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Sample records for advanced oxidation process

  1. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  2. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Engin GÜRTEKİN; Nusret ŞEKERDAĞ

    2008-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple ...

  3. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  4. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  5. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  6. Proceedings of the second international conference on advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the conference is to discuss the recent developments in diversified fields in advanced oxidation processes. Development of new and modern technologies for water purification is vital to water management in any country. Advanced oxidation process is among the latest methodologies which are under tremendous researches in the recent past. In-situ generation of highly oxidizing species using chemical, photochemical, sonochemical and radiation chemical techniques were the focus of the discussions. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Krzemińska; Ewa Neczaj; Gabriel Borowski

    2015-01-01

    High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC), Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s) are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting...

  8. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  9. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOP'S FOR THE TREATMENT OF CCL CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on treatment of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) chemicals is being conducted. Specific groups of contaminants on the CCL will be evaluated using numerous advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Initially, these CCL contaminants will be evaluated in groups based on chemical...

  10. Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Advanced Oxidation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Koçak, Seda; Güney, Cansu; Argun, M. Tuna; Tarkın, Begüm; Kırtman, E. Özlem; Akgül, Deniz; MERTOGLU, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Organic and inorganic pollutants found in municipal landfill leachate lead to severe problems for the environment when directly discharged to water bodies without treatment. Due to the existence of recalcitrant organics in leachate, advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are mostly applied to biologically treated leachate as a polishing step. In this study, the effectiveness of Fenton process on leachate treatment was examined. The Fenton process was applied to both young (untreated) and biologic...

  11. Degradation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid by advanced oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. P. S. Zanta; Martínez-Huitle, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as the UV/H2O2 and Fenton processes were investigated for the degradation of 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HBA) in lab-scale experiments. Different [H2O2]/[2-HBA] molar ratios and pH values were used in order to establish the most favorable experimental conditions for the Fenton process. For comparison purposes, degradation of 2-HBA was carried out by the UV/H2O2 process under Fenton experimental conditions. The study showed that the Fenton p...

  12. Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater reuse - removal of micropollutants

    OpenAIRE

    James, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    The removal of micropollutants (MPs) from secondary municipal wastewater by an advanced oxidation process (AOP) based on UV irradiation combined with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) has been assessed through pilot-scale experiments incorporating microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Tests employed low concentrations of a range of emerging contaminants of concern, and the water quality varied by blending of waters from different sources. Under optimum H2O2 and lamp power...

  13. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Peralta-Zamora, Patricio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: zamora@quimica.ufpr.br; Emmel, Alexandre [Centro Integrado de Tecnologia e Educacao Profissional, 81310-010 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO{sub 2}-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated.

  14. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Barazesh, JM; Hennebel, T; Jasper, JT; Sedlak, DL

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low con...

  15. Advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by Fenton reagent oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avermectin-salinomycin waster is hard to be further biodegraded after treated by anaerobic-aerobiotic process, so Fenton oxidation process is studied for its advanced treatment. Influencing factors of pH, reaction time, H2O2 dosage and H2O2/Fe2+ on COD removal are investigated, respectively. When pH value is 3.0, the dosage of H2O2 is 1.5 mL/L, and the mole ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ is 5∶1, the effluent COD mass concentrations decreases from 224 to 64.3 mg/L, namely the COD removal efficiency reaches 71.3%.

  16. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 / Fe+2) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H2O2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH)2 and the CO2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe+2 /H2O2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  17. Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes to Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Marco Paulo Gomes de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Química This research contributes to the study and development of advanced oxidation technologies applied to two different problematic wastewaters: textile and winery wastewaters. In this dissertation the factors that influence the oxidation of the model compound of textile wastewaters, the azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5), and of the winery wastewaters were investigated. The first part of the thesis experimental work is dedicated to the decolorization of RB5 solut...

  18. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  19. Environmental assessment of different solar driven advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Torrades, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEI de Terrassa, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain); Peral, Jose; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    In this work a comparative environmental assessment of different advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) is performed. Two energy scenarios have been considered according to the energy source used: solar energy and electricity (UVA lamp). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts of the AOP's. The treatments considered are heterogenous photocatalysis, photo-Fenton reactions, the coupling of heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton, and heterogeneous photocatalysis in combination with hydrogen peroxide. These AOP's are applied to the treatment of kraft mill bleaching wastewaters. The system under study includes the production of the catalysts, reagents as well as the production of electricity; eight environmental impact categories are assessed for each AOP: global warming, ozone depletion, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic toxicity, photochemical ozone formation, and abiotic resource depletion. the results of the LCA show that the environmental impact of AOP's is caused mainly by the amount of electricity consumed, whereas the impact of producing the reagents and catalysts is comparatively low. For this reason, the solar energy scenario reduces the impact more than 90% for almost all AOP's and impact categories. None of the solar driven AOP's can be identified as the best in all impact categories, but heterogenous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reactions obtain better results than the remaining treatments, since these treatments do not consume simultaneously both TiO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the chemicals with highest environmental burdens in the system. (author)

  20. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  1. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  2. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the

  3. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  4. An advanced tunnel oxide layer process for 65 nm NOR floating-gate flash memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced tunnel oxide layer process for 65 nm NOR-type floating-gate flash memory is proposed to improve tunnel oxide quality by an additive sacrificial oxide layer growth. The sacrificial oxide layer process effectively controls the thickness variation of tunnel oxide and improves the flatness of the SiO2/Si interface across the active area. The interface traps’ generation during program/erase cycling of flash cells is found to be reduced, and the reliability property is significantly improved as compared to flash cells without the sacrificial oxide layer process. The technology is applicable to further scaled floating-gate flash memories. (paper)

  5. Comparisons of Three Advanced Oxidation Processes in Organic Matter Removal from Esfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    OpenAIRE

    karimi B.; Ehrampoush M.H.; Mokhtari M.; Ebrahimi A

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO) is one of the advanced oxidation process which is mostly used to reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substance and solid waste leachate.The objective of this paper is comparisons of three advance oxidation in organic matter removal in different conditions from Esfahan composing factory leachateMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sam...

  6. Removal of Organic Matter from Landfill Leachate by Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Hua; Wei Li; Qixing Zhou

    2010-01-01

    In most countries, sanitary landfill is nowadays the most common way to eliminate municipal solid wastes (MSWs). However, sanitary landfill generates large quantity of heavily polluted leachate, which can induce ecological risk and potential hazards towards public health and ecosystems. The application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including ozone-based oxidation, Fenton oxidation, electrochemical oxidation, and other AOPs to treatment of landfill leachate was reviewed. Th...

  7. Advanced oxide powders processing based on cascade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the potential advantages offered to thermal spraying and powder processing by the implementation of plasma torches with inter-electrode insert (IEI) or, in other words, cascade plasma torches (CPTs) is presented. The paper provides evidence that the modular designed single cathode CPT helps eliminate the following major disadvantages of conventional plasma torches: plasma parameters drifting, 1-5 kHz pulsing of plasma flow, as well as excessive erosion of electrodes. More stable plasma results in higher quality, homogeneity and reproducibility of plasma sprayed coatings and powders treated. In addition, CPT offers an extremely wide operating window, which allows better control of plasma parameters, particle dwell time and, consequently, particle temperature and velocity within a wide range by generating high enthalpy quasi-laminar plasmas, medium enthalpy transient plasmas, as well as relatively low enthalpy turbulent plasmas. Stable operation, flexibility with plasma gases as well as wide operating window of CPT should help significantly improve the existing plasma spraying processes and coatings, and also help develop new advanced technologies

  8. C.I. Reactive Black 5 degradation by advanced electrochemical oxidation process, AEOP

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, M. de Fátima; Sousa, Elisabete,1954-

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, an increasing number of procedures to remove pollutants from wastewater have been reported. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are one of those technologies used for this purpose, namely, for textile wastewater treatment. AOPs are environmentally friendly methods based on chemical, photochemical or photocatalytical production of hydroxyl radical (HO•). This strong oxidant can react with most organic compounds present in wastewater, as dyestuffs. In this paper, an Advance...

  9. A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Haiming; Ma Wanzheng; Wang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF) system to further remove organic substances in terms of dischar...

  10. Comparison of advanced oxidation processes used for municipal waste water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, David

    2014-01-01

    Municipal wastewater can be used as an alternative water source. However, it is essential to treat the wastewater, thereby achieving extensive removal of organic pollutants. It is also necessary to ensure a nearly complete decolouration and disinfection of the water. The use of chemical oxidation and thus advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the processes of wastewater treatment is important in terms of ensuring an efficient degradation of the more difficult biodegradable or even non-biodeg...

  11. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPs) APPLIED FOR WASTEWATER AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT. ELIMINATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Mira; Radjenovic, Jelena; Barcelo, Damia

    2011-01-01

    Due to their insufficient removal in conventional wastewater treatments, advanced drinking and wastewater treatment options should be considered for the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from urban, hospital and industrial wastewaters. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art in two often applied advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely TiO2 assisted photocatalysis and photo-Fenton process. Their possibilities in removing PhACs are discussed, giving examples fo...

  12. Application of advanced oxidation processes for removing salicylic acid from synthetic wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Djalma; Ribeiro; da; Silva; Carlos; A.Martinez-Huítle

    2010-01-01

    In this study,advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) such as anodic oxidation(AO),UV/H_2O_2 and Fenton processes(FP) were investigated for the degradation of salicylic acid(SA) in lab-scale experiments.Boron-doped diamond(BDD) film electrodes using Ta as substrates were employed for AO of SA.In the case of FP and UV/H_2O_2,most favorable experimental conditions were determined for each process and these were used for comparing with AO process.The study showed that the FP was the most effective process under ...

  13. A novel process of dye wastewater treatment by linking advanced chemical oxidation with biological oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Haiming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dye wastewater is one of typically non-biodegradable industrial effluents. A new process linking Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation proposed in this study was investigated to degrade the organic substances from real dye wastewater. During the combination process, the Fenton’s oxidation process can reduce the organic load and enhance biodegradability of dye wastewater, which is followed by biological aerated filter (BAF system to further remove organic substances in terms of discharge requirement. The results showed that 97.6% of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal by the combination process was achieved at the optimum process parameters: pH of 3.5, H2O2 of 2.0 mL/L, Fe(II of 500 mg/L, 2.0 h treatment time in the Fenton’s oxidation process and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 5 h in the BAF system. Under these conditions, COD concentration of effluent was 72.6 mg/L whereas 3020 mg/L in the influent, thus meeting the requirement of treated dye wastewater discharge performed by Chinese government (less than 100 mg/L. These results obtained here suggest that the new process combining Fenton’s oxidation with biological oxidation may provide an economical and effective alternative for treatment of non-biodegradable industrial wastewater.

  14. Recent Developments in Homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Muruganandham; Suri, R. P. S.; Sh. Jafari; M. Sillanpää; Gang-Juan Lee; Wu, J J; M. Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on recent developments in homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for the treatment of water and wastewater. It has already been established that AOPs are very efficient compared to conventional treatment methods for degradation and mineralization of recalcitrant pollutants present in water and wastewater. AOPs generate a powerful oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radical, which can react with most of the pollutants present in wastewater. Therefore, it is important to dis...

  15. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES DEGRADING P-CHLOROPHENOL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    H. Movahedyan ، A. M. Seid Mohammadi ، A. Assadi

    2009-01-01

    In present study, degradation of p-chlorophenol using several oxidation systems involving advanced oxidation processes such as ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2 and both in the absence of hydrogen peroxide in batch mode by photolytic pilot plant and modified domestic microwave oven was evaluated. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation...

  16. Characterization of plasma-induced phenol advanced oxidation process in a DBD reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Marotta, E.; Ceriani, E.; Shapoval, V.; Schiorlin, M.; Ceretta, C.; Rea, M.; Paradisi, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using phenol as a model organic pollutant we studied and characterized an innovative advanced oxidation process in water using a prototype dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor in which electrical discharges are produced in the air above the water surface. Phenol is decomposed quite efficiently in this reactor operated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The process selectivity to form CO2 is, however, to be improved since a large fraction of the treated org...

  17. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Oyuna Tsydenova; Valeriy Batoev; Agniya Batoeva

    2015-01-01

    The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fe...

  18. Toxicity Assessment of Perchloroethylene and Intermediate Products after Advanced Oxidation Process by Daphnia Magna Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Kargar; Kazem Naddafi; Ramin Nabizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Perchloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon used as a solvent in many industries and services activities such as dry cleaning and auto industry as degreasing. We carried out a bioassay using Daphnia Magna in order to determine the ecological effects of wastewater treatment through applying advanced oxidation processes (ultrasonic, ultraviolet irradiation and hydrogen peroxide processes) for removal of perchloroethylene. Materials and Methods: Due to the sensiti...

  19. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NP4EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP4EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm2 showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources

  20. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlmuth da Silva, Salatiel, E-mail: salatielws@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Klauck, Cláudia Regina, E-mail: claudiark@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Siqueira, Marco Antônio, E-mail: marcor@feevale.br [Universidade Feevale, Campus II ERS-239, 2755, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Minas, Metalúrgica e de Materiais (PPGEM), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • NP{sub 4}EO in industrial effluents can be treated before reaching water reservoirs. • Advanced oxidation processes are proposed for the degradation of NP{sub 4}EO. • The degradation rate depends mainly on the light intensity. • The mineralization rate depends mainly on the current density. • Photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation showed the best degradation results. - Abstract: Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis – HP, eletrochemical oxidation – EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation – PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP{sub n}EO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NP{sub n}EO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NP{sub n}EO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250 W lamp and a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NP{sub n}EO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  1. Pretreatment of whole blood using hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation. Design of the advanced oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bragg, Stefanie A.; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    A new process to pretreat blood samples has been developed. This process combines the Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) treatment (using H2O2 and UV irradiation) with acid deactivation of the enzyme catalase in blood. A four-cell reactor has been designed and built in house. The effect of pH on the AOP process has been investigated. The kinetics of the pretreatment process shows that at high CH2O2,t = 0, the reaction is zeroth order with respect to CH2O2 and first order with respect to Cblood....

  2. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300[degree sign] as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter.

  3. Removal of micro-pollutants from drinking water with advanced oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sander, Fabian

    2009-01-01

    This thesis determines the feasibility of ozone gas and ultraviolet (UV)technologies to reduce pollutants from drinking water. The merging of both techniques, ozone and UV, is known as a so called advanced oxidation process (AOP). ITT Wedeco is developing new technologies to meet the growing concern of water works to remove micro-pollutants from their water. The emphasis of this work was put on the formation of the oxidation by-product bromate and the removal of the solvent 1.4 dioxane fr...

  4. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest

  5. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  6. Identification of transformation products during advanced oxidation of diatrizoate: Effect of water matrix and oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Gilboa, Maayan; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-15

    Removal of micropollutants from reverse osmosis (RO) brines of wastewater desalination by oxidation processes is influenced by the scavenging capacity of brines components, resulting in the accumulation of transformation products (TPs) rather than complete mineralization. In this work the iodinated contrast media diatrizoate (DTZ) was used as model compound due to its relative resistance to oxidation. Identification of TPs was performed in ultrapure water (UPW) and RO brines applying nonthermal plasma (NTP) and UVA-TiO2 as oxidation techniques. The influence of main RO brines components in the formation and accumulation of TPs, such as chloride, bicarbonate alkalinity and humic acid, was also studied during UVA-TiO2. DTZ oxidation pattern in UPW resulted similar in both UVA-TiO2 and NTP achieving 66 and 61% transformation, respectively. However, DTZ transformation in RO brines was markedly lower in UVA-TiO2 (9%) than in NTP (27%). These differences can be attributed to the synergic effect of RO brines components during NTP. Moreover, reactive species other than hydroxyl radical contributed to DTZ transformation, i.e., direct photolysis in UVA-TiO2 and direct photolysis + O3 in NTP accounted for 16 and 23%, respectively. DTZ transformation led to iodide formation in both oxidation techniques but it further oxidized to iodate by ozone in NTP. In total 14 transformation products were identified in UPW of which 3 were present only in UVA-TiO2 and 2 were present exclusively in NTP; 5 of the 14 TPs were absent in RO brines. Five of them were new and were denoted as TP-474A/B, TP-522, TP-586, TP-602, TP-628. TP-522 (mono-chlorinated) was elucidated only in presence of high chloride titer-synthetic water matrix in NTP, most probably formed by active chlorine species generated in situ. TPs accumulation in RO brines was markedly different in comparison to UPW. This denotes the influence of RO brines components in the formation of reactive species that could further attack

  7. Identification of transformation products during advanced oxidation of diatrizoate: Effect of water matrix and oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Gilboa, Maayan; Schulz, Manoj; Ternes, Thomas; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2016-10-15

    Removal of micropollutants from reverse osmosis (RO) brines of wastewater desalination by oxidation processes is influenced by the scavenging capacity of brines components, resulting in the accumulation of transformation products (TPs) rather than complete mineralization. In this work the iodinated contrast media diatrizoate (DTZ) was used as model compound due to its relative resistance to oxidation. Identification of TPs was performed in ultrapure water (UPW) and RO brines applying nonthermal plasma (NTP) and UVA-TiO2 as oxidation techniques. The influence of main RO brines components in the formation and accumulation of TPs, such as chloride, bicarbonate alkalinity and humic acid, was also studied during UVA-TiO2. DTZ oxidation pattern in UPW resulted similar in both UVA-TiO2 and NTP achieving 66 and 61% transformation, respectively. However, DTZ transformation in RO brines was markedly lower in UVA-TiO2 (9%) than in NTP (27%). These differences can be attributed to the synergic effect of RO brines components during NTP. Moreover, reactive species other than hydroxyl radical contributed to DTZ transformation, i.e., direct photolysis in UVA-TiO2 and direct photolysis + O3 in NTP accounted for 16 and 23%, respectively. DTZ transformation led to iodide formation in both oxidation techniques but it further oxidized to iodate by ozone in NTP. In total 14 transformation products were identified in UPW of which 3 were present only in UVA-TiO2 and 2 were present exclusively in NTP; 5 of the 14 TPs were absent in RO brines. Five of them were new and were denoted as TP-474A/B, TP-522, TP-586, TP-602, TP-628. TP-522 (mono-chlorinated) was elucidated only in presence of high chloride titer-synthetic water matrix in NTP, most probably formed by active chlorine species generated in situ. TPs accumulation in RO brines was markedly different in comparison to UPW. This denotes the influence of RO brines components in the formation of reactive species that could further attack

  8. Oxidative treatment of a waste water stream from a molasses processing using ozone and advanced oxidation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discoloration of a biologically pretreated waste water stream from a molasses processing by ozonation and two advanced oxidation processes (O3/H2O2 and O3/γ-irradiation, respectively) was studied. Colour removal occurred with all three processes with almost the same efficiency. The main difference of the methods applied was reflected by the BOD increase during the discoloration period. By ozonation it was much higher than by AOPs but it also appeared with AOPs. AOPs were, therefore, not apt for an effective BOD control during discoloration. (authors)

  9. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  10. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe(2+)/H2O2) and UV/H2O2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H2O2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe(2+)/H2O2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2h, 2.58-3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH=7.0), the removal was 2.26-3.35 logs. For the UV/H2O2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) accompanied by 30min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8-3.5 logs, and 1.55-2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe(2+)/H2O2 molar ratios, H2O2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. PMID:26815295

  11. Comparisons of Three Advanced Oxidation Processes in Organic Matter Removal from Esfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karimi B.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is one of the advanced oxidation process which is mostly used to reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substance and solid waste leachate.The objective of this paper is comparisons of three advance oxidation in organic matter removal in different conditions from Esfahan composing factory leachateMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3Lit autoclave reactor and adding 10 bar pressure at temperature of 100, 200 and 300 °C and pressure (10 bars with retention time of 30, 60 and 90 min. leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 lit was taken and the three methodsWAO, WPO, and a combination of WAO/GAC were used for pre-treatments. Pure oxygen and 30% hydrogen peroxide was used as oxidation agent.Results: The result shows significant improvement on the removal rate of COD (7.8-33.3%, BOD5 (14.7-50.6%by WAO process.The removal efficiency of 4.6-34% COD, 24-50% BOD, was observed in the reactor.Adding theGACto the reactor improved removal efficiency of all parameters.Combination Process (WAO/GAC removed 48% of COD, 31-43.6% of BOD.Combination process demonstrated higher efficiency than two other previous methods as BOD5/COD ratio of 90% achieved.Conclusion: The WAO process presented in this paper is efficient for pretreatment of leachate, And the modified WPO process remove organic materials and ammonia moreover WAO/GAC can be considered as an excellent alternative treatment for removing reluctant organic matter (COD, BOD5 and organic nitrogen compounds, which found in leachate.

  12. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  13. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater. PMID:17918591

  14. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES DEGRADING P-CHLOROPHENOL IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، A. M. Seid Mohammadi ، A. Assadi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study, degradation of p-chlorophenol using several oxidation systems involving advanced oxidation processes such as ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2 and both in the absence of hydrogen peroxide in batch mode by photolytic pilot plant and modified domestic microwave oven was evaluated. The oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, irradiation time and microwave power. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation rate were pH=7 and H2O2 concentration of 0.05 mol/L for ultraviolet/H2O2 system and pH=10.5, H2O2 concentration of about 0.1 mol/L and microwave irradiation power of about 600W for microwave/H2O2 system at constant p-chlorophenol concentration. The degradation of p-chlorophenol by different types of oxidation processes followed first order rate decay kinetics. The rate constants were 0.137, 0.012, 0.02 and 0.004/min1 for ultraviolet/H2O2, microwave/H2O2, ultraviolet and microwave irradiation alone. Finally a comparison of the specific energy consumption showed that ultraviolet/H2O2 process reduced the energy consumption by at least 67% compared with the microwave/H2O2 process.

  15. An investigation to adopt zero liquid discharge in textile dyeing using advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel idea of using ozone oxidation at the end of reactive dyeing process was explored in order to achieve zero discharge dyeing. An advanced oxidative treatment was given during the dyeing process to remove unfixed and hydrolyzed reactive dyes from cotton substrate. Three different shades were dyed using vinylsulphone reactive class of dyes. At the end of fixation step, washing of fabrics was carried out using appropriate quantities of ozone in the process. Ozone oxidation continued until the liquor was decolorized around 95-100% and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) was reduced about 80-90%, thus achieving zero liquid discharge dyeing process. The decolouration efficiency of wastewater was regarded as an indicative of removal of dyes from the textile materials because fabric was being washed continuously in the same liquor. Fabric samples dyed with conventional and new methods were compared in terms of change in shade, colourfastness properties, colour stripping, and fabric appearance. Overall results showed that the use of ozone during reactive dyeing can result in less water consumption, reduced process time, and zero discharge of coloured effluents from textile dyeing factories. (author)

  16. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari Mehdi; Ebrahimi Asghar; Ehrampoush Mohammad Hassan; Karimi Behroz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was...

  17. The Study of LeachateTreatment by Using Three Advanced Oxidation Process Based Wet air Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Behroz Karimi; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Asghar Ebrahimi; Mehdi Mokhtari

    2013-01-01

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put unde...

  18. Comparison Between the Efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Process and Coagulation for Removal Organophosphorus and Carbamat Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    A.R Rahmani; M.T. Samadi; M Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Water pollution by pesticides has adverse effects on the environment and human health, as well .In recent years, advanced oxidation processes, have been gone through to a very high degree for pesticides removal. Poly-Aluminum chloride (PAC) used for water treatment, can be effective on pesticides removal. The aim of this research was to study the use of UV/O3 and PAC in the removal of pesticides from drinking water.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- an...

  19. A study on the enhancement of sonochemical degradation of eosin B using other advanced oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Mukesh; Das, Ashutosh; Ravikumar, K.; ASTHANA, ABHISHEK

    2014-01-01

    Eosin B is a xanthenes dye and is a derivate of fluorescein. The efficacy of sonochemical degradation coupled with other advanced oxidation process (AOP’s) has been studied for eosin B degradation in aqueous solution. The study compares the effects of H2O2 concentration, saturating gas (argon, N2, and O2), temperature and pH (3–11). Furthermore, kinetic comparison and a figure of merit for the electrical energy consumption were carried out for the degradation under combination of different AO...

  20. Comparison of advanced oxidation processes for the removal of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Rupa; Walsh, Margaret E; Gagnon, Graham A

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the impact of UV, ozone (O(3)), advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including O(3)/UV, H(2)O(2)/UV H(2)O(2)/O(3) in the change of molecular weight distribution (MWD) and disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP). Bench-scale experiments were conducted with surface river water and changes in the UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)), total organic carbon (TOC), trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potential (THMFP, HAAFP) and MWD of the raw and oxidized water were analyzed to evaluate treatment performance. Combination of O(3) and UV with H(2)O(2) was found to result in more TOC and UV(254) reduction than the individual processes. The O(3)/UV process was found to be the most effective AOP for NOM reduction, with TOC and UV(254) reduced by 31 and 88%, respectively. Application of O(3)/UV and H(2)O(2)/UV treatments to the source waters organics with 190-1500 Da molecular weight resulted in the near complete alteration of the molecular weight of NOM from >900 Da to UV was found to be the most effective treatment for the reduction of THM and HAA formation under uniform formation conditions. These results could hold particular significance for drinking water utilities with low alkalinity source waters that are investigating AOPs, as there are limited published studies that have evaluated the treatment efficacy of five different oxidation processes in parallel.

  1. Advanced oxidation processes of decomposing dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun-ping; GUO Jin-song; YANG Min; JUNJI Hirotsuji; DENG Rong-sen; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of two haloacetic acids (HAAs), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), in water by single oxidants ozone (O3) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) and the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constituted by the combinations of O3/UV, H2O2/UV, O3 /H2O2, and O3/H2O2/UV. The concentrations of HAAs were analyzed at specified time intervals to track their decomposition. Except for O3 and UV, the four combined oxidation processes remarkably enhance the decomposition of DCAA and TCAA owing to the generated very reactive hydroxyl radicals. The fastest decomposition process is O3/H2O2/UV, closely followed by O3/UV. DCAA is much easier to decompose than TCAA. The kinetics of HAA decomposition by O3/UV can be described well by a pseudo first-order reaction model under a constant initial dissolved O3 concentration and fixed UV radiation. Humic acids and HCO3- in the reaction system both decrease the decomposition rate constants for DCAA and TCAA. The amount of H2O2 accumulates in the presence of humic acids in the O3/UV process.

  2. Degradation of estrone in water and wastewater by various advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shubhajit; Ali, Sura; Rehmann, Lars; Nakhla, George; Ray, Madhumita B

    2014-08-15

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of various advanced oxidation processes such as O3, H2O2, UV, and combinations of UV/O3, UV/H2O2 for the removal of estrone (E1) from pure water and secondary effluent. In addition to the parent compound (E1) removal, performance of the advanced oxidation processes was characterized using removal of total organic carbon (TOC), and estrogenicity of the effluent. Although E1 removal was high for all the AOPs, intermediates formed were more difficult to degrade leading to slow TOC removal. Energy calculations and cost analysis indicated that, although UV processes have low electricity cost, ozonation is the least cost option ($ 0.34/1000 gallons) when both capital and operating costs were taken into account. Ozonation also is superior to the other tested AOPs due to higher removal of TOC and estrogenicity. The rate of E1 removal decreased linearly with the background TOC in water, however, E1 degradation in the secondary effluent from a local wastewater treatment plant was not affected significantly due to the low COD values in the effluent.

  3. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of phenylurea herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Farkas, János; Veréb, Gábor; Arany, Eszter; Simon, Gergő; Schrantz, Krisztina; Dombi, András; Hernádi, Klára; Alapi, Tünde

    2016-01-01

    Various types of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV photolysis, ozonation, heterogeneous photocatalysis and their combinations were comparatively examined at the same energy input in a home-made reactor. The oxidative transformations of the phenylurea herbicides fenuron, monuron and diuron were investigated. The initial rates of transformation demonstrated that UV photolysis was highly efficient in the cases of diuron and monuron. Ozonation proved to be much more effective in the transformation of fenuron than in those of the chlorine containing monuron and diuron. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, the rate of decomposition decreased with increase of the number of chlorine atoms in the target molecule. Addition of ozone to UV-irradiated solutions and/or TiO2-containing suspensions markedly increased the initial rates of degradation. Dehalogenation of monuron and diuron showed that each of these procedures is suitable for the simultaneous removal of chlorinated pesticides and their chlorinated intermediates. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was found to be effective in the mineralization.

  4. Treatment of statin compounds by advanced oxidation processes: Kinetic considerations and destruction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Behnaz, E-mail: brazavi@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Song Weihua, E-mail: wsong@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Santoke, Hanoz, E-mail: hsantoke@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States); Cooper, William J., E-mail: wcooper@uci.ed [Urban Water Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    This study examined the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs) for the destruction of cholesterol lowering statin pharmaceuticals. AO/RPs which utilize the oxidizing hydroxyl radical ({sup {center_dot}O}H) and reducing aqueous electron (e{sup -}{sub aq}), to degrade chemical contaminants are alternatives to traditional water treatment methods, and are alternatives as water reuse becomes more generally implemented. Four major statin pharmaceuticals, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin, were studied, and the absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants with {sup {center_dot}O}H determined, (6.96{+-}0.16)x10{sup 9}, (2.92{+-}0.06)x10{sup 9}, (4.16{+-}0.13)x10{sup 9}, and (3.13{+-}0.15)x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and for e{sup -}{sub aq} (2.31{+-}0.06)x10{sup 9}, (0.45{+-}0.01)x10{sup 9}, (1.26{+-}0.01)x10{sup 9}, and (0.69{+-}0.02)x10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. To provide additional information on the radicals formed upon oxidation, transient spectra were measured and the overall reaction efficiency determined. Radical-based destruction mechanisms for destruction of the statins are proposed based on the LC-MS determination of the stable reaction by-products formed using {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-irradiation of statin solutions. Knowing the reaction rates, reaction efficiencies and destruction mechanisms of these compounds is essential for the consideration of the use of advanced oxidation/reduction processes for the destruction of statins in aqueous systems.

  5. Application of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes to the mineralization of the herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipi, Angelo R F; Sirés, Ignasi; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Brillas, Enric

    2014-08-01

    Here, solutions with 0.185mM of the herbicide diuron of pH 3.0 have been treated by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) like electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or solar PEF (SPEF). Trials were performed in stirred tank reactors of 100mL and in a recirculation flow plant of 2.5L using a filter-press reactor with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 electrogeneration. Oxidant hydroxyl radicals were formed from water oxidation at the anode and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2. In both systems, the relative oxidation ability of the EAOPs increased in the sequence EO-H2O2treatment with BDD was the most potent method, yielding 93% mineralization after 360 min at 100 mA cm(-2). In the flow plant, the SPEF process attained a maximum mineralization of 70% at 100 mA cm(-2). Lower current densities slightly reduced the mineralization degree in SPEF, enhancing the current efficiency and dropping the energy consumption. The diuron decay always obeyed a pseudo-first-order kinetics, with a much greater apparent rate constant in EF and SPEF compared to EO-H2O2. Oxalic and oxamic acids were detected as final carboxylic acids. Ammonium and chloride ions were also released, the latter ion being partially converted into chlorate and perchlorate ions at the BDD surface.

  6. Recent Developments in Homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muruganandham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on recent developments in homogeneous Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs for the treatment of water and wastewater. It has already been established that AOPs are very efficient compared to conventional treatment methods for degradation and mineralization of recalcitrant pollutants present in water and wastewater. AOPs generate a powerful oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radical, which can react with most of the pollutants present in wastewater. Therefore, it is important to discuss recent developments in AOPs. The homogeneous AOPs such as O3, UV/O3, UV/O3/H2O2, and UV/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 on the degradation of pollutants are discussed in this paper. The influence on the process efficiency of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, temperature, oxidant concentration, and the dosage of the light source is discussed. A list of contaminants used for degradation by various AOPs and the experimental conditions used for the treatment are discussed in detail.

  7. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment : follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brienza, M.; Ahmed, M.M; Escande, A; Plantard, G.; Scrano, L.; Chiron, Serge; Bufo, S. A.; Goetz, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5-/Fe2+) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic conta...

  8. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity. PMID:26114268

  9. Stability of 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate in advanced oxidation processes: degradation kinetics and pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Kunlun; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a widely used mist suppressant in hard chrome electroplating industry, has been listed in the Stockholm Convention for global ban. 6:2 Fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) acid and salts have been adopted as alternative products in the market, but no data about their abiotic degradation has been reported. In the present study, the degradability of 6:2 FTS potassium salt (6:2 FTS-K) was evaluated under various advanced oxidation processes, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), alkaline ozonation (O3, pH = 11), peroxone (O3/H2O2), and Fenton reagent oxidation (Fe(2+)/H2O2). UV/H2O2 was found to be the most effective approach, where the degradation of 6:2 FTS-K followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The intermediates were mainly shorter chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (C7 to C2), while sulfate (SO4 (2-)) and fluoride (F(-)) were found to be the final products. The high yields of SO4 (2-) and F(-) indicate that 6:2 FTS-K can be nearly completely desulfonated and defluorinated under UV/H2O2 condition. The degradation should firstly begin with the substitution of hydrogen atom by hydroxyl radicals, followed by desulfonation, carboxylation, and sequential "flake off" of CF2 unit. Compared with PFOS which is inert in most advanced oxidation processes, 6:2 FTS-K is more degradable as the alternative.

  10. Application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the treatment of a particular industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper refers about the use of some advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of a particular industrial wastewater polluted by organic acids and solvents. Such waste is generated during the electrodeposition of paint in cathodic technological systems (cataphoresis). The AOPs studied were the following: H2O2-UV, O3 in strongly alkaline media and Fe(met)-H2O2. The latter which represents a derivation of the Fenton process gave the best results in terms of reaction times, costs in management and reduction rate of organic matter. Its efficiency was also confirmed by some laboratory tests made on synthetic samples. The reactors used to perform the experiments with ozone and H2O2-UV were especially created. The degradation of the organic compounds was quantified by monitoring the COD parameter and in some cases by detecting the concentration of each individual pollutant

  11. Insights into real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater treatment using solar advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Manenti, Diego R; Souza, Selene M A G U; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-01-01

    Different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were applied to the treatment of a real cotton-textile dyeing wastewater as a pre-oxidation step to enhance the biodegradability of the recalcitrant compounds, which can be further oxidized using a biological process. Tests were conducted on a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation and at pilot scale with compound parabolic collectors using natural solar radiation. The cotton-textile dyeing wastewater presents a lilac color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (pH = 8.2), moderate organic content (DOC = 152 mg C L(-1), COD = 684 mg O2 L(-1)) and low-moderate biodegradability (40 % after 28 days in Zahn-Wellens test). All the tested processes contributed to an effective decolorization and mineralization, but the most efficient process was the solar-photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 98.5% decolorization and 85.5% mineralization after less than 0.1 and 5.8 kJUV L(-1), respectively. In order to achieve a final wastewater with a COD below 250 mg O2 L(-1) (discharge limit into water bodies imposed by the Portuguese Legislation-Portaria no. 423/97 of 25 June 1997), considering the combination of a solar-photo-Fenton reaction with a biological process, the phototreatment energy required is 0.5 kJUV L(-1), consuming 7.5 mM hydrogen peroxide, resulting in 58.4% of mineralization [Formula: see text].

