants in France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1970s, COGEMA decided to build two reprocessing plants at La Hague. One is the completely new UP3 plant with the capacity of 800t per year of spent fuel from LWRs, which was put in operation in two steps, November, 1989 and August, 1990. Another is the UP2 800 plant, an extension of the existing UP2 facility to achieve the same annual capacity of 800t at the beginning of 1993, by the commissioning of a new head end and high active chemical process facilities. In the early 1980s, Japanese utilities formed the Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co. which is in charge of the construction and the operation of the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan to be constructed in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. For these three new plants, the 40 year old PUREX process has been significantly improved. In this paper, some of the innovative features of the selected process are described. The criteria for process selection, the main features of the process, iodine management, the clarification of dissolution liquor, technetium behavior in the first extraction cycle, tritium decontamination and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Advances and Developing Tendency of Water Use Efficiency in Plant Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-bo; TANG Jiao-wen; ZHANG Fu

    2009-01-01

    Biological water saving is one of the major fields of water saving agriculture in the future and has an enormous potential in agricultural production. In this paper, the necessity and urgency of developing high water use efficiency in plant biology were dissertated firstly, and the research progresses at home and abroad were reviewed as following aspects: mechanisms of drought resistance and high water use efficiency, criterions for identifying and evaluating drought resistance and water use efficiency, genetic improvement for drought resistance and water use efficiency, water saving irrigation technology based on the physiological regulation and control in crop plants. Major problems in the research field at present were put forward, and development tendency of water use efficiency in plant biology in the future were also discussed.

  8. Advanced ecological and economical power plant technology based on CFB combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenario of the power plant industry is worldwide affected by one important issue, namely the stringent and steadily increasing environment regulations. Fluidized bed boilers, based on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technology with in-situ emission control, and improved economics as well as with proven record of high efficiency and reliability meets the ecological, economical and technical requirements. It should be noted that in addition to their attractive performance, regarding efficiency and pollution control, coal fired CFB boilers have been successfully introduced not only in power plant industry, but also in other industrial units such as chemical plants, automobile industry, paper mills, cement, etc. The experience gained to date confirms the advantages and also the reliability of this technology. (author)

  9. CAE advanced reactor demonstrators for CANDU, PWR and BWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAE, a private Canadian company specializing in full scope flight, industrial, and nuclear plant simulators, will provide a license to IAEA for a suite of nuclear power plant demonstrators. This suite will consist of CANDU, PWR and BWR demonstrators, and will operate on a 486 or higher level PC. The suite of demonstrators will be provided to IAEA at no cost to IAEA. The IAEA has agreed to make the CAE suite of nuclear power plant demonstrators available to all member states at no charge under a sub-license agreement, and to sponsor training courses that will provide basic training on the reactor types covered, and on the operation of the demonstrator suite, to all those who obtain the demonstrator suite. The suite of demonstrators will be available to the IAEA by March 1997. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic evaluation of a geothermal power plant for advanced exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of decreasing fossil fuel resources and their adverse impacts on the environment, interest in renewable energy resources, particularly geothermal energy, has been revived. Finding approaches that are more accurate and systematic to the energy system development is of great importance for the exploitation of geothermal energy. The aim of this study was to carry out both conventional and advanced exergy analyses of an existing geothermal binary power system. In this way, in-depth information was collected about the exergy destroyed in the system and its parts. Through advanced analysis, it became possible to investigate the interactions between the system components and the actual performance of the reasonable improvements. The results show that the order of the primary improved components is CON 1, TURB 1 and VAP 2 for the conventional analysis and CON 1, CON 2 and PRE-HE 1 for the advanced analysis. The results of the advanced analysis were found to be more qualified than the results of the conventional one. The improvements made to the system, increased the modified exergy efficiency to 18.26%, while the total system efficiency was found to be 9.60% in the real conditions. - Highlights: • Evaluating thermodynamic performance of a GPP using advanced exergy analysis for the first time. • Investigating the interactions between system components and their improvement potential. • The conventional exergy efficiency is 9.60% while the modified exergy efficiency is 18.26% through improving. • Total avoidable exergy destruction indicates that the heat exchangers and the turbine all merit priority for modifications

  11. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  12. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater. PMID:26856870

