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Sample records for advanced ovarian developmental

  1. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the experience at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer among patients in stages IIIC and IV. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study (case series type) of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in stages IIIC and IV, treated at the NCI from January 1, 2003 to December 31,2006, who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes are described. Results: Seventeen patients who fulfilled the above mentioned criteria were selected. Once neoadjuvant chemotherapy ended, 5 patients (29.4%) achieved complete or partial clinical response; 4 (23.8%) remained in stable condition, and 8 (47.6%) showed signs of progressive illness. Interval debulking surgery was performed on objective response patients. Maximum cytoreduction was achieved in 5 patients (100%); first relapse was reported at month 18 of follow-up; 2 disease-free survivors were identified in December, 2007; 8 (49%) reported some degree of non-severe chemotherapy-related toxicity. No mortality was related to chemotherapy, no post surgical complications were observed and no patient required advanced support management. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by optimal interval debulking surgery among selected patients, can be an alternative treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer among women with irresecability or the critically ill. Further studies with improved design are required to confirm these findings.

  2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A survival study

    OpenAIRE

    Upasana Baruah; Debabrata Barmon; Amal Chandra Kataki; Pankaj Deka; Munlima Hazarika; Bhargab J Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with advanced ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis in spite of the best possible care. Primary debulking surgery has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer; however, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates as shown in various studies. Several studies have discussed the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the survival statistics of the patients who have been managed with...

  3. Profile of olaparib in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Dana M; Patel, Shreya; Shields, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Olaparib is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that received accelerated approval from the US Food and Drug Administration as monotherapy for patients with germline BRCA mutations and ovarian cancer treated with three or more prior lines of chemotherapy. This article summarizes the mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition, therapeutic profile and uses of olaparib, and current and ongoing literature pertaining to olaparib in advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:27186080

  4. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal testosterone treatment and postnatal obesity on ovarian follicular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    V. Padmanabhan; Smith, P.; Veiga-Lopez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess leads to reproductive dysfunctions in sheep with obesity exaggerating such defects. Developmental studies found ovarian reserve is similar in control and prenatal T sheep at fetal day 140, with prenatal T females showing increased follicular recruitment and persistence at 10 months of age (postpubertal). This study tested if prenatal T sheep show accelerated depletion prepubertally and if depletion of ovarian reserve would explain loss of cyclicity in prenatal...

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients with advanced ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis in spite of the best possible care. Primary debulking surgery has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer; however, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates as shown in various studies. Several studies have discussed the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the survival statistics of the patients who have been managed with interval debulking surgery (IDS from January 2007 to December 2009. Materials and Methods: During the period from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective analysis of 104 patients who underwent IDS for stage IIIC or IV advanced epithelial ovarian cancer at our institute were selected for the study. IDS was attempted after three to five courses of chemotherapy with paclitaxal (175 mg/m 2 and carboplatin (5-6 of area under curve. Overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS were compared with results of primary debulking study from existing literature. OS and PFS rates were estimated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Results were statistically analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: The median OS was 26 months and the median PFS was 18 months. In multivariate analysis it was found that both OS and PFS was affected by the stage, and extent of debulking. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgical cytoreduction is a promising treatment strategy for the management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancers.

  6. Genomic aberrations relate early and advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zaal; W.J. Peyrot (Wouter ); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els); M.E.L. van der Burg (Maria); J.H.W. Veerbeek (Jan ); J.B. Trimbos; I. Cadron (Isabelle); P.J. van Diest (Paul); W.N. Wieringen (Wessel); O. Krijgsman (Oscar); G.A. Meijer (Gerrit); J.M.J. Piek (Jurgen ); P.J. Timmers (Petra); I. Vergote (Ignace); R.H.M. Verheijen (René); B. Ylstra (Bauke); R.P. Zweemer (Ronald )

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Because of the distinct clinical presentation of early and advanced stage ovarian cancer, we aim to clarify whether these disease entities are solely separated by time of diagnosis or whether they arise from distinct molecular events. Methods Sixteen early and sixteen advanced

  7. Quality of pathology reports for advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleye, Leen; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Kristensen, Gunnar B;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of surgical pathology reports of advanced stage ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. This quality assurance project was performed within the EORTC-GCG 55971/NCIC-CTG OV13 study comparing primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy with neoadjuvant...

  8. Quality of pathology reports for advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleye, Leen; Ottevanger, Petronella B; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Ehlen, Tom; Johnson, Nick; van der Burg, Maria E L; Reed, Nick S; Verheijen, René H M; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; Mosgaard, Berit; Seoane, Jose Miguel; van der Velden, Jacobus; Lotocki, Robert; van der Graaf, Winette; Penninckx, Björn; Coens, Corneel; Stuart, Gavin; Vergote, Ignace

    2011-01-01

    To assess the quality of surgical pathology reports of advanced stage ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer. This quality assurance project was performed within the EORTC-GCG 55971/NCIC-CTG OV13 study comparing primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy with neoadjuvant ch...

  9. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus primary surgery in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elshamy Maged R; Setit Ahmed E; Elshafei Mohamed A; Hegazi Refaat AF; Hegazy Mohamed AF; Eltatoongy Mohamed; Halim Amal AF

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with advanced ovarian cancer should be treated by radical debulking surgery aiming at complete tumor resection. Unfortunately about 70% of the patients present with advanced disease, when optimal debulking can not be obtained, and therefore these patients gain little benefit from surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach in such cases. In this study, we report our results with primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemothe...

  10. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...

  11. Study of consolidation chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ning-hai; Huang Hui-fang; Pan Lin-ya; Shen Keng; Wu Ming; Yang Jia-xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate the role of consolidation chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma.Methods: 50 patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma treated in our hospital during the period from March 2000 to October 2005 were enrolled in this study.All patients had achieved clinical complete remission by means of standard treatments, and were randomly divided into consolidation chemotherapy group and control group.Relapse rate, and disease-free survival(DFS) time were analyzed in both groups.Results: 24 patients were assigned in consolidation chemotherapy group, and 26 patients in control group.Tumor relapse interval in consolidation group was (26.5±7.4) months, vs.(16.8±7.0) months in control group respectively, P=0.001.Time to relapse(TTR) in consolidation group was (19.2±6.8) months, vs.(10.0±6.9)months in control group, P=0.002.Analysis of DFS time and overall survival time, Log Rank test:P=0.042 and P= 0.062, respectively.Conclusions: Consolidation chemotherapy could be the relevant factor that postpones tumor relapse interval and prolongs DFS time in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients who had achived chlinical complete remission.But so far the statistic result of our clinical study is beyond the conclusion that consolidation chemotherapy can decrease relapse rate or increase survival rate.Muhicenter randomized clinical trial should be performed to confirm the role of consolidation chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  12. Can advanced-stage ovarian cancer be cured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narod, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 20% of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer survive beyond 12 years after treatment and are effectively cured. Initial therapy for ovarian cancer comprises surgery and chemotherapy, and is given with the goal of eradicating as many cancer cells as possible. Indeed, the three phases of therapy are as follows: debulking surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible, preferably to a state of no visible residual disease; chemotherapy to eradicate any microscopic disease that remains present after surgery; and second-line or maintenance therapy, which is given to delay disease progression among patients with tumour recurrence. If no cancer cells remain after initial therapy is completed, a cure is expected. By contrast, if residual cancer cells are present after initial treatment, then disease recurrence is likely. Thus, the probability of cure is contingent on the combination of surgery and chemotherapy effectively eliminating all cancer cells. In this Perspectives article, I present the case that the probability of achieving a cancer-free state is maximized through a combination of maximal debulking surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. I discuss the evidence indicating that by taking this approach, cures could be achieved in up to 50% of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. PMID:26787282