  12. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  13. Application of several advanced oxidation processes for the destruction of terephthalic acid (TPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terephthalic acid (TPA) is widely applied as a raw material in making polyester fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, polyester films, etc. TPA is toxic and is known to act as endocrine disruptor. TPA wastewater is traditionally treated by biological process and this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of several advanced oxidation processes on TPA removal. The oxidation processes studied were: UV-TiO2, UV-H2O2, UV-H2O2-Fe, O3, O3/Fe, O3/TiO2, UV-O3-H2O2-Fe and UV-O3-H2O2-Fe-TiO2. The results indicate that the time required for the complete destruction of 50 ppm of TPA can be minimized from 10 h using UV-TiO2 system, to less than 10 min by UV-H2O2-Fe-O3 system. Some of the likely organic intermediates identified during TPA destruction include, benzoquinone, benzene, maleic acid and oxalic acid. Possible destruction pathway of TPA has been proposed. TPA degradation by various systems was also analyzed based on the reaction kinetics and operating costs

  14. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in electrochemical advanced oxidation process with diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessler, M; Knetsch, S; Schimpf, E; Schmidhuber, A; Schrammel, B; Wesner, W; Sommer, R; Kirschner, A K T

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) with diamond electrodes may serve as an additional technology to the currently approved methods for water disinfection. Only few data exist on the microbicidal effect of the EAOP. The aim of our study was to investigate the microbicidal effect of a flow-through oxidation cell with diamond electrodes, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the test organism. Without electrical current the EAOP had no measurable effect on investigated microbiological and chemical parameters. For direct electrical current a stronger impact was observed at low flow rate than at higher flow rate. Depending on the contact time of the oxidants and the type of quenching reagent added, inactivation of P. aeruginosa was in the range log 1.6-3.6 at the higher flow rate and log 2.4-4.4 at the lower rate. Direct electrical current showed a stronger microbicidal effect than alternating current (maximum reduction log 4.0 and log 2.9, respectively). The microbiological results of experiments with this EAOP prototype revealed higher standard deviations than expected, based on our experience with standard water disinfection methods. Safe use of an EAOP system requires operating parameters to be defined and used accurately, and thus specific monitoring tests must be developed.

  15. Advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment using a plasma/ozone combination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nozomi; Kamiya, Yu; Saeki, Ryo; Tachibana, Kosuke; Yasuoka, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Advanced oxidation process (AOP) using OH radicals is a promising method for the decomposition of persistent organic compounds in wastewater. Although many types of plasma reactors have been developed for the AOP, they are unsuitable for the complete decomposition of highly concentrated organic compounds. The reason for the incomplete decomposition is that OH radicals, particularly at a high density, recombine among themselves to form hydrogen peroxide. We have developed a combination plasma reactor in which ozone gas is fed, so that the generated hydrogen peroxide is re-converted to OH radicals. Pulsed plasmas generated within oxygen bubbles supply not only OH radicals but also hydrogen peroxide into wastewater. The total organic carbon (TOC) of the wastewater was more than 1 gTOC/L. The TOC values decreased linearly with time, and the persistent compounds which could not be decomposed by ozone were completely mineralized within 8 h of operation.

  16. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (Pwater bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  17. Combined advanced oxidation and biological treatment processes for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced oxidation processes were combined with biological treatment processes in this study to remove both pesticides and then the COD load from aqueous solutions. It was found that O3 and O3/UV oxidation systems were able to reach 90 and 100%, removal of the pesticide Deltamethrin, respectively, in a period of 210 min. The use of O3 combined with UV radiation enhances pesticides degradation and the residual pesticide reaches zero in the case of Deltamethrin. The combined O3/UV system can reduce COD up to 20% if the pH of the solution is above 4. Both pesticide degradation and COD removal in the combined O3/UV system follow the pseudo-first-order kinetics and the parameters of this model were evaluated. The application of the biological treatment to remove the bulk COD from different types of feed solution was investigated. More than 95% COD removal was achieved when treated wastewater by the O3/UV system was fed to the bioreactor. The parameters of the proposed Grau model were estimated

  18. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of transformation products during advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Eyser, C; Börgers, A; Richard, J; Dopp, E; Janzen, N; Bester, K; Tuerk, J

    2013-01-01

    The entry of pharmaceuticals into the water cycle from sewage treatment plants is of growing concern because environmental effects are evident at trace levels. Ozonation, UV- and UV/H(2)O(2)-treatment were tested as an additional step in waste water treatment because they have been proven to be effective in eliminating aqueous organic contaminants. The pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, metoprolol and sulfamethoxazole as well as the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide were investigated in terms of degradation efficiency and by-product formation in consideration of toxic effects. The substances were largely removed from treatment plant effluent by ozonation, UV- and UV/H(2)O(2)-treatment. Transformation products were detected in all tested treatment processes. Accompanying analysis showed no genotoxic, cytotoxic or estrogenic potential for the investigated compounds after oxidative treatment of real waste waters. The results indicate that by-product formation from ozonation and advanced oxidation processes does not have any negative environmental impact. PMID:24225097

  19. Optimization of stabilized leachate treatment using ozone/persulfate in the advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ozone and persulfate reagent (O3/S2O82-) was used to treat stabilized leachate. ► Central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. ► Operating variables including ozone and persulfate dosage, pH variance, and reaction time. ► Optimum removal of COD, color, and NH3–N was 72%, 96%, and 76%, respectively. ► A good value of ozone consumption (OC) obtained with 0.60 (kg O3/kg COD). - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing persulfate reagent in the advanced oxidation of ozone to treat stabilized landfill leachate in an ozone reactor. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as ozone and persulfate dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following four responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (3–N, and ozone consumption (OC). The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 210 min, 30 g/m3 ozone, 1 g/1 g COD0/S2O82- ratio, and pH 10. The experimental results were corresponded well with predicted models (COD, color, and NH3–N removal rates of 72%, 96%, and 76%, respectively, and 0.60 (kg O3/kg COD OC). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as ozone only and persulfate S2O82- only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., O3/S2O82-) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD, color, and NH3–N compared with other studied applications. Furthermore, the new method is more efficient than ozone/Fenton in advanced oxidation process in the treatment of the same studied leachate

  20. Degradation of sodium dodecyl sulphate in water using solar driven Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala, Erick R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Progreso Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)], E-mail: ebandala@tlaloc.imta.mx; Pelaez, Miguel A.; Salgado, Maria J. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Progreso Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico); Torres, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic wastewater samples containing a model surfactant were treated using two different Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes promoted by solar radiation; the photo-Fenton reaction and Co/PMS/UV processes. Comparison between the different experimental conditions was performed by means of the overall surfactant degradation achieved and by obtaining the initial rate in the first 15 min of reaction (IR{sub 15}). It was found that, for dark Fenton reaction, the maximum surfactant degradation achieved was 14% under low iron and oxidant concentration. Increasing Fenton reagents by one magnitude order, surfactant degradation achieved 63% in 60 min. The use of solar radiation improved the reaction rate by 17% under same conditions and an additional increase of 12.5% was obtained by adjusting initial pH to 2. IR{sub 15} values for dark and irradiated Fenton reactions were 0.143 and 0.154 mmol/min, respectively, for similar reaction conditions and this value increased to 0.189 mmol/min when initial pH was adjusted. The use of the Co/PMS system allow us to determine an increase in the degradation rate, for low reaction conditions (1 mM of transition metal; 4 mM oxidant) similar to those used in dark Fenton reaction. Surfactant degradation increased from 3%, for Fenton reaction, to 44.5% in the case of Co/PMS. When solar irradiation was included in the experiments, under same reaction conditions described earlier, surfactant degradation up to 64% was achieved. By increasing Co/PMS reagent concentration by almost 9 times under irradiated conditions, almost complete (>99%) surfactant degradation was reached in 5 min. Comparing IR{sub 15} values for Co/PMS and Co/PMS/UV, it allow us to observe that the use of solar radiation increased the degradation rate in one magnitude order when compared with dark experiments and further increase of reagent concentration increased reaction rate twice.

  1. Degradation of triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, using advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thirteen products are identified during all degradations for both pesticides. • In all degradations same products and mechanism was observed for both pesticides. • Dominant mechanism for all degradations starts with attack on the carbonyl group. • Only in ozone and DBD degradation one product is formed in radical reaction. • Only in Fenton degradation opening of benzene ring occurs. -- Abstract: Degradation of two triketone herbicides, mesotrione and sulcotrione, was studied using four different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): ozonization, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor), photocatalysis and Fenton reagent, in order to find differences in mechanism of degradation. Degradation products were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC–DAD) and UHPLC–Orbitrap–MS analyses. A simple mechanism of degradation for different AOP was proposed. Thirteen products were identified during all degradations for both pesticides. It was assumed that the oxidation mechanisms in the all four technologies were not based only on the production and use of the hydroxyl radical, but they also included other kinds of oxidation mechanisms specific for each technology. Similarity was observed between degradation mechanism of ozonation and DBD. The greatest difference in the products was found in Fenton degradation which included the opening of benzene ring. When degraded with same AOP pesticides gave at the end of treatment the same products. Global toxicity and COD value of samples was determined after all degradations. Real water sample was used to study influence of organic matter on pesticide degradation. These results could lead to accurate estimates of the overall effects of triketone herbicides on environmental ecosystems and also contributed to the development of improved removal processes

  2. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  3. Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products from reverse osmosis retentate using advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmelek, Sihem Ben; Greaves, John; Ishida, Kenneth P; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua

    2011-04-15

    The application of reverse osmosis (RO) in water intended for reuse is promising for assuring high water quality. However, one significant disadvantage is the need to dispose of the RO retentate (or reject water). Studies focusing on Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) have raised questions concerning their concentrations in the RO retentate. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives for destroying these compounds in retentate that contains high concentration of effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents. Twenty-seven PPCPs were screened in a RO retentate using solid phase extraction (SPE) and UPLC-MS/MS, and detailed degradation studies for 14 of the compounds were obtained. Based on the absolute hydroxyl radical (HO•) reaction rate constants for individual pharmaceutical compounds, and that of the RO retentate (EfOM and inorganic constituents), it was possible to model their destruction. Using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, the HO• oxidation of the EfOM could be observed through decreases in the retentate fluorescence. The decrease in the peak normally associated with proteins correlated well with the removal of the pharmaceutical compounds. These results suggest that fluorescence may be a suitable parameter for monitoring the degradation of PPCPs by AOPs in RO retentates. PMID:21384915

  4. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes for the degradation of phenylurea herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztina; Farkas, János; Veréb, Gábor; Arany, Eszter; Simon, Gergő; Schrantz, Krisztina; Dombi, András; Hernádi, Klára; Alapi, Tünde

    2016-01-01

    Various types of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV photolysis, ozonation, heterogeneous photocatalysis and their combinations were comparatively examined at the same energy input in a home-made reactor. The oxidative transformations of the phenylurea herbicides fenuron, monuron and diuron were investigated. The initial rates of transformation demonstrated that UV photolysis was highly efficient in the cases of diuron and monuron. Ozonation proved to be much more effective in the transformation of fenuron than in those of the chlorine containing monuron and diuron. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, the rate of decomposition decreased with increase of the number of chlorine atoms in the target molecule. Addition of ozone to UV-irradiated solutions and/or TiO2-containing suspensions markedly increased the initial rates of degradation. Dehalogenation of monuron and diuron showed that each of these procedures is suitable for the simultaneous removal of chlorinated pesticides and their chlorinated intermediates. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was found to be effective in the mineralization. PMID:26764571

  5. Bioassays as a tool for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used in water and wastewater treatment for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants as well as to improve biodegradability of industrial wastewater. Unfortunately, the partial oxidation of organic contaminants may result in the formation of intermediates more toxic than parent compounds. In order to avoid this drawback, AOPs are expected to be carefully operated and monitored, and toxicity tests have been used to evaluate whether effluent detoxification takes place. In the present work, the effect of AOPs on the toxicity of aqueous solutions of different classes of contaminants as well as actual aqueous matrices are critically reviewed. The dualism toxicity-biodegradability when AOPs are used as pre-treatment step to improve industrial wastewater biodegradability is also discussed. The main conclusions/remarks include the followings: (i) bioassays are a really useful tool to evaluate the dangerousness of AOPs as well as to set up the proper operative conditions, (ii) target organisms for bioassays should be chosen according to the final use of the treated water matrix, (iii) acute toxicity tests may be not suitable to evaluate toxicity in the presence of low/realistic concentrations of target contaminants, so studies on chronic effects should be further developed, (iv) some toxicity tests may be not useful to evaluate biodegradability potential, in this case more suitable tests should be applied (e.g., activated sludge bioassays, respirometry). PMID:21722938

  6. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, Elena; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Arias, Conchita; Centellas, Francesc [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.ed [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Solutions of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of pH 3.0 have been comparatively degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) at constant current density. The study has been performed using an undivided stirred tank reactor of 100 ml and a batch recirculation flow plant of 2.5 l with an undivided filter-press cell coupled to a solar photoreactor, both equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene gas diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from O{sub 2} reduction. In EF, PEF and SPEF, hydroxyl radical (centre dotOH) is formed from Fenton's reaction between added catalytic Fe{sup 2+} and generated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Almost total decontamination of enrofloxacin solutions is achieved in the stirred tank reactor by SPEF with BDD. The use of the batch recirculation flow plant showed that this process is the most efficient and can be viable for industrial application, becoming more economic and yielding higher mineralization degree with raising antibiotic content. This is feasible because organics are quickly oxidized with centre dotOH formed from Fenton's reaction and at BDD from water oxidation, combined with the fast photolysis of complexes of Fe(III) with generated carboxylic acids under solar irradiation. The lower intensity of UVA irradiation used in PEF with BDD causes a slower degradation. EF with BDD is less efficient since centre dotOH cannot destroy the most persistent Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes. AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with BDD yields the poorest mineralization because pollutants are only removed with centre dotOH generated at BDD. All procedures are less potent using Pt as anode due to the lower production of centre dotOH at its surface. Enrofloxacin

  7. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin in 0.05 M Na2SO4 of pH 3.0 have been comparatively degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) at constant current density. The study has been performed using an undivided stirred tank reactor of 100 ml and a batch recirculation flow plant of 2.5 l with an undivided filter-press cell coupled to a solar photoreactor, both equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene gas diffusion cathode to generate H2O2 from O2 reduction. In EF, PEF and SPEF, hydroxyl radical (·OH) is formed from Fenton's reaction between added catalytic Fe2+ and generated H2O2. Almost total decontamination of enrofloxacin solutions is achieved in the stirred tank reactor by SPEF with BDD. The use of the batch recirculation flow plant showed that this process is the most efficient and can be viable for industrial application, becoming more economic and yielding higher mineralization degree with raising antibiotic content. This is feasible because organics are quickly oxidized with ·OH formed from Fenton's reaction and at BDD from water oxidation, combined with the fast photolysis of complexes of Fe(III) with generated carboxylic acids under solar irradiation. The lower intensity of UVA irradiation used in PEF with BDD causes a slower degradation. EF with BDD is less efficient since ·OH cannot destroy the most persistent Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes. AO-H2O2 with BDD yields the poorest mineralization because pollutants are only removed with ·OH generated at BDD. All procedures are less potent using Pt as anode due to the lower production of ·OH at its surface. Enrofloxacin decay always follows a pseudo first-order reaction. Its primary aromatic by-products and short intermediates including polyols, ketones

  8. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems.

  9. Applicability of fluidized bed reactor in recalcitrant compound degradation through advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisa, Farhana; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for only maximum of 5-10 cycles. Hence, FBR-AOPs require lesser operational and maintenance cost by reducing material resources. The time required for AOP can be minimized using FBR and also treatable working volume can be increased. FBR-AOP can process from 1 to 10 L of volume which is 10 times more than simple batch reaction. The mass transfer is higher thus the reaction time is lesser. For having increased mass transfer sludge production can be successfully avoided. The review study suggests that, optimum particle size, catalyst to reactor volume ratio, catalyst diameter and liquid or gas velocity is required for efficient FBR-AOP systems. However, FBR-AOPs are still under lab-scale investigation and for industrial application cost study is needed. Cost of FBR-AOPs highly depends on energy density needed and the mechanism of degradation of the pollutant. The cost of waste water treatment containing azo dyes was found to be US$ 50 to US$ 500 per 1000 gallons where, the cost for treating phenol water was US$ 50 to US$ 800 per 1000 gallons. The analysis for FBR-AOP costs has been found to depend on the targeted pollutant, degradation mechanism (zero order, 1st order and 2nd order) and energy consumptions by the AOPs. PMID:25190594

  10. Surface treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy by modified advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Cheng-lin; WANG Ru-meng; YIN Li-hong; PU Yue-pu; DONG Yin-sheng; GUO Chao; SHENG Xiao-bo; LIN Ping-hua; CHU Paul-K

    2009-01-01

    A modified advanced oxidation process(AOP) utilizing a UV/electrochemically-generated peroxide system was used to fabricate titania films on chemically polished NiTi shape memory alloy(SMA). The microstructure and biomedical properties of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICPMS), hemolysis analysis, and blood platelet adhesion test. It is found that the modified AOP has a high processing effectiveness and can result in the formation of a dense titania film with a Ni-free zone near its top surface. In comparison, Ni can still be detected on the outer NiTi surface by the conventional AOP using the UV/H2O2 system. The depth profiles of O, Ni, Ti show that the film possesses a smooth graded interface structure next to the NiTi substrate and this structure enhances the mechanical stability of titania film. The titania film can dramatically reduce toxic Ni ion release and also improve the hemolysis resistance and thromboresistance of biomedical NiTi SMA.

  11. Conventional and advanced oxidation processes used in disinfection of treated urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, J; Ormad, M P; Mosteo, R; Sarasa, J; Ovelleiro, J L

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to compare the inactivation of Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents using conventional treatments (chlorination) and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/solar irradiation, and photo-Fenton processes. In addition, an analysis of the operational costs of each treatment is carried out taking into account the optimal dosages of chemicals used. Total inactivation of bacteria (7.5 log) was achieved by means of chlorination and UV irradiation. However, bacterial regrowth was observed 6 hours after the completion of UV treatment, obtaining a disinfection value around 3 to 4 log. On the other hand, the combination H2O2/solar irradiation achieved a maximum inactivation of E. coli of 3.30 ± 0.35 log. The photo-Fenton reaction achieved a level of inactivation of 4.87 ± 0.10 log. The order of disinfection, taking into account the reagent/cost ratio of each treatment, is as follows: chlorination > UV irradiation > photo-Fenton > H2O2/sunlight irradiation.

  12. Incorporating biodegradation and advanced oxidation processes in the treatment of spent metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAdam, Jitka; Ozgencil, Haci; Autin, Olivier; Pidou, Marc; Temple, Clive; Parsons, Simon; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The treatment of spent metalworking fluids (MWFs) is difficult due to their complex and variable composition. Small businesses often struggle to meet increasingly stringent legislation and rising costs as they need to treat this wastewater on site annually over a short period. Larger businesses that treat their wastewater continuously can benefit from the use of biological processes, although new MWFs designed to resist biological activity represent a challenge. A three-stage treatment is generally applied, with the oil phase being removed first, followed by a reduction in COD loading and then polishing of the effluent's quality in the final stage. The performance of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which could be of benefit to both types of businesses was studied. After assessing the biodegradability of spent MFW, different AOPs were used (UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton and UV/TiO2) to establish the treatability of this wastewater by hydroxyl radicals (*OH). The interactions of both the chemical and biological treatments were also investigated. The wastewater was found to be readily biodegradable in the Zahn-Wellens test with 69% COD and 74% DOC removal. The UV/TiO2 reactor was found to be the cheapest option achieving a very good COD removal (82% at 20 min retention time and 10 L min(-1) aeration rate). The photo-Fenton process was found to be efficient in terms of degradation rate, achieving 84% COD removal (1 M Fe2+, 40 M H2O2, 20.7 J cm(-2), pH 3) and also improving the wastewater's biodegradability. The UV/H202 process was the most effective in removing recalcitrant COD in the post-biological treatment stage. PMID:23437675

  13. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPS) FOR DESTRUCTION OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE -AN UNREGULATED CONTAMINANT) IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) provide a promising treatment option for the destruction of MTBE directly in surface and ground waters. An ongoing study is evaluating the ability of three AOPs; hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/ O3), ultraviolet irradiation/ozone (UV/O3) and ultr...

  14. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. The fabrication and oxidation behavior of simulated metallized spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulated metallized spent fuel ingots were fabricated and evaluated the oxidation rates and the activation energies under several temperature conditions to develop an advanced spent fuel management process. It was also checked the alloying characteristics of the some elements with metal uranium. (Author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 36 figs

  15. Effect of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on the biodegradability of municipal wastewater for its reuse in the textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jarni, Klara; Kompare, Boris; Drev, Darko; Griessler Bulc, Tjaša; Krivograd-Klemenčič, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of treated municipal wastewater to supplement part of fresh water is becoming more and more important. However, treated water can contain some pollutants that cannot be successfully removed with classical biological wastewater treatment processes. Aim of the study presented was to assess whether advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and special enzymes enhance biodegradation of municipal wastewater and if treated municipal wastewater can be reused in the production process of ...

  16. Removal of disinfection by-product precursors with ozone-UV advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A; Bérubé, P R

    2005-05-01

    The efficacy of using ozone (O3), ultraviolet irradiation (UV) and the combined O3-UV advanced oxidation process (AOP) to remove 2 classes of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors from raw surface water samples have been evaluated and compared. In particular, trihalomethane and haloacetic acids formation potentials were measured. Laboratory batch scale experiments were carried out as a function of ozone and UV dosage in order to study the removal kinetics. It is concluded that the combined O3-UV AOP is more effective than either the ozone or UV treatment alone. Ozone-UV AOP is capable of mineralizing up to 50% of the total organic carbon from the raw source water at an ozone dose of 0.62+/-0.019 mg O3/mL and a UV dose of 1.61 W s/cm2. In addition, O3-UV AOP can reduce trihalomethane formation potential by roughly 80% and haloacetic acids formation potential by roughly 70% at the same ozone and UV dosage.

  17. Treating solid dairy manure using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenge, Anju A; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2009-08-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat separated solid dairy manure for nutrient release and solids reduction. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP was conducted at a microwave temperature of 120 degrees C for 10 minutes, and at three pH conditions of 3.5, 7.3 and 12. The hydrogen peroxide dosage at approximately 2 mL per 1% TS for a 30 mL sample was used in this study, reflecting a range of 0.53-0.75 g H(2)O(2)/g dry sludge. The results indicated that substantial quantities of nutrients could be released into the solution at pH of 3.5. However, at neutral and basic conditions only volatile fatty acids and soluble chemical oxygen demand could be released. The analyses on orthophosphate, soluble chemical oxygen demands and volatile fatty acids were re-examined for dairy manure. It was found that the orthophosphate concentration for untreated samples at a higher % total solids (TS) was suppressed and lesser than actual. To overcome this difficulty, the initial orthophosphate concentration had to be measured at 0.5% TS.

  18. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process for treating dairy manure at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kwang V; Chan, Winnie W I; Yawson, Selina K; Liao, Ping H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW-AOP) at pH 2. An experimental design was developed based on a statistical program using response surface methodology to explore the effects of temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and heating time on sugar production, nutrient release and solids destruction. Temperature, hydrogen peroxide dosage and acid concentration were key factors affecting reducing sugar production. The highest reducing sugar yield of 7.4% was obtained at 160°C, 0 mL, 15 min heating time, and no H(2)O(2) addition. Temperature was a dominant factor for an increase of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the treated dairy manure. The important factors for volatile fatty acids (VFA) production were microwave temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Temperature was the most important parameter, and heating time, to a lesser extent affecting orthophosphate release. Heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage and temperature were significant factors for ammonia release. There was a maximum of 96% and 196% increase in orthophosphate and ammonia concentration, respectively at 160°C, 0.5 mL H(2)O(2) and 15 min heating time. The MW-AOP is an effective method in dairy manure treatment for sugar production, nutrient solubilisation, and solids disintegration.

  19. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  20. Mechanisms of advanced oxidation processing on bentonite consumption reduction in foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Voigt, Robert C; Furness, J C

    2005-10-01

    Prior full-scale foundry data have shown that when an advanced oxidation (AO) process is employed in a green sand system, the foundry needs 20-35% less makeup bentonite clay than when AO is not employed. We herein sought to explore the mechanism of this enhancement and found that AO water displaced the carbon coating of pyrolyzed carbonaceous condensates that otherwise accumulated on the bentonite surface. This was discerned by surface elemental analysis. This AO treatment restored the clay's capacity to adsorb methylene blue (as a measure of its surface charge) and water vapor (as a reflection of its hydrophilic character). In full-scale foundries, these parameters have been tied to improved green compressive strength and mold performance. When baghouse dust from a full-scale foundry received ultrasonic treatment in the lab, 25-30% of the dust classified into the clay-size fraction, whereas only 7% classified this way without ultrasonics. Also, the ultrasonication caused a size reduction of the bentonite due to the delamination of bentonite particles. The average bentonite particle diameter decreased from 4.6 to 3 microm, while the light-scattering surface area increased over 50% after 20 min ultrasonication. This would greatly improve the bonding efficiency of the bentonite according to the classical clay bonding mechanism. As a combined result of these mechanisms, the reduced bentonite consumption in full-scale foundries could be accounted for. PMID:16245849

  1. Reaction kinetics of selected micropollutants in ozonation and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaohui; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M

    2012-12-01

    Second-order reaction rate constants of micropollutants with ozone (k(O3)) and hydroxyl radicals (k(OH)) are essential for evaluating their removal efficiencies from water during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes. Kinetic data are unavailable for many of the emerging micropollutants. Twenty-four micropollutants with very diverse structures and applications including endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products were selected, and their k(O3) and k(OH) values were determined using bench-scale reactors (at pH 7 and T = 20 °C). Reactions with molecular ozone are highly selective as indicated by their k(O3) values ranging from 10(-2)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The general trend of ozone reactivity can be explained by micropollutant structures in conjunction with the electrophilic nature of ozone reactions. All of the studied compounds are highly reactive with hydroxyl radicals as shown by their high k(OH) values (10(8)-10(10) M(-1) s(-1)) even though they are structurally very diverse. For compounds with a low reactivity toward ozone, hydroxyl radical based treatment such as O(3)/H(2)O(2) or UV/H(2)O(2) is a viable alternative. This study contributed to filling the data gap pertaining kinetic data of organic micropollutants while confirming results reported in the literature where available. PMID:23079129

  2. Response surface methodology for ozonation of trifluralin using advanced oxidation processes in an airlift photoreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, J.; Farhadian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Degradation of trifluralin, as a wide used pesticide, was investigated by advance oxidation process comprising O3/UV/H2O2 in a concentric tube airlift photoreactor. Main and interactive effects of three independent factors including pH (5-9), superficial gas velocity (0.05-0.15 cm/s) and time (20-60 min) on the removal efficiency were assessed using central composite face-centered design and response surface method (RSM). The RSM allows to solve multivariable equations and to estimate simultaneously the relative importance of several contributing parameters even in the presence of complex interaction. Airlift photoreactor imposed a synergistic effect combining good mixing intensity merit with high ozone transfer rate. Mixing in the airlift photoreactor enhanced the UV light usage efficiency and its availability. Complete degradation of trifluralin was achieved under optimum conditions of pH 9 and superficial gas velocity 0.15 cm/s after 60 min of reaction time. Under these conditions, degradation of trifluralin was performed in a bubble column photoreactor of similar volume and a lower efficiency was observed.

  3. Review of photochemical reaction constants of organic micropollutants required for UV advanced oxidation processes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M

    2012-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H(2)O(2) system.

  4. Review of photochemical reaction constants of organic micropollutants required for UV advanced oxidation processes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M

    2012-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H(2)O(2) system. PMID:22483836

  5. Transformation of polyfluorinated compounds in natural waters by advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumol, Tarun; Dagnino, Sonia; Vandervort, Darcy R; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-02-01

    The presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in source and finished drinking waters is a concern with studies showing bioaccumulation and adverse toxicological effects in wildlife and potentially humans. Per/Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as fluorotelomer alcohols have been identified as precursors for PFCAs in biological pathways. In this study, we investigated the fate of 6:2 and 8:2 homologues of the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) during advanced oxidation process (AOPs). Results showed 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA transformed into 6-C PFCA (PFHxA) and 8-C PFCA (PFOA) respectively with very little other PFCA formation for all AOPs. The degradation of 6:2 FTUCA and 8:2 FTUCA was greater in the GW compared to SW for the ozone processes but similar for UV/H2O2. The formation of n-C PFCA followed O3>O3/H2O2 at same dose and UV/H2O2 had much lower formation at the doses tested. Non-targeted analysis with the LC-MS-qTOF indicated the production of other PFCAs which contribute to the total mass balance, although no intermediate product was discovered indicating a rapid and direct transformation from the FTUCAs to the PFCAs and/or significant volatilization of intermediates. With the use of AOPs essential to water reuse treatment schemes, this work raises concerns over the risk of potential formation of PFCAs in the treatment and their adverse health effects in finished drinking water.

  6. Microbicidal efficacy of an advanced oxidation process using ozone/hydrogen peroxide in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, R; Pribil, W; Pfleger, S; Haider, T; Werderitsch, M; Gehringer, P

    2004-01-01

    The combined application of ozone and hydrogen peroxide represents a kind of advanced oxidation for water treatment. The radicals that are generated during the process are used for the degradation of organic pollutants from groundwater and industrial effluents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible microbicidal, and particularly virucidal, efficacy of such a process, since no substantial data were available. The investigations were performed at a pilot plant installed for the elimination of perchloroethylene from polluted groundwater (reduction efficacy for perchloroethylene from 26 microg/L to 5 microg/L). To enable a reliable evaluation of the microbicidal effect, a set of alternate test organisms was used. As model viruses we chose bacteriophages MS2 (F+ specific, single-stranded RNA), phiX174 (single-stranded DNA) and PRD-1 (coated, double-stranded DNA). Furthermore, spores of Bacillus subtilis were included as possible surrogates for protozoa and Escherichia coli as representative for traditional indicator bacteria used in water analysis. The microbicidal efficiency was compared to the inactivation by means of ozone under two standard conditions (20 degrees C): (a) 0.4 mg/L residual after 4 min and (b) 0.1 mg/L residual after 10 min. Surprisingly, a good microbicidal effect of the ozone/hydrogen peroxide process was found. This was somewhat unexpected, because we had assumed that the disinfection potential of ozone would have been interfered with by the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Escherichia coli and the three test viruses revealed a reduction of about 6-log. In contrast, spores of Bacillus subtilis showed after the total process a reduction of 0.4-log. These results matched the effect of the ozone treatment (a) with a residual of 0.4 mg/L after 4 min contact time (20 degrees C). The test condition (b) with a residual of 0.1 mg/L ozone after a contact time of 10 min at 20 degrees C gave a higher reduction of the B. subtilis spores (1.5-log

  7. Destruction of microcystins by conventional and advanced oxidation processes: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Triantis, Theodoros M.; Antoniou, Maria G.;

    2012-01-01

    and further processing is required. On the other hand, chemical oxidation processes are a promising alternative treatment option due to the potential of complete destruction of the MCs, transformation to less toxic by-products, and even complete mineralization. MCs reactivity towards different conventional...

  8. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H2O2 under UV irradiation (H2O2/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H2O2/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H2O2/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H2O2/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  9. Evaluation of copper slag to catalyze advanced oxidation processes for the removal of phenol in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huanosta-Gutierrez, T. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Coordinacion de Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Dantas, Renato F., E-mail: falcao@angel.qui.ub.es [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ramirez-Zamora, R.M. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Coordinacion de Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Esplugas, S. [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate the use of an industrial residue (copper slag) as catalyst in water treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The copper slag was effective to remove organic pollutants (phenol) from water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During experimentation, Cu and Fe leaching were not higher than the acceptable levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments promoted biodegradability increment of the contaminated water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the produced effluents in terms of acute toxicity. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of copper slag to catalyze phenol degradation in water by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Copper slag was tested in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV (slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV). The studied methods promoted the complete photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Besides, they were able to reduce about 50% the TOC content in the samples. Slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and slag/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments have favored biodegradability increment along the reaction time. Nevertheless, the irradiated method achieved higher values of the biodegradability indicator (BOD{sub 5}/TOC). The toxicity assessment indicated the formation of more toxic compounds in both treatments. However, the control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the effluents.

  10. Comparison Between the Efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Process and Coagulation for Removal Organophosphorus and Carbamat Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Rahmani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Water pollution by pesticides has adverse effects on the environment and human health, as well .In recent years, advanced oxidation processes, have been gone through to a very high degree for pesticides removal. Poly-Aluminum chloride (PAC used for water treatment, can be effective on pesticides removal. The aim of this research was to study the use of UV/O3 and PAC in the removal of pesticides from drinking water.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical survey, specific concentrations of pesticides (1,5,10,15,20 ppm;namely Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Carbaril were prepared through addition to deionized water. Dichloromethane was used for samples' extraction, samples extracted with Liquid- Liquid & Solid-phase extraction , finally entered bath reactor at pH (6,7,9 .The samples then exposed to UV/O3at contact time of (0.5,1,1.5 and 2 hours . In the PAC pilot , the effects of various concentrations of pesticides, and PAC - ranging (12/24 and 36 ppm were investigated for the efficacy of pesticides removal. All samples analyzed by GC/MS/MS and HPLC. Results: It was found that in UV/O3 reactor, with the rise of pH, decrease in pesticides concentration, and rise of contact time, the efficiency of removal increased too. In the PAC pilot, increase in PAC concentration and decrease in pesticides concentration , both increased the efficiency. Besides, both of the methods showed high efficiencies in the removal of both pesticides,i-e. halogenated Organophosphorus (Chlorpyrifos , non- halogenated Organophosphorus (Diazinon at the degree of over (%80 ; In case of carbamate pesticides (e.g. Carbaril efficiency was over (>%90. One-Way Anova & Two -Way Anova were used to analyze the obtained data.Conclusion: According these results these two methods are suggested for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

  11. An Overview of the Integration of Advanced Oxidation Technologies And Other Processes For Water And Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ein-Mozaffari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other traditional wastewater treatment processes has been proven to be more effective for treating polluted sources of drinking water and industrial wastewater economically. The way of selecting the methods depends on the characteristics of the waste stream, environmental regulations, and cost. Reviewing the experimental works on this area and discussing about their effectiveness as well as modeling of their works would be helpful for deciding whether the integrated process is effective to fulfill the annually restricted legislations with lower investment. Therefore, optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects such as operation time, operating cost, and energy consumption. In this review, recent achievements, developments and trends (2003-2009 on the integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other remediation methods have been studied.

  12. Advanced Wastewater Photo-oxidation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes an advanced photocatalytic oxidation reactor for enhancing the reliability and performance of Water Recovery Post Processing systems...

  13. Comprehensive study on effects of water matrices on removal of pharmaceuticals by three different kinds of advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Masahiro; Sugawara, Asato; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-01

    Simple semi-theoretical models were developed to estimate the performance of three different kinds of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the degradation of pharmaceuticals. The AOPs included the photo-Fenton process as an example of a liquid-liquid reaction, the TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation process as a solid-liquid reaction, and the combined ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation process as a gas-liquid reaction; the effects of the aqueous matrices (CESs: co-existing substances) of actual wastewater on the removal of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine and diclofenac) was taken into account. By comparing the characteristic parameters of the models, obtained from the experiments using pure water and actual wastewater, the effects of CESs on the respective removal mechanisms could be separately and quantitatively evaluated. As a general tendency, the AOPs proceeded less effectively (were inhibited) in the matrices containing CESs, as observed with the use of a lower initial concentration of pharmaceuticals. The inhibition mechanisms differed for the three types of AOPs. In the photo-Fenton process, the Fenton reaction was improved by the incorporation of CESs, while the photo-reduction reaction was significantly inhibited. In the TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation process, competition between the pharmaceuticals and CESs for adsorption on the catalyst surface was a less significant inhibitory factor than the scavenger effects of the CESs. The combined ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation process was most strongly inhibited by CESs among the AOPs investigated in this study. PMID:27317938

  14. Toxicity of coke wastewater treated with advanced oxidation by Fenton process supported by ultrasonic field

    OpenAIRE

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna; Krzywicka Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the toxicity of wastewater from the production of coke. The wastewater was treated with advanced oxidation involving ultrasonic field with Fenton’s reagent (the amplitude was 61.5 μm and sonication time 8 min). Two doses of iron and four doses of hydrogen peroxide were used. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was proportional to the value of the chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater, ranging from COD/H2O2 ratio of 1:2.5 to 1:20. Two tests were u...