  13. Advancing our understanding of plant adaptation to metal polluted environments - new insights from Biscutella laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst-Kostecka, Alicja; Waldmann, Patrik; Frérot, Hélène; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The legacy of industrial pollution alters ecosystems, particularly at post-mining sites where metal trace elements have created toxic conditions that trigger rapid plant adaptation. Apart from the purely scientific merits, in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to metal contamination is beneficial for the economic and societal sectors because of its application in bioengineering (e.g. phytoremediation or biofortification). An important process is the evolution and/or enhancement of metal tolerance, a trait that has predominantly been studied by applying acute metal stress on species that allocate large quantities of certain metals to their foliage (so-called hyperaccumulators). As the vast majority of vascular plants does not hyperaccumulate metals, more efforts are needed to investigate non-hyperaccumulating species and thereby broaden understanding of biological mechanisms underlying metal tolerance. The pseudometallophyte Biscutella laevigata has shown potential in this respect, but its characteristics are insufficiently understood. We determined the zinc tolerance level and various plant responses to environmentally relevant zinc concentrations in ten metallicolous and non-metallicolous B. laevigata populations. In a two-phase hydroponic experiment, we scored multiple morphological and physiological traits (e.g. biomass, visible stress symptoms, element content in foliage) and assessed phenotypic variability within plant families. The structure of these quantitative traits was compared to that of neutral molecular markers to test, whether natural selection caused population differentiation in zinc tolerance. While all genotypes were tolerant compared to a zinc sensitive reference species, we found congruent trends toward higher tolerance in metallicolous compared to non-metallicolous plants. We identified the most indicative parameters for these differences and find that enhanced zinc tolerance in metallicolous populations is driven by

  14. Recent advances on the posttranslational modifications of EXTs and their roles in plant cell walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasquez, Melina; Salter, Juan Salgado; Dorosz, Javier Gloazzo;

    2012-01-01

    The genetic set up and the enzymes that define the O-glycosylation sites and transfer the activated sugars to cell wall glycoprotein Extensins (EXTs) have remained unknown for a long time. We are now beginning to see the emerging components of the molecular machinery that assembles these complex O......-glycoproteins on the plant cell wall. Genes conferring the posttranslational modifications, i.e., proline hydroxylation and subsequent O-glycosylation, of the EXTs have been recently identified. In this review we summarize the enzymes that define the O-glycosylation sites on the O-glycoproteins, i.e., the prolyl 4...... and function of extensins in plant cell walls....

  15. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  16. Passive residual energy utilization system in thermal cycles on water-cooled power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Guilherme M.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F., E-mail: placco@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA) Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Rubens S. dos, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a concept of a residual energy utilization in nuclear plants thermal cycles. After taking notice of the causes of the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, an idea arose to adapt a passive thermal circuit as part of the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System). One of the research topics of IEAv (Institute for Advanced Studies), as part of the heat conversion of a space nuclear power system is a passive multi fluid turbine. One of the main characteristics of this device is its passive capability of staying inert and be brought to power at moments notice. During the first experiments and testing of this passive device, it became clear that any small amount of gas flow would generate power. Given that in the first stages of the Fukushima accident and even during the whole event there was plenty availability of steam flow that would be the proper condition to make the proposed system to work. This system starts in case of failure of the ECCS, including loss of site power, loss of diesel generators and loss of the battery power. This system does not requires electricity to run and will work with bleed steam. It will generate enough power to supply the plant safety system avoiding overheating of the reactor core produced by the decay heat. This passive system uses a modified Tesla type turbine. With the tests conducted until now, it is possible to ensure that the operation of this new turbine in a thermal cycle is very satisfactory and it performs as expected. (author)

  17. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies

  18. Advances in biocontrol mechanism and application of Trichoderma spp. for plant diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Caihong; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. is a filamentous soil fungus known as an effective biocontrol agent of a range of important airborne and soilborne pathogens, it has universal distribution and economic importance. This article reviewed the researches on biocontrol mechanism for plant diseases and application of Trichoderma spp., especially Trichoderma harzianum in recent years.