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus primary surgery in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamy Maged R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with advanced ovarian cancer should be treated by radical debulking surgery aiming at complete tumor resection. Unfortunately about 70% of the patients present with advanced disease, when optimal debulking can not be obtained, and therefore these patients gain little benefit from surgery. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach in such cases. In this study, we report our results with primary surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy as treatment modalities in the specific indication of operable patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma (no medical contraindication to debulking surgery. Patients and methods A total of 59 patients with stage III or IV epithelial ovarian carcinomas were evaluated between 1998 and 2003. All patients were submitted to surgical exploration aiming to evaluate tumor resectability. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given (in 27 patients where optimal cytoreduction was not feasible. Conversely primary debulking surgery was performed when we considered that optimal cytoreduction could be achieved by the standard surgery (32 patients. Results Optimal cytoreduction was higher in the NACT group (72.2% than the conventional group (62.4%, though not statistically significant (P = 0.5. More important was the finding that parameters of surgical aggressiveness (blood loss rates, ICU stay and total hospital stay were significantly lower in NACT group than the conventional group. The median overall survival time was 28 months in the conventional group and 25 months in NACT group with a P value of 0.5. The median disease free survival was 19 months in the conventional group and 21 months in NACT group (P = 0.4. In multivariate analysis, the pathologic type and degree of debulking were found to affect the disease free survival significantly. Overall survival was not affected by any of the study parameters. Conclusion Primary chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery

  14. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  15. Late results of chemotherapy of the advanced ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 108 patients with advanced ovarian cancer treated by postoperative combined chemotherapy with cisplatin, 13% survived 5 years, 11% with NED and 1.8% with signs of the disease. 67.6% patients responded to treatment in 33.3% of them it was CR and in 34.3% - PR. There was a close relationship between the type of response and survival, as 2 years survived 63.8% patients with CR, 31.4% with PR and only 5.4% of non-responders. Ten out of 36 patients with CR survived 5 years with NED, but out of 4 patients with PR 2 patients survived without symptoms and 2 with signs of the disease. During further follow-up in 4 out of 12 patients who survived 5 years with NED progression of cancer was diagnosed. (author)

  16. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  17. Advances in circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng; Jia-Yu Liu; Feng-Ju Song; Ke-Xin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors. More than 70%of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage. The 5-year survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer is less than 30%because of the lack of effective biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized treatment. MicroRNA (miR) is a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression. Many studies on tissue miR in ovarian cancer have been carried out and show great potential in clinical practice. However, tissue samples are not easily available because sampling causes injury. Researchers have started to focus on plasma/serum miR, assuming that blood samples may replace tissue samples in miR research in the future. Plasma/serum miR research is still in its early stages. Studies on its function in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer have achieved some progress, but plasma/serum miR profiling for prognosis and personalized treatment of ovarian cancer remains unknown. A thorough understanding of the function of plasma/serum miR in ovarian cancer will facilitate early diagnosis and improve treatment for ovarian cancer.

  18. Advances in circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors. More than 70% of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage. The 5-year survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer is less than 30% because of the lack of effective biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized treatment. MicroRNA (miR) is a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression. Many studies on tissue miR in ovarian cancer have been carried out and show great potential in clinical practice. However, tissue samples are not easily available because sampling causes injury. Researchers have started to focus on plasma/serum miR, assuming that blood samples may replace tissue samples in miR research in the future. Plasma/serum miR research is still in its early stages. Studies on its function in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer have achieved some progress, but plasma/serum miR profiling for prognosis and personalized treatment of ovarian cancer remains unknown. A thorough understanding of the function of plasma/serum miR in ovarian cancer will facilitate early diagnosis and improve treatment for ovarian cancer

  19. Sociodemographic disparities in advanced ovarian cancer survival and adherence to treatment guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, RE; Chang, J.; Ziogas, A.; Campos, B.; Chavez, LR; Anton-Culver, H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: To estimate whether race or ethnic and socioeconomic strata are independently associated with advanced-stage ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network treatment guidelines. Methods: The design was a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients with stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian ca...

  20. Recent Technological Advances in Using Mouse Models to Study Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    House, Carrie Danielle; Hernandez, Lidia; Annunziata, Christina Messineo

    2014-01-01

    Serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer in the United States with disease recurrence being the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of SEOC, the survival rate for women with this disease has remained relatively unchanged in the last two decades. Preclinical mouse models of ovarian cancer, including xenograft, syngeneic, and genetically engineered ...

  1. Whole abdominal irradiation following chemotherapy in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and sixteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma, who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery, received 6-11 courses of chemotherapy by cis-platin (50 mg/m2) and adriamycin (50 mg/m2) every 21 days. This was followed by second look laparotomy in 66 patients with no clinical evidence of disease. Consolidation abdominal irradiation was administered to 43 patients. Two techniques of irradiation were employed: between 1980-1983 whole abdominal irradiation was used and patients were to receive 3000 cGy in 4 weeks (Schedule I). Due to myelosuppression only 13 of 26 patients (50%) completed the planned dose of radiation. Between 1983-1985 the target volume was divided into upper and lower parts. First, the lower abdomen received 3000 cGy in 3 weeks, and then the upper abdomen received the same dose (Schedule II). Sixteen of seventeen patients (94%) thus treated, completed the planned dose of radiation. The actuarial survival for all 116 patients was 28% of 5 years. Irradiated patients with negative second look laparotomy had a survival probability of 100% at 24 months. Irradiated patients with microscopic disease at second look operation had an actuarial 5-year survival of 66%. Patients with minimal residual disease at second look laparotomy, receiving consolidation abdominal irradiation, had an actuarial survival of 5% only at 36 months. It is concluded that consolidation radiotherapy is effective in patients with negative or microscopic residual disease at second-look laparotomy. In regard to bone marrow tolerance, split field technique of irradiation is preferred

  2. The next steps in improving the outcomes of advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Mark R; Fotopoulou, Christina; Blagden, Sarah; Gabra, Hani

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide ovarian cancer affects over 200,000 women per year. Overall survival rates are poor due to two predominate reasons. First, the majority of patients present with advanced disease creating significant difficulty with effecting disease eradication. Second, acquisition of chemotherapy resistance results in untreatable progressive disease. Advances in treatment of advanced ovarian cancer involve a spectrum of interventions including improvements in frontline debulking surgery and combination chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenic factors have been shown to have activity in frontline and recurrent disease while novel chemotherapeutic agents and targeted treatments are in development particularly for disease that is resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. These developments aim to improve the progression-free and overall survival of women with advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:26102473

  3. Neoadjuvant intraarterial chemotherapy and embolization in treatment of advanced ovarian epithelial carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩令; 糜若然

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and embolization via the anterior branches of the bilateral internal iliac arteries in treating patients with advanced ovarian epithelial carcinoma.Methods Forty-two patients with advanced ovarian epithelial carcinoma (study group) were treated via the anterior branches of the bilateral internal iliac arteries after cytoreductive surgery and 7 courses of adjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Primary cytoreductive surgery was performed in 43 patients with advanced ovarian epithelial carcinoma (control group), and then followed by 8 courses of adjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy. The rate of optimal cytoreductive surgery, survival rate, blood loss during operation and operative time were investigated in the two groups. Statistical significance was asessed using Student's t test, the Chi-squre test and the log-rank test. Results In the study group, the rate of optimum debulking after platinum-based chemotherapy and embolization via the anterior branches of the bilateral internal iliac arteries was 71.43%(30/42) (χ2=10.06, P0.05).Conclusions Neoadjuvant platinum-based combination chemotherapy and embolization via the anterior branches of the bilateral internal iliac arteries is an alternative treatment for patients with advanced ovarian epithelial carcinoma, in whom the chance of optimal cytoreductive surgery is low. The treatment can reduce blood loss, decrease operative time, and increase the rate of optimal cytoreductive surgery; but the median survival can't be improved significantly.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer: latest results and place in therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Seiya; Itamochi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed with advanced stage disease, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The standard approach to treating patients with advanced EOC remains primary debulking surgery (PDS) followed by chemotherapy. EOC is one of the most sensitive of all solid tumors to cytotoxic drugs, with over 80% of women showing a response to standard chemotherapy combined with taxane and platinum. Furthermore, residual disease is ...