  15. Kinetics and mechanisms of cylindrospermopsin destruction by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-10-15

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent cyanobacterial toxin frequently found in water bodies worldwide raising concerns over the safety of drinking and recreational waters. A number of technologies have been investigated to remove and/or degrade cyanotoxins with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) being among the most promising and effective for water detoxification. In this study, the degradation of CYN by sulfate radical-based UV-254 nm-AOPs was evaluated. The UV/S2O8(2-) (UV/peroxydisulfate) was more efficient than UV/HSO5(-) (UV/peroxysulfate) and UV/H2O2 (UV/hydrogen peroxide) processes when natural water samples were used as reaction matrices. The observed UV fluence based pseudo-first-order rate constants followed the expected order of radical quantum yields. The presence of 200 μM natural organic matter (NOM) as carbon slightly inhibited the destruction of CYN; 1.24 mg L(-1)NO3(-) (nitrate) had no significant influence on the removal efficiency and 50 μg L(-1) Fe(2+) [iron (2+)] or Cu(2+) [copper (2+)] improved the performance of UV/S2O8(2-). The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH; hydroxyl radical scavenger) in the reaction yielded byproducts that indicated specific sites in CYN preferentially attacked by sulfate radicals (SRs). The predominant CYN degradation byproduct was P448 consistent with fragmentation of the C5C6 bond of the uracil ring. The subsequent formation of P420 and P392 through a stepwise loss of carbonyl group(s) further supported the fragmentation pathway at C5C6. The byproduct P432 was identified exclusively as mono-hydroxylation of CYN at tricyclic guanidine ring, whereas P414 was detected as dehydrogenation at the tricyclic ring. The elimination of sulfate group and the opening of tricyclic ring were also observed. The possible degradation pathways of CYN by SR-AOP were presented. PMID:25000199

  16. Novel MoSe2 hierarchical microspheres for applications in visible-light-driven advanced oxidation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chu; Qing, Enping; Li, Yong; Zhou, Zhaoxin; Yang, Chao; Tian, Xike; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-11-01

    Advanced oxidation processes as a green technology have been adopted by combining the semiconductor catalyst MoSe2 with H2O2 under visible radiation. And novel three-dimensional self-assembled molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) hierarchical microspheres from nanosheets were produced by using organic, selenium cyanoacetic acid sodium (NCSeCH2COONa) as the source of Se. The obtained products possess good crystallinity and present hierarchical structures with the average diameter of 1 μm. The band gap of MoSe2 microspheres is 1.68 eV and they present excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation in the MoSe2-H2O2 system. This effective photocatalytic mechanism was investigated in this study and can be attributed to visible-light-driven advanced oxidation processes.

  17. Reduction of organic trace compounds and fresh water consumption by recovery of advanced oxidation processes treated industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, S; Öller, H-J; Kersten, A; Klemenčič, A Krivograd

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O(3)) has been used successfully in advanced wastewater treatment in paper mills, other sectors and municipalities. To solve the water problems of regions lacking fresh water, wastewater treated by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) can substitute fresh water in highly water-consuming industries. Results of this study have shown that paper strength properties are not impaired and whiteness is slightly impaired only when reusing paper mill wastewater. Furthermore, organic trace compounds are becoming an issue in the German paper industry. The results of this study have shown that AOPs are capable of improving wastewater quality by reducing organic load, colour and organic trace compounds.

  18. An Overview of the Integration of Advanced Oxidation Technologies And Other Processes For Water And Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ein-Mozaffari; Masroor Mohajerani; Mehrab Mehrvar

    2009-01-01

    Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and other traditional wastewater treatment processes has been proven to be more effective for treating polluted sources of drinking water and industrial wastewater economically. The way of selecting the methods depends on the characteristics of the waste stream, environmental regulations, and cost. Reviewing the experimental works on this area and discussing about their effectiveness as well as modeling of their works would be helpful for decidin...

  19. Kinetics and pathways of ibuprofen degradation by the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yingying; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii

    2016-03-01

    The UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP), which forms reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals (HO) and reactive chlorine species (RCS) such as chlorine atoms (Cl) and Cl2(-), is being considered as an alternative to the UV/H2O2 AOP for the degradation of emerging contaminants. This study investigated the kinetics and pathways of the degradation of a recalcitrant pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP)-ibuprofen (IBP)-by the UV/chlorine AOP. The degradation of IBP followed the pseudo first-order kinetics. The first-order rate constant was 3.3 times higher in the UV/chlorine AOP than in the UV/H2O2 AOP for a given chemical molar dosage at pH 6. The first-order rate constant decreased from 3.1 × 10(-3) s(-1) to 5.5 × 10(-4) s(-1) with increasing pH from 6 to 9. Both HO and RCS contributed to the degradation, and the contribution of RCS increased from 22% to 30% with increasing pH from 6 to 9. The degradation was initiated by HO-induced hydroxylation and Cl-induced chlorine substitution, and sustained through decarboxylation, demethylation, chlorination and ring cleavage to form more stable products. Significant amounts of chlorinated intermediates/byproducts were formed from the UV/chlorine AOP, and four chlorinated products were newly identified. The yield of total organic chlorine (TOCl) was 31.6 μM after 90% degradation of 50 μM IBP under the experimental conditions. The known disinfection by-products (DBPs) comprised 17.4% of the TOCl. The effects of water matrix in filtered drinking water on the degradation were not significant, demonstrating the practicality of the UV/chlorine AOP for the control of some refractory PPCPs. However, the toxicity of the chlorinated products should be further assessed.

  20. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by chemical precipitation and Fenton advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Alah Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mature landfill leachate is a complicated mixture which is resistant to biological treatment processes. The treatment of mature landfill leachate by struvite precipitation and Fenton oxidation was the main objective of the current research. Methods: Struvite with the phosphate/ammonia/magnesium molar ratio of 1/1/1.05 was considered during all experiments. Five initial pHs of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, four different H2O2/Fe mass ratios of 50, 100, 200, and 400, and reaction times of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 minutes were examined for the Fenton oxidation process. Results: A leachate sample with average chemical oxygen demand (COD, BOD5, and NH4 concentrations of 7350, 2220, and 2280 mg L-1, respectively, and a BOD5/COD ratio of 0.3 was introduced to the chemical precipitation unit. An NH4 removal efficiency of 87% was obtained at pH 8.5 for struvite precipitation. Under optimum conditions of Fenton oxidation, including pH 3, an H2O2/Fe2+ mass ratio of 200, and a reaction time of 160 min, more than 95% COD and BOD5 removal was observed. Conclusion: Struvite precipitation and Fenton oxidation are reliable and efficient alternatives for mature landfill treatment.

  1. Toxicity of coke wastewater treated with advanced oxidation by Fenton process supported by ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to determine the toxicity of wastewater from the production of coke. The wastewater was treated with advanced oxidation involving ultrasonic field with Fenton’s reagent (the amplitude was 61.5 μm and sonication time 8 min. Two doses of iron and four doses of hydrogen peroxide were used. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was proportional to the value of the chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater, ranging from COD/H2O2 ratio of 1:2.5 to 1:20. Two tests were used to determine the toxicity (algae growth inhibition test and Lepidium test. It was found that more toxic to algae was wastewater treated by Fenton’s reagent containing a higher dose of iron. A similar inhibitory effect was observed on the germination of cress seeds.

  2. 2-Chlorophenol Removal of Aqueous Solution Using Advanced Oxidation Processes Resulting from Iron/ Persulfate and Ultra Violet/ Persulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokufeh Astereki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced oxidation processes are used to remove toxic aromatic compounds with low biodegradability, such as 2-chlorophenol. This study investigated the use of sulfate (SO4- and persulfate (S2O82- radicals, as one of the advanced oxidation methods, to remove 2- chlorophenol from aquatic solutions. Methods: This experimental and pilot-scale study was carried out using two chemical batch reactors; one of the reactors equipped with UV lamps and the other was on the hot plate. In iron/ persulfate (Fe/S2O82- and ultra violet/ persulfate (UV/S2O82- processes different parameters were investigated. Results: Iron, UV, the initial pH of the solution, persulfate concentration have considerable effects on the elimination of 2-chlorophenol in both processes. In both processes, the maximum elimination occurred in acidic conditions. The elimination efficiency was increased by increasing the concentration of 2-chlorophenol and UV intensity, and also by decreasing the concentration of persulfate and iron. Accordingly, in iron/ persulfate and ultra violet/ persulfate processes 2-chlorophenol was eliminated with 99.96% and 99.58% efficiencies, respectively. Conclusion: Sulfate radicals produced from activated persulfate ions with hot-Fe ion and UV radiation have significant impact on the removal of 2-chlorophenol. Therefore, the processes of Fe/S2O82- and UV/S2O82- can be regarded as good choices for industrial wastewater treatment plants operators in the future.

  3. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: Follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, M; Mahdi Ahmed, M; Escande, A; Plantard, G; Scrano, L; Chiron, S; Bufo, S A; Goetz, V

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5(-)/Fe(2+)) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic contaminants were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Solar advanced oxidation totally or partially removed the major part of contaminants detected within 4.5 h. Standard toxicity tests were performed using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Brachionus calyciflorus organisms to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity in the secondary or tertiary effluents, and the EC50% was calculated. Estrogenic and genotoxic tests were carried out in an attempt to obtain an even sharper evaluation of potential hazardous effects due to micropollutants or their degradation by-products in wastewater. Genotoxic effects were not detected in effluent before or after treatment. However, we observed relevant estrogenic activity due to the high sensitivity of the HELN ERα cell line. PMID:26841289

  4. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by chemical precipitation and Fenton advanced oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Nemat Alah Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard; Sahand Jorfi; Mehdi Ahmadi; Samaneh Mirali; Raheleh Kujlu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mature landfill leachate is a complicated mixture which is resistant to biological treatment processes. The treatment of mature landfill leachate by struvite precipitation and Fenton oxidation was the main objective of the current research. Methods: Struvite with the phosphate/ammonia/magnesium molar ratio of 1/1/1.05 was considered during all experiments. Five initial pHs of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, four different H2O2/Fe mass ratios of 50, 100, 200, and 400, and reaction times of ...

  5. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO42−, ClO4− and NO3− media. • In Cl− medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH4+, NO3− and SO42− ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L−1 of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H2O2. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H2O2 and added Fe2+. The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H2O2 < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO42−, ClO4− and NO3− media, whereas in Cl− medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO42− medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl− solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH4+, NO3− and SO42− ions were released during the mineralization

  6. Decolorization and mineralization of Allura Red AC aqueous solutions by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiam, Abdoulaye; Sirés, Ignasi; Garrido, José A.; Rodríguez, Rosa M.; Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.edu

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Quicker degradation of Allura Red AC in the order EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF with Pt or BDD anode. • Almost total mineralization achieved by the most powerful PEF process with BDD. • Similar decolorization and mineralization rate in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media. • In Cl{sup −} medium, only slightly larger decolorization rate but strong inhibition of mineralization. • Identification of aromatic products, carboxylic acids and released NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions. - Abstract: The decolorization and mineralization of solutions containing 230 mg L{sup −1} of the food azo dye Allura Red AC at pH 3.0 have been studied upon treatment by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed with a stirred tank reactor containing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The main oxidants were hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton’s reaction between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and added Fe{sup 2+}. The oxidation ability increased in the sequence EO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < EF < PEF and faster degradation was always obtained using BDD. PEF process with BDD yielded almost total mineralization following similar trends in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} and NO{sub 3}{sup −} media, whereas in Cl{sup −} medium, mineralization was inhibited by the formation of recalcitrant chloroderivatives. GC–MS analysis confirmed the cleavage of the −N=N− bond with formation of two main aromatics in SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} medium and three chloroaromatics in Cl{sup −} solutions. The effective oxidation of final oxalic and oxamic acids by BDD along with the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalate species by UVA light accounted for the superiority of PEF with BDD. NH{sub 4

  7. On-line sensor monitoring for chemical contaminant attenuation during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Pepper, Ian; Scheideler, Jens; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-15

    A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters. PMID:26074188

  8. On-line sensor monitoring for chemical contaminant attenuation during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Pepper, Ian; Scheideler, Jens; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-15

    A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters.

  9. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, A.; A. Shafeeq; Butt, M.A.; Z. H. Rizvi; M. A. Chughtai; Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath e...

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Trace Chromium in Blood Samples. Combination of the Advanced Oxidation Process with Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CAdSV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE) gives Cr concentration of 6.0 ± 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This c...

  11. Giardia duodenalis: Number and Fluorescence Reduction Caused by the Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; Santos, Luciana Urbano dos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV), which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP), on Giardia duodenalis cysts. The cysts were inoculated in synthetic and surface water using a concentration of 12 g H2O2 L−1 and a UV dose (λ=254 nm) of 5,480 mJcm−2. The aqueous solutions were concentrated using membrane filtration, and the organisms were observed using a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The AOP was effective in reducing the number ...

  12. Catalytic performance of heteroatom-modified carbon nanotubes in advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Restivo; Raquel P. Rocha; Adrián M. T. Silva; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel F. R. Pereira; José L. Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were submitted to chemical and thermal treatments in or-der to incorporate different heteroatoms on the surface. O-, S-and N-containing groups were suc-cessfully introduced onto the CNTs without significant changes of the textural properties. The cata-lytic activity of these heteroatom-modified CNTs was studied in two liquid phase oxidation pro-cesses:catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), using oxalic acid and phenol as model compounds. In both cases, the presence of strongly acidic O-containing groups was found to decrease the catalytic activity of the CNTs. On the other hand, the introduction of S species (mainly sulfonic acids) enhanced the removal rate of the model compounds, particularly in the CWAO of phenol. Additional experiments were performed with a radical scavenger and sodium persulfate, in order to clarify the reaction mechanism. Nitrogen functionalities improve the catalytic performance of the original CNTs, regardless of the process or of the pollutant.

  13. Development of Head-end Pyrochemical Reduction Process for Advanced Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. H.; Seo, C. S.; Hur, J. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Hong, S. S.; Choi, I. K.; Choung, W. M.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, I. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The development of an electrolytic reduction technology for spent fuels in the form of oxide is of essence to introduce LWR SFs to a pyroprocessing. In this research, the technology was investigated to scale a reactor up, the electrochemical behaviors of FPs were studied to understand the process and a reaction rate data by using U{sub 3}O{sub 8} was obtained with a bench scale reactor. In a scale of 20 kgHM/batch reactor, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and Simfuel were successfully reduced into metals. Electrochemical characteristics of LiBr, LiI and Li{sub 2}Se were measured in a bench scale reactor and an electrolytic reduction cell was modeled by a computational tool.

  14. Decontamination of used pesticide packaging using advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chloropyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The radiation-induced degradation of chloropyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma-radiolysis. Packaging of high density polyethylene tree layer co extruded, named COEX, and water samples contaminated with chloropyrifos, were irradiated using both, a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5,000 Ci total activity, Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chloropyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chloropyrifos from the plastic packaging in all studied cases. (author)

  15. Fully solar-driven thermo- and electrochemistry for advanced oxidation processes (STEP-AOPs) of 2-nitrophenol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chunhong; Shao, Nan; Wang, Baohui; Yuan, Dandan; Sui, Xin; Wu, Hongjun

    2016-07-01

    The STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Process) for Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs, combined to STEP-AOPs), fully driven by solar energy without the input of any other forms of energy and chemicals, is introduced and demonstrated from the theory to experiments. Exemplified by the persistent organic pollutant 2-nitrophenol in water, the fundamental model and practical system are exhibited for the STEP-AOPs to efficiently transform 2-nitrophenol into carbon dioxide, water, and the other substances. The results show that the STEP-AOPs system performs more effectively than classical AOPs in terms of the thermodynamics and kinetics of pollutant oxidation. Due to the combination of solar thermochemical reactions with electrochemistry, the STEP-AOPs system allows the requisite electrolysis voltage of 2-nitrophenol to be experimentally decreased from 1.00 V to 0.84 V, and the response current increases from 18 mA to 40 mA. STEP-AOPs also greatly improve the kinetics of the oxidation at 30 °C and 80 °C. As a result, the removal rate of 2-nitrophenol after 1 h increased from 19.50% at 30 °C to 32.70% at 80 °C at constant 1.90 V. Mechanistic analysis reveals that the oxidation pathway is favorably changed because of thermal effects. The tracking of the reaction displayed that benzenediol and hydroquinone are initial products, with maleic acid and formic acid as sequential carboxylic acid products, and carbon dioxide as the final product. The theory and experiments on STEP-AOPs system exemplified by the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol provide a broad basis for extension of the STEP and AOPs for rapid and efficient treatment of organic wastewater. PMID:27093694

  16. Fully solar-driven thermo- and electrochemistry for advanced oxidation processes (STEP-AOPs) of 2-nitrophenol wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chunhong; Shao, Nan; Wang, Baohui; Yuan, Dandan; Sui, Xin; Wu, Hongjun

    2016-07-01

    The STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Process) for Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs, combined to STEP-AOPs), fully driven by solar energy without the input of any other forms of energy and chemicals, is introduced and demonstrated from the theory to experiments. Exemplified by the persistent organic pollutant 2-nitrophenol in water, the fundamental model and practical system are exhibited for the STEP-AOPs to efficiently transform 2-nitrophenol into carbon dioxide, water, and the other substances. The results show that the STEP-AOPs system performs more effectively than classical AOPs in terms of the thermodynamics and kinetics of pollutant oxidation. Due to the combination of solar thermochemical reactions with electrochemistry, the STEP-AOPs system allows the requisite electrolysis voltage of 2-nitrophenol to be experimentally decreased from 1.00 V to 0.84 V, and the response current increases from 18 mA to 40 mA. STEP-AOPs also greatly improve the kinetics of the oxidation at 30 °C and 80 °C. As a result, the removal rate of 2-nitrophenol after 1 h increased from 19.50% at 30 °C to 32.70% at 80 °C at constant 1.90 V. Mechanistic analysis reveals that the oxidation pathway is favorably changed because of thermal effects. The tracking of the reaction displayed that benzenediol and hydroquinone are initial products, with maleic acid and formic acid as sequential carboxylic acid products, and carbon dioxide as the final product. The theory and experiments on STEP-AOPs system exemplified by the oxidation of 2-nitrophenol provide a broad basis for extension of the STEP and AOPs for rapid and efficient treatment of organic wastewater.

  17. Application of Advanced Oxidation Process Using Gamma Radiation on the Biodegradation of Some Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water samples were collected from Ras Gemsa on western coast of Suez Gulf, then microbiologically and chemically analyzed. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration was detected of 340 ppm. On the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts ( CFU ) clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon. The ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones was about 3.5 %. The photooxidation process was studied using Titanium dioxide anatase powder, the results revealed that the rate of photo oxidation increase by increase of its concentration with optimum rate at 30 mg/100 ml. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by Suez Gulf consortium was monitored with and without anatase powder, which revealed that the synergetic effect of using two techniques. The effect of radiation was studied with the biodegradation and photooxidation techniques, the maximum degradation was achieved by the triple treatment which minimize the residual hydrocarbons using radiated polluted microcosm at 6 kGy, Suez Gulf consortium and 30 mg/100 ml anatase powder in water.

  18. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  19. An evaluation of a pilot-scale nonthermal plasma advanced oxidation process for trace organic compound degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Stanford, Benjamin D; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a pilot-scale nonthermal plasma (NTP) advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the degradation of trace organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The degradation of seven indicator compounds was monitored in tertiary-treated wastewater and spiked surface water to evaluate the effects of differing water qualities on process efficiency. The tests were also conducted in batch and single-pass modes to examine contaminant degradation rates and the remediation capabilities of the technology, respectively. Values for electrical energy per order (EEO) of magnitude degradation ranged from meprobamate) in wastewater. Changes in the bulk organic matter based on UV(254) absorbance and excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were also monitored and correlated to contaminant degradation. These results indicate that NTP may be a viable alternative to more common AOPs due to its comparable energy requirements for contaminant degradation and its ability to operate without any additional feed chemicals. PMID:19822343

  20. 高级氧化技术处理造纸废水的应用研究%Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes in Papermaking Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德敏; 王兵

    2011-01-01

    The advanced oxidation processes has attracted more and more extensive attention due to its higher ability to remove the refractory organic materials in wastewater. The mechanism and the application development in papermaking wastewater treatment of the advanced oxidation processes, such as Fenton reagent oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, ultrasonic oxidation, electrocatalytic oxidation, ozone oxidization and wet oxidation, are summarized. The characteristic and existing problems as well as the developing tendency of different advanced oxidation processes are analyzed.%介绍了Fenton类氧化法、超临界水氧化法、光催化氧化法、超声氧化法、电催化氧化法、臭氧氧化法和湿式氧化法等高级氧化技术的作用机理及其在造纸废水处理中的应用进展,分析并指出了各种高级氧化技术的特点以及存在的问题和今后的主要发展方向.

  1. Manganese functionalized silicate nanoparticles as a fenton-type catalyst for water purification by advanced oxidation processes (AOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusar, Natasa Novak [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Maucec, Darja; Rangus, Mojca; Mazaj, Matjaz; Cotman, Magda; Pintar, Albin; Kaucic, Venceslav [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Arcon, Iztok [University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2012-02-22

    Wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) is one of the most important industrially applicable advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for the decomposition of organic pollutants in water. It is demonstrated that manganese functionalized silicate nanoparticles with interparticle porosity act as a superior Fenton-type nanocatalyst in WHPCO as they can decompose 80% of a test organic compound in 30 minutes at neutral pH and room temperature. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques it is also shown that the superior activity of the nanocatalyst can be attributed uniquely to framework manganese, which decomposes H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to reactive hydroxyls and, unlike manganese in Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, does not promote the simultaneous decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The presented material thus introduces a new family of Fenton nanocatalysts, which are environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and possess superior efficiency for the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to reactive hydroxyls (AOP), which in turn readily decompose organic pollutants dissolved in water. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Optimizing the electrical excitation of an atmospheric pressure plasma advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, P; Li, J F; Liu, D X; Walsh, J L

    2014-08-30

    The impact of pulse-modulated generation of atmospheric pressure plasma on the efficiency of organic dye degradation has been investigated. Aqueous samples of methyl orange were exposed to low temperature air plasma and the degradation efficiency was determined by absorbance spectroscopy. The plasma was driven at a constant frequency of 35kHz with a duty cycle of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Relative concentrations of dissolved nitrogen oxides, pH, conductivity and the time evolution of gas phase ozone were measured to identify key parameters responsible for the changes observed in degradation efficiency. The results indicate that pulse modulation significantly improved dye degradation efficiency, with a plasma pulsed at 25% duty showing a two-fold enhancement. Additionally, pulse modulation led to a reduction in the amount of nitrate contamination added to the solution by the plasma. The results clearly demonstrate that optimization of the electrical excitation of the plasma can enhance both degradation efficiency and the final water quality.

  3. Advanced oxidation and reduction processes: Closed-loop applications for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos we are engaged in applying innovative oxidation and reduction technologies to the destruction of hazardous organics. Non thermal plasmas and relativistic electron-beams both involve the generation of free radicals and are applicable to a wide variety of mixed waste as closed-loop designs can be easily engineered. Silent discharge plasmas (SDP), long used for the generation of ozone, have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in destroying hazardous organic compounds and offer an altemative to existing post-incineration and off-gas treatments. SDP generates very energetic electrons which efficiently create reactive free radicals, without adding the enthalpy associated with very high gas temperatures. A SDP cell has been used as a second stage to a LANL designed, packed-bed reactor (PBR) and has demonstrated DREs as high as 99.9999% for a variety of combustible liquid and gas-based waste streams containing scintillation fluids, nitrates, PCB surrogates, and both chlorinated and fluorinated solvents. Radiolytic treatment of waste using electron-beams and/or bremsstrahlung can be applied to a wide range of waste media (liquids, sludges, and solids). The efficacy and economy of these systems has been demonstrated for aqueous waste through both laboratory and pilot scale studies. We win present recent experimental and theoretical results for systems using stand alone SDP, combined PBR/SDP, and electron-beam treatment methods

  4. Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the presence of perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, F.J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fjrivas@unex.es; Carbajo, M.; Beltran, F.; Gimeno, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Frades, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Castilla la Mancha, Plaza de Manuel Meca s/n 13400 Almaden, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The efficacy of the oxidation systems: O{sub 3}, UV radiation, O{sub 3}/UV radiation, O{sub 3}/perovskite, UV radiation/perovskite, O{sub 3}/UV radiation/perovskite, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV radiation/perovskite, has been investigated by using pyruvic acid as probe compound. Under the operating conditions used, the combination of UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide (with or without perovskites) leads to the fastest pyruvic acid removal while the best results in terms of mineralization degree are obtained when combining O{sub 3}/UV radiation/perovskite. The effect of the variables: inlet ozone (15-75 mg L{sup -1}) and initial pyruvic acid (10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2} M) concentrations, catalyst load (0.01-1.5 g L{sup -1}) and pH (2-9) was investigated for the photocatalytic ozonation. The most influencing parameter was the ozone concentration fed to the photoreactor. A zero order was observed for pyruvic acid concentration and close to zero for catalyst load. Some deactivation is observed after reusing the catalyst, likely due to leaching of the active phase.

  5. Degradation and decoloration of contaminated water with textile dyes using advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro-Peña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The degradation and decolorization of azo dye COLRON RED SD3B as model pollutant by H2O2/ UV and H2O2/Fe2+/UV processes were investigated. The effects of dye concentration, solution pH, and Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages were studied using Taguchi´s experimental design method. Photo-Fenton process showed to be more efficient than H2O2/UV process for the color removal and degradation of the dye. The conditions that produced higher degradations rates were pH=2, dye concentration of 100 ppm, ferrous dosage of 80 ppm and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 102 ppm (3.0 mmol/L. Under these conditions, 65.5 % COD reduction and 77.0 % decolorization of the azo dye wastewater were achieved after one hour of treatment.

  6. Advanced oxidation process based on ozone/electron beam irradiation for treating groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several methods of generating OH free radicals from ozone and/or hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light. They all have in common that the OH free radicals originate in one single source only whereas in the combination of ozone with ionizing radiation two simultaneous working sources for the OH free radicals exist. The resulting higher OH free radical concentration makes this process especially apt for the remediation of low level contaminated groundwater as for example trichloroethylene (TCE) contamination in the sub-ppm range. A cost comparison between O3/UV and O3/electron beam for remediation of a groundwater contaminated with 100 ppb TCE indicated that for a throughput of about 5 million gallons/day the O3/electron beam process is more cost-effective. (authors)

  7. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H2O2 concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3

  8. Ozonation and advanced oxidation by the peroxone process of ciprofloxacin in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Bavo de [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dewulf, Jo [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jo.dewulf@UGent.be; Demeestere, Kristof; Langenhove, Herman van [Research Group EnVOC, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2009-01-30

    A bubble reactor was used for ozonation of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Effects of process parameters ozone inlet concentration, ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature, pH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration were tested. Desethylene ciprofloxacin was identified, based on HPLC-MS analysis, as one of the degradation products. Formation of desethylene ciprofloxacin was highly dependent on pH, with the highest concentration measured at pH 10. Radical scavengers t-butanol and parachlorobenzoic acid were added in order to gain mechanistic understanding. Radical species other than hydroxyl radicals were suggested to occur at acidic pH which can explain fast ciprofloxacin ozonation at pH 3.

  9. Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes in Water Treatment%高级氧化技术在水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洪勋; 孙亚全; 陈明发; 路艳艳

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the development and characteristics of advanced oxidation processes. Several advanced oxidation processes, such as chemical oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, hydrothermal oxidation, high voltage pulsed discharge plasma and ultrasonic, and their application in water treatment are over- viewed. The application of advanced oxidation processes in water treatment will be more mature and be used more widely with the deepening of the research.%介绍了高级氧化技术的发展及其特点,并综述了化学氧化、光催化氧化、水热氧化以及高压脉冲放电等离子体、超声等高级氧化技术及其在水处理中的应用。随着对高级氧化技术不断深入的研究,其在水处理领域的应用将更加成熟并且越来越广泛。

  10. Surface water disinfection by chlorination and advanced oxidation processes: Inactivation of an antibiotic resistant E. coli strain and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreza Costa; Lepretti, Marilena; Rizzo, Luigi; Caputo, Ivana; Vaiano, Vincenzo; Sacco, Olga; Lopes, Wilton Silva; Sannino, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The release of antibiotics into the environment can result in antibiotic resistance (AR) spread, which in turn can seriously affect human health. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in different aquatic environments used as drinking water source. Water disinfection may be a possible solution to minimize AR spread but conventional processes, such as chlorination, result in the formation of dangerous disinfection by-products. In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV and N-TiO2/UV, have been compared with chlorination in the inactivation of an AR Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain in surface water. TiO2 P25 and nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2), prepared by sol-gel method at two different synthesis temperatures (0 and -20°C), were investigated in heterogeneous photocatalysis experiments. Under the investigated conditions, chlorination (1.0mgL(-1)) was the faster process (2.5min) to achieve total inactivation (6 Log). Among AOPs, H2O2/UV resulted in the best inactivation rate: total inactivation (6 Log) was achieved in 45min treatment. Total inactivation was not observed (4.5 Log), also after 120min treatment, only for N-doped TiO2 synthesized at 0°C. Moreover, H2O2/UV and chlorination processes were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity potential by means of 3-(4,5-dime-thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium colorimetric test on a human-derived cell line and they similarly affected HepG2 cells viability. PMID:26945469

  11. Surface water disinfection by chlorination and advanced oxidation processes: Inactivation of an antibiotic resistant E. coli strain and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreza Costa; Lepretti, Marilena; Rizzo, Luigi; Caputo, Ivana; Vaiano, Vincenzo; Sacco, Olga; Lopes, Wilton Silva; Sannino, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The release of antibiotics into the environment can result in antibiotic resistance (AR) spread, which in turn can seriously affect human health. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in different aquatic environments used as drinking water source. Water disinfection may be a possible solution to minimize AR spread but conventional processes, such as chlorination, result in the formation of dangerous disinfection by-products. In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV and N-TiO2/UV, have been compared with chlorination in the inactivation of an AR Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain in surface water. TiO2 P25 and nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2), prepared by sol-gel method at two different synthesis temperatures (0 and -20°C), were investigated in heterogeneous photocatalysis experiments. Under the investigated conditions, chlorination (1.0 mg L(-1)) was the faster process (2.5 min) to achieve total inactivation (6 Log). Among AOPs, H2O2/UV resulted in the best inactivation rate: total inactivation (6 Log) was achieved in 45 min treatment. Total inactivation was not observed (4.5 Log), also after 120 min treatment, only for N-doped TiO2 synthesized at 0°C. Moreover, H2O2/UV and chlorination processes were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity potential by means of 3-(4,5-dime-thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium colorimetric test on a human-derived cell line and they similarly affected HepG2 cells viability.

  12. Control of disinfection by-product formation using ozone-based advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Chung; Wang, Yu-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of ozone dosage, water temperature and catalyst addition in an ozonation-fluidized bed reactor (O3/FBR) on treated water quality and on the control of chlorinated and ozonated disinfection by-products (DBPs) were investigated. A biofiltration column was used to evaluate its removal efficiency on biodegradable organic matter and to reduce DBP formation. The Dong-Gang River, polluted by agricultural and domestic wastewater in Pingtung, Taiwan, was used as the water source. The treated water quality in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biodegradable DOC, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) improved with increasing ozone and catalyst dosages. Catalytic ozonation was more effective than ozonation alone at reducing the formation of DBPs at a given dosage. Experimental results show that water temperature had little effect on the treated water quality with the O3/FBR system used in this study (p > 0.05). The combination of O3/FBR and the biofiltration process effectively decreased the amount ofDBP precursors. The concentration of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) was less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) requirement, which is 80 microg/L, for all treated waters and the concentration of five haloacetic acids (HAA5) fell below 60 microg/L with an ozone dosage higher than 2.5 mg/L.

  13. Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nickheslat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The effect of important parameters including initial phenol concentration, TiO2 catalyst dose, duration of UV radiation, pH of solution, and contact time was investigated. Results. In the dip-coat lining stage, the produced nanoparticles with anatase crystalline structure have the average particle size of 30 nm and are uniformly distributed over the tube surface. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with the descending of the solution pH and initial phenol concentration and rising of the contact time. Conclusion. Results showed that the light easily passes through four layers of coating (about 105 nm. The highest removal efficiency of phenol with photocatalytic UV/TiO2 process was 50% at initial phenol concentration of 30 mg/L, solution pH of 3, and 300 min contact time. The comparison of synthetic solution and petrochemical wastewater showed that at same conditions the phenol removal efficiency was equal.

  14. A study on the degradation of endocrine disruptors and dioxins by ozonation and advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kenmochi, Y.; Tutumi, K.; Tanaka, T. [Ebara Corp., Fujisawa (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, enhancement and development of treatment technologies related to contaminated water environment by endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol-A(BPA), estradiol(E2) and dioxins have become a focus of attention. In this study, the influence of O{sub 3} dosage and the forms of endocrine disruptors on the degradability during O{sub 3} treatment and AOP treatment were investigated. A reaction kinetic evaluation of these processes was also carried out. In this study, the endocrine disruptors were classified into 2 groups: (1) DXNs: dioxins and (2) EDs: endocrine disruptors other than dioxins. For the case of DXNs decomposition, highly concentrated DXNs from incinerator washwater were degraded by UV/O{sub 3} combined treatment. Influence of O{sub 3} dosage and forms of DXNs on the reaction rate constant were evaluated. For the case of EDs decomposition, the effect of O{sub 3} dosage on the reaction rate constant were investigated during O{sub 3} treatment of secondary treated sewage. Also, a degradability comparison was made for the above 2 groups. (orig.)

  15. UASB reactor startup for the treatment of municipal wastewater followed by advanced oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Bhatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to shorten the start-up time of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor. Two different nutrients were used during the UASB start-up period, which was designed to decrease the hydraulic retention time (HRT from 48 to 24 and 12 to 6 hrs at average temperatures of 25-34 ºC. In the first stage, start-up was with glucose for 14 days and then the reactor was also fed with macro- and micronutrients as a synthetic nutrient influent (SNI from 15 to 45 days as the second stage. For the control, a second reactor was kept on glucose feeding from day 1 to 45. The removal efficiencies of the chemical oxygen demand (COD were 80% and 98% on the 6th and 32nd day of the first and second stage, respectively. The maximum substrate removal rate of 0.08 mg COD mg-1 VSS d-1 was observed for glucose and synthetic nutrient influent (SNI on the 8th and 40th days, respectively. When the reactor reached the maximum COD removal efficiency it was then shifted to municipal wastewater (MWW mixed with industrial wastewater. The HRT was reduced gradually with a one week gap while treating MWW. For further cleaning, the UASB effluent was treated with 40% waste hydrogen peroxide. The whole integrated treatment process was successful to reduce the COD by 99%, total suspended solids (TSS by 73%, total nitrogen (TN by 84% and turbidity by 67%.