  19. Technology programs in support of advanced light water reactor plants: Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone ampersand Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) is conducting several independent, yet interrelated, studies of light water reactor plants to improve constructibility and quality, to reduce costs and schedule durations, and to simplify design. This document discusses construction methods, materials, and tools. 51 refs., 33 figs

  20. Advanced simulation strategies of dynamic regimes in nuclear plants in order to increase the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the design period of Cernavoda NPP, Unit 2, performing thermal hydraulic analysis for nuclear power plants of Romania has become a priority for Romanian research and design institutes. As a result a number of 26 thermal-hydraulic analyses was achieved to support systems responsible for nuclear safety. This constituted a first step in investigating the complex field of thermo-hydraulic analysis. In this paper I will briefly present some of the results obtained and the proposed changes to Unit 2 at Cernavoda NPP in effecting the following analyses. The paper will present also some conclusions from the analysis on several systems from the secondary circuit, namely Feedwater System, Main Steam System and Main Condensate System. In these analyses we have been studied all the operating modes given by the system design manuals. The paper is limited to analysis of regimes involving changes in safety philosophy of the plant or plant operating procedures. By making these thermo-hydraulic analyses for Cernavoda NPP it was proven the Romanian design capability of making complete and consistent safety analyses for nuclear power plants as a first step towards independence from foreign support in implementing all necessary thermal-hydraulic analyses for future units that will be designed and made in Romania. (author)

  1. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  2. Manipulating photorespiration to increase plant productivity. Recent advances and perspectives for crop improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycling of the 2-phosphoglycolate generated by the oxygenase reaction of Rubisco requires a complex and energy-consuming set of reactions collectively known as the photorespiratory cycle. Several approaches have been proposed with the aim of producing plants with reduced rates of photorespiratory ...

  3. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants: Regulation and biosafety concern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Tuteja; Shiv Verma; Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Sebastian Raveendar; In Bheema Lingeshwara Reddy

    2012-03-01

    During the efficient genetic transformation of plants with the gene of interest, some selectable marker genes are also used in order to identify the transgenic plant cells or tissues. Usually, antibiotic- or herbicide-selective agents and their corresponding resistance genes are used to introduce economically valuable genes into crop plants. From the biosafety authority and consumer viewpoints, the presence of selectable marker genes in released transgenic crops may be transferred to weeds or pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract or soil, making them resistant to treatment with herbicides or antibiotics, respectively. Sexual crossing also raises the problem of transgene expression because redundancy of transgenes in the genome may trigger homology-dependent gene silencing. The future potential of transgenic technologies for crop improvement depends greatly on our abilities to engineer stable expression of multiple transgenic traits in a predictable fashion and to prevent the transfer of undesirable transgenic material to non-transgenic crops and related species. Therefore, it is now essential to develop an efficient marker-free transgenic system. These considerations underline the development of various approaches designed to facilitate timely elimination of transgenes when their function is no longer needed. Due to the limiting number of available selectable marker genes, in future the stacking of transgenes will be increasingly desirable. The production of marker-free transgenic plants is now a critical requisite for their commercial deployment and also for engineering multiple and complex trait. Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the regulation and biosafety concern of genetically modified (GM) crops.

  4. Advanced phenotyping and phenotype data analysis for the study of plant growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, Md. Matiur; Chen, Dijun; Gillani, Zeeshan; Klukas, Christian; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Due to an increase in the consumption of food, feed, fuel and to meet global food security needs for the rapidly growing human population, there is a necessity to breed high yielding crops that can adapt to the future climate changes, particularly in developing countries. To solve these global challenges, novel approaches are required to identify quantitative phenotypes and to explain the genetic basis of agriculturally important traits. These advances will facilitate the screening of germpla...

  5. Ecohydrological advances and applications in plant-water relations research: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Asbjornsen, H.; Goldsmith, G.R.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; K. T. Rebel; Osch, F. van; Rietkerk, M.G.; J. Chen; Gotsch, S.; Tobon, C.; D. R. Geissert; Gomez-Tagle, A.; Vache, K.; Dawson, T E

    2011-01-01

    Aims The field of ecohydrology is providing new theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches for understanding the complex interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and hydrologic flows at multiple scales. Here we review some of the major scientific and technological advances in ecohydrology as related to understanding the mechanisms by which plant–water relations influence water fluxes at ecosystem, watershed and landscape scales. Important Findings We identify several cross-cutt...