  5. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  6. Connexin 37 and 43 gene and protein expression and developmental competence of isolated ovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro after vitrification of ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio da Silva, Andréa Moreira; Bruno, Jamily Bezerra; de Lima, Laritza Ferreira; Ribeiro de Sá, Naíza Arcângela; Lunardi, Franciele Osmarini; Ferreira, Anna Clara Accioly; Vieira Correia, Hudson Henrique; de Aguiar, Francisco Léo Nascimento; Araújo, Valdevane Rocha; Lobo, Carlos Henrique; de Alencar Araripe Moura, Arlindo; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Smitz, Johan; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ana Paula

    2016-05-01

    Cryoinjuries caused by vitrification of tissues and organs lead to the loss of membrane proteins that mediate intercellular communications, such as connexins 37 (Cx37) and 43 (Cx43). Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate ovine Cx37 and Cx43 gene and protein expressions and developmental competence by in vitro-cultured secondary follicles retrieved from vitrified ovarian tissue. Ovarian fragments for the same ovary pair were distributed into six treatments: (1) fresh ovarian tissue (FOT); (2) vitrified ovarian tissue (VOT); (3) isolated follicles from fresh ovarian tissue (FIF); (4) isolated follicles from vitrified ovarian tissue; (5) isolated follicles from fresh ovarian tissue followed by in vitro culture (CFIF); (6) isolated follicles from vitrified ovarian tissue followed by in vitro culture (CVIF). In all treatments, Cx37 and Cx43 gene and protein expression patterns were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. In addition, secondary follicles were analyzed according to follicular integrity and growth, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In vitro-cultured secondary follicles (CFIF and CVIF) were evaluated based on morphology (extruded follicles), antrum formation, and viability. The percentage of intact follicles was higher, whereas antrum formation, oocyte extrusion rate, and follicle viability were lower in CVIF than in CFIF treatment (P  0.05). Cx37 and Cx43 immunolabeling was localized mainly on granulosa cells and oocytes, respectively. In conclusion, isolation of ovine secondary follicles could be done successfully after vitrification of ovarian tissue, and the basement membrane integrity remained intact after in vitro culture. Although the gene and protein expression of Cx37 did not change after vitrification of ovarian tissue, Cx43 turned out to be altered in secondary follicles after vitrification and in vitro culture. PMID:26876055

  7. Advances in ovarian cancer diagnosis: A journey from immunoassays to immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Raghav, Ragini; O'Kennedy, Richard; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-07-01

    This review focuses on the technological advancements, challenges and trends in immunoassay technologies for ovarian cancer diagnosis. Emphasis is placed on the principles of the technologies, their merits and limitations and on the evolution from laboratory-based methods to point-of-care devices. While the current market is predominantly associated with clinical immunoassay kits, over the last decade a major thrust in development of immunosensors is evident due to their potential in point-of-care devices. Technological advancements in immunosensors, extending from labeled to label-free detection, with and without mediators, for enhancing proficiencies and reliability have been dealt with in detail. Aspects of the utilisation of nanomaterials and immobilization strategies for enhancing sensitivity and altering the detection range have also been addressed. Finally, we have discussed some distinct characteristics and limitations associated with the recently commericalised technologies used for quantitation of relevant ovarian cancer markers. PMID:27233124

  8. Primary Surgery or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: The Debate Continues….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alexandra; Cowan, Renee; Chi, Dennis; Kehoe, Sean; Nankivell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Primary debulking surgery (PDS) followed by platinum-based chemotherapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for advanced ovarian cancer for decades. Primary debulking surgery has been repeatedly identified as one of the key factors in improving survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer, especially when minimal or no residual disease is left behind. Achieving these results sometimes requires extensive abdominal and pelvic surgical procedures and consultation with other surgical teams. Some clinicians who propose a primary chemotherapy approach reported an increased likelihood of leaving no macroscopic disease after surgery and improved patient-reported outcomes and quality-of-life (QOL) measures. Given the ongoing debate regarding the relative benefit of PDS versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), tumor biology may aid in patient selection for each approach. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy offers the opportunity for in vivo chemosensitivity testing. Studies are needed to determine the best way to evaluate the impact of NACT in each individual patient with advanced ovarian cancer. Indeed, the biggest utility of NACT may be in research, where this approach provides the opportunity for the investigation of predictive markers, mechanisms of resistance, and a forum to test novel therapies. PMID:27249696

  9. Malnutrition Identified by the Nutritional Risk Index and Poor Prognosis in Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ga Won; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is a chronic disease with a risk of malnutrition. Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) has been reported as a simple and accurate tool to assess the nutritional status. We sought to explore the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with survival in ovarian cancer. A retrospective study was conducted in 213 advanced ovarian cancer patients. NRI was calculated before and at the end of treatment using patients' body weight and serum albumin level. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, and associations were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for known prognostic variables. Moderate to severely malnourished patients had lower 5-yr OS (45.3%) compared to normal to mild group (64.0%), respectively (P = 0.024). Adjusted for covariates, the relative risk of death was 5.8 times higher in moderate/severely malnourished group identified at the last course of chemotherapy (HR = 5.896, 95% CI = 2.723-12.764, P Malnutrition is prevalent among ovarian cancer patients and is found to be a significant predictor for mortality. PMID:27044606

  10. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Jeremy G. Thompson; Mason, Helen D; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. MET...

  11. Primary Surgery or Interval Debulking for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Does It Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markauskas, A.; Mogensen, O.; Christensen, R. D.;

    2014-01-01

    that NACT-IDS may be a better treatment alternative for the group of highly selected women not suitable for PDS, where expected suboptimal cytoreduction does not have any appreciable survival benefit and exposes them for unnecessary risks. A substantial number of women who receive either PDS or NACT......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the surgical complexity, the postoperative morbidity, and the survival of the women after primary debulking surgery (PDS) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer....... Materials and Methods: We consecutively included all patients who underwent debulking surgery at our institution between January 2007 and December 2012 for stages IIIc and IV of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: Of the 332 patients included, 165 (49.7%) underwent PDS, and 167 (50.3%) had NACT...

  12. Overexpression of inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID)-1 protein related to angiogenesis in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) has been involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. This prompted us to study ID functions in tumor advancement of ovarian cancers. Sixty patients underwent surgery for ovarian cancers. In ovarian cancers, the levels of ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3 mRNAs were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The histoscore with the localization of ID-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Patient prognosis was analyzed with a 36-month survival rate. Microvessel counts were determined by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen. ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels both significantly (p < 0.001) increased in ovarian cancers according to clinical stage, regardless of histopathological type. Furthermore, 30 patients with high ID-1 expression had a lower survival rate (53%) compared to patients with low ID-1 expression (80%). ID-1 histoscores and mRNA levels significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with microvessel counts in ovarian cancers. ID-1 increased in ovarian cancer cells during tumor progression. Moreover, ID-1 expression levels correlated with microvessel counts. Therefore, ID-1 might work on tumor advancement via angiogenesis and is considered to be a candidate for a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancers

  13. Burkitt’s Lymphoma Presented as Advanced Ovarian Cancer without Evidence of Lymphadenopathy: CT and MRI Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Manganaro; Silvia Bernardo; Maria Eleonora Sergi; Paolo Sollazzo; Valeria Vinci; Alessandra De Grazia; Anna Clerico; Maria Giovanna Mollace; Matteo Saldari

    2013-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which can occasionally involve the ovary and may cause confusion for the clinician since its presentation might mimic other much more frequent tumors. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman with sporadic Burkitt’s lymphoma presented as advanced ovarian cancer with bilateral ovarian masses, peritoneal carcinomatosis, ascites, and marked elevation of CA-125. Liver involvement and atypical bone lesions, such as the cranial vault and the ili...