  16. Advanced Oxidation Degradation of Diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced oxidation/reduction processes (AO/RPs), utilize free radical reactions to directly degrade chemical contaminants as an alternative to traditional water treatment. This study reports the absolute rate constants for reaction of diclofenac sodium and the model compound (2, 6-dichloraniline) with the two major AO/RP radicals; the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and hydrated electron (e-aq). The bimolecular reaction rate constants (M-1 s-1) for diclofenac for •OH was (9.29 ± 0.11) x 109, and, for e- aq was (1.53 ± 0.03) x109. Preliminary degradation mechanisms are suggested based on product analysis using 60Co γ-irradiation and LC-MS for reaction by-product identification. The toxicity of products was evaluated using the Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria method. (author)

  17. Review of iron-free Fenton-like systems for activating H2O2 in advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Elements with multiple redox states efficiently decompose H2O2 at neutral pH. • Activation of H2O2 is entirely governed by solution pH and catalyst composition. • Metal leaching and toxicity is an important factor for practical applications. • Iron-free Fenton systems work only in specialized reaction conditions. - Abstract: Iron-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition for in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals (HO• ) has been extensively developed as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for environmental applications. A variety of catalytic iron species constituting metal salts (in Fe2+ or Fe3+ form), metal oxides (e.g., Fe2O3, Fe3O4), and zero-valent metal (Fe0) have been exploited for chemical (classical Fenton), photochemical (photo-Fenton) and electrochemical (electro-Fenton) degradation pathways. However, the requirement of strict acidic conditions to prevent iron precipitation still remains the bottleneck for iron-based AOPs. In this article, we present a thorough review of alternative non-iron Fenton catalysts and their reactivity towards hydrogen peroxide activation. Elements with multiple redox states (like chromium, cerium, copper, cobalt, manganese and ruthenium) all directly decompose H2O2 into HO• through conventional Fenton-like pathways. The in situ formation of H2O2 and decomposition into HO• can be also achieved using electron transfer mechanism in zero-valent aluminum/O2 system. Although these Fenton systems (except aluminum) work efficiently even at neutral pH, the H2O2 activation mechanism is very specific to the nature of the catalyst and critically depends on its composition. This review describes in detail the complex mechanisms and emphasizes on practical limitations influencing their environmental applications

  18. Inhibitory effect of natural organic matter or other background constituents on photocatalytic advanced oxidation processes: Mechanistic model development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Jonathon; Long, Mingce; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to interact with priority pollutants is crucial for efficient water treatment by photocatalytic advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, background compounds in water such as natural organic matter (NOM) can significantly hinder targeted reactions and removal efficiency. This inhibition can be complex, interfering with degradation in solution and at the photocatalyst surface as well as hindering illumination efficiency and ROS production. We developed an analytical model to account for various inhibition mechanisms in catalytic AOPs, including competitive adsorption of inhibitors, scavenging of produced ROS at the surface and in solution, and the inner filtering of the excitation illumination, which combine to decrease ROS-mediated degradation. This model was validated with batch experiments using a variety of ROS producing systems (OH-generating TiO2 photocatalyst and H2O2-UV; (1)O2-generating photosensitive functionalized fullerenes and rose bengal) and inhibitory compounds (NOM, tert-butyl alcohol). Competitive adsorption by NOM and ROS scavenging were the most influential inhibitory mechanisms. Overall, this model enables accurate simulation of photocatalytic AOP performance when one or more inhibitory mechanisms are at work in a wide variety of application scenarios, and underscores the need to consider the effects of background constituents on degradation efficiency.

  19. Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced photo oxidation processes hold great promise for the improved treatment of textile dye effluent. In this study, the effectiveness of a H2O2/UV system for the decolorization of remazol brilliant blue effluent was investigated by examining the optimum conditions for dye removal in two reactors (coil and conventional. The results showed that the coil reactor had a higher temperature profile than the conventional reactor. When the dye was fed into the reactors at 25˚C, UV radiation alone was not effective as the decolorization efficiency of the conventional reactor varied from 0.0 to 12.3%, while that of the coil reactor varied from 0.0 to 7.3%, depending on the residence time used. The effect of UV radiation at 100˚C was also negligible as the maximum decolorization efficiencies were 4.0 and 3.7% for the conventional and the coil reactors, respectively. Increasing the concentration of H2O2 increased decolorization efficiencies of both UV reactors. Dye decolorization also increased with residence time. More than 93% color removal of remazol brilliant blue dye was achieved with a residence time of 56 min and 100% decolorization achieved in 65 min using a H2O2 concentration of 12.50 mL Lˉ1.

  20. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2.

  1. Performance evaluation of different solar advanced oxidation processes applied to the treatment of a real textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Diego R; Soares, Petrick A; Silva, Tânia F C V; Módenes, Aparecido N; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    The performance of different solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as TiO2/UV, TiO2/H2O2/UV, and Fe(2+)/H2O2/UV-visible in the treatment of a real textile effluent using a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs), was investigated. The influence of the main photo-Fenton reaction variables such as iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+) L(-1)), pH (2.4-4.5), temperature (10-50 °C), and irradiance (22-68 WUV m(-2)) was evaluated in a lab-scale prototype using artificial solar radiation. The real textile wastewater presented a beige color, with a maximum absorbance peak at 641 nm, alkaline pH (8.1), moderate organic content (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 129 mg C L(-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 496 mg O2 L(-1)), and high conductivity mainly associated to the high concentration of chloride (1.1 g Cl(-) L(-1)), sulfate (0.4 g SO 4 (2 -) L(- 1)), and sodium (1.2 g Na(+) L(-1)) ions. Although all the processes tested contributed to complete decolorization and effective mineralization, the most efficient process was the solar photo-Fenton with an optimum catalyst concentration of 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1), leading to 70 % mineralization (DOCfinal = 41 mg C L(-1); CODfinal < 150 mg O2 L(-1)) at pH 3.6, requiring a UV energy dose of 3.5 kJUV L(-1) (t 30 W = 22.4 min; [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and consuming 18.5 mM of H2O2. PMID:24737016

  2. Some ozone advanced oxidation processes to improve the biological removal of selected pharmaceutical contaminants from urban wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Espejo, Azahara; Aguinaco, Almudena; Amat Payá, Ana María; Fernando J. Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Removal of nine pharmaceutical compounds¿acetaminophen (AAF), antipyrine (ANT), caffeine (CAF), carbamazepine (CRB), diclofenac (DCF), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), ketorolac (KET), metoprolol (MET) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX)¿spiked in a primary sedimentation effluent of a municipal wastewater has been studied with sequential aerobic biological and ozone advanced oxidation systems. Combinations of ozone, UVA black light and Fe(III) or Fe3O4 constituted the chemical systems. During the ...

  3. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  4. The state-of-the art of produced water treatment by oxidative advanced processes; Atual estagio de desenvolvimento dos processos oxidativos avancados para o tratamento da agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Marcela de A.H.; Marques, Jose Jailton; Rocha, Inaura C.C. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The oily wastewater generated in petroleum exploration contains a sort of contaminants that may cause significant environmental impact. For this reason, the number of researchers that are looking for cleaner techniques to treat this kind of wastewater is growing. The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are clean and non-selective processes largely used to the treatment of wastewater containing critical substances like textile dyes, pesticides, PCBs, PAHs etc. The treatment systems using AOPs can be homogeneous or heterogeneous and they may use irradiation or not. This work presents a compilation of the results found by many researchers involving AOPs potentially applicable to the treatment of produced water, as follow: H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} / Fe{sup 2+} / UV, O{sub 3}/UV, O{sub 3}/ H{sub 2}O{sub 2} etc., showing the state-of-art of oxidation advanced processes. (author)

  5. The decolorization and mineralization of Acid Orange 6 azo dye in aqueous solution by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsing, H.-J. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chiang, P.-C. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: pcchiang@ntu.edu.tw; Chang, E.-E. [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, 25 Wu-Shin Street, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2007-03-06

    The comparison of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), i.e. ultraviolet (UV)/TiO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}/UV, O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2}, Fenton and electrocoagulation (EC), is of interest to determine the best removal performance for the destruction of the target compound in an Acid Orange 6 (AO6) solution, exploring the most efficient experimental conditions as well; on the other hand, the results may provide baseline information of the combination of different AOPs in treating industrial wastewater. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) in the effects of individual and combined ozonation and photocatalytic UV irradiation, both O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} processes exhibit remarkable TOC removal capability that can achieve a 65% removal efficiency at pH 7 and O{sub 3} dose = 45 mg/L; (2) the optimum pH and ratio of [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] found for the Fenton process, are pH 4 and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]/[Fe{sup 2+}] = 6.58. The optimum [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] and [Fe{sup 2+}] under the same HF value are 58.82 and 8.93 mM, respectively; (3) the optimum applied voltage found in the EC experiment is 80 V, and the initial pH will affect the AO6 and TOC removal rates in that acidic conditions may be favorable for a higher removal rate; (4) the AO6 decolorization rate ranking was obtained in the order of O{sub 3} < O{sub 3}/UV = O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} < EC < Fenton; (5) the ranking of TOC removal efficiency of selected AOPs was in the order of O{sub 3} = Fenton < EC < O{sub 3}/UV < O{sub 3}/UV/TiO{sub 2} for 30 min of reaction time.

  6. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  7. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  8. Determination of Effective Parameters on Removal of Organic Materials from Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Azizi; Mehdi Ghayebzadeh; Abdollah Dargahi; Lida Hemati; Masoumeh Beikmohammadi; Kiomars Sharafi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study: Pharmaceutical wastewater is one of the major complex and toxic industrial effluents that contain little or no biodegradable organic matters. Materials & Methods: In this study, H2O2/UV base advance oxidation process (AOP) was used to remove organic materials from pharmaceutical industry effluent. Experiments were conducted for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal using medium pressure mercury vapor UV lamp coupled with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2/UV). ...

  9. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  10. Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: the state of the art on transformation products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Akin

    2014-03-01

    Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as "textile chemicals" from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity? PMID:24216260

  11. Removal of surfactants from water by adsorption on activated carbon and advanced oxidation process; Eliminacion de surfactantes de las aguas mediante adsorcion sobre carbon activado y oxidacion avanzada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Diaz, J. D.; Sanchez Polo, M.; Rivera Utrilla, J.; Bautista, M. I.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the elimination process of surfactants from water, using sodium dode-cilbencenesulfonate (SDBS) as model compound, by means of adsorption on activated carbons as well as different processes of advanced oxidation (O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}/activated carbon). Results obtained have shown that the activated carbons used have a high efficiency to eliminate SDBS from waters which was enhanced when the adsorption process was carried out in the presence of bacteria. With regard to the oxidation processes studied, the results have indicated that the efficiency in the elimination of SDBS from water of the system based on the simultaneous use of O{sub 3} and powder activated carbon (PAC) is much higher than those of the other systems studied (O{sub 3},O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). (Author) 15 refs.

  12. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  13. Determination of the acute toxicities of physicochemical pretreatment and advanced oxidation processes applied to dairy effluents on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivrioğlu, Özge; Yonar, Taner

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the acute toxicities of raw, physicochemical pre-treated, ozonated, and Fenton reagent applied samples of dairy wastewater toward activated sludge microorganisms, evaluated using the International Organization for Standardization's respiration inhibition test (ISO 8192), are presented. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was measured to determine the biodegradability of physicochemical treatment, ozonation, Fenton oxidation or no treatment (raw samples) of dairy wastewater. Chemical pretreatment positively affected biodegradability, and the inhibition exhibited by activated sludge was removed to a considerable degree. Ozonation and the Fenton process exhibited good chemical oxygen demand removal (61%) and removal of toxins. Low sludge production was observed for the Fenton process applied to dairy effluents. We did not determine the inhibitory effect of the Fenton-process on the activated sludge mixture. The pollutant-removal efficiencies of the applied processes and their associated operating costs were determined.

  14. Degradação de fármacos residuais por processos oxidativos avançados Degradation of residual pharmaceuticals by advanced oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silene Alessandra Santos Melo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about aquatic ecosystems and the potential risk of drinking water contamination by pharmaceuticals have stimulated the study of processes for the efficient degradation of these contaminants, since the conventional treatment have been inefficient on that purpose. The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs appear as viable alternatives due to their efficiency on the degradation of different classes of organic contaminants. This review presents an overview of the main AOP (O3, H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV, Fenton and photo-Fenton which have been applied to the degradation of different pharmaceuticals. The main results obtained, intermediates identified and toxicity data are presented.

  15. Conversion of Chromium(III) Propionate to Chromate/dichromate(VI) by the Advanced Oxidation Process. Pretreatment of a Biomimetic Complex for Metal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn Rodman, D.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The use of H2O2 and UV irradiation to remove organic ligands in a chromium(III) complex for the subsequent chromium analysis is reported. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) using a 5.5-W UV lamp, H2O2 and Fe2+/Fe3+ as catalyst (photo Fenton process) was found to give complete and quantitative Cr(III) → Cr(VI) conversion and removal of ligands in chromium(III) propionate [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3]NO3, a biomimetic chromium species, as subsequent chromium analyses by the 1,5-diphenylcarbazide m...

  16. Salicylic acid degradation by advanced oxidation processes. Coupling of solar photoelectro-Fenton and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Campos, Benjamin; Brillas, Enric; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; El-Ghenymy, Abdellatif; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar J

    2016-12-01

    A 3.0 L solar flow plant with a Pt/air-diffusion (anode/cathode) cell, a solar photoreactor and a photocatalytic photoreactor filled with TiO2-coated glass spheres has been utilized to couple solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis (SPC) for treating a 165mgL(-1) salicylic acid solution of pH 3.0. Organics were destroyed by OH radicals formed on the TiO2 photocatalyst and at the Pt anode during water oxidation and in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and cathodically generated H2O2, along with the photolytic action of sunlight. Poor salicylic acid removal and mineralization were attained using SPC, anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2) and coupled AO-H2O2-SPC. The electro-Fenton process accelerated the substrate decay, but with low mineralization by the formation of byproducts that are hardly destroyed by OH. The mineralization was strongly increased by SPEF due to the photolysis of products by sunlight, being enhanced by coupled SPEF-SPC due to the additional oxidation by OH at the TiO2 surface. The effect of current density on the performance of both processes was examined. The most potent SPEF-SPC process at 150mAcm(-2) yielded 87% mineralization and 13% current efficiency after consuming 6.0AhL(-1). Maleic, fumaric and oxalic acids detected as final carboxylic acids were completely removed by SPEF and SPEF-SPC.

  17. Integration of traditional systems and advanced oxidation process technologies for the industrial treatment of olive mill wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Silva, Nuno; Martins, Rui C; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2016-10-01

    A complete industrial treatment system (involving the integration of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes) to depurate real wastewaters coming from two-phase olive oil production mills has been studied. The experimental results indicated that at the end of this combined strategy, involving a primary physical separation stage followed by Fenton's chemical oxidation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is reduced up to 90% and total polyphenols' concentration is decreased up to 92%. The treated stream biodegradability (BOD5/COD) reached 0.52 and the Total Suspended Solids (TSSs) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDSs) decreased up to 95% and 69%, respectively. Fenton's procedure was optimized bearing in mind the pH adjustment step, different procedures for hydrogen peroxide addition and the use of coagulants instead of the chemical precipitation (by raising pH) to promote iron sludge settling. Our results demonstrated that pH (3.0 ± 0.1) control during the oxidation reaction improves the oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the final NaOH addition is essential to a better sludge formation and consequent precipitation of the residual iron removing also some organic matter. PMID:26878594

  18. Applicability of Advanced Oxidation Processes to wastewater treatment from different industrial sectors; Aplicacion de procesos de oxidacion avanzada al tratamiento de efluentes de diferentes sectores industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urkiaga Guinea, A.; Gomex Resa, L.; Gutierrez Ruiz, M.; Fuentes de las Intxausti, L.

    2000-07-01

    The treatment of wastewater polluted with toxic and/or hardly biodegradable compounds by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) appears as an adequate and highly promising method for this purpose in a short term. Amongst the processes with higher potential out stands photo-oxidation in its two varieties: photolysis and both homogeneous (UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, photoFenton, UV-O{sub 3}...) and heterogeneous (UV-TiO{sub 2}...) photocatalysis. In the present work the results obtained in GAIKER after the application of different types of AOPs (photolysis, both homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis and ozonization) to four industrial wastewaters coming from three different industrial sectors (organic synthesis, phenolic resins manufacturing and rubber pieces production) are described. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Advances in speech processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  20. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  1. High frequency ultrasound as a selective advanced oxidation process to remove penicillinic antibiotics and eliminate its antimicrobial activity from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-07-01

    This work studies the sonochemical degradation of a penicillinic antibiotic (oxacillin) in simulated pharmaceutical wastewater. High frequency ultrasound was applied to water containing the antibiotic combined with mannitol or calcium carbonate. In the presence of additives, oxacillin was efficiently removed through sonochemical action. For comparative purposes, the photo-Fenton, TiO2 photocatalysis and electrochemical oxidation processes were also tested. Therefore, the evolution of the antibiotic and its associated antimicrobial activity (AA) were monitored. A high inhibition was found for the other three oxidation processes in the elimination of the antimicrobial activity caused by the additives; while for the ultrasonic treatment, a negligible effect was observed. The sonochemical process was able to completely degrade the antibiotic, generating solutions without AA. In fact, the elimination of antimicrobial activity showed an excellent performance adjusted to exponential kinetic-type decay. The main sonogenerated organic by-products were determined by means of HPLC-MS. Four intermediaries were identified and they have modified the penicillinic structure, which is the moiety responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Additionally, the possible oxacillin sonodegradation mechanism was proposed based on the evolution of the by-products and their chemical structure. Furthermore, the high-frequency ultrasound action over 120 min readily removed oxacillin and eliminated its antimicrobial activity. However, the pollutant was not mineralized even after a long period of ultrasonic irradiation (360 min). Interestingly, the previously sonicated water containing oxacillin and both additives was completely mineralized using non-adapted microorganisms from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These results show that the sonochemical treatment transformed the initial pollutant into substances that are biotreatable with a typical aerobic biological system. PMID:26964950

  2. Decolouration of H2SO4 leachate from phosphorus-saturated alum sludge using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes in phosphorus recovery strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of attempt for phosphorus (P) recovery from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as a low-cost P-adsorbent in treatment reed bed for wastewater treatment, decolouration of H2SO4 leachate obtained from previous experiment, possessing a great deal of P, aluminum and red-brown coloured materials (RBCMs), by using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. The use of H2O2 and AOPs in the forms of Fenton (H2O2/Fe2+) and photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) were tested. The ...

  3. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  4. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  5. The Effect of H2O2 Interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal During Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most oxidants in AOPs. By H2O2 dissociation, hydroxyl radical with a standard oxidation potential of 2.7 is produced. It is reported H2O¬ residual in AOPs has been led to interference in chemical oxygen demand (COD test and it is able to hinder biological treatment of waste water. Because of high mixed organic load of solid waste leachate, this study investigated effect of H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. In this study effect of parameters such as pH (3,5,7,12, H2O2 dose (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 mol l-1, and time reaction(10,20,30,40,50,60 min evaluated on H2O2 interference in COD removal from solid waste leachate. Optimum pH and concentration were 3 and 0.02 moll-1 respectively. With increasing reaction time, COD removal was increased. The false COD obtained between 0.49mg per 1mg of H2O2. The average of COD removal by H2O2 for 60 min was 6.57%. Also reaction rate of this process was 0.0029 min-1. The presence of H2O2 leads to overestimation of COD values after reaction time because it consumes the oxidation agent. The extent of H2O2 interference in COD analysis was proportional to the remaining H2O2 concentration at the moment of sampling.

  6. Determination of Effective Parameters on Removal of Organic Materials from Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Azizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Pharmaceutical wastewater is one of the major complex and toxic industrial effluents that contain little or no biodegradable organic matters. Materials & Methods: In this study, H2O2/UV base advance oxidation process (AOP was used to remove organic materials from pharmaceutical industry effluent. Experiments were conducted for the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal using medium pressure mercury vapor UV lamp coupled with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2/UV. Results: Results indicated that the efficiency of COD removal depends on the concentration of initial H2O2, oxidation time and pH as well. The efficiency of COD removal in low H2O2 concentration was very low even in coupled with UV light, which can be attributed to the low hydroxyl radicals (•OH generation. In high concentration of H2O2 (500 mg/L and optimum pH (pH=4, 87.496% of removal efficiency could be achieved during 70 minutes of oxidation time. Conclusions: For high concentration of H2O2 (500 mg/l in pH 3 and 7, the maximum COD removal efficiency was 28.5% and 15.2% respectively, indicating significant roles of pH and H2O2 concentration in oxidation efficiency of H2O2/UV process in removing the COD.

  7. UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of odour compounds: efficiency and by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Kristin; Dietrich, Norman; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2012-10-15

    The occurrence of the taste and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methyl isoborneol (2-MIB) affects the organoleptic quality of raw waters from drinking water reservoirs worldwide. UV-based oxidation processes for the removal of these substances are an alternative to adsorption and biological processes, since they additionally provide disinfection of the raw water. We could show that the concentration of geosmin and 2-MIB could be reduced by VUV irradiation and the combination of UV irradiation with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in pure water and water from a drinking water reservoir. The figure of merit EE/O is an appropriate tool to compare the AOPs and showed that VUV and UV/O(3) yielded the lowest treatment costs for the odour compounds in pure and raw water, respectively. Additionally, VUV irradiation with addition of ozone, generated by the VUV lamp, was evaluated. The generation of ozone and the irradiation were performed in a single reactor system using the same low-pressure mercury lamp, thereby reducing the energy consumption of the treatment process. The formation of the undesired by-products nitrite and bromate was investigated. The combination of VUV irradiation with ozone produced by a VUV lamp avoided the formation of relevant concentrations of the by-products. The internal generation of ozone is capable to produce ozone concentrations sufficient to reduce EE/O below 1 kWh m(-3) and without the risk of the formation of nitrite or bromate above the maximum contaminant level.

  8. Photodegradation of emerging micropollutants using the medium-pressure UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; El Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2013-05-15

    A medium-pressure (MP) ultraviolet (UV) process has been applied to investigate the direct UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 oxidation of selected model micropollutants (naproxen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine, 2,4-D, 2,4-DCP, and mecoprop). The quantum yields were found to be between 0.0010 and 0.13 at pH = 7. In the MP UV/H2O2 oxidation, the pseudo first-order rate constants for the selected compounds were found to be dependent on their initial concentrations (at mg/L levels) and on the H2O2 concentration. The UV doses required for 50% and 90% removal at various H2O2 levels varied widely among the compounds tested. Second-order rate constants (ranging from 4.1 × 10(9) to 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)) for the reaction between the selected compounds and hydroxyl radicals were determined using a competition-kinetics approach, where para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was chosen as the reference compound. Further, as an evaluation of electrical energy efficiency, the Figure-of-Merit, Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) was determined for the selected compounds using a batch reactor at 25 and 50 mg/L H2O2 concentrations. The electrical energy (in kWh) required to reduce a pollutant concentration by 90% ranged from 1.3 to 7.1 kWh m(-3). PMID:23517874

  9. Advanced Oxidation of the Endosulfan and Profenofos in Aqueous Solution Using UV/H2O22 Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of two pesticides, endosulfan and profenofos, was investigated in aqueous solution using a combination of ultraviolet (UV light and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Photochemical experiments based on the L9 (34 three-level orthogonal array of the Taguchi method with four control factors including initial pesticide concentrations (10, 15 and 20 mg/l, UV irradiation times (30, 60 and 90 min, pH (5, 6.5 and 8 and H2O2 (0.1, 0.01 and 0.05 M were conducted. The endosulfan and profenofos were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture detector (ECD and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 96.5% of the endosulfan and 98.5% of the profenofos were removed in about 90 min. The study also showed that the oxidation rate was enhanced more during the UV/H2O2 process in comparison to direct photolysis. The results of our study suggested that the concentration of 0.1 molar H2O2 and 10 ppm of pesticide in the solution at pH 8 with 90 min UV irradiation time were the optimal conditions for the photochemical degradation of two pesticides. The photochemical degradation with UV/H2O2 can be an efficient method to remove the endosulfan and profenofos from aqueous solution.

  10. Sulfonamide antibiotic removal and nitrogen recovery from synthetic urine by the combination of rotating advanced oxidation contactor and methylene urea synthesis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, S; Fujiwara, T; Ito, R; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nitrogen recovery and pharmaceutical removal processes for livestock urine treatment were investigated to suppress the discharge of pollutants and recover nitrogen as resources. We combined methylene urea synthesis from urea and adsorption and photocatalytic decomposition of sulfonamide antibiotic using rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) contained for obtaining both safe fertilizer and reclaimed water. The methylene urea synthesis could recover urea in synthetic urine, however, almost all sulfonamide antibiotic was also incorporated, which is unfavorable from a safety aspect if the methylene urea is to be used as fertilizer. Conversely, RAOC could remove sulfonamide antibiotic without consuming urea. It was also confirmed that the methylene urea could be synthesized from synthetic urine treated by RAOC. Thus, we concluded that RAOC should be inserted prior to the nitrogen recovery process for effective treatment of urine and safe use of methylene urea as fertilizer.

  11. Evaluation of a UV-light emitting diodes unit for the removal of micropollutants in water for low energy advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autin, Olivier; Romelot, Christophe; Rust, Lena; Hart, Julie; Jarvis, Peter; MacAdam, Jitka; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as alternative to traditional mercury lamps for the removal of micropollutants by advanced oxidation processes due to their low energy consumption and potential for high efficiency and long lifetime. This study investigates the penetration and coverage of the light emitted by LEDs in order to build an optimised LED collimated beam apparatus. From the experimental data, cost analysis was conducted in order to identify when LEDs will become economically viable. It was observed that if their development follows the predictions, LEDs should be a viable alternative to traditional lamps within 7yr for both UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes. However, parameters such as wall plug efficiency and input power need to improve for LEDs to become competitive. PMID:23668964

  12. Advanced oxidation processes for treatment of petroleum refinery sour waters; Processos oxidativos avancados para tratamento de aguas acidas de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio V.; Coelho, Alessandra D.; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L.; Dezotti, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the waste water generated by the petroleum refineries are related to the type and amount of processed oil, to the nature and the efficiency of the refining operation. The effluents are composed basically of oily waters, originating from of the contact with the oil. Among them, the current of sour water is one of the most preoccupying due to its composition: sulfide, ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, dissolved oil, basic pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) high. The aim of this work was to evaluate the advanced oxidation processes to degrade sour water (UV radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, photocatalysis, Fenton and photo-Fenton). All process, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not supply satisfactory results, reducing 25% of initial DOC, which it is of 450 mg/L. The results using the Fenton process reached removal of 50% of the initial COD, and when photo- Fenton process obtaining removal of 90%. The processes Fenton and photo-Fenton were shown capable to degrade this kind of waste water, minimizing the environmental problems and corrosion, operating as a pre-treatment for the biological system, or acting alone to degrade the organic matter contained, seeking the water reuse. The effluent used in this work came from Duque de Caxias Refinery (Reduc)/PETROBRAS. (author)

  13. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  14. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  15. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW.

  16. 高级氧化技术与含酚废水处理%Advanced oxidation processes and treatment of phenolic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦庆周; 柴多里; 鲍远志

    2013-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes ( AOP) , which utilize the strong oxidation of hydroxyl radicals, can degrade phenolic chemicals in the wastewater. AOP can avoid secondary pollution and is a green technology in phenolic wastewater treatment. The current status of AOP research is summarized,including processes of Fenton,Fenton-like,O3/ H2O2,03/UV,H2O2/UV,corona discharge,hydrodynamic cavitation enhancement,and so on.%高级氧化技术是利用羟基自由基强氧化作用,降解废水中的酚类化学物,可以避免废水处理过程中二次污染的发生,是含酚废水处理的理想绿色技术.介绍了羟基自由基的性质、制备方法以及在废水处理方面的应用,综述了Fenton、类Fenton、O3/H2O2、O3/UV、H2O2/UV、电晕放电、水力空化强化等高级氧化技术的研究现状.

  17. Effect of halide ions and carbonates on organic contaminant degradation by hydroxyl radical-based advanced oxidation processes in saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, Janel E; Pignatello, Joseph J; Mitch, William A

    2010-09-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) generating nonselective hydroxyl radicals (HO*) provide a broad-spectrum contaminant destruction option for the decontamination of waters. Halide ions are scavengers of HO* during AOP treatment, such that treatment of saline waters would be anticipated to be ineffective. However, HO* scavenging by halides converts HO* to radical reactive halogen species (RHS) that participate in contaminant destruction but react more selectively with electron-rich organic compounds. The effects of Cl-, Br-, and carbonates (H2CO3+HCO3-+CO3(2-)) on the UV/H2O2 treatment of model compounds in saline waters were evaluated. For single target organic contaminants, the impact of these constituents on contaminant destruction rate suppression at circumneutral pH followed the order Br->carbonates>Cl-. Traces of Br- in the NaCl stock had a greater effect than Cl- itself. Kinetic modeling of phenol destruction demonstrated that RHS contributed significantly to phenol destruction, mitigating the impact of HO* scavenging. The extent of treatment efficiency reduction in the presence of halides varied dramatically among different target organic compounds. Destruction of contaminants containing electron-poor reaction centers in seawater was nearly halted, while 17beta-estradiol removal declined by only 3%. Treatment of mixtures of contaminants with each other and with natural organic matter (NOM) was evaluated. Although NOM served as an oxidant scavenger, conversion of nonselective HO* to selective radicals due to the presence of anions enhanced the efficiency of electron-rich contaminant removal in saline waters by focusing the oxidizing power of the system away from the NOM toward the target contaminant. Despite the importance of contaminant oxidation by halogen radicals, the formation of halogenated byproducts was minimal. PMID:20681567

  18. Evaluation of Efficacy of Advanced Oxidation Processes Fenton, Fenton-like and Photo-Fenton for Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of water, soil and groundwater caused by aromatic compounds induces great concern in most world areas. Among organic pollutants, phenol is mostly considered dangerous due to its high toxicity for human and animal. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is considered as a most efficient method also the best one for purifying organic compounds which are resistant to conventional physical and chemical processes. This experimental study was carried out in laboratory scale. First, a synthetic solution was made of phenol. Then, Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes were applied removing phenol from aquatic solution. The effects of Hydrogen Peroxide concentration, catalyst, pH and time were studied to phenol removal efficiency. Results showed that Photo-Fenton process with removal efficiency (97.5 percentage) is more efficient than Fenton and Fenton-like processes with removal efficiency (78.7 percentage and 82.5 percentage respectively), in pH=3, (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/)= 3mM, (Fe2+)= 0.1 mM, phenol concentration 100 mg L-1 and time reaction 60 min, the phenol removal was 97.5 percentage. (author)

  19. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  20. Recuperação de sílica-gel utilizando processos oxidativos avançados: uma alternativa simples e de baixo custo Silica gel recycling using and advanced oxidative process: a simple and low-cost alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio César Godinho Teixeira; Leda Mathias; Maria Cristina Canela

    2003-01-01

    Silica gel is widely used as adsorbent for isolating and purifying natural compounds. Intensive use and high cost make this process expensive and generate solid residues contaminated with many different organic compounds. In the present work a simple method for recycling silica was investigated, by using Advanced Oxidative Processes. Silica gel was treated with H2O2/solar light and compared with a sample treated by conventional methods (high temperature and oxidation with KMnO4). High tempera...

  1. Intensification of volatile organic compounds mass transfer in a compact scrubber using the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: kinetic study and hydroxyl radical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Renner, Christophe; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the potential of ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) to enhance the dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) mass transfer in a compact chemical scrubber developed for air treatment applications. Theoretical calculations, through Hatta number and enhancement factor evaluations for two parallel irreversible reactions, were compared to experimental data and enabled the description of the mass transfer mechanisms. These calculations required the determination of the kinetic constant of the DMDS oxidation by molecular ozone ( [Formula: see text] ) and the measurement of the hydroxyl radical concentration within the scrubber. The competitive kinetic method using the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) enabled to determine a value of the kinetic constant [Formula: see text] of 1.1×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at 293K. Then, experiments using para-chlorobenzoic acid in solution allowed measuring the average hydroxyl concentration in the scrubber between the inlet and the outlet depending on the chemical conditions (pH and inlet O(3) and H(2)O(2) concentrations). High hydroxyl radical concentrations (10(-8)M) and ratio of the HO°-to-O(3) exposure (R(ct)≈10(-4)) were put in evidence.

  2. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk.

  3. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. PMID:27403873

  4. Advanced Oxidation Processes for removal of COD from pulp and paper mill effluents : A Technical, Economical and Environmental Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Karat, Irma

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, the dominating source for emissions of degradable organic substances to water is the pulp and paper industry. The organic substances increase oxygen consumption in the recipient which subsequently threatens aquatic species. Improved process engineering, process closures and use of external treatments have in recent years drastically lowered the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). However, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) has not been reduced to the same extent, as some organic substanc...

  5. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  6. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment as a tool for green Chemistry: Application to different advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ortiz, I.; Domenech Antunez, X.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2006-07-01

    The development of chemistry during the twentieth century has changed our lives. In fact, chemistry and chemicals surrounds US in our daily activities, due to the huge supply of products aimed at improving our quality of life. Chemistry has resulted in the medical revolution of the past century, in which drugs as antibiotics have been used to cure diseases that affected mankind for centuries. These advances have led to the rise in the average life expectancy from 47 in 1900, to 75 years in the 1990s (Breslow 1997). On the other hand, the world's food supply has seen an explosive expansion because of the development of pesticides as well as fertilisers that protect crops and improve their productivity. Other common chemicals are those related to hygiene, such as soaps, detergents, disinfectants, toothpaste, etc. Therefore, there is practically no facet in material life-transportation communication, clothing, shelter, office- in which chemistry does not play an important role, either to supply consumer products or to improve services addressed to society in general (Domenech 2005). In spite of all these clear benefits, the chemical industry is often viewed by the general public as causing more harm than good (Lancaster 2002). A major reason for this is that the industry is perceived as being polluting and causing significant environmental damage. Indeed, the manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals consume large amounts of resources, and originates emissions of pollutants to all environmental compartments, not to mention the numerous accidents and disasters in which the chemical industry has been involved in the recent past. (Author)

  8. Evaluation of advanced oxidative processes in contaminated soil of the Pernambuco state; Avaliacao dos processos oxidativos avancados num solo contaminado do estado de Pernambuco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Suenia S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Dorea, Haroldo S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work were used the following techniques of advanced oxidative processes: hydrogen peroxide, Fenton reagent and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2). These processes have shown as an alternative technology to the treatment of some environmental matrices. The soil studied was contaminated by an oil mixture proceeding from an emptying in the patio of an industry of the state of Pernambuco. This soil has about 14,5 g/Kg of total organic carbon and 3400 mg/kg of TPH. Two planning factorial 23 were composed: one in relation to hydrogen peroxide and the other to titanium dioxide, in order to find the best conditions for the contaminant degradation. The variables and the studied levels for the former was: FeSO4 - 0,18 M (without, 4 and 8 ml); Adjustment of pH (3, without, without); Time of exposition to the sun (8h, 12h, 16h). The volumes of used peroxide in the assays were 80 and 40 ml. In relation to the second planning, were studied the following conditions: TiO2 (g) (without,5;0,75;1,0), volume H2O (0, 2,5 and 5 ml) and time of exposition to the sun (8, 40, 72h). In relation to the first planning a destruction of 84% of the oil was achieved. However, in relation to 2nd the planning non-significant degradation was obtained, and to study other conditions ought to be investigated. (author)

  9. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  10. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  11. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. PMID:27568982

  12. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL. PMID:26812369

  13. Response surface method for the optimisation of micropollutant removal in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent with the UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Hennings, U; Pinnekamp, J

    2013-01-01

    Experiments with the ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) were conducted to investigate the abatement of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant effluent. The fluence and the starting concentration of H2O2 in a bench-scale batch reactor were varied according to response surface method (RSM) to examine their influence on the treatment efficiency. It was shown that the investigated AOP is very effective for the abatement of micropollutants with conversion rates typically higher than 90%. Empirical relationships between fluence, H2O2 dosage and the resulting concentration of micropollutants were established by RSM. By this means it was shown that X-ray-contrast media had been degraded only by UV light. Nevertheless, most substances were degraded by the combination of UV irradiation and H2O2. Based on RSM an optimisation of multiple responses was conducted to find the minimal fluence and H2O2 dosage that are needed to reach an efficient abatement of micropollutants. PMID:23656952

  14. Treatment of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process in TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes involving TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV were evaluated for their potential use in decolorization of textile dye effluents. A coil photo reactor, consisting of UV radiation source and a spiral coil coated with TiO2, was used to treat synthetic effluent of Remazol Brilliant Blue dye. The TiO2 coating was performed using the sol-gel technique. The effects of UV radiation, TiO2 coatings and dye concentration were studied and the results were compared to dye treatment involving H2O2. The maximum dye removal efficiencies were 7.3, 12.2 and 12.5 % for uncoated, single coat and dual coat of TiO2, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was inversely related to dye concentration of the effluent. The treatments with UV only, TiO2 only, UV+TiO2, H2O2 only and UV+H2O2 resulted in color reduction of 7.6, 2.3, 12.5, 4.1 and 99.9 % respectively. The maximum decolorization occurred in ≤ 100 min in all cases. The temperature varied from 29.2 to 54.7°C for UV+TiO2 treatment and no change in reactor temperature was observed when UV was not used.