  6. Advances in satellite oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  7. Passive heat removal characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, Hyung Seok; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Cho, Bong Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A new advanced integral reactor of 330 MWt thermal capacity named SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is currently under development in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for multi-purpose applications. Modular once-through steam generator (SG) and self-pressurizing pressurizer equipped with wet thermal insulator and cooler are essential components of the SMART. The SMART provides safety systems such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). In this study, a computer code for performance analysis of the PRHRS is developed by modeling relevant components and systems of the SMART. Using this computer code, a performance analysis of the PRHRS is performed in order to check whether the passive cooling concept using the PRHRS is feasible. The results of the analysis show that PRHRS of the SMART has excellent passive heat removal characteristics. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Dynamic modeling, simulation and control design of an advanced micro-hydro power plant for distributed generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, J.L. [Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Molina, M.G. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Pacas, J.M. [Institut fuer Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebe, Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich 12 Hoelderlinstr 3, D 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    A small-scale hydropower station is usually a run-of-river plant that uses a fixed speed drive with mechanical regulation of the turbine water flow rate for controlling the active power generation. This design enables to reach high efficiency over a wide range of water flows but using a complex operating mechanism, which is in consequence expensive and tend to be more affordable for large systems. This paper proposes an advanced structure of a micro-hydro power plant (MHPP) based on a smaller, lighter, more robust and more efficient higher-speed turbine. The suggested design is much simpler and eliminates all mechanical adjustments through a novel electronic power conditioning system for connection to the electric grid. In this way, it allows obtaining higher reliability and lower cost of the power plant. A full detailed model of the MHPP is derived and a new three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed MHPP is validated through digital simulations and employing a small-scale experimental set-up. (author)

  9. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  10. Development of advanced concept for shortening construction period of ABWR plant (Part 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reinforced concrete containment vessel (RCCV) is the most critical part in construction of an ABWR plant. Use of steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) and a large modular construction method are effective in shortening the construction period (Ijichi et al., 2004)1). This research is aimed at a remarkable shortening of the construction period of an ABWR plant (period from 1st concrete placement to Fuel/Loading is less than 22 months). Conceptual design of a steel plate reinforced concrete containment vessel (SCCV) using an SC structure is carried out and structural experiments are conducted. It is thus confirmed that SCCV shows outstanding structural performance, compared with RCCV. This paper outlines the study results. (authors)

  11. Experience and improvements in advanced alarm annunciation systems in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the meeting is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion on R and D, in-plant experiences and improvements to annunciation systems. In planning the meeting, we have fully recognized that annunciation is an integral part of control centre design and plant operation. However, we have proposed to keep the meeting focussed on annunciation-related topics so as to maximize the benefits from the discussions. Among us this week, we have 62 participants from 9 countries presenting 22 papers. Further, these representatives are from utilities, design/engineering, research and development, and regulatory organizations. The meeting is organized into 7 session, focussing on a specific aspect or perspective on annunciation. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Hanford waste vitrification plant process description, process advancements, and Hanford site interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, a prime operating contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy in Richland, Washington, has the lead responsibility for development, design, construction, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be built for the U.S. Department of Energy to vitrify existing and future liquid high level and transuranic wastes produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. Start of construction is scheduled for mid1991. Hot startup currently is scheduled for December 1999, and acceleration of the hot startup schedule is under consideration. Requirements related to interfaces with existing Hanford Site facilities and other site specific requirements are discussed in this paper. Design of the feed transfer and lag storage, radioactive liquid waste treatment and recycle, and process off gas treatment systems is significantly affected by site specific requirements. Recent developments in design of these systems are described. 3 figs

  13. Research on reliability of passive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the important feature of passive system and the basic difference from the active system that nuclear plant can be driven to safe state or shutdown by inherent safety characters of the reactor and physical principles, independent of human interfere or the operation of outside equipment, when the reactor is in abnormal condition. So passive system is widely used in new generation nuclear power plant(NPP) such as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and AP1000 NPPs. While physical process failure become one of the important contributors to the system operation failure since system operation is depending on natural force but not on outside power and both the driven force and resistance are influenced by many uncertain factors. Then finding the key factors for the system operation, analyzing the development of the passive system combining with the accident scenarios are the main steps of the analysis of the passive system reliability, and the important content of the probability safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear plant with the passive design. (authors)

  14. RECENT ADVANCES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PLANT HELICTERES ISORA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabale Pramod M.; Grampurohit Nirmala D; Banerjee Subir K; Gaikwad Dushant D; Gadhave Manoj V.