  14. Management of brain metastasis in a patient with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma by gamma-knife radiosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaou Marinos; Stamenković Srđan; Stergiou Christos; Skarleas Christos; Torrens Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are rare events. We present a rare case of single ovarian cancer metastasis to the brain treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Case Outline. A 65-year-old woman with advanced EOC presented with severe neurologic symptoms. A single brain metastasis of 3.2 cm with surrounding edema in the left parietal lobe was detected by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan during the work-up...

  15. Psychological Distress during Ovarian Cancer Treatment: Improving Quality by Examining Patient Problems and Advanced Practice Nursing Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Kline O'Sullivan; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Sangchoon Jeon; Elizabeth Ercolano; Ruth McCorkle

    2011-01-01

    Background/Significance. Ovarian cancer patients are prone to psychological distress. The clinical significance and best practices for distress among this population are poorly understood. Method. Secondary analysis of research records from a six month randomized control trial included 32 women with primary ovarian cancer. All received 18 advanced practice nurse (APN) visits over six months. Three sub-samples were determined by distress level (high/low) and mental health service consent for h...

  16. Advances in Tumor Screening, Imaging, and Avatar Technologies for High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eOhman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma cases are detected in advanced stages when treatment options are limited. Surgery is less effective at eradicating the disease when it is widespread, resulting in high rates of disease relapse and chemoresistance. Current screening techniques are ineffective for early tumor detection and consequently, BRCA mutations carriers, with an increased risk for developing high-grade serous ovarian cancer, elect to undergo risk-reducing surgery. While prophylactic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of cancer development, it also results in surgical menopause and significant adverse side effects. The development of efficient early-stage screening protocols and imaging technologies is critical to improving the outcome and quality of life for current patients and women at increased risk. In addition, more accurate animal models are necessary in order to provide relevant in vivo testing systems and advance our understanding of the disease origin and progression. Moreover, both genetically engineered and tumor xenograft animal models enable the preclinical testing of novel imaging techniques and molecularly targeted therapies as they become available. Recent advances in xenograft technologies have made possible the creation of avatar mice, personalized tumorgrafts, which can be used as therapy testing surrogates for individual patients prior to or during treatment. High-grade serous ovarian cancer may be an ideal candidate for use with avatar models based on key characteristics of the tumorgraft platform. This review explores multiple strategies, including novel imaging and screening technologies in both patients and animal models, aimed at detecting cancer in the early stages and improving the disease prognosis.

  17. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  18. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo Héctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Luján Velázquez, Melisa María; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  19. Are Early Relapses in Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer Doomed to a Poor Prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Fabien; Guerby, Paul; Luyckx, Mathieu; Haddad, Pascale; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Morice, Philippe; Leblanc, Eric; Lecuru, Fabrice; Daraï, Emile; Classe, Jean Marc; Pomel, Christophe; Filleron, Thomas; Ferron, Gwenael; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Objective Early recurrence (ER) after completion of therapeutic regimen in advanced-stage ovarian cancer is a challenging clinical situation. Patients are perceived as invariably having a poor prognosis. We investigated the possibility of defining different prognostic subgroups and the parameters implicated in prognosis of ER patients. Study Design We analyzed a multi-centric database of 527 FIGO stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients. We defined patients relapsing within 12 months as ER and investigated using Cox logistic regression the prognostic factors in ER group. We subsequently divided ER patients into good and poor prognosis groups according to a lower or higher overall survival (OS) at 12 months after relapse and determined parameters associated to poor prognosis. Results The median follow up was 49 months. One hundred and thirty eight patients recurred within 12 months. OS and Disease Free Survival (DFS) were 24.6 and 8.6 months, respectively, in this group of patients. Among the ER patients, 73 had a poor prognosis with an OS after relapse below 12 months (mean OS = 5.2 months) and 65 survived after one year (mean OS = 26.9 months). Residual disease (RD) after debulking surgery and mucinous histological subtype negatively impacted prognosis (HR = 1.758, p = 0.017 and HR = 8.641, p = 0.001 respectively). The relative risk of death within 12 months following relapse in ER patients was 1.61 according to RD status. However, RD did not affect DFS (HR = 0.889, p = 0.5). Conclusion ER in advanced-stage ovarian cancer does not inevitably portend a short-term poor prognosis. RD status after initial cytoreduction strongly modulates OS, that gives additional support to the concept of maximum surgical effort even in patients who will experience early recurrence. The heterogeneity in outcomes within the ER group suggests a role for tumor biology in addition to classical clinical parameters. PMID:26820579

  20. A prospective comparison of perioperative morbidity in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: Primary versus interval cytoreduction - experience from India

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Zahoor Ahmad; Anupama Rajanbabu; Vijaykumar, D. K.; Altaf Gauhar Haji; Pavithran, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to compare perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated with either of the two treatment approaches; neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking versus upfront surgery. Design: Prospective comparative observational study. Participants: In total, 51 patients were included in the study. All patients with diagnosed advanced EOC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIC an...

  1. Advanced small-cell ovarian carcinoma, hypercalcemic type: a challenging therapeutic entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Caparica Bitton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell ovarian carcinoma (SCOC is a rare and aggressive neoplasia, predominantly affecting young women who are frequently first diagnosed with advanced stage disease. Platinum-based chemotherapy (ChT can provide high response rates and rapidly ameliorate symptoms in this scenario. However, progression after chemotherapy usually occurs quickly, leading to high mortality rates. In addition, ChT complications, such as tumor lysis syndrome (TLS can also occur, jeopardizing the patient’s outcome. We present a case of metastatic SCOC in a 47-year-old patient who achieved tumor response after platinum-based chemotherapy and developed TLS, from which she recovered with supportive treatment. After the second ChT cycle, she developed febrile neutropenia and died 8 weeks after the diagnosis of SCOC. Although SCOC is a chemo-sensitive tumor, short-lived responses and frequent chemotherapy complications lead to a dismal prognosis.