  15. Impact of UV–H2O2 Advanced Oxidation and Aging Processes on GAC Capacity for the Removal of Cyanobacterial Taste and Odor Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyadi, Arash; Sawade, Emma; Ho, Lionel; Newcombe, Gayle; Hofmann, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and their taste and odor (T&O) compounds are a growing concern in water sources globally. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are the most commonly detected T&O compounds associated with cyanobacterial presence in drinking water sources. The use of ultraviolet and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation treatment for T&O control is an emerging technology. However, residual H2O2 (>80% of the initial dose) has to be removed from water prior final disinfection. Recently, granular activated carbon (GAC) is used to remove H2O2 residual. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of H2O2 quenching and aging processes on GAC capacity for the removal of geosmin and MIB. Pilot columns with different types of GAC and presence/absence of H2O2 have been used for this study. H2O2 removal for the operational period of 6 months has no significant impact on GAC capacity to remove the geosmin and MIB from water. PMID:26462247

  16. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL.

  17. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  18. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species

  19. Mobil pilot unit of the advanced oxidation process for waste water treatment and reuse of the hydrics effluents; Unidade piloto movel de processo oxidativo avancado aplicado a tratamento e reuso de efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia Maria Limoeiro; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Henriques, Sheyla de Oliveira Carvalho; Jacinto Junior, Agenor [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The chemical oxidation processes which generate free hydroxyl radicals are called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). These processes have been studied, in the last decades, as a new alternative for pollutants degradation. In the (AOP)'s there are in situ formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), which are highly oxidant. Its high oxidation strength becomes it indicated in the treatment of effluent with highly refractory contaminants. It can be used as a partial treatment (taking the effluent to more degradable compounds), as a final treatment (taking the effluent to complete mineralization) or as a complementary treatment to other processes, allowing, for example, its reuse. The applicability of this technology in oily water effluents in all segments of the oil industry, has taken to the development, in the LARA (Laboratory of Treatment and Reuse of Waters - CENPES), of the Advanced Oxidation Process Mobile Pilot Unit (AOP's- MU) with capacity up to 1 m3/h. The (AOP's- MU) are able to produce hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction, titanium dioxide heterogeneous photo catalysis and hydrogen peroxide, photo-radiated or not. It is equipped with ultraviolet reactors of different wave lengths and power. (author)

  20. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  1. Review of iron-free Fenton-like systems for activating H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokare, Alok D.; Choi, Wonyong, E-mail: wchoi@postech.edu

    2014-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Elements with multiple redox states efficiently decompose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at neutral pH. • Activation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is entirely governed by solution pH and catalyst composition. • Metal leaching and toxicity is an important factor for practical applications. • Iron-free Fenton systems work only in specialized reaction conditions. - Abstract: Iron-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition for in situ generation of hydroxyl radicals (HO{sup •} ) has been extensively developed as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for environmental applications. A variety of catalytic iron species constituting metal salts (in Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} form), metal oxides (e.g., Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and zero-valent metal (Fe{sup 0}) have been exploited for chemical (classical Fenton), photochemical (photo-Fenton) and electrochemical (electro-Fenton) degradation pathways. However, the requirement of strict acidic conditions to prevent iron precipitation still remains the bottleneck for iron-based AOPs. In this article, we present a thorough review of alternative non-iron Fenton catalysts and their reactivity towards hydrogen peroxide activation. Elements with multiple redox states (like chromium, cerium, copper, cobalt, manganese and ruthenium) all directly decompose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into HO{sup •} through conventional Fenton-like pathways. The in situ formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and decomposition into HO{sup •} can be also achieved using electron transfer mechanism in zero-valent aluminum/O{sub 2} system. Although these Fenton systems (except aluminum) work efficiently even at neutral pH, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activation mechanism is very specific to the nature of the catalyst and critically depends on its composition. This review describes in detail the complex mechanisms and emphasizes on practical limitations influencing their environmental applications.

  2. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  3. Advanced methods of solid oxide fuel cell modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Milewski, Jaroslaw; Santarelli, Massimo; Leone, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cells are widely regarded as the future of the power and transportation industries. Intensive research in this area now requires new methods of fuel cell operation modeling and cell design. Typical mathematical models are based on the physical process description of fuel cells and require a detailed knowledge of the microscopic properties that govern both chemical and electrochemical reactions. ""Advanced Methods of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Modeling"" proposes the alternative methodology of generalized artificial neural networks (ANN) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modeling. ""Advanced Methods

  4. 高级氧化技术在废水处理中的应用研究进展%Application and Progress of Advanced Oxidation Processes inWastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟理; 詹怀宇

    2000-01-01

    探讨了高级氧化技术(Advanced Oxidation Processes,即AOPs)如:O3/H2O2,Fenton试剂均相湿式催化氧化;H2O2/UV、O3/UV、O3/H2O2/UV均相光催化氧化;多相湿式催化氧化,多相光催化氧化,多相催化和生化氧化等过程处理废水及其反应机理,论述了AOPs技术在工业废水处理方面的研究进展。%The wastewater treatment and reaction mechanism by Advanced Oxidation Processes such as homogeneous wet catalytic oxidation of O3/H2O2 and Fenton agent, homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of H2O2/UV,O3/UV and O2/H2O2/UV, and heterogeneous wet catalytic oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation, heterogeneous catalytic and biochemical oxidation were explored. The investigation and progress of AOPs technique in industrial wastewater treatment were overviewed.

  5. Experimental study on the advanced treatment of bio-chemically treated coking wastewater by the advanced Fenton oxidation process%Fenton高级氧化法深度处理焦化生化废水的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨水莲; 田晓媛; 吴滨; 王威燕; 杨运泉

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton reagent used was made from ferrous sulphate and hydrogen peroxide. It is used in the advanced treatment of coking wastewater which was bio-chemically treated. The effects of the initial pH ,and dosages of FeSO4·7H2O,H2O2 and PAM on the treatment effectiveness of the bio-chemically treated coking wastewater have been investigated. The results show that using the advanced Fenton oxidation process can effectively remove the COD,NH3-N and chroma from this kind of coking wastewater. For bio-chemically treated coking wastewater with moderate concentration,the optimum conditions for Fenton oxidation process are as follows:the initial pH of waste-water is 8-10,dosage of FeSO4·7H2O 500 mg/L,dosage of H2O2 3.5 mL/L,and dosage of PAM 4.0 mg/L. Under these conditions,the removing rates of COD,NH3-N and Chroma can reach 85.9%,97.3%and 84.6%,respectively.%采用硫酸亚铁和过氧化氢所构成的Fenton试剂,对经生化处理后的焦化废水进行Fenton高级氧化深度处理,重点考察了废水初始pH,FeSO4·7H2O、H2O2及PAM投加量对焦化生化废水处理效果的影响。结果表明,采用Fenton高级氧化法可使经生化处理后的焦化废水中的COD、NH3-N和色度得到进一步有效去除。对于中等浓度的焦化生化废水,较适宜的Fenton氧化工艺条件:废水初始pH为8~10,FeSO4·7H2O投加量为500 mg/L,H2O2投加量为3.5 mL/L,PAM投加量为4.0 mg/L。在此条件下, COD、NH3-N和色度的去除率分别可达85.9%、97.3%和84.6%。

  6. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  7. COD Removal of Different Industrial Wastewater by Fenton Oxidation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Sindhi*1

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes are possibly one of the most effective methods for the treatment of wastewater containing organic products (effluents from chemical and agrochemical industries, the textile industry, paints, dyes, etc.).Fenton process is a one of advanced oxidation process. Fenton’s process have been extensively used for the removal of COD, TOC, dyes, phenolic compounds other organic chemicals from industrial and municipal wastewater. In this study, the laboratory s...

  8. DEGRADATION OF CAFFEINE AND METHYLENE BLUE BY ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPs) = DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAFEÍNA E AZUL DE METILENO POR PROCESSOS OXIDATIVOS AVANÇADOS (POA)

    OpenAIRE

    Enelton Fagnani; Regiane Aparecida Guadagnini; Glenda Araújo Silva; José Roberto Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of two compounds of pharmaceutical interest, caffeine (CAF) and methylene blue (MB), was studied using physical process (photolysis-UV254nm), chemical process (peroxidation-H2O2) and advanced oxidation processes: photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2), Fenton's reagent (Fe(II)/H2O2), photo-Fenton (Fe(II)/H2O2/UV) and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV/TiO2). The aqueous samples were recirculated in the photoreactor and the processes were monitored using scanning spectrophotometry in the UV...

  9. Advances in machining process modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever increasing speed and affordability of computing resources together with the advances in the modeling techniques made it possible to use the numerical models like finite element method (FEM), to simulate the metal cutting processes numerically. This paper explains the recent technological advances made in the commercial DEFORMTM system to facilitate the modeling of metal cutting process. During the first phase of this work a 2D system has been developed which assumes orthogonal cutting conditions. The second phase of this work has resulted in the development of a modeling system for 3D machining processes with main focus on turning. The modeling tools developed in this project utilize a hybrid procedure including both transient and steady state approaches. Automated remeshing procedure is being used with great success. Multiple coating layers on the insert can be modeled to study their thermal effects. Elastic and thermal response of the insert during the machining process can also be modeled using this system. The Usui's wear model has also been implemented in the system to study the tool wear. The system developed has been validated with various results reported from actual cutting tests and comparisons are found to be reasonably accurate

  10. Processos avançados de oxidação de compostos fenólicos em efluentes industriais Advanced Oxidation Process of phenolic compounds in industrial wasterwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jaildes Marques Britto; Maria do Carmo Rangel

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the impact on the environment, removal of pollutants, such as phenolic compounds, from the industrial wastewater has great importance nowadays because of the high toxicity and low biodegradability of these compounds. This work discusses the different methods to remove these compounds from industrial wastewater, showing their advantages and disadvantages. Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs) are presented as a promising technology for the treatment of wastewater containin...

  11. Recent advances in heterogeneous selective oxidation catalysis for sustainable chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Ye; Yang, Yanhui

    2014-05-21

    Oxidation catalysis not only plays a crucial role in the current chemical industry for the production of key intermediates such as alcohols, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones and organic acids, but also will contribute to the establishment of novel green and sustainable chemical processes. This review is devoted to dealing with selective oxidation reactions, which are important from the viewpoint of green and sustainable chemistry and still remain challenging. Actually, some well-known highly challenging chemical reactions involve selective oxidation reactions, such as the selective oxidation of methane by oxygen. On the other hand some important oxidation reactions, such as the aerobic oxidation of alcohols in the liquid phase and the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen, have attracted much attention in recent years because of their high significance in green or energy chemistry. This article summarizes recent advances in the development of new catalytic materials or novel catalytic systems for these challenging oxidation reactions. A deep scientific understanding of the mechanisms, active species and active structures for these systems are also discussed. Furthermore, connections among these distinct catalytic oxidation systems are highlighted, to gain insight for the breakthrough in rational design of efficient catalytic systems for challenging oxidation reactions.

  12. Development of Operational Parameters for Advanced Voloxidation Process at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has been developing a voloxidation process as a head-end process of pyroprocessing technology with INL (Idaho National Laboratory). The work scope of KAERI is to develop the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process at KAERI using surrogate materials and SIMFUEL. In order to evaluate operation conditions of an advanced voloxidation process, oxidation and vaporization behavior of metals and Cs compounds was investigated in terms of thermal treatment atmosphere and temperature by using thermodynamic data. And also, the oxidation and vaporization behavior of semi-volatile fission products with process pressure and temperature was investigated using surrogate materials. Particle size control for U3O8 powder was investigated using SIMFUEL and a rotary voloxidizer. According to analysis of KAERI works, the operation conditions for advanced voloxiation process may be consisted of the following four steps: 1) oxidation of UO2 pellet into U3O8 powder at 500 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 2) additional oxidation of noble metal alloy and vaporization of high vapor pressure of fission products at 700 .deg. C in oxidative atmosphere, 3) granulation of U3O8 powder and vaporization of Cs compounds at 1200 .deg. C in an atmosphere of argon, and 4) reduction of UO2+x granules into UO2 granules at 1000 .deg. C in an atmosphere of 4%H2-Ar. This report will be used as a useful means for determining the operation parameters for advanced voloxidation process

  13. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  14. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  15. 油脂加工过程中氧化稳定性的研究进展%Advance in oxidative stability of oil during processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑翠翠; 刘军; 邹宇晓; 施英; 廖森泰

    2014-01-01

    As an important energy storage material of human body, oil is rich in nutrition,and it is indis-pensable in modern life. However, oil is very easy to be oxidized and to generate hazardous substances, resulting in sharp reduction of nutritional value. The effects of processing technologies on oxidative stabil-ity index ( OSI) of oil were introduced based on the common oil processing technologies ( including ex-traction, refining and post processing of refined oil) , and the improvement direction aimed at the problem existed in the process of oil oxidation was put forward for future.%油脂是人体重要的储能物质,营养价值丰富,在日常生活中不可或缺,但其极易氧化酸败,生成有毒有害物质,造成其营养价值大幅降低。以常见油脂的加工工艺(包括提取、精炼和成品油后加工)为主线,着重介绍各加工工艺对油脂氧化稳定性的影响,并针对油脂氧化过程中存在的问题提出今后可改进的方向。

  16. Investigation on Advanced Oxidation-Biological Processes in Pharmaceutical Wastewater Treatment%高级氧化与生物联用技术处理制药废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申晓辉; 申婷婷; 李小明; 岳秀; 柳娴; 唐玉芳

    2011-01-01

    制药工业废水成分复杂,有机污染物种类多,难于降解,毒性大。高级氧化技术处理制药废水尚处于实验研究阶段,然而将其与生物法联合具有良好的应用前景。重点介绍了各类高级氧化技术的原理和特点,讨论了高级氧化及生物联用技术运用于制药废水的处理现状、存在的问题及未来发展方向。%Pharmaceutical industrial wastewater contained high concentration of organic matters and was characterized by extremely poor biodegradability and toxicity.Although advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) used in the pharmaceutical wastewater treatment was generally at the batch experiment stage,yet it had bright application prospect in combining with biological treatment.The elaboration of the principle and characteristics of various advanced oxidation processes as well as the present situation were focused on,and the existing problems and future development direction of advanced oxidation-biological processes in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment were discussed.

  17. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  18. Impact of leachate composition on the advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining importance as an alternative to the biological or physicochemical treatments for the management of leachates. In this work, it has been studied the effect of the characteristics of the leachate (content in humic acids, landfill age and degree of stabilization) on the wet oxidation process and final quality of the treated effluent. A high concentration of humic acids in the leachate had a positive effect on the COD removal because this fraction is more easily oxidizable. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the simultaneous presence of humic acid and the intermediates generated during the oxidation process improved the degradation of this acid, since such intermediates are stronger initiators of free radicals than the humic acid itself. Similar values of COD removals (49% and 51%) and biodegradability indices (0.30 and 0.35) were observed, after 8 h of wet oxidation, for the stabilised leachate (biologically pretreated) and the raw one, respectively. Nevertheless, final colour removal was much higher for the stabilised leachate, achieving values up to 91%, whereas for the raw one only 56% removal was attained for the same reaction time. Besides, wet oxidation treatment was more efficient for the young leachate than for the old one, with final COD conversions of 60% and 37%, respectively. Eventually, a triangular "three-lump" kinetic model, which considered direct oxidation to CO2 and partial oxidation through intermediate compounds, was here proposed. PMID:26517790

  19. Impact of leachate composition on the advanced oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are gaining importance as an alternative to the biological or physicochemical treatments for the management of leachates. In this work, it has been studied the effect of the characteristics of the leachate (content in humic acids, landfill age and degree of stabilization) on the wet oxidation process and final quality of the treated effluent. A high concentration of humic acids in the leachate had a positive effect on the COD removal because this fraction is more easily oxidizable. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that the simultaneous presence of humic acid and the intermediates generated during the oxidation process improved the degradation of this acid, since such intermediates are stronger initiators of free radicals than the humic acid itself. Similar values of COD removals (49% and 51%) and biodegradability indices (0.30 and 0.35) were observed, after 8 h of wet oxidation, for the stabilised leachate (biologically pretreated) and the raw one, respectively. Nevertheless, final colour removal was much higher for the stabilised leachate, achieving values up to 91%, whereas for the raw one only 56% removal was attained for the same reaction time. Besides, wet oxidation treatment was more efficient for the young leachate than for the old one, with final COD conversions of 60% and 37%, respectively. Eventually, a triangular "three-lump" kinetic model, which considered direct oxidation to CO2 and partial oxidation through intermediate compounds, was here proposed.

  20. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  1. Advanced oxidation of the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate Triton™ X-45 by the persulfate/UV-C process: effect of operating parameters and kinetic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    IdilArslan-Alaton

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of a sulfate radical (SO·− 4)-based photochemical oxidation process to treat the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPPE) Triton™ X-45. For this purpose, the effect of initial S2O2− 8 (0–5.0 mM) and OPPE (10–100 mg/L) concentrations on OPPE and its organic carbon content (TOC) removal were investigated at an initial reaction pH of 6.5. Results indicated that very fast OPPE degradation (100%) accompanied with high TOC abatement rate...

  2. Degradation of the beta-blocker propranolol by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on Fenton's reaction chemistry using a boron-doped diamond anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isarain-Chavez, Eloy; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Arias, Conchita; Centellas, Francesc; Cabot, Pere Lluis [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.ed [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) degradation of solutions of the beta-blocker propranolol hydrochloride with 0.5 mmol dm{sup -3} Fe{sup 2+} at pH 3.0 has been studied using a single cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air diffusion cathode (ADE) for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration and a combined cell containing the above BDD/ADE pair coupled in parallel to a Pt/carbon felt (CF) cell. This naphthalene derivative can be mineralized by both methods with a BDD anode. Almost overall mineralization is attained for the PEF treatments, more rapidly with the combined system due to the generation of higher amounts of hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction by the continuous Fe{sup 2+} regeneration at the CF cathode, accelerating the oxidation of organics to Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes that are more quickly photolyzed by UVA light. The homologous EF processes are less potent giving partial mineralization. The effect of current density, pH and Fe{sup 2+} and drug concentrations on the oxidation power of PEF process in combined cell is examined. Propranolol decay follows a pseudo first-order reaction in most cases. Aromatic intermediates such as 1-naphthol and phthalic acid and generated carboxylic acids such as maleic, formic, oxalic and oxamic are detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The chloride ions present in the starting solution are slowly oxidized at the BDD anode. In PEF treatments, all initial N of propranolol is completely transformed into inorganic ions, with predominance of NH{sub 4}{sup +} over NO{sub 3}{sup -} ion.

  3. Development of Advanced Voloxidation Process for Treatment of Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data for evaluation of the effects of advanced voloxidation on pyroprocessing of spent oxide fuel with a determination for a path forward such was produced as follows: effect of particle size and particle structure on oxide reduction, assessment of decladding options for pyroprocessing, effect of removal timing of fission products, analysis of radioactivity and decay heat of advanced voloxidation process, proliferation resistance of advanced voloxidation process, Effect of advanced voloxidation process on shielding. Also, performance objectives for advanced voloxidation with respective to the down stream effects was established. The technology on design and manufacture of voloxidation and off gas treatment equipment was established. The possibility of fabrication of porous granule as a feed material for electro-reduction process was confirmed using rotary voloxidizer and SIMFUEL. The operational conditions for advanced voloxidation process consisting of 4 steps heat treatment was drawn to vaporize fission products and fabricate UO2 granule. The trapping test of Cs and Re(surrogate material of Tc) using newly developed filter were selectively separated at trapping efficiency of 99%, respectively. Data for oxidative decladding, vaporization rate of fission products, and particle size from experiment on voloxidation using spent fuel in ILN hot cell was acquisited including data of off gas trapping characteristics and verification of excellent performance of filter

  4. Advances in uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in gas centrifuges and development of the atomic vapour laser isotope separation process promise substantial reductions in the cost of enriched uranium. The resulting reduction in LWR fuel costs could seriously erode the economic advantage of CANDU, and in combination with LWR design improvements, shortened construction times and increased operational reliability could allow the LWR to overtake CANDU. CANDU's traditional advantages of neutron economy and high reliability may no longer be sufficient - this is the challenge. The responses include: combining neutron economy and dollar economy by optimizing CANDU for slightly enriched uranium fuel; developing cost-reducing improvements in design, manufacture and construction; and reducing the cost of heavy water. Technology is a renewable resource which must be continually applied to a product for it to remain competitive in the decades to come. Such innovation is a prerequisite to Canada increasing her share of the international market for nuclear power stations. The higher burn-up achievable with enriched fuel in CANDU can reduce the fuel cycle costs by 20 to 40 percent for a likely range of costs for yellowcake and separative work. Alternatively, some of the benefits of a higher fissile content can take the form of a cheaper reactor core containing fewer fuel channels and less heavy water, and needing only a single fuelling machine. An opportunity that is linked to this need to introduce an enriched uranium fuel cycle into CANDU is to build an enrichment business in Canada. This could offer greater value added to our uranium exports, security of supply for enriched CANDUs, technological growth in Canada and new employment opportunities. AECL has a study in progress to define this opportunity

  5. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  6. Decontamination of used pesticide packaging using advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation; Descontaminacao de embalagens descartadas de clorpirifos utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Manoel Nunes

    2006-07-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chloropyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The radiation-induced degradation of chloropyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma-radiolysis. Packaging of high density polyethylene tree layer co extruded, named COEX, and water samples contaminated with chloropyrifos, were irradiated using both, a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5,000 Ci total activity, Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chloropyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chloropyrifos from the plastic packaging in all studied cases. (author)

  7. Formation of High-quality Advanced High-k Oxide Layers at Low Temperature by Excimer UV Lamp-assisted Photo-CVD and Sol-gel Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU J. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that high quality and high dielectric constant layers can be fabricated by low temperature photo-induced or -assisted processing. Ta2O5 and ZrO2 have been deposited at t<400 ℃by means of a UV photo-CVD technique and HfO2 by photo-assisted sol-gel processing with the aid of excimer lamps. The UV annealing of as-grown layers was found to significantly improve their electrical properties.Low leakage current densities on the order of 10-8 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm for deposited ultrathin Ta2O5 films and ca. 10-6 A/cm2 for the photo-CVD ZrO2 layers and photo-irradiated sol-gel HfO2 layers have been readily achieved. The improvement in the leakage properties of these layers is attributed to the UV-generated active oxygen species O(1D) which strongly oxidize any suboxides to form more stoichiometric oxides on removing certain defects, oxygen vacancies and impurities present in the as-prepared layers. The photo-CVD Ta2O5films deposited across 10. 16-cm Si wafers exhibit a high thickness uniformity with a variation of less than ±2.0% being obtained for ultrathin ca. 10 nm thick films. The lamp technology can in principle be extended to larger area wafers, providing a promising low temperature route to the fabrication of a range of high quality thin films for future ULSI technology.

  8. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  9. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  10. 高级催化氧化法去除水中邻苯二甲酸酯的研究进展%Removal of phthalic acid esters from water by advanced catalytic oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 李亚茹; 王杰; 陈凯凯

    2014-01-01

    Generally, phthalic acid esters(PAEs) are considered to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This substance is widely used in plasticizers, cosmetics, etc. PAEs would give rise to malformation, cancerization and mutation as well as possess quasi/anti-estrogen activity and quasi/resistance-thyroid hormone activity. PAEs could spread to the environment easily and be detected in the soil, air and water. They are common pollutants in the environment, which pose serious threats to both human health and the ecological environment. As a result, PAEs have attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper summarizes the physi-chemical properties and toxic effects of PAEs and analyses the pollution status in natural water, groundwater and wastewater. The work also discusses many recent methods developed to remove PAEs, such as enhanced coagulation, adsorption, membrane treatment, biological treatment, advanced oxidation process, etc. Advanced oxidation technology has attracted much attention and developed rapidly because of it’s ability to remove different kinds of organic pollutants quickly and efficiently from drinking water and sewage. This article introduces the degradation of PAEs in water mainly using advanced oxidation technology which includes the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, the catalytic ozone oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, ultrasonic and microwave assisted catalytic oxidation and advanced nanometer catalytic oxidation. Fenton catalytic oxidation process could produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals by adding catalyst and UVradiation in the process of oxidation. This method could achieve the highest oxidation efficiency as well as degrade PAEs into non-toxic harmless chemicals completely and non-selectively. Although application of the catalyst in advanced oxidation process can improve the oxidation efficiency and the degradation degree greatly, this method needs a huge amount of catalyst and energy and also influenced by pH value

  11. Practical advanced oxidation processes for waste water treatment:I. the principle, characteristic, advantage and disadvantage of various advanced oxidation technologies%废水处理的实用高级氧化技术第一部分──各类高级氧化技术的原理、特性和优缺点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2014-01-01

    评述了芬顿氧化法、催化臭氧氧化法、光催化氧化法、电解催化氧化法、湿式空气氧化/湿式催化氧化法、超临界水氧化法、超声氧化法等各类目前认为最有实用价值的高级氧化技术的原理、特性和各自的优缺点,分析了各类高级氧化技术存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。认为金属催化臭氧氧化技术结合了臭氧氧化力强和金属催化剂易于制造、经久耐用、不需另加其他药剂和操作成本低的优点,是既经济又高效的氧化技术,也是未来较有发展前途的技术。%The principles, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the various most practical advanced oxidation technologies recently, for example, Fenton oxidation, catalytic ozone oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, electrolytic catalytic oxidation, wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, and supersonic oxidation, were reviewed and the problems existing in various advanced oxidation technologies and the development tendency in the further were analyzed. It is considered that the metal-catalyzed ozone oxidation is an economic and highly efficient oxidation technology combining the advantages of both ozone’s strong oxidation ability and metal catalyzer’ easy manufacturing, high durability, no need of adding other reagents, and low operation cost, showing a good development prospect in the future.

  12. 废水处理的实用高级氧化技术第一部分──各类高级氧化技术的原理、特性和优缺点%Practical advanced oxidation processes for waste water treatment:I. the principle, characteristic, advantage and disadvantage of various advanced oxidation technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景礼

    2014-01-01

    评述了芬顿氧化法、催化臭氧氧化法、光催化氧化法、电解催化氧化法、湿式空气氧化/湿式催化氧化法、超临界水氧化法、超声氧化法等各类目前认为最有实用价值的高级氧化技术的原理、特性和各自的优缺点,分析了各类高级氧化技术存在的问题和未来的发展趋势。认为金属催化臭氧氧化技术结合了臭氧氧化力强和金属催化剂易于制造、经久耐用、不需另加其他药剂和操作成本低的优点,是既经济又高效的氧化技术,也是未来较有发展前途的技术。%The principles, characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the various most practical advanced oxidation technologies recently, for example, Fenton oxidation, catalytic ozone oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, electrolytic catalytic oxidation, wet air oxidation and catalytic wet air oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, and supersonic oxidation, were reviewed and the problems existing in various advanced oxidation technologies and the development tendency in the further were analyzed. It is considered that the metal-catalyzed ozone oxidation is an economic and highly efficient oxidation technology combining the advantages of both ozone’s strong oxidation ability and metal catalyzer’ easy manufacturing, high durability, no need of adding other reagents, and low operation cost, showing a good development prospect in the future.

  13. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation Bioreactor, in almost all cases. From the different combinations tested, municipal wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed. PMID:26255127

  14. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation wastewater subjected to biological treatment followed by UV/H2O2 resulted in the highest elimination levels. Wastewater previously treated by physicochemical treatment demonstrated considerably inhibited micropollutant degradation rates. The degradation kinetics were determined, yielding: k (UV) UV/H2O2) and k (Fenton) < k (solar irradiation) < k (photo-Fenton). Finally, the evolution of global pollution parameters (COD & TOC elimination) was followed and the degradation pathways for the effluent organic matter are discussed.

  15. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  16. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  17. Oxidative stress to the cornea, changes in corneal optical properties, and advances in treatment of corneal oxidative injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejka, Cestmir; Cejkova, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress) leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown. PMID:25861412

  18. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  19. Study of oil diesel degradation in soil using oxidative advanced processes; Estudo da degradacao do oleo diesel em solo utilizando processos oxidativos avancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suenia S.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta, Mauricio da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Paula Tereza de S. e; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2004-07-01

    Recently it comes if observing several accidents during the exploration, refinement, transport and operation of storage of petroleum and yours derived, such as the diesel oil and the gasoline. In this paper We do a study of the degradation of the diesel oil in a characteristic soil of the state of Pernambuco using peroxide of hydrogen and Fenton reagent. Those two processes are based on the generation of the radical hydroxyl (OH.) that has to can oxidizer loud capable to promote the destruction of recalcitrant organic compositions. The studied soil has about 16,5{+-}0,3 g/kg of total organic carbon. A factorial planning was accomplished 2{sup 3} with 2 repetitions in the central point with the objective of finding the best conditions of degradation of the pollutant. The variables and the studied levels were: FeSO{sub 4} - 0,18 M (0, 4 and 8 Ml); pH (3; without adjustment and without adjustment) and Time of exhibition in the sun (8; 12 and 16:00). The volumes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used in the rehearsals were constant, being 80 mL. Soon afterwards it accomplished a fractional experimental planning 2{sup 3-1}, repeating the variables of the first planning, they put using a smaller volume of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 40 mL, to evaluate the influence of the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used about the degradation of the diesel oil. The mass of the soil used in each experiment was of 5 g. It was observed that there were not significant differences in the degradation in relation to the peroxide volume. The best found degradation was around 87% in the following conditions (4 mL of Faith, without pH adjustment, Time of exhibition in the sun of 12:00 and 80 ml of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). That found degradation was quite satisfactory being still due to study more economical conditions. (author)

  20. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  1. The Chemical Coagulation-Advanced Oxidation Composite Process for Treating Sulfurcontained Tannery Wastewater%化学混凝-高级氧化复合处理工艺处理制革含硫废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮亮; 李鹏; 丁敬敏; 常琴琴; 王苗

    2011-01-01

    本文结合目前制革含硫污水特点,以某制革废水为研究对象,采用混凝-高级氧化复合处理工艺进行处理,室内实验研究证明该方法具有处理效率高、成本低等特点,适合制革含硫废水的处理.%In this paper, tannery wastewater was studied using coagulation - Advanced Oxidation composite process, according to the characteristics of the current sulfur-contained tannery wastewater. The laboratory studies had shown that the method had high efficiency and low cost and it was suitable for sulfur-contained tannery wastewater treatment.

  2. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS TECHNOLOGY (ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION/OZONE TREATMENT) FOR REMOVAL OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN GROUND WATER SUPPLIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio has been testing and evaluating MTBE removal in dechlorinated tap water using three oxidant combinations: hydrogen peroxide/ozone, ultraviolet irradiation (UV)/ozone, and UV/ozone/hydrogen peroxide. Pilot-scale st...

  3. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  4. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  6. Advanced oxidation of acid and reactive dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslan-Alaton, I.; Gursoy, B.H.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The effect of untreated and Fenton-treated acid dyes (C.I. Acid Red 183 and C.I. Acid Orange 51) and a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 4) on aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic processes was investigated. The optimum Fe2+:H2O2 molar ratio was selected as 1:5 (4:hsp sp="0.25" mM:20:hsp sp="0.25"mM) for...... 10:hsp sp="0.25" min Fenton treatment at pH 3, resulting in reduced chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon removal efficiencies; only acetate was detected as a stable dye oxidation end product. During anaerobic digestion, 100, 29% and no inhibition in methane production was observed for...... the untreated blue, red and orange dyes, respectively. The inhibitory effect of the blue reactive dye on methane production was ∼21% after Fenton treatment. Neither untreated nor treated dyes exhibited an inhibitory effect on denitrification. Aerobic glucose degradation was inhibited by 23-29% by...

  7. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Svensson, Erik Anders;

    2014-01-01

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution...... on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH* reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10-13 cm3/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total...... particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution. © 2014 American Chemical Society....

  8. Evaluation of advanced hot conditioning process for PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot-conditioning/hot functional test process is carried out to the PHT system of reactor before reactor going to critical/operational. The process is aimed in checking the component functionalities at high temperature and high pressure conditions, the process also checks/removes the suspended corrosion products in heat transport circuit. This process leads to formation of a passive or corrosion oxide film on the heat transport circuit surfaces which protects/mitigates the corrosion of the system circuits during the operation of plant. Major concerned alloy in the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system of Indian PHWRs during the hot conditioning process and also during operation is the carbon steel due to its high corrosion. Hot-conditioning process mitigates the corrosion of carbon steel by the formation of iron oxide (Fe3O4) as major oxide phase layer on the carbon steel surface with a typical thickness of 1.0 μm with particle size of 1μm after 336 h of process at 250 °C. But this passive oxide film thickness increase with time of operation of system with c.a. 10μm for 2.2 EFYP. The protectiveness of passive layer can be further enhanced by reducing the particle sizes in the passive film to nano meter range. The process can impact on the compactness of passive oxide layer with reduced pores in the oxide layer and properties of the nano nature oxide (transport properties) impacting the corrosion mitigation. The corrosion mitigation reduce the source term in the activated corrosion product generation. To achieve this a new process 'Advanced hot conditioning' was developed in water steam chemistry division, BARC for getting a passive oxide film with a lowered particle size in the passive film. The AHC process with 1g/L of PEG-8000 at 250 °C for 336 h showed a particle size <100 nm. The process was tested under the normal operating conditions as function of the time, the corrosion parameter like oxide film thickness, corrosion rate and metal ion release to

  9. Combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process used for pharmacy wastewater treatment%生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜家绪; 买文宁; 王敏; 唐启

    2016-01-01

    采用生物流化床—高级催化氧化工艺处理制药废水,介绍了制药废水处理工程的工艺流程、工艺设计、调试方法、处理效果和工程效益.运行结果表明,该系统处理效果好且运行稳定,出水水质满足《混装制剂类制药工业水污染物排放标准》(GB 21908—2008)表2标准.%The combined biological fluidized bed-advanced catalytic oxidation process has been designed for the treatment of pharmacy wastewater. The process flow,process design,debugging methods,treatment effect and engi-neering benefit of the pharmacy wastewater treatment project are introduced. The running results show that the treat-ment effect of the system is good,it runs steadily,and the effluent quality meets the requirements specified in Tab. 2 of the Discharge Standards of Water Pollutants for Pharmaceutical Industry Mixing/Compounding and Formulati on Category(GB 21908—2008).