    2012-01-01

    In India, use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times and inherited traditionally. The fruits of Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for the treatment of griping bowels and diarrheal diseases. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent, hypoglycemic and useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringents, r...

  15. Recent advances in understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chung-Ju R.; Tseng, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis, a specialized cell division to produce haploid cells, marks the transition from a sporophytic to a gametophytic generation in the life cycle of plants. In angiosperms, meiosis takes place in sporogenous cells that develop de novo from somatic cells in anthers or ovules. A successful transition from the mitotic cycle to the meiotic program in sporogenous cells is crucial for sexual reproduction. By contrast, when meiosis is bypassed or a mitosis-like division occurs to produce unreduc...

  16. Prospects for Martensitic 12 % Cr Steels for Advanced Steam Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2016-01-01

    and FB2 are now used in power plants up to 600–620 °C steam temperature. For higher steam temperatures up to 650 °C steels with 11–12 % Cr are needed for better resistance against steam oxidation. However, fine V and Nb based nitrides may transform to coarse Z-phase [Cr(V,Nb)N] nitrides in steels with...

  17. Recent advances towards development and commercialization of plant cell culture processes for synthesis of biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell culture systems were initially explored for use in commercial synthesis of several high value secondary metabolites, allowing for sustainable production that was not limited by the low yields associated with natural harvest or the high cost associated with complex chemical synthesis. Although there have been some commercial successes, most notably paclitaxel production from Taxus sp., process limitations exist with regards to low product yields and inherent production variability. ...

  18. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles For High Efficiency Zero Emission Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. D. Rao; J. Francuz; H. Liao; A. Verma; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-11-01

    Table 1 shows that the systems efficiency, coal (HHV) to power, is 35%. Table 2 summarizes the auxiliary power consumption within the plant. Thermoflex was used to simulate the power block and Aspen Plus the balance of plant. The overall block flow diagram is presented in Figure A1.3-1 and the key unit process flow diagrams are shown in subsequent figures. Stream data are given in Table A1.3-1. Equipment function specifications are provided in Tables A1.3-2 through 17. The overall plant scheme consists of a cryogenic air separation unit supplying 95% purity O{sub 2} to GE type high pressure (HP) total quench gasifiers. The raw gas after scrubbing is treated in a sour shift unit to react the CO with H{sub 2}O to form H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The gas is further treated to remove Hg in a sulfided activated carbon bed. The syngas is desulfurized and decarbonized in a Selexol acid gas removal unit and the decarbonized syngas after humidification and preheat is fired in GE 7H type steam cooled gas turbines. Intermediate pressure (IP) N{sub 2} from the ASU is also supplied to the combustors of the gas turbines as additional diluent for NOx control. A portion of the air required by the ASU is extracted from the gas turbines. The plant consists of the following major process units: (1) Air Separation Unit (ASU); (2) Gasification Unit; (3) CO Shift/Low Temperature Gas Cooling (LTGC) Unit; (4) Acid Gas Removal Unit (AGR) Unit; (5) Fuel Gas Humidification Unit; (6) Carbon Dioxide Compression/Dehydration Unit; (7) Claus Sulfur Recovery/Tail Gas Treating Unit (SRU/TGTU); and (8) Power Block.

  19. Testing of advance design types of instrument current transformers for Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current transformers designed and produced in IVEP Brno for the measurement of electric energy, for control and protection of the generator-transformer unit of the Temelin nuclear power plant are described. Presented are tests performed according to the standard test CSN 35 1360 and CSN 35 1361 as well as tests respecting a revision of these standards according to IEC 185. (author) 1 tab., 2 figs., 7 refs

  20. Manipulating photorespiration to increase plant productivity: recent advances and perspectives for crop improvement.

    OpenAIRE

    Betti, Marco; Bauwe, Hermann; Busch, Florian A.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Keech, Olivier; Levey, Myles; Ort, Donald R; Parry, Martin A. J.; Sage, Rowan; Timm, Stefan; Walker, Berkley; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling of the 2-phosphoglycolate generated by the oxygenase reaction of Rubisco requires a complex and energy-consuming set of reactions collectively known as the photorespiratory cycle. Several approaches aimed at reducing the rates of photorespiratory energy or carbon loss have been proposed, based either on screening for natural variation or by means of genetic engineering. Recent work indicates that plant yield can be substantially improved by the alteration of photorespiratory fluxes ...