  2. Atrazine triggers developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct in quails (Coturnix Coturnix coturnix) via disruption of hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Du, Zheng-Hai; Zhu, Shi-Yong; Li, Xue-Nan; Li, Nan; Guo, Jing-Ao; Li, Jin-Long; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    There has been a gradual increase in production and consumption of atrazine (ATR) in agriculture to meet the population rising demands. Female reproduction is necessary for growth and maintenance of population. However, ATR impact on females and particularly ovarian developmental toxicity is less clear. The aim of this study was to define the pathways by which ATR exerted toxic effects on ovarian development of ovary and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Female quails were dosed by oral gavage from sexual immaturity to maturity with 0, 50, 250 and 500 mg ATR/kg/d for 45 days. ATR had no effect on mortality but depressed feed intake and growth and influenced the biochemical parameters. Notably, the arrested development of ovaries and oviducts were observed in ATR-exposed quails. The circulating concentrations of E2, P, LH and PRL were unregulated and FSH and T was downregulated in ATR-treated quails. The mRNA expression of GnRH in hypothalamo and LH in pituitary and FSH in ovary was downregulated significantly by ATR exposure and FSH and PRL in pituitary were upregulated. ATR exposure upregulated the level of P450scc, P450arom, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD in ovary and downregulated ERβ expression in female quails. However, ATR did not change ERα expression in ovary. This study provides new insights regarding female productive toxicology of ATR exposure. Ovary and oviduct in sexually maturing females were target organs of ATR-induced developmental toxicity. We propose that ATR-induced developmental abnormality of ovary and oviduct is associated with disruption of gonadal hormone balance and HPO axis in female quails. PMID:26432752

  3. Ovarian follicle development in vitro and oocyte competence: advances and challenges for farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J R V; van den Hurk, R; Figueiredo, J R

    2016-04-01

    During the last 2 decades, research on in vitro preantral follicle growth and oocyte maturation has delivered fascinating advances concerning the knowledge of processes regulating follicle growth and the developmental competence of oocytes. These advances include (1) information about the role of several hormones and growth factors on in vitro activation of primordial follicles; (2) increased understanding of the intracellular pathway involved in the initiation of primordial follicle growth; (3) the growth of primary and secondary follicles up to antral stages; and (4) production of embryos from oocytes from in vitro grown preantral follicles. This review article describes these advances, especially in regard farm animals, and discusses the reasons that limit embryo production from oocytes derived from preantral follicles cultured in vitro. PMID:26836404

  4. Evolution of surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in a dedicated gynaecologic oncology unit—seven year audit from a tertiary care centre in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Rajanbabu, Anupama; Kuriakose, Santhosh; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor; Khadakban, Tejal; Khadakban, Dhiraj; R. Venkatesan; Vijaykumar, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To audit our performance as a dedicated gynaecologic oncology unit and to analyse how it has evolved over the years. To retrospectively evaluate the outcome of advanced ovarian cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval surgery versus upfront surgery. Methods and results One hundred and ninety-eight patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who were treated from 2004 to 2010 were analysed. Eighty-two patients (41.4%) underwent primary surgery an...

  5. Standardized FDG uptake as a prognostic variable and as a predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing preoperative PET/CT, we investigated the prognostic value of SUV in the primary tumor and we evaluated the value of SUV for predicting incomplete primary cytoreduction (macroscopic residual tumor). Material and methods. From September 2004 to August 2007, 201 consecutive patients with a pelvic tumor and a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) > 150 based on serum CA-125, ultrasound examinations and menopausal state, underwent PET/CT within two weeks prior to standard surgery/debulking of a pelvic tumor. At two-year follow-up (August 15, 2009) the association between SUV and overall survival/cytoreductive result were analyzed in 60 ovarian cancer patients (58 stage III and two stage IV). Results. At inclusion median age was 62 years (range 35-85 years); 97% (58/60) had a performance status ≤2; 42% (25/60) underwent complete debulking (no macroscopic residual tumor); median SUVmax was 13.5 (range 2.5-39.0). Median follow-up was 30.2 months. At follow-up 57% (34/60) were alive and 43% (26/60) had died from ovarian cancer. SUVmax in patients alive was not statistically different from SUVmax in dead patients (p=0.69), and SUVmax was not correlated with the amount of residual tumor after surgery (p=0.19). Using univariate Cox regression analysis, residual tumor was a significant prognostic variable (p=0.001); SUVmax was not a statistically significant prognostic variable (p=0.86). Discussion. FDG uptake (SUVmax) in the primary tumor of patients with advanced ovarian cancer was not a prognostic variable and the FDG uptake did not predict complete cytoreduction after primary surgery. Future prospective clinical trials will need to clarify if other PET tracers can serve as prognostic variables in ovarian cancer

  6. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jone A; Arosh, Joe A; Burghardt, Robert C; Banu, Sakhila K

    2015-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2-8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5-20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. PMID:26348139

  7. Recovery of CD8+ T-cell function during systemic chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sharon; Clayton, Aled; Mason, Malcolm D; Jasani, Bharat; Adams, Malcolm; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2005-08-01

    Immunologic approaches are emerging as new treatment options in several types of cancer. However, whereas the ability of patients to develop potent CD8+ T-cell responses is crucial for efficient antitumor responses, immunocompetence and T-cell function are not tested routinely in patients entering immunotherapy. The objective of our study was to monitor T-cell function in advanced cancer and during chemotherapy. CD8+ T-cell function of 21 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (stages III-IV) was assessed by cytokine flow cytometry following stimulation of 42 PBMC samples with a panel of synthetic viral peptides in vitro, consisting of pan-Caucasian epitopes. CD8+ T-cell responses were significantly lower in patients with high levels (>200 units/mL) of Ca125 (marker of tumor load and progression) than in those with low Ca125 levels (P = 0.0013). In longitudinal studies of nine patients, chemotherapy was associated with decreasing Ca125 levels in seven cases and also with improvement or maintenance of CD8+ T-cell function in seven cases. After the full course of chemotherapy, five of nine patients in remission displayed potent CD8+ T-cell responses, whereas four of nine patients in progression displayed low or decreasing T-cell responses, pointing toward a correlation between T-cell function and clinical response. Our results show for the first time that CD8+ T-cell function is not permanently suppressed in advanced cancer and successful chemotherapy is associated with improved antigen-specific T-cell reactivity. We suggest that functional assays determining T-cell immunocompetence can be valuable tools for optimizing cancer immunotherapy for improved clinical success. PMID:16061686

  8. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio;

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 202-15....

  9. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. PMID:26036898

  10. Centralized treatment of advanced stages of ovarian cancer improves survival: a nationwide Danish survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Høgdall, Claus; Kehlet, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J; Ottesen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, involving a total of 1,160 patients with stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer. Data were extracted for 2,024 patients with all stages of ovarian cancer recorded in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2008. The main outcome measure was overall survival...

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: literature data and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes large amounts of literature data on studies of the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for advanced ovarian cancer (OC, which is performed prior to standard surgery. Clinical trials have demonstrated that a NCT regimen followed by cytoreductive surgery is less effective than primary cytoreductive one; however, evidence for the benefit of NCT is lacking so far. The authors conducted investigations using the intraoperative material obtained from 17 patients with T3a–cNxM0 OC, who were divided for a comparative examination into 2 groups. Group 1 included OC patents who received NCT; Group 2 comprised OC patients who did not. The tumor cells obtained from the intraoperative material of both groups were able to generate a well-proliferating culture in in vitro experiments. The cultured OC cells were characterized, by analyzing cytological specimens and the functional activity of these cells. It was ascertained that 35 % of the cultured tumor cells from OC retained their resistance to the cytotoxic action of effector cells (autologous lymphocytes at a target cell/effector cell ratio of 1:5. Thus, both the literature and the experiment provide no unambiguous evidence supporting the fact that NCT before cytoreductive surgery is a better approach than primary surgical treatment. The optimal regimen of NCT, which would be able to enhance its efficiency, remains important. 

  12. Comparative Study on Three Chemotherapeutic Regimens for the Treatment of Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the best first-line chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AEOC), the efficacy of three chemotherapy regimens for treatment of the patients with AEOC in our hospital during Jan. 1992- Jan. 1999 was retrospectively analyzed. The therapeutic effects were compared with the supplement of Melphalan + Hexamethylme (PAM + HMM), cisplatin + adriamycin +cyclophosphamide or isofamide (PAC) or cisplatin + cyclophosphamide or isofamide (PC), Taxol+cisplatin (TP) combined chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery. The results showed that the overall effective rate of TP was significantly higher than that of PAM+ HMM (P<0. 05); The complete remission rate of TP was significantly higher than that of PAM+ HMM and PAC or PC (all P<0.05);The 2-year survival rate free of tumor of TP was obviously higher than that of PAM+HMM and PAC or PC(all P<0. 05). It was concluded that the therapeutic effect of TP regimen in the treatment of AEOC was better than PAM +HMM and PAC or PC and TP regimen could be recommended currently as the preferred first-line one for the treatment of AEOC.