  10. Application of Water Sample Pretreatment by Combined Advanced Oxidation Processes to Determination of Total Phosphorus in Water%组合高级氧化水样预处理在水质总磷检测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明军; 张军军; 杨慧中; 李清

    2012-01-01

    In determination of total phosphorus in water, comparing with the traditional national standard method, which needs adding potassium persulfate for digestion under high pressure, there are many advantages by using combined advanced oxidation processes to pretreat the water samples, such as simple operation, fast digestion, without addition of chemical reagents, no secondary pollution and convenient on-line monitoring. The experimental results show that the total phosphorus in water samples is oxidized completely and stably by this method. The test results after oxidation are consistent with the national standard method (GB 11893 -1989). This environmentally friendly green pretreatment technology has a good practicality value for water quality on-line monitoring system.%在水样总磷含量的测定中,采用组合高级氧化技术对水样进行预处理,与传统国标法添加过硫酸钾高压消解相比,具有操作简单、消解速度快、无需添加化学试剂、无二次污染、便于实现水质总磷的在线检测等优点.通过试验分析对比,用本方法对水样总磷氧化消解则完全、稳定,测量结果与国标法( GB 11893-1989)消解后测量结果基本一致,是一种“环境友好型”的绿色水处理技术,应用于在线监测系统中具有良好的实用价值.

  11. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  12. Implementation of advanced electrochemical oxidation for radiochemical concentrate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatments in Nuclear Power Plants include ion exchange, evaporation and mechanical filtration techniques. These technologies are used to control the chemical release and to treat coolant in light water reactor types from chemicals and most importantly, from radioactive nuclides. Most of the conventional methods are efficient, but at the same time producing aqueous concentrates with high organic load. Before final storage, the level of organic content of those concentrates must be reduced. Advanced electrochemical oxidation with Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) electrodes are being investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale for treatment of dilute and concentrated aqueous waste streams at Vattenfall-Ringhals NPP. BDD anodes and cathodes are having high over potential against water electrolysis, and therefore well suitable for oxidation of organics. Dilute wastewater, such as laundry water, which has an initial COD level of around 500 mg/l, was reduced to a level of < 20 mg/l in the laboratory. Evaporator concentrates, with a TS content of 3% and pH of 7-8, were treated in pilot scale of 800 liters, working in batch operation mode, at temperatures between 25-50 deg. C. Initial COD levels between 2500 and 8000 mg/l in concentrate was reduced to < 100 mg/l at the first tests and later to < 300 mg/l. The advanced electrochemical oxidation is proven to be a promising technique for radioactive concentrate treatment. Long-term operation is still ongoing to evaluate the performance of the electrodes, cell components and overall process efficiency. (authors)

  13. Detoxification of azinophos methyl using gamma radiation mediated advance oxidation process and investigation of degradation products by HPLC and GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiolytic degradation of azinophos-methyl was studied in water and methanol separately, using 60Co as a radiation source under varied experimental conditions. Solution of azinophos-methyl was prepared in pure methanol at concentration of 50 μg ml-1, irradiated at gamma dose of 1 to 7 kGy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector was used to monitor the extent of degradation along with numbers of degradation products. At dose of 7 kGy ≥ 99% of azinophos-methyl was degraded. The degradation occurred by interaction of CH3O x and H x radicals generated by the radiolysis of high purity methanol while in water by x OH radical. The degradation in water was increased by 30% than in methanol due the high oxidation potential of x OH while keeping the gamma ray dose constant at 3 kGy. The generated degradation products were identified using GC-MS and their possible transformation pathways are proposed. It is suggested that use of ionization radiations can be an effective and efficient tool for the removal of organophosphate pesticides in waste water.

  14. An investigation of inhibition effect of metronidazole before and after using advanced oxidation process (UV254/H2O2 on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirzaee

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Different concentrations of metronidazole had an inhibition effect on anaerobic digestions and therefore the efficient pretreatment method is needed to reduce this inhibition effect. The UV254/H2O2 process is an effective method for degradation and conversion of metronidazole to more biodegradable compounds for anaerobic bacteria consumption and, in turn, to increase biogasproduction in anaerobic digestions.

  15. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  16. Oxidative Stress in Aging: Advances in Proteomic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual’s Quality of Life (QOL. Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS], which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8, naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber, and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress in aging.

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  19. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  20. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  1. DEGRADATION OF CAFFEINE AND METHYLENE BLUE BY ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (AOPs = DEGRADAÇÃO DE CAFEÍNA E AZUL DE METILENO POR PROCESSOS OXIDATIVOS AVANÇADOS (POA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelton Fagnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of two compounds of pharmaceutical interest, caffeine (CAF and methylene blue (MB, was studied using physical process (photolysis-UV254nm, chemical process (peroxidation-H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes: photoperoxidation (UV/H2O2, Fenton's reagent (Fe(II/H2O2, photo-Fenton (Fe(II/H2O2/UV and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV/TiO2. The aqueous samples were recirculated in the photoreactor and the processes were monitored using scanning spectrophotometry in the UV-Vis region and analysis of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The advanced oxidation processes were more effective in modifying the structure of molecules and the reduction of DOC than the physical or chemical processes. The photo-Fenton process (120 min was the most efficient and the DOC reduction was about 75, 85, and 81% for CAF, MB, and CAF/MB solution, respectively. Thus, the photo-Fenton process was the most efficient in the degradation of substances assayed, followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis. = No presente trabalho foi feita uma avaliação da degradação de dois compostos de interesse farmacêutico, a cafeína (CAF e o azul de metileno (AZM, por vários processos: físico (fotólise-UV254nm; químico (peroxidação-H2O2 e oxidativos avançados, empregando-se a fotoperoxidação (UV/H2O2, o reagente de Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2, o foto-Fenton (Fe (II /H2O2/UV e a fotocatálise heterogênea (UV/TiO2. As amostras aquosas foram recirculadas em um fotorreator de bancada e o monitoramento de cada um dos processos foi realizado usando-se a espectrofotometria de varredura na região do UV-Vis e a análise de carbono orgânico dissolvido (COD. Os processos oxidativos avançados foram mais eficientes na modificação da estrutura de ambas as moléculas e na redução da concentração de COD. Em 120 min. de ensaio com o processo foto-Fenton, o mais eficiente, houve uma redução de COD de 75, 85, e 81% para a CAF, AZM, e a solução composta por ambos, respectivamente

  2. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  3. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  4. A novel advanced oxidation process——wet electrocatalytic oxidation for high concentrated organic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI QiZhou; ZHOU MingHua; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG Xing Wang

    2007-01-01

    A novel advanced oxidation process-wet electrocatalytic oxidation(WEO)was studied with p-nitrophenol as model pollutant and β-PbO2 electrode as the anode.Compared with the effect of the individual wet air oxidation(WAO)and electrochemical oxidation(EO),the effect of WEO showed synergistic effect on COD removal under the conditions of temperature 160℃,C=1000mg·L-1,PN2=0.50MPa,Po2=0.9 MPa,current density=3 mA·cm-2,Na2SO4 3 g·L-1.And the synergistic factor got the best value of 0.98 within 120 min after 180 min treatment.The synergistic factor was studied after 120 min treatment at 100℃,120℃,140℃and 160℃,and the effect of 120℃was the best with the value of 1.26.Possible mechanism for the synergistic effect was discussed based on the analysis of free-radical generation and intermediates detected by HPLC and GC/MS.

  5. Analytical evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation process in a solar pilot power plant; Evaluacion analitica y optimizacion de procesos de oxidacion avanzada en planta piloto solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vazquez, J.; Malato Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez Fernandez-Alba, A.

    2003-07-01

    The technical feasibility mechanisms and performance of degradation of several pesticides (imidacloprid, methomyl and diuron) dissolved in water have been studies at pilot scale in two well-defined photocatalytic systems of special interest because natural UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton.Equivalent pilot-scale (made up of Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications) and field conditions used for both systems and the three pesticides allowed adequate comparison of the degree of mineralization and toxicity achieved as well as the transformation products generated en route to mineralization. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and 90% mineralisation have been attained with all pesticides tested, methomyl being the most difficult to be degraded with both treatments. First order rate constants, initial rate,time necessary for mineralizing 90% of the initial TOC and hydrogen peroxide consumption were calculated in all cases, enabling comparison both of treatments and of the selected pesticide reactivity. Complete mineralisation of TOC is not achieved even after quite a long time (more than 300 minutes). Three different bioassays (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and a Microalga) have been used for testing the progress of toxicity during treatments. All remained toxic down to very low pesticide disappearance of the pesticide. Only if treatment is maintained throughout enough mineralisation (i. e. TOC disappearance), the toxicity is reduced to below the threshold (EC 50%). Transformation products evaluated by GC-MS/AED (after two SPE procedures), LC-IT-MS and LC-IC were the same in both phototreatments. The main differences between the two processes are in the amount of transformation products (TPs) generated, not in the TPs detected which were always the same. (Author)

  6. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES MODELLING USING ADVANCED HYDROINFORMATIC TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEILICCI ERIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The water has an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems by integrating the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain life. Water is a key factor in determining the productivity of ecosystems, biodiversity and species composition. Water is also essential for humanity: water supply systems for population, agriculture, fisheries, industries, and hydroelectric power depend on water supplies. The modelling of hydrological processes is an important activity for water resources management, especially now, when the climate change is one of the major challenges of our century, with strong influence on hydrological processes dynamics. Climate change and needs for more knowledge in water resources require the use of advanced hydroinformatic tools in hydrological processes modelling. The rationale and purpose of advanced hydroinformatic tools is to develop a new relationship between the stakeholders and the users and suppliers of the systems: to offer the basis (systems which supply useable results, the validity of which cannot be put in reasonable doubt by any of the stakeholders involved. For a successful modelling of hydrological processes also need specialists well trained and able to use advanced hydro-informatics tools. Results of modelling can be a useful tool for decision makers to taking efficient measures in social, economical and ecological domain regarding water resources, for an integrated water resources management.

  7. Oxidation process of lanthanum hexaboride ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation process of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) ceramic powder was investigated . The LaB6 powder samples were heated continually from room temperature to 1 473 K at a heating rate of 10 K/min by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidation tests were conducted at different exposure temperatures. The phases and morphologies of the samples before and after exposure were analyzed by XRD and SEM. It was pointed out that before 1 273 K, LaB6 has high oxidation resistant ability, which was due to that the oxide layer hinders the oxygen diffusion from outer to the surface of LaB6 grains. The oxide layer was composed of the transition phases, which were composed of La2O3 and B2O3 formed from the initial oxidation; when the oxidation temperature exceeded 1 273 K, protective layer was destroyed due to the vaporization of liquid B2O3. Based on the results of X-ray diffraction analysis, oxidation process of LaB6 ceramic powder can be described as follows: Before 1 273 K, lanthanum borate,La(BO2)3 was formed on the surface of samples, then lanthanum oxide (La2O3) and boron oxide (B2O3) were present on the surface of samples oxidized when the temperature reached to 1 473 K.

  8. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Oxidative processes of desulfurization of liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Martín, José Miguel; Capel Sánchez, María del Carmen; Pérez Presas, Patricia; García Fierro, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concerns have introduced a need to remove sulfur-containing compounds from light oil. As oxidative desulfurization is conducted under very mild reaction conditions, much attention has recently been devoted to this process. In this contribution, the developments in selective removal of organosulfur compounds present in liquid fuels via oxidative desulfurization, including both chemical oxidation and biodesulfurization, are reviewed. At the end of each section, a brief ...

  10. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  11. Fenton/BAF组合工艺处理全棉机织布印染废水研究%Fenton Oxidation/BAF Process for Advanced Treatment of Wastewater from Dyeing and Finishing of Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文淦斌; 黄瑞敏; 黄春梅; 王君

    2011-01-01

    The dyeing and finishing processes of cotton woven fabrics need a lot of sizing agents toimprove the smoothness and wear resistance of the fabrics, thus the discharged wastewater often contains a lot of desizing wastewater, which has high concentration of COD, strong alkalinity and poor biodegradability. The biodegradability is difficult to be improved using conventional coagulation sedimentation/anaerobic/aerobic process, and the effluent COD and color are difficult to meet the standards. According to the characteristics above, the combined process of Fenton oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) was used for the advanced treatment. The results of the pilot study show that under the conditions of initial pH of 4, H2O2 dosage of 150 mg/L, Fe2+/H2O2 ratio of 1 and reaction time of 60 min in Fenton oxidation process, COD and color of the wastewater are reduced from 400 mg/L to 125 mg/L with the removal rate of 68.75% and from 200 times to less than 25 times respectively. After the Fenton oxidation,the B/C ratio is increased from 0.08 to 0.34, and the biodegradability is significantly improved. Under the condition of HRT of 2.5 h, COD in the effluent from BAF is 74.5 mg/L, with the removal rate of 40.4%. After treatment by the combined process, the removal rate of COD is more than 80% , and the color is less than 25 times, with good treatment efficiency.%全棉机织布染色加工需使用大量浆料助剂进行上浆处理以提高织物的光滑度及耐磨性,因而排放的废水中往往含有大量的退浆废水,其COD浓度高、碱度强、可生化性差,经常规的混凝沉淀/厌氧/好氧组合工艺处理后,可生化性难以改善,出水COD、色度值难以达标.采用Fen-ton/曝气生物滤池(BAF)组合工艺对其进行深度处理,中试结果表明,在Fenton工艺的初始pH值=4、H2O2投加量=150 mg/L、Fe2+/H2O2值=1、反应时间为60 min的条件下,COD由原来的400mg/L降低至125 mg/L,去除率达68.75%,色度由200

  12. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    The fundamental information that a well-designed treatability study can provide is essential to the success of all remediation systems. Over the past years several new techniques for in situ and on-site remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater have been applied with varying degrees...... as establishing the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, kinetics etc. Drawing up field studies and laboratory data, this poster will discus the importance...... techniques in order to obtain more aggressive and effective remediation technologies, e.g. UV/O3 or electrochemical/H2O2. Actual case study data is presented to illustrate the benefits of in situ treatability tests prior to full scale implementation of the preferred remedial technology....

  13. Joining of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels for Advanced Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B. W.; Brewer, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    The design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of structural materials capable of operation in the high temperatures, corrosive environments, and radiation damage spectra of future reactor designs remain one of the key pacing items for advanced reactor designs. The most promising candidate structural materials are vanadium-based refractory alloys, silicon carbide composites and oxide dispersion strengthened steels. Of these, oxide dispersion strengthened steels are a likely near-term candidate to meet required demands. This paper reviews different variants of oxide dispersion strengthened steels and discusses their capability with regard to high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and radiation damage resistance. Additionally, joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels, which has been cited as a limiting factor preventing their use, is addressed and reviewed. Specifically, friction stir welding of these steels is reviewed as a promising joining method for oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  14. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer....../fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may...

  15. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  16. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF THE HIPOX ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MTBE-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HiPOx technology is an advanced oxidation process that incorporates high-precision delivery of ozone and hydrogen peroxide to chemically destroy organic contaminants with the promise of minimizing bromate formation. A MTBE-contaminated groundwater from the Ventura County Nav...

  18. Advanced photochemical oxidation of emergent micropollutants: carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Joaquín R; González, Teresa; Palo, Patricia; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    The combination of UV radiation with hydrogen peroxide has been widely used for the photodegradation of pollutants in aqueous solutions. Statistical design of experiments is a powerful tool to optimize this kind of process. Initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH and temperature were considered as the variables for the process optimization. The interactions existing between these three variables were analyzed. Initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide proved to be the most important variable conditioning the removal efficiency, followed by temperature, and pH shows a non-significant positive influence along the whole operation interval. The ANOVA test reported significance for five of the nine involved variables. The Response Surface Methodology technique was used to optimize carbamazepine degradation. Under optimal conditions (hydrogen peroxide concentration = 0.38·10(-3) mol L(-1), pH = 1 and temperature = 35.6°C) total carbamazepine degradation was achieved. PMID:24798897

  19. Advanced oxidation for groundwater remediation and for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) used in this paper is based on EB irradiation of water in the presence and absence of ozone. The paper describes two distinct sets of experiments, one dealing with groundwater contaminated with perchloroethylene (PCE) and some genotoxic compounds, and the other dealing with soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The combination of ozone and EB irradiation has shown to be able to mineralize trace amounts of PCE contained in groundwater in a single stage process without formation of any by-product to be disposed of. Moreover, experiments performed with real groundwater have demonstrated that the combined ozone/EB irradiation process is also apt for total removal of some genotoxic compounds detected in groundwater contaminated with PCE. The design of an ozone/EB irradiation plant for treating 108 m3/h is presented. The issue concerning both the occurrences of genotoxic compounds in oxygen containing groundwater and possible processes for their removal is discussed. In the second part soil contaminated with PAHs has been treated in aqueous suspension using ozone and EB irradiation, respectively. Experiments were performed with low contaminated soil (total PAHs about 332 mg/kg soil). With an ozone consumption of 10 g C)3/kg soil a total PAH decomposition of about 21% was recorded. EB irradiation with a reasonable radiation dose of 100 kGy results in about 7% total PAH decomposition at room temperature and about 16%, respectively at 55-60 deg. C. It was recorded that almost no transfer of the PAH takes place from the soil into the water when soil is merely suspended in water. Ozone mainly attacked the high molecular fraction (i.e. consisting of 5 or 6 aromatic rings) of the PAHs investigated while EB irradiation of the aqueous soil suspension mostly decomposed the lower fraction (i.e. consisting up to 4 aromatic rings). (author)

  20. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  1. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  2. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  3. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  4. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources of NO in the atmosphere are anthropogenic emissions (from combustion of fossil fuels) and biogenic emission from soils. NO is both produced and consumed in soils as a result of biotic and abiotic processes. The main processes involved are microbial nitrification and denitrification, and chemodenitrification. Thus, the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes for simulating these processes are described, and the results are discussed with the purpose of scaling up to global emission. PMID:23713124

  5. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and γ-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose

  6. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm2 and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields

  7. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  8. Study of Advanced Oxidation System for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hygiene water is still a big problem globally as well as energy and food, especially in Indonesia where more than 70 % lived in Java island. One of the efforts in treating hygiene water is to recycle the used water. In this case it is needed clean water technology. Many methods have been done, this paper describes the advanced oxidation technology system based on ozone, titania and plasma discharge. (author)

  9. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baliński

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO) with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite ...

  10. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  11. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients: a simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeci, László; Seres, Leila; Antal, Magda; Lukács, Júlia; Regöly-Mérei, Andrea; Acsády, György

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in many human pathological processes. Although there are numerous methods available for the assessment of oxidative stress, most of them are still not easily applicable in a routine clinical laboratory due to the complex methodology and/or lack of automation. In research into human oxidative stress, the simplification and automation of techniques represent a key issue from a laboratory point of view at present. In 1996 a novel oxidative stress biomarker, referred to as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), was detected in the plasma of chronic uremic patients. Here we describe in detail an automated version of the originally published microplate-based technique that we adapted for a Cobas Mira Plus clinical chemistry analyzer. AOPP reference values were measured in plasma samples from 266 apparently healthy volunteers (university students; 81 male and 185 female subjects) with a mean age of 21.3 years (range 18-33). Over a period of 18 months we determined AOPP concentrations in more than 300 patients in our department. Our experiences appear to demonstrate that this technique is especially suitable for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients (sepsis, reperfusion injury, heart failure) even at daily intervals, since AOPP exhibited rapid responses in both directions. We believe that the well-established relationship between AOPP response and induced damage makes this simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique applicable in daily routine laboratory practice for assessing and monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill or other patients.

  14. REMOVAL OF REMAZOL ROSSO RB DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS BY HOMOGENOUS FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Zaharia; Victoria Fedorcea; Adrian Beda; Victor Amarandei; Augustin Muresan

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents some data from our laboratory-setup experiments of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton oxidation processes) applied for Remazol Rosso RB dye-containing aqueous systems, especially textile effluents. Therefore, some different operating parameters (including pH, concentration of dye, H2O2 and ferrous ions, oxidation time, temperature, stirring regime, among its) were tested for determination of the best performance in effluent decolorat...

  15. Recent advances in EEG data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, L H

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the most interesting advances in EEG signal processing are with methods based on descriptive mathematical models of the process. Formulation of auto-regressive (AR) and mixed autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) models is reviewed for the scalar and the multidimensional cases and extensions to allow time-varying coefficients are pointed out. Data processing with parametric models, DPPM, involves parameter estimation and a large number of algorithms are available. Emphasis is put on those that are simple to apply and require a modest amount of computation. A recursive algorithm by Levinson, Robinson and Durbin is well suited for estimation of the coefficients in the AR model and for tests of model order. It is applicable to both the scalar and multidimensional cases. The ARMA model can be handled by approximation of an AR model or by nonlinear optimization. Recursive estimation with AR and ARMA models is reviewed and the connection with the Kalman filter pointed out. In this way processes with time-varying properties may be handled and a stationarity index is defined. The recursive algorithms can deal with AR or ARMA models in the same way. A reformulation of the algorithm to include sparsely updated parameter estimates significantly speeds up the calculations. It will allow several EEG channels to be handled simultaneously in real time on a modern minicomputer installation. DPPM has been particularly successful in the areas of spectral analysis and detection of short transients such as spikes and sharp waves. Recently some interesting attempts have been made to apply classification algorithms to estimated parameters. A brief review is made of the main results in these areas.

  16. Advanced sludge reduction and phosphorous removal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An advanced sludge reduction process, i.e. sludge reduction and phosphorous removal process, was developed. The results show that excellent sludge reduction and biological phosphorous removal can be achieved perfectly in this system. When chemical oxygen demand ρ(COD) is 332 - 420 mg/L, concentration of ammonia ρ(NH3-N) is 30 - 40 mg/L and concentration of total phosphorous ρ(TP) is 6.0 - 9.0 mg/L in influent, the system still ensures ρ(COD)<23 mg/L, ρ(NH3-N)<3.2 mg/L and ρ(TP)<0.72 mg/L in effluent. Besides, when the concentration of dissolved oxygen ρ(DO) is around 1.0 mg/L, sludge production is less than 0. 140 g with the consumption of 1 g COD, and the phosphorous removal exceeds 91%. Also, 48.4% of total nitrogen is removed by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  17. Photocatalysis: Oxidative Processes in Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Prihod'ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of various homogeneous and heterogeneous systems photocatalytic processes destructive oxidation of organic compounds of different classes is considered. It is shown that photocatalytic methods can significantly increase the speed and depth (up to complete mineralization of decomposition processes of toxicants. The use of photocatalysis (PC in the creation of low-power water treatment technologies is a promising direction in addressing environmental problems of the hydrosphere.

  18. Teaching an advanced processing course with hands-on projects

    OpenAIRE

    Simar, Aude; International Conference on Materials Education

    2015-01-01

    The present work discusses an advanced processing course with 10 magisterial courses (2h each) where theoretical aspects are covered and three hands-on projects. This advanced manufacturing course follows a basic course reviewing all manufacturing technologies. The courses concern process selection, advanced machining and additive manufacturing. To each of these topics a project is associated where the use of computer technologies for manufacturing is emphasized. The process selection process...

  19. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  20. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-09-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters ( i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  1. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-06-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters (i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  2. [Research advances on anaerobic ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Ping; Ji, Jun-yuan

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ferrous-oxidizing microorganisms (AFOM) are one of the important discoveries in microbiology, geology and environmental science. The study of AFOM is of significance to make clear the banded iron formations (BIFs), promote the biogeochemical cycles of iron, nitrogen and carbon, enrich the microbiological content, develop new biotechnologies for anaerobic iron oxidation, and explore the ancient earth environment and extraterrestrial life. This paper summarized the research advances on AFOM, introduced the habitats of AFOM, discussed the biodiversity and the nutritive and metabolic characteristics of AFOM, and assessed the potential functions of AFOM. An outlook was made on the future researches of new species AFOM, their microbial metabolism mechanisms, and their development and applications. PMID:24380362

  3. Development of advanced mixed oxide fuels for plutonium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of advanced Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel forms are currently being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory that have the potential to be effective plutonium management tools. Evolutionary Mixed Oxide (EMOX) fuel is a slight perturbation on standard MOX fuel, but achieves greater plutonium destruction rates by employing a fractional nonfertile component. A pure nonfertile fuel is also being studied. Initial calculations show that the fuel can be utilized in existing light water reactors and tailored to address different plutonium management goals (i.e., stabilization or reduction of plutonium inventories residing in spent nuclear fuel). In parallel, experiments are being performed to determine the feasibility of fabrication of such fuels. Initial EMOX pellets have successfully been fabricated using weapons-grade plutonium

  4. Destruction of estrogenic activity in water using UV advanced oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeldt, Erik J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Chen, P.J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Kullman, Seth [Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Linden, Karl G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Building, Durham, NC 27708-0287 (United States)]. E-mail: kglinden@duke.edu

    2007-05-01

    The transformation of the steroidal Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) and 17-{alpha}-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by direct UV photolysis and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} advanced oxidation was studied from the perspective of the removal of estrogenic activity associated with the compounds. First, experiments were performed to link the oxidation of E2 and EE2 with subsequent reduction in estrogenic activity. No statistically significant difference between removal rates was observed, implying that the oxidation products of E2 and EE2 are not as estrogenic (measured by the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES)) as the parent compounds. Utilizing the YES, 90% removal of estrogenic activity of E2 and EE2 at environmentally relevant concentrations ({approx} 3 {mu}g L{sup -1}) was achieved using a combination of 5 mg L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and a UV fluence of less than 350 mJ cm{sup -2}. Thus, these compounds, when considered at environmentally relevant levels, are significantly degraded at much lower UV fluences than previously thought. A steady state OH radical model was used to predict oxidation of EE2 in laboratory and natural waters.

  5. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew A. Adnew; Carl Meusinger; Nicolai Bork; Michael Gallus; Mildrid Kyte; Thomas Rosenørn; Johnson, Matthew S.; Vitalijs Rodins

    2016-01-01

    Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO) is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO s...

  6. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Farhana Tisa; Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman; Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud

    2014-01-01

    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simp...

  7. Technical, economic and environmental evaluation of advanced tertiary treatments for micropollutants removal (oxidation and adsorption)

    OpenAIRE

    Besnault, S.; Martin Ruel, S.; Baig, S; Esperanza, M.; Budzinski, H.; Miege, C.; Boucher, C.; Le Menach, K.; Coquery, M.

    2014-01-01

    International audience Two pilots for tertiary treatment, an advanced oxidation processes (AOP - O3/UV/H2O2) pilot and a granular activated carbon pilot, were tested in three different wastewater treatment plants after a secondary treatment. A total of 64 micropollutants including drugs, pesticides, alkylphenols, PAHs and metals were analysed in the samples at the inlet and the outlet of the pilots. The tertiary treatments studied (ozone, AOP and activated carbon) were efficient for the re...

  8. Degradação de corantes ácidos por processos oxidativos avançados usando um reator com disco rotatório de baixa velocidade Acid dyes degradation by advanced oxidation processes using a low-speed rotating disk reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Vilson Bedim Vianna; Alexandre Rodrigues Tôrres; Eduardo Bessa Azevedo

    2008-01-01

    Three technologies were tested (TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, and TiO2/H2O2/UV) for the degradation and color removal of a 25 mg L-1 mixture of three acid dyes: Blue 9, Red 18, and Yellow 23. A low speed rotating disc reactor (20 rpm) and a H2O2 concentration of 2.5 mmol L-1 were used. The dyes did not significantly undergo photolysis, although they were all degraded by the studied advanced oxidation processes. With the TiO2/H2O2/UV process, a strong synergism was observed (color removal reached 100%). P...

  9. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  10. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  11. Pharmaceutical removal during managed aquifer recharge with pretreatment by advanced oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are detected in sources for drinking water and treatment possibilities are investigated. Innovative removal technologies are available such as membrane filtration and advanced oxidation, but also biological treatment should be considered. By combining an advanced oxidation process with managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two complementary processes are expected to provide a hybrid system for OMP removal, according to the multiple barrier approach. Laboratory scale batch reactor experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) from MAR influent water and water subjected to oxidation, under different process conditions. A DOC removal of 10% was found in water under oxic (aerobic) conditions for batch reactor experiments, a similar value for DOC removal was observed in the field. Batch reactor experiments for the removal of PhACs showed that the removal of pharmaceuticals ranged from negligible to more than 90%. Under oxic conditions, seven out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and 12 out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% during 30 days of experiments. Under anoxic conditions, four out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed over 90% and eight out of 14 pharmaceuticals were removed at more than 50% over 30 days\\' experiments. Carbamazepine and phenazone were persistent both under oxic and anoxic conditions. The PhACs removal efficiency with oxidized water was, for most compounds, comparable to the removal with MAR influent water. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  12. Electro-oxidation process for molybdenum concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jian-gang; ZHONG Hong; BU Xiang-ming; WANG Fu-li

    2005-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite was used to treat the standard molybdenum concentrates; the oxidization conditions for sodium hypochlorite were investigated, and the electro-oxidation process was performed. The results indicate that in the suitable conditions, such as temperature around 25 ℃, NaCl concentration 4.0 mol/L, mass ratio of ore slurry liquid to solid (mL/mS) 20, electric charge per gram Mo 0.522 C, pH value of original slurry 8, anodic current density 700 A·m-2 (cell potential 2.7-2.9 V), the Mo leaching rate and the current efficiency reach 98% and 36%, respectively. In order to overcome some shortages of the electro-oxidation process, such as low current efficiency, low Mo concentration in the leaching solution, ultrasonic was adopted to intensify the leaching process. The results show that the Mo leaching rate exceeds 98%, current efficiency increases from 36% to 50% and the Mo concentration in the leaching solution reaches about 60 g/L at low mL/mS of 8 and low electric charge of 0.373 C.

  13. Advances in the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanli Zhu; Xutao Zhao; Youquan Deng

    2004-01-01

    The conversion and utilization of natural gas is of significant meaning to the national economy,even to the everyday life of people. However, it has not become a popular industrial process as expected due to the technical obstacles. In the past decades, much investigation into the conversion of methane,predominant component of natural gas, has been carried out. Among the possible routes of methane conversion, the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas is considered as an effective and economically feasible one. In this article, a brief review of recent studies on the mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas together with catalyst development is wherein presented.

  14. Hybrid process for nitrogen oxides reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sprague, B.N.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes a process for reducing the nitrogen oxide concentration in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. It comprises introducing into the effluent a first treatment agent comprising a nitrogenous composition selected from the group consisting of urea, ammonia, hexamethylenetetramine, ammonium salts of organic acids, 5- or 6-membered heterocyclic hydrocarbons having at least one cyclic nitrogen, hydroxy amino hydrocarbons, NH{sub 4}-lignosulfonate, fur-furylamine, tetrahydrofurylamine, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, guanidine, guanidine carbonate, biguanidine, guanylurea sulfate, melamine, dicyandiamide, biuret, 1.1{prime}-azobisformamide, methylol urea, methylol urea-urea condensation product, dimethylol urea, methyl urea, dimethyl urea, calcium cyanamide, and mixtures thereof under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration and ensure the presence of ammonia in the effluent; introducing into the effluent a second treatment agent comprising an oxygenated hydrocarbon at an effluent temperature of about 500{degrees} F. to about 1600{degrees} F. under conditions effective to oxidize nitric oxide in the effluent to nitrogen dioxide and ensure the presence of ammonia at a weight ratio of ammonia to nitrogen dioxide of about 1:5 to about 5:1; and contacting the effluent with an aqueous scrubbing solution having a pH of 12 or lower under conditions effective to cause nitrogen dioxide to be absorbed therein.

  15. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  16. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  17. 混凝-非均相Fenton氧化法深度处理染色漂洗废水研究%Advanced treatment of cloth washing and dyeing wastewater by coagulation-heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晋保; 马冬梅; 张定定; 李新颖; 陈泉源

    2014-01-01

    Using coagulation-heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process to treat cloth washing and dyeing wastewater from a printing and dyeing mill, the pollutants could be effectively removed through the coagulation and heterogenous Fenton catalytic oxidation with polymeric ferric sulfate as the coagulant and pyrite as the cata‐lyst. The influences of dosage of coagulant, H2O2 and pyrite, initial pH values of the coagulation and oxidation, reuse performance of pyrite, and some other factors on pollutants removal were investigated;besides, the variation of iron ions forms and concentrations during the pyrite catalytic oxidation was studied as well. The results showed that, under the condition that the dosage of coagulant, H2O2 and pyrite were 120 mg/L, 0.12 mL/L, and 2.5 g/L respectively, the initial pH values of the coagulation and oxidation were 7 and 3 respectively, the oxidation time was 1 h, the total removal rates of CODCr and TOC reached 81% and 67% respectively. It also pointed out that, as pyrite performed a good reusability, it may have potential as a catalyst of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation in practical application.%采用混凝-非均相Fenton氧化法对某印染厂的染色漂洗废水进行处理,在聚合硫酸铁的混凝作用和黄铁矿作催化剂的非均相Fenton的催化氧化作用下,废水中的污染物得到有效去除。考察了混凝剂投加量﹑混凝初始pH值﹑ H2O2投加量﹑氧化初始pH值﹑黄铁矿投加量及黄铁矿的重复利用等因素对污染物降低效果的影响,研究了黄铁矿催化氧化过程中铁离子形态和浓度变化过程。结果表明,在混凝剂投加量为120 mg∕L﹑混凝初始pH值为7﹑ H2O2投加量为0.12 mL∕L﹑氧化初始pH值为3﹑黄铁矿投加量为2.5 g∕L﹑氧化反应时间为1 h的条件下, CODCr总去除率达81%, TOC总去除率达67%。黄铁矿重复利用性能良好,具有很好的工程应用性。

  18. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  19. Wet oxidation processes for water pollution remediation

    OpenAIRE

    García Molina, Verónica

    2006-01-01

    [eng] The main objective of this work was to test the efficiency of wet oxidation processes when treating several types of aqueous wastes. On one side its performance for the abatement of chloro-organic aromatic toxic pollutants, such as 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol has been studied. On the other hand, wastewater from pulp and paper mills, which has been reported to be an indirect source of entry of chlorophenols in the aquatic environment, has been investigated. More in detail, it h...

  20. Advanced Chemical Reduction of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Photocatalytic Activity in Degrading Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Pau Ping Wong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Textile industries consume large volumes of water for dye processing, leading to undesirable toxic dyes in water bodies. Dyestuffs are harmful to human health and aquatic life, and such illnesses as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and hinder the photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants. To overcome this environmental problem, the advanced oxidation process is a promising technique to mineralize a wide range of dyes in water systems. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO was prepared via an advanced chemical reduction route, and its photocatalytic activity was tested by photodegrading Reactive Black 5 (RB5 dye in aqueous solution. rGO was synthesized by dispersing the graphite oxide into the water to form a graphene oxide (GO solution followed by the addition of hydrazine. Graphite oxide was prepared using a modified Hummers’ method by using potassium permanganate and concentrated sulphuric acid. The resulted rGO nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Raman, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM to further investigate their chemical properties. A characteristic peak of rGO-48 h (275 cm−1 was observed in the UV spectrum. Further, the appearance of a broad peak (002, centred at 2θ = 24.1°, in XRD showing that graphene oxide was reduced to rGO. Based on our results, it was found that the resulted rGO-48 h nanoparticles achieved 49% photodecolorization of RB5 under UV irradiation at pH 3 in 60 min. This was attributed to the high and efficient electron transport behaviors of rGO between aromatic regions of rGO and RB5 molecules.

  1. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  2. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  3. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number of...... modeling parameters are fit to the many processes which often overlap in the same frequency ranges. Also, commonly used equivalent circuit (EC) models only provide zero-dimensional (0-D) approximations of the processes of the two electrodes, electrolyte and gas transport. Employing improved analytical...... electrode and 2-D gas transport models which have fewer unknown parameters for the same number of processes, (ii) use of a new model fitting algorithm, “multi-fitting”, in which multiple impedance spectra are fit simultaneously with parameters linked based on the variation of measurement conditions, (iii...

  4. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms.

  5. 混凝沉淀-生物法-高级氧化处理颜料废水工程应用%Engineering appIication of coaguIation precipitation-bioIogicaI process-advanced oxidation process to the treatment of pigment wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建威; 司马卫平

    2015-01-01

    某颜料企业针对其排放的高浓度有机废水,采用混凝沉淀—生物法—高级氧化的组合工艺进行处理。工程实践表明:在系统维持相对稳定的情况下,经处理后的出水水质达到了《污水综合排放标准》(GB 8978—1996)的一级标准要求。%Aiming at the problems that the wastewater from a pigment enterprise contains highly concentrated orga-nics,the combined process coagulation precipitation-biological method-advanced oxidation,has been used for its treatment. The engineering practice shows that when the systems conditions keep relatively stable ,the effluent water quality can meet the requirements of I-class criteria specified in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978—1996).

  6. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater. PMID:26846248

  7. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  8. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  9. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  10. Advances of study on atmospheric methane oxidation (consumption) in forest soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen-rui; SHI Yi; YANG Xiao-ming; WU Jie; YUE Jin

    2003-01-01

    Next to CO2, methane (CH4) is the second important contributor to global warming in the atmosphere and global atmospheric CH4 budget depends on both CH4 sources and sinks. Unsaturated soil is known as a unique sink for atmospheric CH4 in terrestrial ecosystem. Many comparison studies proved that forest soil had the biggest capacity of oxidizing atmospheric CH4 in various unsaturated soils. However, up to now, there is not an overall review in the aspect of atmospheric CH4 oxidation (consumption) in forest soil. This paper analyzed advances of studies on the mechanism of atmospheric CH4 oxidation, and related natural factors (Soil physical and chemical characters, temperature and moisture, ambient main greenhouse gases concentrations, tree species, and forest fire) and anthropogenic factors (forest clear-cutting and thinning, fertilization, exogenous aluminum salts and atmospheric deposition, adding biocides, and switch of forest land use) in forest soils. It was believed that CH4 consumption rate by forest soil was limited by diffusion and sensitive to changes in water status and temperature of soil. CH4 oxidation was also particularly sensitive to soil C/N, Ambient CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations, tree species and forest fire. In most cases, anthropogenic disturbances will decrease atmospheric CH4 oxidation, thus resulting in the elevating of atmospheric CH4. Finally, the author pointed out that our knowledge of atmospheric CH4 oxidation (consumption) in forest soil was insufficient. In order to evaluate the contribution of forest soils to atmospheric CH4 oxidation and the role of forest played in the process of global environmental change, and to forecast the trends of global warming exactly, more researchers need to studies further on CH4 oxidation in various forest soils of different areas.

  11. Leachate Treatment UsingWet Air Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ebrahimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Wet air oxidation (WAO is One of the advanced oxidation process which reduce organic matter concentration from industrial wastewater, toxic and non biodegradable substances and, solid waste leachate,etc. In this study the efficiency of wet air oxidation method in leachate treatment generating from Esfahan Composting factory was Evaluated."nMaterial and Methods: The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit of pretreated leachate sample the steel reactor with the volume of 3L. The reactor then underwent10 bar pressure at different temperature (100, 200 and 300 °C and various retention time (30, 60 and 90 min. Leachate sample in 18 stages from composting factory in Isfahan in the volume of 20 Lit was taken and the WAO method, was used for pre-treatments. Removal efficiency of COD, BOD, NH4-N, NO3 and TSS were examined."nResults: The results showed that the removal efficiency was more than 35% for COD, 38% for BOD, and 85% for TSS within one hour of reaction. The Maximum removal efficiency obtained in this study were 53.3% for NH4-N and 73.9 % forNO3-N."nConclusion: the results indicate that the reaction temperatures are the most important factors affecting degradation of organic matter. COD and BOD5 removal efficiency by WAO process increased as the time of reaction went up. In addition, BOD5/COD ratios of the effluents, which are generally regarded as an important index of biodegradability of leachate sample, were determined and improved grately as it reached to 84%. TheWAO process presented in this paper is considered an efficient process for pretreatment of leachate, as the COD, BOD5 and NO3 reduction observed in leachate samples.

  12. Advances in the Application of Image Processing Fruit Grading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chengjun; Hua, Chunjian

    2013-01-01

    In the perspective of actual production, the paper presents the advances in the application of image processing fruit grading from several aspects, such as processing precision and processing speed of image processing technology. Furthermore, the different algorithms about detecting size, shape, color and defects are combined effectively to reduce the complexity of each algorithm and achieve a balance between the processing precision and processing speed are keys to automatic apple grading.

  13. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for advanced municipal wastewater treatment: is it feasible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; XIONG Bi-yong; ZHANG Shu-de; YANG Hong; ZHANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation(ANAMMOX) is a recently developed process to treat ammonia-rich wastewater. There were numerous articles about the new technology with focus on the ammonium-rich wastewater treatment, but few on advanced municipal wastewater treatment. The paper studied the anaerobic ammonium oxidation(ANAMMOX) process with a down flow anoxic biofilter for nitrogen removal from secondary clarifier effluent of municipal wastewater with low COD/N ratio. The results showed that ANAMMOX process is applicable to advanced wastewater treatment with normal temperature as well as ammonia-rich high temperature wastewater treatment. The results indicated that ammonia removal rate was improved by raising the nitrite concentration, and the reaction rate reached a climax at 118.4 mgN/L of the nitrite nitrogen concentration. If the concentration exceeds 118.4 mgN/L, the ANAMMOX process was significantly inhibited although the ANAMMOX bacteria still showed a relatively high reactivity. The data also indicated that the ratio of NO2- -N:NH4 + -N = 1.3:1 in the influent was appropriate for excellent nitrogen removal. The pH increased gradually along the ANAMMOX biofilter reactor. When the ANAMMOX reaction was ended, the pH was tend to calm. The data suggested that the pH could be used as an indicator to describe the course of ANAMMOX reaction.

  14. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Faranak; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Ameri, Majid; Shoaei, Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C) at higher iodine values vs. its...

  15. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 — Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Prescreening experiments varying the H2O2 and TiO2 concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 experiments, whereas the UV/Fe2+/H2O2 process was optimized varying the pH, Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations by means of the Box–Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H2O2 treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H2O2 treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable. - Highlights: • Full primary elimination of 5-FU was achieved in all the treatments. • None of the processes were able to fully mineralize 5-FU. • Six transformation products (TPs) were identified during

  16. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV/Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/TiO{sub 2} — Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre, E-mail: lutterbeck@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, DE-21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Graduate Program in Environmental Technology, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul — UNISC, Av. Independência, 2293, CEP 96815-900 Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wilde, Marcelo Luís, E-mail: wilde@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, DE-21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Baginska, Ewelina, E-mail: ewelina.baginska@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, DE-21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Leder, Christoph, E-mail: cleder@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, DE-21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Machado, Ênio Leandro, E-mail: enio@unisc.br [Graduate Program in Environmental Technology, Universidade de Santa Cruz do Sul — UNISC, Av. Independência, 2293, CEP 96815-900 Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV/Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/TiO{sub 2}. Prescreening experiments varying the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/TiO{sub 2} experiments, whereas the UV/Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was optimized varying the pH, Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations by means of the Box–Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/TiO{sub 2} processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable. - Highlights: • Full primary elimination of 5-FU was

  17. 光催化高级氧化与无机陶瓷膜分离技术耦合的研究%Study on the coupling of photocatalytic advanced oxidation process with inorganic membrane separation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田蒙奎; 尚百伟; 陶文亮

    2012-01-01

    近年来,光催化高级氧化技术在深度水处理中已引起广泛关注.悬浮式光催化反应器作为一种高效光催化反应器,传质效果好、光利用率高,但光催化剂尤其是纳米光催化剂从悬浮液中的分离回收成为光催化高级氧化技术应用的难题.引入无机陶瓷膜分离技术来解决这一难题,设计了工艺流程,搭建了耦合装置并优化了工艺参数.该耦合系统在光催化高级氧化降解甲基橙(降解率达到99.1%以上)后能实现光催化剂的高效分离回收再利用,对光催化剂能达到99%以上的截留率.同时,研究更廉价、阻力降更小的膜材料及新型可见光响应光催化剂成为该技术发展的关键.%Photocatalysis advanced oxidation technology has attracted more and more attention in sewage treatment in recent years. Slurry reactor as a high efficient photo catalytic reactor has the advantages of good mass transfer effect and high luminous efficiency. While the separation and recovery of nano-scaled photocatalyst from suspension limited the application of photocatalysis technology. A liquid-solid separation technology using inorganic ceramic membrane as separation membrane was developed to solve this technical bottleneck; the coupling device was designed and the operation parameters were optimized. This coupling device was applied for treatment of methyl orange containing wastewater; it presented perfect treatment efficiency with the methyl orange degradation rate of over 99. 1% , the interception rate of photo catalyst could reach over 99%. In the future, developing cheaper membrane materials with small resistance drop and new visible light response photo catalyst was the key of the development of this technology.

  18. Advanced impedance modeling of solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detailed study of the electrochemical and transport processes that take place in fuel cells and electrolysis cells, including solid oxide cells (SOCs). Meaningful analysis of impedance measurements is nontrivial, however, because a large number...... techniques to provide good guesses for the modeling parameters, like transforming the impedance data to the distribution of relaxation times (DRT), together with experimental parameter sensitivity studies, is the state-of-the-art approach to achieve good EC model fits. Here we present new impedance modeling...... electrode and 2-D gas transport models which have fewer unknown parameters for the same number of processes, (ii) use of a new model fitting algorithm, “multi-fitting”, in which multiple impedance spectra are fit simultaneously with parameters linked based on the variation of measurement conditions, (iii...

  19. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  20. Recent advances in radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial application of radiation technology for food processing started in the nineties after it was approved by FAO/IAEA/WHO and Codex Alimentarius Commission in the eighties. Sanitary applications were initially explored commercially with microbial decontamination of spices and dry ingredients as the primary commodities to be processed on a large scale. Subsequently, with the emergence of E.coli O157:H7 as the potential food poisoning risk in ground beef, irradiation of meat was initiated in the late nineties in the USA. Since then irradiation, has become a very useful food safety tool and the technology has been approved for addressing food safety risks in moluscan shellfish and vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and more recently for raw uncooked meat by USFDA. Phytosanitary applications assumed importance after USFDA approved irradiation as a method of phytosanitary treatment and subsequent endorsement of the process by International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2003. These approvals were responsible for development of international trade in agricultural commodities. The first to demonstrate the feasibility of the process were India and Australia, the countries that exported mangoes to New Zealand and USA, respectively. As far as the source of radiation is concerned, the world is slowly moving towards deployment of machine sources, thereby reducing its dependence on radioisotopes for commercial irradiation. (author)

  1. Overview of welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are very promising materials for Generation IV reactors with a potential to be used at elevated temperatures under severe neutron exposure environment. Welding of the ODS alloys is an understudied problem. In this paper, an overview of welding of the ODS alloys useful for advanced nuclear reactor applications is presented. The microstructural changes and the resultant mechanical properties obtained by various solid state welding processes are reviewed. Based on our results on PM2000, an approach for future work on welding of the ODS alloys is suggested. (author)

  2. US-UK Collaboration on Fossil Energy Advanced Materials: Task 1—Steam Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Tylczak, Joseph [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Carney, Casey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This presentation goes over the following from the US-UK collaboration on Fossil Energy Advanced Materials: Task 1, Steam Oxidation: US-led or co-led deliverables, Phase II products (US), 2011-present, Phase III products, Phase III Plan, an explanation of sCO2 compared with sH2O, an explanation of Ni-base Alloys, an explanation of 300 Series (18Cr-8Ni)/E-Brite, an explanation of the typical Microchannel HX Fabrication process, and an explanation of diffusion bonded Ni-base superalloys.

  3. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-14

    The program is conducted by a team consisting of AiResearch Los Angeles Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  4. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources...

  5. Application of hydrogen injection and oxidation to low temperature solution-processed oxide semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Miyakawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed oxide semiconductors are promising candidates for the low cost, large scale fabrication of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs. In this work, a method using hydrogen injection and oxidation (HIO that allows the low temperature solution processing of oxide semiconductors was demonstrated. We found that this method significantly decreases the concentration of residual species while improving the film densification. Additionally, enhanced TFT performance was confirmed following the use of processing temperatures as low as 300 °C. The proposed process is potentially applicable to the fabrication of a wide variety of solution-processed oxide semiconductors.

  6. REMOVAL OF REMAZOL ROSSO RB DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS BY HOMOGENOUS FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some data from our laboratory-setup experiments of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton oxidation processes applied for Remazol Rosso RB dye-containing aqueous systems, especially textile effluents. Therefore, some different operating parameters (including pH, concentration of dye, H2O2 and ferrous ions, oxidation time, temperature, stirring regime, among its were tested for determination of the best performance in effluent decoloration and dye removal, meaning the optimal values of each studied parameters for highest decoloration or dye removal.

  7. Achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysser, W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper examples from intermetallics, composites with ductile and high strength reinforcements, nanocrystalline and superplastic materials are used to illustrate generic and special achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology. Processing technologies include reactive powder metallurgy, nanocrystalline processing, rapid solidification and mechanical alloying.

  8. Improving Seismic Image with Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericy Lastra Cunill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking Taking into account the need to improve the seismic image in the central area of Cuba, specifically in the area of the Venegas sector, located in the Cuban Folded Belt, the seismic data acquired by Cuba Petróleo (CUPET in the year 2007 was reprocessed according to the experience accumulated during the previous processing carried out in the same year, and the new geologic knowledge on the area. This was done with the objective of improving the results. The processing applied previously was analyzed by reprocessing the primary data with new focuses and procedures, among them are the following: the attenuation of the superficial wave with a filter in the Radon domain in its lineal variant, the change of the primary statics corrections of elevation by those of refraction, the study of velocity with the selection automatic biespectral of high density, the study of the anisotropy, the attenuation of the random noise, and the pre stack time and depth migration. As a result of this reprocessing, a structure that was not identified in the seismic sections of the previous processing was located at the top of a Continental Margin sediment located to the north of the sector that increased the potentialities of finding hydrocarbons in quantities of economic importance thus diminishing the risk of drilling in the sector Venegas.

  9. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles for Advanced Refrigerant Thermophysical Properties: Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Fadhilah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, refrigeration systems are important for industrial and domestic applications. The systems consume more electricity as compared to other appliances. The refrigeration systems have been investigated thoroughly in many ways to reduce the energy consumption. Hence, nanorefrigerant which is one kind of nanofluids has been introduced as a superior properties refrigerant that increased the heat transfer rate in the refrigeration system. Many types of materials could be used as the nanoparticles to be suspended into the conventional refrigerants. In this study, the effect of the suspended copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles into the 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a is investigated by using mathematical modeling. The investigation includes the thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, and heat transfer rate of the nanorefrigerant in a tube of evaporator. The results show enhanced thermophysical properties of nanorefrigerant compared to the conventional refrigerant. These advanced thermophysical properties increased the heat transfer rate in the tube. The nanorefrigerant could be a potential working fluid to be used in the refrigeration system to increase the heat transfer characteristics and save the energy usage.

  10. Research Situation of Removal of Taste and Odor Substances such as Geosmin and 2 Methylisoborneol in Water with Advanced Oxidation Processes%高级氧化技术去除水中嗅味物质土臭素及2甲基异冰片的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海涵; 武道吉; 王占金; 宋武昌; 孙韶华; 贾瑞宝

    2015-01-01

    概述了饮用水处理中土臭素(GSM)、2甲基异冰片(MIB)的来源、嗅味特性及应用高级氧化处理技术的必要性,并揭示了其中反应活性物质的作用机理。重点介绍了应用臭氧组合氧化工艺( O3/ H2 O2、UV/ O 3、UV/ O 3/ H2 O2、臭氧催化氧化)、光催化、超声波来降解 GSM和 MIB。探讨了试验过程、梳理试验结论,并对部分试验的效果进行对比。各工艺在去除嗅味物质的过程中生成的TPs(苯甲醛类物质),其致嗅特性,毒理特性尚不明确,仍需进一步研究定性。%The sources and odor characteristics of geosmin (GSM)and 2 methylisoborneol (MIB),and the necessity of application of advanced oxidation technologies were summarized in this paper. The action mechanism of active substances action was introduced. The application of advanced oxidation technologies such as combined process of ozone oxidation (O 3 / H2 O2 ,UV/ O 3 ,UV/ O 3 / H2 O2 and catalytic ozonation),photocatalysis,ultrasound in degradation of GSM and MIB was emphasized. Additionally,the experimental process was explored,and parts of experiment results were compared. The results show that odor properties and toxicological characteristics of TPs (benzoic aldehydes)generated during the reaction is unclear and need further researches.

  11. Avaliação do potencial de processos oxidativos avançados para remediação de águas contaminadas com geosmina e 2-MIB Evaluation of advanced oxidation processes for remediation of contamined water with geosmin and 2-MIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Martins de Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of some homogeneous advanced oxidation processes (UVC/H2O2, Fe2+/H2O2, UVC/Fe2+/H2O2, UVA/Fe2+/H2O2, solar/Fe2+/H2O2 was investigated toward the degradation of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB. The effect of relevant experimental parameters (ie. pH, Fe2+ and H2O2 concentration was first investigated by factorial design, using camphor as a model substrate. In the geosmin and 2-MIB degradation studies the Fenton processes assisted by solar and UVA radiation offered the most promising results, mainly on account of high degradation capacity (higher than 80% at a reaction time of 60 min, high operational simplicity and low cost.

  12. Homogeneous and heterogeneous aqueous phase oxidation of phenol with fenton-like processes

    OpenAIRE

    Messele, Selamawit Ashagre

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, various chemical oxidation techniques have been developed to overcome the inconveniences associated to conventional treatment of industrial wastewaters. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been reported to be effective for the degradation of soluble organic contaminants from wastewaters containing non-biodegradable organic pollutants, because they can often provide an almost total degradation, under reasonably mild conditions of temperature and pressure. Among them, ...

  13. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  15. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  16. Biodegradability of iopromide products after UV/H₂O₂ advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Olya S; Love, Nancy G; Aga, Diana S; Linden, Karl G

    2016-02-01

    Iopromide is an X-ray and MRI contrast agent that is virtually non-biodegradable and persistent through typical wastewater treatment processes. This study determined whether molecular transformation of iopromide in a UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) can result in biodegradable products. The experiments used iopromide labeled with carbon-14 on the aromatic ring to trace degradation of iopromide through UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and subsequent biodegradation. The biotransformation assay tracked the formation of radiolabeled (14)CO2 which indicated full mineralization of the molecule. The results indicated that AOP formed biodegradable iopromide products. There was no (14)C released from the pre-AOP samples, but up to 20% of all radiolabeled carbon transformed into (14)CO2 over the course of 42 days of biodegradation after iopromide was exposed to advanced oxidation (compared to 10% transformation in inactivated post-AOP controls). In addition, the quantum yield of photolysis of iopromide was determined using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) mercury lamps as 0.069 ± 0.005 and 0.080 ± 0.007 respectively. The difference in the quantum yields for the two UV sources was not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.08), which indicates the equivalency of using LP or MP UV sources for iopromide treatment. The reaction rate between iopromide and hydroxyl radicals was measured to be (2.5 ± 0.2) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). These results indicate that direct photolysis is a dominant degradation pathway in UV/H2O2 AOP treatment of iopromide. Other iodinated contrast media may also become biodegradable after exposure to UV or UV/H2O2.

  17. Overview of advanced process control in welding within ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special kinds of demands placed on ERDA weapons and reactors require them to have very reliable welds. Process control is critical in achieving this reliability. ERDA has a number of advanced process control projects underway with much of the emphasis being on electron beam welding. These include projects on voltage measurement, beam-current control, beam focusing, beam spot tracking, spike suppression, and computer control. A general discussion of process control in welding is followed by specific examples of some of the advanced joining process control projects in ERDA

  18. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process and a lineari...... on pilot plant equipment on the department of Chemical Engineering DTU Lyngby.......This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function can be used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of hard and soft constraints for process input constraints in the MPC controllers, ensures feasible solutions. The computational load...

  19. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  20. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  1. Optical metrology for advanced process control: full module metrology solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdog, Cornel; Turovets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Optical metrology is the workhorse metrology in manufacturing and key enabler to patterning process control. Recent advances in device architecture are gradually shifting the need for process control from the lithography module to other patterning processes (etch, trim, clean, LER/LWR treatments, etc..). Complex multi-patterning integration solutions, where the final pattern is the result of multiple process steps require a step-by-step holistic process control and a uniformly accurate holistic metrology solution for pattern transfer for the entire module. For effective process control, more process "knobs" are needed, and a tighter integration of metrology with process architecture.

  2. Avaliação da microfiltração para remoção do lodo gerado no processo oxidativo avançado empregando o reagente de Fenton no tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário Evaluation of microfiltration for removal of sludge generated in advanced oxidation process by Fenton reagent in treatment of landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Guadagnin Moravia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma alternativa atrativa para o tratamento de lixiviado de aterro sanitário são os processos oxidativos avançados empregando o reagente de Fenton (POA/Fenton. No entanto, a aplicação do POA/Fenton é limitada pela geração de lodo no processo. Esse lodo possui elevada concentração de ferro, o que torna necessária sua separação do efluente tratado. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a microfiltração para a remoção de lodo gerado no POA/Fenton. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em unidade de bancada. O POA/Fenton apresentou elevada eficiência na remoção de matéria orgânica (75% e cor real (95%. O processo de microfiltração foi eficiente na separação do lodo gerado, o qual apresentou baixa sedimentabilidade, dificultando sua separação por sedimentação, além de ter contribuído para a remoção de outros poluentes.Advanced oxidation processes using Fenton's reagent (AOP/Fenton are an attractive alternative for landfill leachate treatment. However, the implementation of the AOP/Fenton is limited by the generation of sludge in the process. The sludge has a high iron concentration, which needs its separation from the treated effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microfiltration for sludge removal from an AOP/Fenton. The work was conducted in bench scale. The advanced oxidation process showed high efficiency in removing organic matter (75% and true color (95%. The microfiltration was effective in separating the sludge, which showed low settling hindering their separation by sedimentation, and has contributed to the removal of other pollutants.

  3. Removal of organic micropollutants in surface and groundwater using advanced oxidation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urkiaga, A.; Barcena, L.; Fuentes, L. de las [GAIKER Technological Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Zamudio (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Today more than ever, there is a public concern about the importance of having water of proven quality, as urban and industrial development are highly dependent on an abundant and safe water supply. Traces of organic micropollutants have been found in natural and drinking water. Some of these water pollutants have teratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects even in minimal quantities (ppb) so actual regulations, the water framework directive 2000/60/CE and the drinking water directive (98/83/CE), have established new and more stringent standards. Emerging technologies as the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are expanding as very promising technologies to remove these compounds and consequently to obtain water of high quality. In this work, several compounds representing different micropollutant groups were selected: VOCs (TCE), gasoline derivatives (MTBE), pesticides and other endocrine disruptors (PCBs and Bisphenol-A). The viability of using advanced oxidation processes to eliminate these different compounds was evaluated. The efficiency of the removal has been proven, however to fulfil with the legislation limits a polishing step would be needed in most cases. Although very high removals have been obtained for the different compounds, mineralisation rates have been quite lower and intermediate compounds have been detected. Consequently, higher mineralisation rates and a more profusely study of the effects of the generated intermediates would be needed. (orig.)

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. Recent advances of cerium oxide nanoparticles in synthesis, luminescence and biomedical studies:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立莹; 苏玉民; 蒋兰宏; 石士考

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO2) commonly known as nanoceria is a rare earth metal oxide, which plays a technologi-cally important role due to its versatile applications as automobile exhaust catalysts, oxide ion conductors in solid oxide fuel cells, electrode materials for gas sensors, ultraviolet absorbents and glass-polishing materials. However, nanoceria has little or weak lumi-nescence, and therefore its uses in high-performance luminescent devices and biomedical areas are limited. In this review, we present the recent advances of nanoceria in the aspects of synthesis, luminescence and biomedical studies. The CeO2 nanoparticles can be synthesized by solution-based methods including co-precipitation, hydrothermal, microemulsion process, sol-gel techniques, combus-tion reaction and so on. Achieving controlled morphologies and enhanced luminescence efficiency of nanoceria particles are quite es-sential for its potential energy- and environment-related applications. Additionally, a new frontier for nanoceria particles in biomedi-cal research has also been opened, which involves low toxicity, retinopathy, biosensors and cancer therapy aspects. Finally, the sum-mary and outlook on the challenges and perspectives of the nanoceria particles are proposed.

  7. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  8. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    Most advanced process control systems are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). In this paper we discuss three critical issues for the practical implementation of linear MPC for process control applications. The rst issue is related to oset free control and disturbance models; the second issue...

  9. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  10. Advances in the Process Development of Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Al-Haque, Naweed;

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis is already established in chemical synthesis on an industrial scale, in particular in the pharmaceutical sector. However, the wider implementation of biocatalysis is currently hindered by the extensive effort required to develop a competitive process. In order that resources spent on...

  11. Gas-phase advanced oxidation as an integrated air pollution control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew A. Adnew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase advanced oxidation (GPAO is an emerging air cleaning technology based on the natural self-cleaning processes that occur in the Earth’s atmosphere. The technology uses ozone, UV-C lamps and water vapor to generate gas-phase hydroxyl radicals that initiate oxidation of a wide range of pollutants. In this study four types of GPAO systems are presented: a laboratory scale prototype, a shipping container prototype, a modular prototype, and commercial scale GPAO installations. The GPAO systems treat volatile organic compounds, reduced sulfur compounds, amines, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particles and odor. While the method covers a wide range of pollutants, effective treatment becomes difficult when temperature is outside the range of 0 to 80 °C, for anoxic gas streams and for pollution loads exceeding ca. 1000 ppm. Air residence time in the system and the rate of reaction of a given pollutant with hydroxyl radicals determine the removal efficiency of GPAO. For gas phase compounds and odors including VOCs (e.g. C6H6 and C3H8 and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g. H2S and CH3SH, removal efficiencies exceed 80%. The method is energy efficient relative to many established technologies and is applicable to pollutants emitted from diverse sources including food processing, foundries, water treatment, biofuel generation, and petrochemical industries.

  12. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  14. Removal of diethyl phthalate from water solution by adsorption, photo-oxidation, ozonation and advanced oxidation process (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}/activated carbon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medellin-Castillo, Nahum A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. M. Nava No.6, San Luis de Potosi, 78290 (Mexico); Ocampo-Perez, Raul [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, 78290 (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain); Leyva-Ramos, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, 78290 (Mexico); Sanchez-Polo, Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain); Rivera-Utrilla, Jose, E-mail: jrivera@ugr.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain); Mendez-Diaz, Jose D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada (Spain)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the effectiveness of conventional technologies (adsorption on activated carbon, AC, and ozonation) and technologies based on advanced oxidation processes, AOPs, (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/AC, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to remove phthalates from aqueous solution (ultrapure water, surface water and wastewater). Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was chosen as a model pollutant because of its high water solubility (1080 mg/L at 293 K) and toxicity. The activated carbons showed a high adsorption capacity to adsorb DEP in aqueous solution (up to 858 mg/g), besides the adsorption mechanism of DEP on activated carbon is governed by dispersive interactions between {pi} electrons of its aromatic ring with {pi} electrons of the carbon graphene planes. The photodegration process showed that the pH solution does not significantly affect the degradation kinetics of DEP and the first-order kinetic model satisfactorily fitted the experimental data. It was observed that the rate of decomposition of DEP with the O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}/AC systems is faster than that with only O{sub 3}. The technologies based on AOPs (UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/AC) significantly improve the degradation of DEP compared to conventional technologies (O{sub 3}, UV). AC adsorption, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}/AC showed a high yield to remove DEP; however, the disadvantage of AC adsorption is its much longer time to reach maximum removal. The best system to treat water (ultrapure and natural) polluted with DEP is the O{sub 3}/AC one since it achieved the highest DEP degradation and TOC removal, as well as the lower water toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated carbons showed a high adsorption capacity (up to 858 mg/g) to remove DEP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH solution did not significantly affect the photodegradation kinetics of DEP. Black

  15. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  16. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite content in moulding sand reduced by 43% and replaced with modified dust waste, the mechanical properties, i.e. the compression and tensile strengths, examined on sand specimens have been improved by 10% and 13%, respectively, with no harm to other basic technological sand properties. At the same time, it was also possible to reduce by about 30% the emission rate of the main gaseous component from the BTEX group, i.e. benzene.

  17. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2015-04-20

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field.

  18. Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers as an useful measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez-Ruiz, G.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitation of oxidized triglyceride monomers and dimers is reported as a good measurement for early and advanced stages of oxidation. Applicability of this approach to follow-up oxidation was tested in samples of trilinolein and methyl linoleate stored at either room temperature or 60°C for different periods of time. Oxidized monomers, dimers and polymers were determined in 50 mg-samples by adding monostearin as internal standard and applying a combination of adsorption chromatography, using silica cartridges, followed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography. Additionally, peroxide values and tocopherol contents were measured. Results showed that a significant rise of dimeric compounds denoted the end of the induction period while oxidized monomers were the only group of compounds showing a progressive increase during the early stages of oxidation.

  19. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach.

  20. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: new concepts in multi-barrier treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, Sairam; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Amy, Gary

    2013-07-01

    Organic micropollutants (OMPs) represent a major constraint in drinking water supply. In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. PMID:23664475

  1. Hybridization of natural systems with advanced treatment processes for organic micropollutant removals: New concepts in multi-barrier treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Sudhakaran, Sairam

    2013-07-01

    In the past, emphasis has been on individual treatment processes comprising conventional treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration) followed by advanced treatment processes (adsorption, ion-exchange, oxidation, and membrane separation). With the depletion of water resources and high demand for power and chemical usage, efforts need to be made to judiciously use advanced treatment processes. There is a new interest in multiple barriers with synergies in which two coupled processes can function as a hybrid process. Within the context of this paper, the hybrid processes include a natural treatment process coupled with an advanced process. Pilot/full-scale studies have shown efficient removal of OMPs by these hybrid processes. With this hybridization, the usage of resources such as power and chemicals can be reduced. In this study, coupling/hybridization of aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) with oxidation (O3), advanced oxidation process which involves OH radicals (AOP), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption for OMP removal was studied. O3 or AOP as a pre-treatment and GAC, NF, RO, or UV/chlorination as a post-treatment to ARR was studied. NF can be replaced by RO for removal of OMPs since studies have shown similar performance of NF to RO for removal of many OMPs, thereby reducing costs and providing a more sustainable approach. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  3. Amorphous mixed-metal hydroxide nanostructures for advanced water oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Liu, X. Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec-1, while no deactivation is detected in the CV testing even up to 30 000 cycles, which suggests the promising application of these amorphous nanomaterials in electrochemical oxidation. Meanwhile, the distinct catalytic activities among these amorphous Ni-Fe hydroxide nanostructures prompts us to take notice of the composition of the alloy hydroxides/oxides when studying their catalytic properties, which opens an avenue for the rational design and controllable preparation of such amorphous nanomaterials as advanced OER electrocatalysts.The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec-1, while no deactivation is detected in the CV

  4. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  5. Advances and perspectives in catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons in liquid phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent advances in catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons, especially presents two strategies for activation of C-H bonds or molecular oxygen. Based on our own research results, the applications of the two methods in the oxidation of cyclohexane, toluene and ethyl benzene, etc. are introduced, and the perspectives of the two methods are also discussed.

  6. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  7. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao;

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  8. AbstractApplication of Fenton-like process using iron nano oxides for pyrene removal from contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    S. Jorfi; Rezaee, A.; N Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard; G.A Moheb-ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Because of problems dealing with bioremediation including being time consuming, low efficiency and toxicity to biota, application of advanced oxidation processes with higher efficiency and shorter remediation time have been considered for removal of hydrophobic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. A great interest has been directed to Fenton oxidation because of its simplicity and high oxidation potential. The objective of this study was to determine the Fenton-lik...

  9. Comprehensive Study of Lanthanum Aluminate High-Dielectric-Constant Gate Oxides for Advanced CMOS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Suzuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of the electrical and physical characteristics of Lanthanum Aluminate (LaAlO3 high-dielectric-constant gate oxides for advanced CMOS devices was performed. The most distinctive feature of LaAlO3 as compared with Hf-based high-k materials is the thermal stability at the interface with Si, which suppresses the formation of a low-permittivity Si oxide interfacial layer. Careful selection of the film deposition conditions has enabled successful deposition of an LaAlO3 gate dielectric film with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT of 0.31 nm. Direct contact with Si has been revealed to cause significant tensile strain to the Si in the interface region. The high stability of the effective work function with respect to the annealing conditions has been demonstrated through comparison with Hf-based dielectrics. It has also been shown that the effective work function can be tuned over a wide range by controlling the La/(La + Al atomic ratio. In addition, gate-first n-MOSFETs with ultrathin EOT that use sulfur-implanted Schottky source/drain technology have been fabricated using a low-temperature process.

  10. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. PMID:26580737

  11. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures.

  12. Processing effects on the nutritional advancement of probiotics and prebiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ananta, E.; Birkeland, S.-E.; Corcoran, B.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hinz, S.; Klijn, A.; Matto, J.; Mercernier, A.; Nilsson, U.; Nyman, M.; O’Sullivan, E; Parche, S; Rautonen, N.; Ross, R. Paul; Saarela, M.

    2004-01-01

    Investigates the processing effects on the nutritional advancement of probiotics and prebiotics. Efforts of health researchers to overcome difficulties that impact on the performance of functional foods; Importance of characterizing the interactions between probiotics and prebiotics in starter cultures or in functional foods prior to human consumption; Role of prebiotics on the viability and stability of probiotic cultures within food matrices during processing and storage.

  13. Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalija, Tatjana V

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.