  13. WT1 gene expression as a prognostic marker in advanced serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WT1 is a tumor suppressor gene responsible for Wilms' tumor. WT1 reactivity is limited to ovarian serous carcinomas. Recent studies have shown that WT1 plays an important role in the progression of disease and indicates a poorer prognosis of human malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer. The aims of this study were to determine the survival and recurrence-free survival of women with advanced serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma in relation to WT1 gene expression. The study accrued women over an 18-year period, from 1987–2004. During the study period, 163 patients were diagnosed with advanced serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and had undergone complete post-operative chemotherapy, but the final study group comprised 99 patients. The records of these women were reviewed and the paraffin-embedded tissue of these women stained with WT1 immunostaining. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Fifty patients showed WT1 staining and forty-nine did not. Five-year survival of non-staining and staining groups were 39.4% and 10.7% (p < 0.00005); five-year recurrence-free survival of these groups were 29.8% and ≤ 7.5% (p < 0.00005), respectively. For survival the HR of WT1 staining, adjusted for residual tumor and chemotherapy response, was 1.98 (95% CI 1.28–3.79), and for recurrence-free survival the HR was 3.36 (95% CI 1.60–7.03). The HR for recurrence-free survival was not confounded by any other variables. This study suggests that expression of WT1 gene may be indicative of an unfavorable prognosis in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma

  14. The type of GnRH analogue used during controlled ovarian stimulation influences early embryo developmental kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore if the GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and the ovulation triggering factor (GnRH agonist+hCG triggering versus GnRH antagonist+GnRH agonist triggering) affect embryo development and kinetics. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study in the...... Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Alicante and the Instituto Universitario-IVI Valencia, Spain, 2817 embryos deriving from 400 couples undergoing oocyte donation were analysed. After controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/intracytoplamic sperm injection, the timing of embryonic cleavages was...

  15. Advanced Ovarian Dysgerminoma Infiltrating Both Ovaries and Uterus in a 7-Year-Old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Nexhmi Hyseni; Sadik Llullaku; Hysni Jashari; Kaltrina Zahiti; Fjolla Hyseni; Fisnik Kurshumliu; Lumturije Luci; Fehim Muqolli; Antigona Hasani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumor with its peak incidence in young women. Abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and the presence of a palpable mass are common symptoms at presentation. Depending on the FIGO stage at presentation the prognosis of dysgerminomas after surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is promising. Case Presentation. A 7-year-old girl was presented at our clinic with abdominal pain in all abdominal quadrants....

  16. Alternative treatment of chemoresistant, recurrent or advanced ovarian cancer. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek R. Wilczyński

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of satisfactory efficacy of classical chemotherapy in ovarian tumours led to attempts of treatmentbased on use of small molecules able to modulate or inhibit intracellular pathways engaged in cell growth,proliferation and apoptosis. The paper presents clinical trials in ovarian cancer patients using such drugs as:1 protein kinase inhibitors, 2 molecules interfering with DNA transcription and repair, 3 inhibitors oftranscription factors NF-κB and HIF-1.

  17. Hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy using Oxaliplatin as consolidation therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Results of a phase II prospective multicentre trial. CHIPOVAC study

    OpenAIRE

    Pomel, Christophe; Ferron, Gwenaël; Lorimier, Gérard; Rey, Annie; Lhomme, Catherine; Classe, Jean Marc; Bereder, J.M.; Quenet, François; Meeus, Pierre; Marshall, Frederic; Morice, Philippe; Elias, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate morbidity of intra-peritoneal hyper-thermic chemotherapy (HIPEC) using Oxaliplatin as consolidation therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma and, secondly, to study peritoneal recurrence. Methods Between 2004 and 2007, 31 patients from 18 to 65 years with FIGO stage IIIC epithelial ovarian carcinoma were treated by surgery and a total of 6 cycles of platinum ba...

  18. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.; Brogren, Carl-Henrik

    . Purified Vt was used to raise polyclonal antibodies (anti-Vt) for this species. Vtg and Vt concentrations in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries were measured by validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Parallel displacement curves were obtained between purified Vt and tissues from ovaries......, hepatopancreas, and hemolymph. Vtg concentrations increased in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas in the early stages of ovarian development (until GSI 3.4) and decreased significantly (P <0.05) in the advanced maturation stages (GSI 3.4-7.1). In spite of the lower concentration of Vtg in hepatopancreas...

  19. Standardized FDG uptake as a prognostic variable and as a predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Signe; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Høgdall, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing preoperative PET/CT, we investigated the prognostic value of SUV in the primary tumor and we evaluated the value of SUV for predicting incomplete primary cytoreduction (macroscopic residual tumor). Material and methods. From...... 15, 2009) the association between SUV and overall survival/cytoreductive result were analyzed in 60 ovarian cancer patients (58 stage III and two stage IV). Results. At inclusion median age was 62 years (range 35-85 years); 97% (58/60) had a performance status =2; 42% (25/60) underwent complete...... debulking (no macroscopic residual tumor); median SUV(max) was 13.5 (range 2.5-39.0). Median follow-up was 30.2 months. At follow-up 57% (34/60) were alive and 43% (26/60) had died from ovarian cancer. SUV(max) in patients alive was not statistically different from SUV(max) in dead patients (p=0.69), and...

  20. Standard first-line chemotherapy with or without nintedanib for advanced ovarian cancer (AGO-OVAR 12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bois, Andreas du; Kristensen, Gunnar; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle;

    2016-01-01

    combination of nintedanib with standard carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: In this double-blind phase 3 trial, chemotherapy-naive patients (aged 18 years or older) with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB...... endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01015118. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2009, and July 27, 2011, 1503 patients were screened and 1366 randomly assigned by nine study groups in...

  1. Intensity-Modulated Whole Abdominal Radiotherapy After Surgery and Carboplatin/Taxane Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Phase I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Results: Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  2. Prognostic significance of mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of increased mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT for the staging of advanced ovarian cancer. We retrospectively evaluated patients managed for FIGO stage III/IV ovarian cancer between 1 January 2006 and 1 June 2009. Patients were included if they had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT and surgery for initial staging. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 18 years, inability to undergo general anaesthesia, recurrent ovarian cancer, and borderline or nonepithelial malignancy. Whole-body PET/CT was performed after intravenous 18F-FDG injection. The location of abnormal hot spots and 18F-FDG maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax) were recorded. We compared the complete cytoreduction and survival rates in groups defined based on mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake and SUVmax values. Kaplan-Meier curves of overall survival and disease-free survival were compared using the log-rank test. Hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were computed. Adjusted hazard ratios were obtained using a multivariate Cox model. We included 53 patients, of whom 17 (32%) had increased mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 patients managed with primary surgery and in 21 (75%) of the 28 patients managed with interval surgery. Complete cytoreduction was achieved significantly more often among patients without increased mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake (80.6% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.001). Disease-free survival was comparable between the two groups. By univariate analysis, overall mortality was significantly higher among patients with increased mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake (hazard ratio 5.70, 95% confidence interval 1.74-18.6). The only factor significantly associated with overall survival by multivariate analysis was complete cytoreduction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.89). Increased mediastinal 18F-FDG uptake was common in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. However, complete cytoreduction