  14. Oxidative processes in power plant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the chemical properties differences between thermal-oxidation and radioactive-oxidation in turbine oils in order to estimate the oils' Service Life. The oils were Turbine R type, provided by Repsol-YPF with only few additives such as: anti rust, antioxidant, anticorrosion and without viscosity index improvers. The oils were ISO 32 and ISO 68 grade -with viscosity index 95- and API (American Petroleum Institute) group I, due to its viscosity index (95), the percent of paraffinic component (0.03%). Different samples from the heavy water main pumps were collected with different service times and radiation fields during an Embalse NPP's outage. For comparison purposes oils from feedwater pumps systems that convey light water to the steam generators in the Turbine building -without radiation- were obtained. The properties studied by ASTM standards were: colour (visual inspection), Viscosity Index VI (ASTM D227/93), viscosity at 40 C degrees (ASTM D445/96) and Total Acid Number, TAN (ASTM D974-97). Oxidative degradation of base oils could be described by two successive mechanisms that allow the definition of two stages: Primary and Secondary Oxidation. Primary oxidation begins with the thermal generation of alkylation's reactions and acid products formation. Radiation damage operates by two mechanisms: scission and cross-linking. The first one generates free radicals of low molecular weight while the other one can build-up complex molecular networks with high or low solubility in the base oil. Moreover, radiation damage destroys additives molecules and generates colour centres different from oxidative colour modification. Due to scission and cross-linking alkyl group substitution in the aromatic rings are formed. Then, radiation acts as a precursor of Primary Oxidation. Both, thermal and radioactive, damage mechanisms can act simultaneously making the isolated analysis for each one very difficult. To manage it, a Relative Damage Index (RDI) has been

  15. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  16. Alzheimer's disease: Cerebrovascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and advanced clinical therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Marlatt; P.J. Lucassen; G. Perry; M.A. Smith; X. Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Many lines of independent research have provided convergent evidence regarding oxidative stress, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical studies spurred by these findings engage basic and clinical communities with tangible results regarding molecular targets and pat

  17. Advanced Oxidation Technologies/Photocatalytic Treatment of Wastewater.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusionsThe last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocatalysts, ne...

  18. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  19. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as high performance fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also discusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability

  20. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  1. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  2. Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiviral agent oseltamivir acid (OA, the active metabolite of Tamiflu®) may occur at high concentrations in wastewater during pandemic influenza events. To eliminate OA and its antiviral activity from wastewater, ozonation and advanced oxidation processes were investigated. For circumneutral pH, kinetic measurements yielded second-order rate constants of 1.7 ± 0.1 × 105 and 4.7 ± 0.2 × 109 M−1 s−1 for the reaction of OA with ozone and hydroxyl radical, respectively. During the degradation of OA by both oxidants, the antiviral activity of the treated aqueous solutions was measured by inhibition of neuraminidase activity of two different viral strains. A transient, moderate (two-fold) increase in antiviral activity was observed in solutions treated up to a level of 50% OA transformation, while for higher degrees of transformation the activity corresponded to that caused exclusively by OA. OA was efficiently removed by ozonation in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, suggesting that ozonation can be applied to remove OA from wastewater. - Highlights: ► Oseltamivir acid (OA) is oxidized by ozone and hydroxyl radical. ► Kinetics: We determined rate constants for the reaction with these oxidants. ► The specific activity of OA as neuraminidase inhibitor disappeared during oxidation. ► Ozonation and advanced oxidation can effectively remove OA from wastewaters. - Ozone and hydroxyl radical treatment processes can degrade aqueous oseltamivir acid and remove its antiviral activity.

  3. Amorphous mixed-metal hydroxide nanostructures for advanced water oxidation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y Q; Liu, X Y; Yang, G W

    2016-03-01

    The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec(-1), while no deactivation is detected in the CV testing even up to 30 000 cycles, which suggests the promising application of these amorphous nanomaterials in electrochemical oxidation. Meanwhile, the distinct catalytic activities among these amorphous Ni-Fe hydroxide nanostructures prompts us to take notice of the composition of the alloy hydroxides/oxides when studying their catalytic properties, which opens an avenue for the rational design and controllable preparation of such amorphous nanomaterials as advanced OER electrocatalysts. PMID:26864279

  4. Application of high magnetic fields in advanced materials processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye; YAN Luguang

    2006-01-01

    Recently, steady magnetic fields available from cryogen-free superconducting magnets open up new ways to process materials. In this paper,the main results obtained by using a high magnetic field to process several advanced materials are reviewed. These processed objects primarily include superconducting, magnetic, metallic and nanometer-scaled materials. It has been found that a high magnetic field can effectively align grains when fabricating the magnetic and non-magnetic materials and make inclusions migrate in a molten metal. The mechanism is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint of magnetization energy.

  5. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  6. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel

  7. Uranium Metal to Oxide Conversion by Air Oxidation –Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A

    2001-12-31

    Published technical information for the process of metal-to-oxide conversion of uranium components has been reviewed and summarized for the purpose of supporting critical decisions for new processes and facilities for the Y-12 National Security Complex. The science of uranium oxidation under low, intermediate, and high temperature conditions is reviewed. A process and system concept is outlined and process parameters identified for uranium oxide production rates. Recommendations for additional investigations to support a conceptual design of a new facility are outlined.

  8. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  9. Effect of longwall face advance rate on spontaneous heating process in the gob area - CFD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleslav Taraba; Zdenek Michalec [University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    A commercial CFD software programme, FLUENT, was used to study the oxidation process of coal in the mined-out longwall (gob) area. A three-dimensional, single-phase model with a continuously advancing longwall face has been developed. For the model, the gob longwall area was designed on the basis of the actual longwall panel operating in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Mines (OKD, Czech Republic). The behaviour of the coal to oxygen was modelled using the results arising mainly from the former laboratory-scale experiments with Czech bituminous coals. Basically, the technique of pulse flow calorimetry and measurements at a continuous airflow reactor were applied during the laboratory investigations. In the contribution, the main focus was to understand the effect of the longwall face advancing speed on the oxidation heat production as well as evolution of the gases in the gob area. Simultaneously, the effect of coal crushing in the mined-out area on the spontaneous heating process was examined. Numerical simulations confirmed the existence of a 'favourable' zone for the onset and development of the spontaneous heating process in the gob area. The location and the maximal temperature reached in the 'favourable' zone were found to be significantly affected by the advancing rate of the coalface. The slower the advancing rate is, the higher the maximal temperature and smaller the depth of the 'favourable' zone in the gob area are. When the rate drops to a certain 'critical' value, spontaneous heating turns to flammable combustion of the coal. The value of the 'critical' advancing rate was confirmed to increase if the grain size of the coal left in the gob decreases. Numerical examinations of carbon monoxide concentrations then proved that small incidents of spontaneous heating could occur in the gob area that need not be detected in the airflow of the longwall tail gate. 46 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  11. Effects of Gravity on Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Uday; Hicks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the fluid mechanics of supercritical water jets are being studied at NASA to develop a better understanding of flow behaviors for purposes of advancing supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technologies for applications in reduced gravity environments. These studies provide guidance for the development of future SCWO experiments in new experimental platforms that will extend the current operational range of the DECLIC (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization) Facility on board the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrodynamics of supercritical fluid jets is one of the basic unit processes of a SCWO reactor. These hydrodynamics are often complicated by significant changes in the thermo-physical properties that govern flow behavior (e.g., viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressibility, etc), particularly when fluids transition from sub-critical to supercritical conditions. Experiments were conducted in a 150 ml reactor cell under constant pressure with water injections at various flow rates. Flow configurations included supercritical jets injected into either sub-critical or supercritical water. Profound gravitational influences were observed, particularly in the transition to turbulence, for the flow conditions under study. These results will be presented and the parameters of the flow that control jet behavior will be examined and discussed.

  12. The muscle oxidative regulatory response to acute exercise is not impaired in less advanced COPD despite a decreased oxidative phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse G M Slot

    Full Text Available Already in an early disease stage, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are confronted with impaired skeletal muscle function and physical performance due to a loss of oxidative type I muscle fibers and oxidative capacity (i.e. oxidative phenotype; Oxphen. Physical activity is a well-known stimulus of muscle Oxphen and crucial for its maintenance. We hypothesized that a blunted response of Oxphen genes to an acute bout of exercise could contribute to decreased Oxphen in COPD. For this, 28 patients with less advanced COPD (age 65 ± 7 yrs, FEV1 59 ± 16% predicted and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed an incremental cycle ergometry test. The Oxphen response to exercise was determined by the measurement of gene expression levels of Oxphen markers in pre and 4h-post exercise quadriceps biopsies. Because exercise-induced hypoxia and oxidative stress may interfere with Oxphen response, oxygen saturation and oxidative stress markers were assessed as well. Regardless of oxygen desaturation and absolute exercise intensities, the Oxphen regulatory response to exercise was comparable between COPD patients and controls with no evidence of increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, the muscle Oxphen regulatory response to acute exercise is not blunted in less advanced COPD, regardless of exercise-induced hypoxia. Hence, this study provides further rationale for incorporation of exercise training as integrated part of disease management to prevent or slow down loss of muscle Oxphen and related functional impairment in COPD.

  13. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of synthetic CoS oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štrbac N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of kinetics and mechanism for synthetic a-CoS oxidation process are presented in this paper. Based on experimental data obtained using DTA and XRD analysis and constructed PSD diagrams for Co-S-O system, mechanism of synthetic a-CoS oxidation process is suggested. Characteristic kinetic parameters were obtained for experimental isothermal investigations of desulfurization degree using Sharp method.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  16. A review on the recent developments of solution processes for oxide thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article introduces the recent advances in the development of oxide semiconductor materials based on solution processes and their potential applications. In the early stage, thin film transistors based on oxide semiconductors fabricated by solution processes used to face critical problems such as high annealing temperatures (>400 °C) required to obtain reasonable film quality, and the relatively low field effect mobility (<5 cm2 V−1 s−1) compared to devices fabricated by conventional vacuum-based techniques. In order to overcome such hurdles, the proper selection of high mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor materials is addressed first. The latter involves the combination of high mobility compounds and multilayered active stacks. Ensuing overviews are provided on the selection of optimum precursors and alternative annealing methods that enable the growth of high quality films at relatively low process temperatures (<200 °C). Reasonably high field effect mobility values (∼10 cm2 V−1 s−1) could thus be obtained by optimizing the above process parameters. Finally, potential applications of solution processed oxide semiconductor devices are summarized, involving, for instance, flexible displays, biosensors, and non-volatile memory devices. As such, further innovations in the solution process methods of oxide semiconductor devices are anticipated to allow the realization of cost effective, large area electronics in the near future. (paper)

  17. From Laboratory Studies to the Field Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes: A Case Study of Technology Transfer from Switzerland to Burkina Faso on the Field of Photochemical Detoxification of Biorecalcitrant Chemical Pollutants in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kenfack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fenton and photo-Fenton detoxification of non-biodegradable chemical pollution in water was investigated under simulated UV light in the laboratory and under direct sunlight in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The laboratory experiments enable one to make a systematic diagnosis among three types of wastewaters, identifying a biorecalcitrant wastewater containing the Chloro-hydroxy-Pryridine (CHYPR. The application of the photo-Fenton process on effluent containing the CHYPR showed not to stimulate the generation of biodegradable by-products. Optimal conditions for detoxification of effluent containing the CHYPR were found at pH=2.8, [Fe2+]=5.2 mM, initial [H2O2]=768 mM, for an effluent concentrated at 2.2 mM of CHYPR. The application of the photochemical process on a field pilot solar photoreactor for the detoxification of water polluted with a pesticide made with Endosulfan showed very promising results, with potential biodegradable effluents obtained at the end of the photochemical treatment. Optimal conditions of the applied study were found at pH=3. [H2O2]=8 mM and [Fe2+]=0.18 mM for an initial concentration of 0.36 mM of Endosulfan.

  18. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  19. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  20. Novel Materials through Non-Hydrolytic Sol-Gel Processing: Negative Thermal Expansion Oxides and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Lind

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature methods have been applied to the synthesis of many advanced materials. Non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG processes offer an elegant route to stable and metastable phases at low temperatures. Excellent atomic level homogeneity gives access to polymorphs that are difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods. The NHSG approach is most commonly applied to the preparation of metal oxides, but can be easily extended to metal sulfides. Exploration of experimental variables allows control over product stoichiometry and crystal structure. This paper reviews the application of NHSG chemistry to the synthesis of negative thermal expansion oxides and selected metal sulfides.

  1. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using physicochemical, Fenton and Photo-Fenton oxidation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tony, Maha A.; Purcell, Patrick J.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with hydrocarbon oil. Three different oil-contaminated wastewaters were examined and compared: (i) a ‘real’ hydrocarbon wastewater collected from an oil refinery (Conoco-Phillips Whitegate refinery, County Cork, Ireland); (ii) a ‘real’ hydrocarbon wastewater collected from a car-wash facility located at a petroleum filling station; and (iii) a ‘syn...

  2. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  3. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  4. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  5. Developing Tutorials for Advanced Physics Students: Processes and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Baily, Charles; Pollock, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    When education researchers describe newly developed curricular materials, they typically concentrate on the research base behind their design, and the efficacy of the final products, but do not highlight the initial stages of creating the actual materials. With the aim of providing useful information for faculty engaged in similar projects, we describe here our development of a set of in-class tutorials for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics students, and discuss factors that influenced their initial design and refinement. Among the obstacles to be overcome was the investigation of student difficulties within the short time frame of our project, and devising ways for students to engage in meaningful activities on advanced-level topics within a single 50-minute class period. We argue for a process that leverages faculty experience and classroom observations, and present several guidelines for tutorial development and implementation in upper-division physics classrooms.

  6. Advanced fuel cycle on the basis of pyroelectrochemical process for irradiated fuel reprocessing and vibropacking technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For advanced nuclear fuel cycle in SSC RIAR there is developed the pyroelectrochemical process to reprocess irradiated fuel and produce granulated oxide fuel UO2, PuO2 or (U,Pu)O2 from chloride melts. The basic technological stage is the extraction of oxides as a crystal product with the methods either of the electrolysis (UO2 and UO2-PuO2) or of the precipitating crystalIization (PuO2). After treating the granulated fuel is ready for direct use to manufacture vibropacking fuel pins. Electrochemical model for (U,Pu)O2 coprecipitation is described. There are new processes being developed: electroprecipitation of mixed oxides - (U,Np)O2, (U,Pu,Np)O2, (U,Am)O2 and (U,Pu,Am)O2. Pyroelectrochemical production of mixed actinide oxides is used both for reprocessing spent fuel and for producing actinide fuel. Both the efficiency of pyroelectrochemical methods application for reprocessing nuclear fuel and of vibropac technology for plutonium recovery are estimated. (author)

  7. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  8. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M. [Delphi Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials.

  9. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  10. Process of forming catalytic surfaces for wet oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A wet oxidation process was developed for oxidizing waste materials, comprising dissolved ruthenium salt in a reactant feed stream containing the waste materials. The feed stream is introduced into a reactor, and the reactor contents are then raised to an elevated temperature to effect deposition of a catalytic surface of ruthenium black on the interior walls of the reactor. The feed stream is then maintained in the reactor for a period of time sufficient to effect at least partial oxidation of the waste materials.

  11. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  12. Advanced process control with design-based metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Hong, Jongkyun; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    K1 factor for development and mass-production of memory devices has been decreased down to below 0.30 in recent years. Process technology has responded with extreme resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and much more complex OPC technologies than before. ArF immersion lithography is expected to remain the major patterning technology through under 35 nm node, where the degree of process difficulties and the sensitivity to process variations grow even higher. So, Design for manufacturing (DFM) is proposed to lower the degree of process difficulties and advanced process control (APC) is required to reduce the process variations. However, both DFM and APC need much feed-back from the wafer side such as hot spot inspection results and total CDU measurements at the lot, wafer, field and die level. In this work, we discuss a new design based metrology which can compare SEM image with CAD data and measure the whole CD deviations from the original layouts in a full die. It can provide the full information of hot spots and the whole CD distribution diagram of various transistors in peripheral regions as well as cell layout. So, it is possible to analyze the root cause of the CD distribution of some specific transistors or cell layout, such as OPC error, mask CDU, lens aberrations or etch process variation and so on. The applications of this new inspection tool will be introduced and APC using the analysis result will be presented in detail.

  13. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Valladares, M.R.S. de [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  14. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. PMID:26949072

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories' operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment

  17. Development of an advanced bond coat for solid oxide fuel cell interconnector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, An-Chou; Chen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chien-Kuo; Shong, Wei-Ja

    2015-11-01

    An advanced bond coat has been developed for solid oxide fuel cell interconnector applications; a low thermal expansion superalloy has been selected as the substrate, and the newly developed bond coat is applied between the substrate and the LSM top coat. The bond coat composition is designed to be near thermodynamic equilibrium with the substrate to minimize interdiffusion with the substrate while providing oxidation protection for the substrate. The bond coat exhibits good oxidation resistance, a low area specific resistance, and a low thermal expansion coefficient at 800 °C; experimental results indicate that interdiffusion between the bond coat and the substrate can be hindered.

  18. Use of advanced oxidation processes for removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    to determine the effect of the modification of the UV system on its original purpose. The degradation experiments were carried out at pilot scale in the laboratory, and then compared to data collected at the WWTP. TiO2 was found to improve the rate of degradation of EE2 by 66 % compared to the photolytic...... degradation with UVC light alone. It was as such a significant improvement. However, even with TiO2 coated surfaces, a relative large amount of energy is required to degrade EE2. By assuming the UV system in Vejle to be operating at maximum capacity, a photocatalytic system would be capable of removing...... between 1 and 5 % of the EE2 concentration within the measured flow regime. Coated TiO2 surfaces were found to reduce the disinfection efficiency compared to pure UV light. This was assumed to be because of differences in the disinfection mechanisms. Where UV light directly affects the DNA...

  19. Removal of malathion from various waters by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of malathion was investigated under various conditions, including ultrasound (US) irradiation, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and the combination of US/UV, UV/ZnO, UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and US/UV/ZnO/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. In addition, the effect of the operational parameters, such as the initial concentration of the catalyst, the initial malathion concentration, the initial salt concentration (NaHCO/sub 3/ and Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), and pH, were studied. Analyses were performed by a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy instrument. The k values were in the following order: US/UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2//ZnO > US/UV > UV/ZnO> UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ > UV > US. ZnO concentration of 100 mg/l, malathion initial concentration of 200 micro g/l, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentration of 30 mg/l, pH of 9, and irradiation time of 105 min were the optimum conditions for degrading malathion by the US/UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2//ZnO system. Additionally, the optimized parameters were also tested for the treatment of an actual water sample containing the pesticide. As a result, the efficiency of the US/UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ZnO system was higher in the distilled water sample than in the actual water sample. (author)

  20. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  1. Surface processing to improve the fatigue resistance of advanced bar steels for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Matlock

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of new steels and processing techniques, there have been corresponding advances in the fatigue performance of automotive components. These advances have led to increased component life and smaller power transfer systems. New processing approaches to enhance the fatigue performance of steels are reviewed with an emphasis on carburizing and deep rolling. Selected examples are presented to illustrate the importance of the base steel properties on the final performance of surface modified materials. Results on carburized gear steels illustrate the dependence of the fatigue behavior on carburizing process control (gas and vacuum carburizing, alloy additions and microstructure. The importance of retained austenite content, case and core grain size as controlled by processing and microalloy additions, extent of intergranular oxidation, and the residual stress profile on fatigue performance is also illustrated. Specific recent results on the use of microalloying elements (e.g. Nb and process history control to limit austenite grain growth at the higher carburizing temperatures associated with vacuum carburizing are highlighted. For crankshaft applications, deep rolling is highlighted, a process to mechanically work fillet surfaces to improve fatigue resistance. The influence of the deformation behavior of the substrate, as characterized by standard tensile and compression tests, on the ability to create desired surface properties and residual stress profiles will be illustrated with data on several new steels of current and future interest for crankshaft applications.

  2. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  3. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  4. Differential oxidative status and immune characterization of the early and advanced stages of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Freitas, L F; De Rossi, T; Campos, F C; Simão, A N Colado; Barbosa, D S; Pinge-Filho, P; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the malignant neoplasia with the highest incidence in women worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation have been indicated as major mediators during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Human studies have not considered the complexity of tumor biology during the stages of cancer advance, limiting their clinical application. The purpose of this study was to characterize systemic oxidative stress and immune response parameters in early (ED; TNM I and II) and advanced disease (AD; TNM III and IV) of patients diagnosed with infiltrative ductal carcinoma breast cancer. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated by plasmatic lipoperoxidation, carbonyl content, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide levels (NO), total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities and GSH levels. Immune evaluation was determined by TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-10 levels and leukocytes oxidative burst evaluation by chemiluminescence. Tissue damage analysis included heart (total CK and CKMB), liver (AST, ALT, GGT), and renal (creatinine, urea, and uric acid) plasmatic markers. C-reactive protein (CRP) and iron metabolism were also evaluated. Analysis of the results verified different oxidative stress statuses occur at distinct cancer stages. ED was characterized by reduction in catalase, 8-isoprostanes, and GSH levels, with enhanced lipid peroxidation and TBARS levels. AD exhibited more pronounced oxidative status, with reduction in catalase activity and TRAP, intense lipid peroxidation and high levels of NO, TBARs, and carbonyl content. ED patients presented a Th2 immune pattern, while AD exhibited Th1 status. CRP levels and ferritin were increased in both stages of disease. Leukocytes burst impairment was observed in both the groups. Plasma iron levels were significantly elevated in AD. The data obtained indicated that oxidative stress enhancement and immune response impairment may be necessary to ensure

  5. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for γ-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration

  6. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  7. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  8. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  9. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  10. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... the structure of the receiver with the hope that the resulting heuristic architecture will exhibit the desired behavior and performance. On the other hand, one can employ analytical frameworks to pose the problem as the optimization of a global objective function subject to certain constraints. This work...... apply the combined message-passing algorithm to the probabilistic model of a MIMO-OFDM system; from the general derivation of the messages in the model, several instances of receiver structures with varying degrees of computational complexity and performance are obtained. We also explore...

  11. Study on process basic requirements of experimental facility of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced spent fuel management process, which was proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel, is under research and development. Hot cell facilities of α-γ type and inert atmosphere are required essentially for safe hot test and verification of this process. In this study, design basic data are established, and these data include process flow, process condition and yields, mass and radioactivity balance of radionuclides, process safety considerations, etc. And also, these data will be utilized for basic and detail design of hot cell facility, secured conservative safety and effective operability

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  13. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retreival And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated since it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans and methods. WRPS and the DOE are therefore developing, testing, and deploying technologies to ensure that they can meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  14. Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

    1999-11-03

    Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it

  15. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND VASCULAR DAMAGE IN HYPOXIA PROCESSES. MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA AS BIOMARKER FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñiz P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the levels oxidative stress biomarkers are related with different diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular, renal, aging, etc. One of these biomarkers is the malondialdehyde (MDA generated as resulted of the process of lipid peroxidation. This biomarker is increased under conditions of the oxidative stress. Their levels, have been frequently used to measure plasma oxidative damage to lipids by their atherogenic potential. Its half-life high and their reactivity allows it to act both inside and outside of cells and interaction with proteins and DNA involve their role in different pathophysiological processes. This paper presents an analysis of the use of MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress and its implications associated pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases ago.

  16. pH effect on decolorization of raw textile wastewater polluted with reactive dyes by advanced oxidation with uv/h2o2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Rimeika, M.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of the advanced oxidation process (UV/H2O2) in decolorizing real textile wastewater polluted with commercial reactive dyes - Reactive Yellow 84 and Reactive Red 141 was investigated. All the experiments were performed in a lab-scale reactor with the original high pH of the wastewat

  17. Technology Summary Advancing Tank Waste Retrieval And Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated, developed, and deployed by WRPS to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Transformational technologies are needed to complete Hanford tank waste retrieval and treatment by 12/31/2047. Hanford's underground waste storage tanks hold approximately 57 million gallons of radiochemical waste from nuclear defense production - more tank waste than any other site in the United States. In addition, the waste is uniquely complicated because it contains constituents from at least six major radiochemical processes and several lesser processes. It is intermixed and complexed more than any other waste collection known to exist in the world. The multi-faceted nature of Hanford's tank waste means that legally binding agreements in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement) and between the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may not be met using current vitrification schedules, plans, and methods. WRPS and the DOE are developing, testing, and deploying technologies to meet the necessary commitments and complete the DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission within environmentally acceptable requirements. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) identifies the environmental management technology needs and the activities necessary to address them. The U.S. Congress then funds these activities through EM or the DOE field offices. Finally, an array of entities that include DOE site prime contractors and

  18. Iron-oxidation processes in an electroflocculation (electrocoagulation) cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Moshe Ben, E-mail: mosheinspain@hotmail.com [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Calmano, Wolfgang [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany); Adin, Avner [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2009-11-15

    The processes of iron oxidation in an electroflocculation cell were investigated for a pH range of 5-9 and electric currents of 0.05-0.4 A (equivalent current densities of 8.6-69 A/m{sup 2}). At all pH values and electric currents investigated, it was demonstrated and proven that for all practical purposes, the form of iron that dissolves from the anode is Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous). The difference between the amount of theoretical dissolution as calculated by Faraday's law and the amount of observed dissolved iron ions may indicate two phenomena in electrochemical cells. The first is possible dissolution of the anode even without the operation of an electric current; this led to higher theoretical dissolution rates at lower pH. The second is the participation of some of the electrons of the electric current in reactions other than anode dissolution which led to lower theoretical dissolution rates at higher pH. Those other reactions did not lead to an increase in the local oxidation saturation level near the anode and did not affect iron-oxidation rates in the electroflocculation processes. The oxidation rates of the dissolved Fe{sup 2+} (ferrous) to Fe{sup 3+} (ferric) ions in electroflocculation processes were strongly dependent on the pH and were similar to the known oxidation rates of iron in non-electrochemical cells.

  19. Oxidative status evaluation in elite karate athletes during training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress is a state of disturbed balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS on the one hand, and antioxidative defense on the other. As a result of oxidative stress we have irreversible changes in cell function leading to pathological tissue changes, development of many diseases and fast aging process. Increased consumption of oxygen during exercise could be the cause of oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to establish oxidative status of elite karate athletes in the state of rest and after the loading, monitoring the parameters of oxidative stress and components of antioxidative defense in a treaining process. Methods. During training process, a group of 30 elite karate athletes was included in the study of prevalence. They were males, from 16 to 30 years of age. The examination was conducted both in resting condition and after the loading. Oxidative status was determined by the level of superoxide anion radical (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as prooxidants, and enzymes of the antioxidant defanse system: superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Results. There was a homogenous group of young athletes of normal weight and fats percentage. A significant decrease of O·2- after the load was founded, while the levels of H2O2 was significantly increased. Activity of SOD was not significantly changed after exsercise while that of CAT was significantly increased. Conclusion. In the long run a programmed physical exercise does not lead to oxidative stress, but an excessive physical load may cause its occurrence.

  20. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier [Applied Materials Inc., 974 E. Arques Avenue, M/S 81312, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States); CNRS-LTM, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-07-15

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  1. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  2. Integrated fab process for metal oxide EUV photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, Andrew; Anderson, Jeremy T.; Clark, Benjamin L.; De Schepper, Peter; Edson, Joseph; Greer, Michael; Jiang, Kai; Kocsis, Michael; Meyers, Stephen T.; Stowers, Jason K.; Telecky, Alan J.; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2015-03-01

    Inpria is developing directly patternable, metal oxide hardmasks as robust, high-resolution photoresists for EUV lithography. Targeted formulations have achieved 13nm half-pitch at 35 mJ/cm2 on an ASML's NXE:3300B scanner. Inpria's second-generation materials have an absorbance of 20/μm, thereby enabling an equivalent photon shot noise compared to conventional resists at a dose lower by a factor of 4X. These photoresists have ~40:1 etch selectivity into a typical carbon underlayer, so ultrathin 20nm films are possible, mitigating pattern collapse. In addition to lithographic performance, we review progress in parallel advances required to enable the transition from lab to fab for such a metal oxide photoresist. This includes considerations and data related to: solvent compatibility, metals cross-contamination, coat uniformity, stability, outgassing, and rework.

  3. Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods for Identifying Oxidized Proteins in Disease: Advances and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Verrastro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many inflammatory diseases have an oxidative aetiology, which leads to oxidative damage to biomolecules, including proteins. It is now increasingly recognized that oxidative post-translational modifications (oxPTMs of proteins affect cell signalling and behaviour, and can contribute to pathology. Moreover, oxidized proteins have potential as biomarkers for inflammatory diseases. Although many assays for generic protein oxidation and breakdown products of protein oxidation are available, only advanced tandem mass spectrometry approaches have the power to localize specific oxPTMs in identified proteins. While much work has been carried out using untargeted or discovery mass spectrometry approaches, identification of oxPTMs in disease has benefitted from the development of sophisticated targeted or semi-targeted scanning routines, combined with chemical labeling and enrichment approaches. Nevertheless, many potential pitfalls exist which can result in incorrect identifications. This review explains the limitations, advantages and challenges of all of these approaches to detecting oxidatively modified proteins, and provides an update on recent literature in which they have been used to detect and quantify protein oxidation in disease.

  4. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions. PMID:16719117

  5. Solution processable broadband transparent mixed metal oxide nanofilm optical coatings via substrate diffusion doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Colm; Aureau, Damien; Collins, Gillian; O'Hanlon, Sally; Etcheberry, Arnaud; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-12-21

    Devices composed of transparent materials, particularly those utilizing metal oxides, are of significant interest due to increased demand from industry for higher fidelity transparent thin film transistors, photovoltaics and a myriad of other optoelectronic devices and optics that require more cost-effective and simplified processing techniques for functional oxides and coatings. Here, we report a facile solution processed technique for the formation of a transparent thin film through an inter-diffusion process involving substrate dopant species at a range of low annealing temperatures compatible with processing conditions required by many state-of-the-art devices. The inter-diffusion process facilitates the movement of Si, Na and O species from the substrate into the as-deposited vanadium oxide thin film forming a composite fully transparent V0.0352O0.547Si0.4078Na0.01. Thin film X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy show the crystalline component of the structure to be α-NaVO3 within a glassy matrix. This optical coating exhibits high broadband transparency, exceeding 90-97% absolute transmission across the UV-to-NIR spectral range, while having low roughness and free of surface defects and pinholes. The production of transparent films for advanced optoelectronic devices, optical coatings, and low- or high-k oxides is important for planar or complex shaped optics or surfaces. It provides opportunities for doping metal oxides to ternary, quaternary or other mixed metal oxides on glass, encapsulants or other substrates that facilitate diffusional movement of dopant species. PMID:26575987

  6. A PROCESS FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing an alcohol from a gaseous hydrocarbon, e.g. a lower alkane such as methane, via oxidative reaction of the hydrocarbon in a concentrated sulfuric acid medium in the presence of a catalyst employs an added catalyst comprising a substance selected from iodine, iodine compounds...

  7. Study on the process of Fe (III) oxide fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophronov, V. L.; Kalaev, M. E.; Makaseev, Yu N.; Sachkov, V. I.; Verkhoturova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The article deals with a fundamentally new fluoride technology for obtaining fluoride materials, provides data on the kinetics of the process of fluorination of Fe oxide with fluorine, fluoride and ammonium bifluoride. The physical and chemical properties of obtained fluorides are shown: a study of the elemental composition, grain-size composition using the method of scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction.

  8. Simultaneous Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane and Ammonium Oxidation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesken, F.A.; Sánchez. J.; Van Alen, T.A.; Sanabria, J.; Op den Camp, H.J.; Jetten, M.S.; Kartal, B.

    2011-01-01

    itrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (n-damo) and ammonium (anammox) are two recently discovered processes in the nitrogen cycle that are catalyzed by n-damo bacteria, including "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," and anammox bacteria, respectively. The feasibility of coculturing anamm

  9. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    Demands for a better drinking water quality, especially concerning arsenic, a compound with many adverse health effects, put a pressure on the utilities to ensure the best treatment technologies that meet nowadays and possible future quality standards. The aim of this paper is to introduce...... an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...

  10. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  11. Process and Equipment for Nitrogen Oxide Waste Conversion to Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor); Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention describes a process for converting vapor streams from sources containing at least one nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent therein to a liquid fertilizer composition comprising the steps of: (1) directing a vapor stream containing at least nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent to a first contact zone; (2) contacting said vapor stream with water to form nitrogen oxide(s) from said at least one nitrogen- containing oxidizing agent; (3) directing said acid(s) as a second stream to a second contact zone; (4) exposing said second stream to hydrogen peroxide which is present within said second contact zone in a relative amount of at least 0.1% by weight of said second stream within said second contact zone to convert at least some of any nitrogen oxide species or ions other than in the nitrite form present within said second stream to nitrate ion; (5) sampling said stream within said second contact zone to determine the relative amount of hydrogen peroxide within said second contact zone; (6) adding hydrogen peroxide to said second contact zone when a level on hydrogen peroxide less than 0.1% by weight in said second stream is determined by said sampling; (7) adding a solution comprising potassium hydroxide to said second stream to maintain a pH between 6.0 and 11.0 within said second stream within said second contact zone to form a solution of potassium nitrate; and (8) removing sais solution of potassium nitrate from said second contact zone.

  12. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  13. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination.

  14. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. PMID:24945978

  15. Management of high level radioactive aqueous effluents in advanced partitioning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, Patrick; Sans, Daniele; Lartigaud, Cathy; Bisel, Isabelle [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, BP 17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The context of this study is the development of management strategies for the high level radioactive aqueous effluents generated by advanced minor actinides partitioning processes. In the present nuclear reprocessing plants, high level liquid wastes are concentrated via successive evaporations, with or without de-nitration, to reach the inlet specifications of the downstream processing steps. In contrast to the PUREX process, effluents from advanced actinides partitioning processes contain large amounts of organic compounds (complexing agents, buffers or reducing reagents), which could disrupt concentration operations. Thus, in parallel with new partitioning process development, the compatibility of usual concentration operations with the high level liquid waste issued from them are investigated, and, if necessary, additional treatments to eliminate remaining organic compounds are reviewed. The behaviour of each reagent and related identified by-products is studied in laboratory-scale devices representative of industrial operating conditions. Final concentrated solutions (actinide or fission solutions) and the resulting distillates (i.e. decontaminated effluents) are checked in terms of compatibility with the downstream specifications. Process implementation and safety aspects are also evaluated. Kinetic and thermodynamic constants are measured. After the collection of these data, the effectiveness of the overall continuous process of the effluent treatment (combination of elementary operations) is evaluated through semi-empirical models which are also able to optimize the conditions for implementation. First results indicate that nitric acid streams containing complexing agents (oxalic acid, HEDTA, DTPA) will be managed by usual concentration processes, while buffered solutions ( containing glycolic, citric or malonic acid) will require additional treatments to lower organic carbon concentration. Oxidation process by hydrogen peroxide at boiling temperature has

  16. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  17. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  18. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  19. Advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloys for LWR fuel cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Zinkle, S. J.; Snead, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    Application of advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as light water reactor fuel cladding is proposed. The motivations are based on specific limitations associated with zirconium alloys, currently used as fuel cladding, under design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident scenarios. Using a simplified methodology, gains in safety margins under severe accidents upon transition to advanced oxidation-resistant iron alloys as fuel cladding are showcased. Oxidation behavior, mechanical properties, and irradiation effects of advanced iron alloys are briefly reviewed and compared to zirconium alloys as well as historic austenitic stainless steel cladding materials. Neutronic characteristics of iron-alloy-clad fuel bundles are determined and fed into a simple economic model to estimate the impact on nuclear electricity production cost. Prior experience with steel cladding is combined with the current understanding of the mechanical properties and irradiation behavior of advanced iron alloys to identify a combination of cladding thickness reduction and fuel enrichment increase (∼0.5%) as an efficient route to offset any penalties in cycle length, due to higher neutron absorption in the iron alloy cladding, with modest impact on the economics.

  20. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.