  3. Prognostic significance of mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bats, Anne-Sophie; Lecuru, Fabrice [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR-S 747, Paris (France); Hugonnet, Florent; Faraggi, Marc [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Huchon, Cyrille [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Bensaid, Cherazade [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Chirurgie Gynecologique et Cancerologique, Paris (France); Pierquet-Ghazzar, Nadia [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET/CT for the staging of advanced ovarian cancer. We retrospectively evaluated patients managed for FIGO stage III/IV ovarian cancer between 1 January 2006 and 1 June 2009. Patients were included if they had undergone {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and surgery for initial staging. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 18 years, inability to undergo general anaesthesia, recurrent ovarian cancer, and borderline or nonepithelial malignancy. Whole-body PET/CT was performed after intravenous {sup 18}F-FDG injection. The location of abnormal hot spots and {sup 18}F-FDG maximal standard uptake values (SUV{sub max}) were recorded. We compared the complete cytoreduction and survival rates in groups defined based on mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and SUV{sub max} values. Kaplan-Meier curves of overall survival and disease-free survival were compared using the log-rank test. Hazard ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were computed. Adjusted hazard ratios were obtained using a multivariate Cox model. We included 53 patients, of whom 17 (32%) had increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 patients managed with primary surgery and in 21 (75%) of the 28 patients managed with interval surgery. Complete cytoreduction was achieved significantly more often among patients without increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (80.6% vs. 35.3%; p = 0.001). Disease-free survival was comparable between the two groups. By univariate analysis, overall mortality was significantly higher among patients with increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (hazard ratio 5.70, 95% confidence interval 1.74-18.6). The only factor significantly associated with overall survival by multivariate analysis was complete cytoreduction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.89). Increased mediastinal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was common in patients

  4. The rationale for combined chemo/immunotherapy using a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist and tumour-derived exosomes in advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M; Navabi, H; Croston, D; Coleman, S; Tabi, Z; Clayton, A; Jasani, B; Mason, M D

    2005-03-18

    A clinical trial employing an immunotherapeutic approach based on the use of a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist and tumour-derived exosomes carrying tumour-associated antigens is planned in advanced ovarian cancer in conjunction with conventional first line chemotherapy. Most patients with ovarian cancer present with advanced disease and despite high initial response rate to chemotherapy the majority will relapse within 2 years with poor overall survival. Tumour antigen-specific T cells are naturally occurring in ovarian cancer patients and T cell infiltration of the tumour is highly prognostic. Novel immunotherapy to expand and activate tumour antigen-specific T cells combined with adjuvant treatment to overcome tumour-induced immunosuppression is considered to be therapeutically beneficial. The rationale for adopting such a combined approach is discussed here. PMID:15755631

  5. Cross-sectional study on comorbidities and adverse events in patients with advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Saux O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Olivia Le Saux,1 Aliki Taylor,2 Victoria Chia,3 Demetris Pillas,2 Moninder Kaur,2 Gilles Freyer11Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Pierre-Bénite Cédex, France; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen Ltd, Uxbridge, UK; 3Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities and adverse events (AEs, and determine the treatment patterns according to platinum-sensitivity status in patients with advanced (stage IIIB–IV or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in France with patients over 18 years, diagnosed with advanced (stage IIIB–IV or recurrent EOC between 2009 and 2012. A total of 23 physicians (oncologists and gynecologists participated, contributing 127 patients. Data were abstracted by participating physicians into a case report form. Results: Of the 127 patients included, 92 (72.4% had advanced EOC and 35 (27.6% had recurrent EOC. A total of 73 comorbidities were reported in 44 patients (34.6%. Vascular (10.2%, metabolic (7.1%, respiratory (5.5%, and psychiatric disorders (5.5% were the most common types of comorbidities reported. Prevalence of AEs was 74.8%, of which 12.6% were classified as serious. The most common AEs were anemia (16.5%, hematologic events (12.6%, taste change (11.8%, and headache (7.1%. Throughout the follow-up period, twelve patient deaths were reported (six due to disease progression. Of 35 patients with recurrent disease, 16 were highly platinum sensitive (recurrence >12 months after stopping platinum-based therapy, eleven were partially platinum sensitive (recurrence 6–12 months after stopping platinum-based therapy, seven were platinum resistant (recurrence within 6 months of stopping platinum-based therapy or progression while receiving second- or later-line platinum-based therapy, and one was platinum refractory (recurrence

  6. Advanced Ovarian Dysgerminoma Infiltrating Both Ovaries and Uterus in a 7-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmi Hyseni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumor with its peak incidence in young women. Abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and the presence of a palpable mass are common symptoms at presentation. Depending on the FIGO stage at presentation the prognosis of dysgerminomas after surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is promising. Case Presentation. A 7-year-old girl was presented at our clinic with abdominal pain in all abdominal quadrants. Later the pain localized in the region of her right ovary. CT scan revealed a massive formation which was connected to her right ovary. Conclusion. Although malignant ovarian germ cell tumours are rare in children, physicians must always consider the possibility of MOGT-occurrences. The clinical symptoms might not be specific: abdominal pain, abdominal distention, nausea, and vomiting. In order to make a correct diagnosis the patients should undergo a complete clinical examination including radiological scans. Initial management is frequently surgery, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although disgerminoma is malignant tumor, the prognosis is promising.

  7. Laparoscopy to predict the result of primary cytoreductive surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients (LapOvCa-trial): A multicentre randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Rutten (Marianne); K.N. Gaarenstroom (Katja); T. van Gorp (Toon); H.S. van Meurs (Hannah); H.J.G. Arts (Henriette); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); H.G. ter Brugge (Henk); R.H. Hermans (Ralph); B.C. Opmeer; J.M.A. Pijnenborg (Johanna); H.W.R. Schreuder (Henk); E.M. Schutter (Eltjo); A.M. Spijkerboer (Anje); C.W.M. Wensveen (C. W M); P.L.M. Zusterzeel (Petra); B.W.J. Mol (Ben); G.G. Kenter (Gemma ); M.R. Buist (Marrije)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is surgery and chemotherapy. The goal of surgery is to remove all macroscopic tumour, as the amount of residual tumour is the most important prognostic factor for survival. When removal off all tumour is considered not feasible, n

  8. Laparoscopy to predict the result of primary cytoreductive surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients (LapOvCa-trial): a multicentre randomized controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Gorp, T. Van; Meurs, H.S. van; Arts, H.J.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Brugge, H.G. ter; Hermans, R.H.; Opmeer, B.C.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Schutter, E.M.; Spijkerboer, A.M.; Wensveen, C.W.; Zusterzeel, P.L.; Mol, B.W.; Kenter, G.G.; Buist, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is surgery and chemotherapy. The goal of surgery is to remove all macroscopic tumour, as the amount of residual tumour is the most important prognostic factor for survival. When removal off all tumour is considered not feasible, neoadjuvant c

  9. Laparoscopy to predict the result of primary cytoreductive surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients (LapOvCa-trial) : a multicentre randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Marianne J.; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Van Gorp, Toon; van Meurs, Hannah S.; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Ter Brugge, Henk G.; Hermans, Ralph H. M.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Pijnenborg, Johanna M. A.; Schreuder, Henk W. R.; Schutter, Eltjo M. J.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Wensveen, Celesta W. M.; Zusterzeel, Petra; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is surgery and chemotherapy. The goal of surgery is to remove all macroscopic tumour, as the amount of residual tumour is the most important prognostic factor for survival. When removal off all tumour is considered not feasible, neoadjuvant c

  10. Prolonging the interval from ovarian hyperstimulation to laparoscopic ovum pick-up improves oocyte yield, quality, and developmental competence in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, R B; Liow, S L; Rahman, A N M A; Chan, W K; Wan-Khadijah, W E; Ng, S C

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interval between ovarian hyperstimulation and laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) on quality and developmental competence of goat oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Estrus was synchronized with an intravaginal insert containing 0.3g progesterone (CIDR) for 10d, combined with a luteolytic treatment of 125 microg cloprostenol 36 h prior to CIDR removal. Ovaries were hyperstimulated with 70 mg FSH and 500 IU hCG given im 36, 60, or 72 h prior to LOPU (n=15, 16, and 7 does, respectively). For these groups, oocyte retrieval rates (mean+/-S.E.M.) were 24.7+/-2.9, 54.5+/-4.7, and 82.8+/-4.6% (PGrade-A embryos (Pquality. Therefore, under the present conditions, LOPU 60 or 72 h after FSH/hCG optimized yields of good-quality oocytes for IVM and embryo production in goats. PMID:18579196

  11. Combination of radiotherapy and selective chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on 160 patients suffering from ovarian carcinomas the stages which were exactly determined by TNM classification. 32 patients had tumors of the stages T1-T3, 128 patients had tumors of the stage T4. All T3 subgroups showed favorable results after radical surgery and a postoperative combination of radiotherapy and selective cytostatic chemotherapy. The therapy plans including radiotherapy had more advantages than those without radiotherapy. Furthermore, the cytostatic treatment was more successful after a chemotherapy resistance test than after blind administration of cytostatic drugs. (orig.)

  12. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin or Bleomycin Sulfate, Etoposide Phosphate, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Sex Cord-Ovarian Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor; Ovarian Gynandroblastoma; Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor With Annular Tubules; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor of Mixed or Unclassified Cell Types; Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor

  13. Current Advances in Epigenetic Modification and Alteration during Mammalian Ovarian Folliculogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengxiang Pan; Jinbi Zhang; Qifa Li; Yinxia Li; Fangxiong Shi; Zhuang Xie; Honglin Liu

    2012-01-01

    During the growth and development of mammalian ovarian follicles,the activation and deactivation of mass genes are under the synergistic control of diverse modifiers through genetic and epigenetic events.Many factors regulate gene activity and functions through epigenetic modification without altering the DNA sequence,and the common mechanisms may include but arc not limited to: DNA methylation,histone modifications (e.g.,acetylation,deacetylation,phosphorylation,methylation,and ubiquitination),and RNA-associated silencing of gene expression by noncoding RNA.Over the past decade,substantial progress has been achieved in studies involving the epigenetic alterations during mammalian germ cell development.A number of candidate regulatory factors have been identified.This review focuses on the current available information of epigenetic alterations (e.g.,DNA methylation,histone modification,noncoding-RNA-mediated regulation) during mammalian folliculogenesis and recounts when and how epigenetic patterns are differentially established,maintained,or altered in this process.Based on different types of epigenetic regulation,our review follows the temporal progression of events during ovarian folliculogenesis and describes the epigenetic changes and their contributions to germ cell—specific functions at each stage (i.e.,primordial folliculogenesis (follicle formation),follicle maturation,and follicular atresia).

  14. Ovarian Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Ovarian Cyst Overview What is an ovarian cyst? An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in or on the ovary. There are several types of ovarian cysts. Many ovarian cysts are noncancerous cysts that ...

  15. A prospective comparison of perioperative morbidity in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: Primary versus interval cytoreduction - experience from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Zahoor Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to compare perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC treated with either of the two treatment approaches; neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT followed by interval debulking versus upfront surgery. Design: Prospective comparative observational study. Participants: In total, 51 patients were included in the study. All patients with diagnosed advanced EOC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics IIIC and IV presenting for the 1st time were included in the study. Interventions: Patients were either operated upfront (n = 19 if deemed operable or were subjected to NACT followed by interval debulking (n = 32. Primary and Secondary Outcomes: Intra- and postoperative morbidity and mortality were the primary outcome measures. Results: Patients with interval cytoreduction were noted to have significantly lesser operative time, blood loss, and extent of surgery. Their discharge time was also significantly earlier. However, they did not differ from the other group vis. a vis. postoperative complications or mortality. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy although has a positive impact on various intraoperative adverse events, fails to show any impact on immediate postoperative negative outcomes.

  16. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  17. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Hacker, Neville F; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  18. Tolerance of weekly metronomic paclitaxel and carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer patients who are unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Dessai, S. B.; Chakraborty, S; Babu, T. V. S.; Nayanar, S.; A Bhattacharjee; Jones, J.; S Balasubramanian; Patil, Vijay M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are little data regarding safety and effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients who are considered unfit for receiving 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity and response rates of weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin as NACT in such cohort of patients. Methods: Study population included advanced ovarian cancer patients who were unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin and hence received weekly pacl...

  19. Primary debulking surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery for patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng; Yu-Nong Gao

    2012-01-01

    Objectives:To compare the survival and perioperative morbidity between primary debulking surgery (PDS) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NAC/IDS) in treating patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).Methods:We retrospectively reviewed 67 patients with stage ⅢC or Ⅳ EOC treated at Peking University Cancer Hospital from January 2006 to June 2009.Wherein,37 and 30 patients underwent PDS and NAC/IDS,respectively.Results:No difference in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) was observed between NAC/IDS group and PDS group (OS:41.2 vs.39.1 months,P=0.23; PFS:27.1 vs.24.3 months,P=0.37).The optimal debulking rate was 60% in the NAC/IDS group,which was significantly higher than that in the PDS group (32.4%) (P=0.024).The NAC/IDS group had significantly less intraoperative estimated blood loss and transfusion,lower nasogastric intubation rate,and earlier ambulation and recovery of intestinal function than the PDS group (P<0.05).Conclusions:NAC/IDS is less invasive than PDS,and offers the advantages regarding optimal cytoreduction rate,intraoperative blood loss,and postoperative recovery,without significantly impairing the survival compared with PDS in treating patients with stage ⅢC or Ⅳ EOC.Therefore,NAC/IDS may be a valuable treatment alternative for EOC patients.

  20. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Samantha; Duquette, Mark; Liu, Joyce; Drapkin, Ronny; Lawler, Jack; Petrik, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Most women are diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) at advanced stage, where therapies have limited effectiveness and the long-term survival rate is low. We evaluated the effects of combined antiangiogenic and chemotherapy treatments on advanced stage EOC. Treatment of EOC cells with a recombinant version of the thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) induced more apoptotic cell death (36.5 ± 9.6%) in vitro compared to untreated controls (4.1 ± 1.4). In vivo, tumors were induced in a...

  1. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences...... and 4% never had debulking surgery. Of the 288 patients (53%) referred to NACT, 44% were never debulked. Fourteen patients (3%) were referred to palliative treatment. The use of different imaging modalities, diagnostic laparoscopy, and laparotomy varied significantly among the centers. Diagnostic......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  2. Phase II study evaluating consolidation whole abdominal intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO III - The OVAR-IMRT-02 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichbaum Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis for patients with advanced FIGO stage III epithelial ovarian cancer remains poor despite the aggressive standard treatment, consisting of maximal cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The median time to recurrence is less than 2 years, with a 5-years survival rate of -20-25%. Recurrences of the disease occur mostly intraperitoneally. Ovarian cancer is a radiosensitive tumor, so that the use of whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR as a consolidation therapy would appear to be a logical strategy. WAR used to be the standard treatment after surgery before the chemotherapy era; however, it has been almost totally excluded from the treatment of ovarian cancer during the past decade because of its high toxicity. Modern intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT has the potential of sparing organs at risk like kidneys, liver, and bone marrow while still adequately covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose. Our previous phase I study showed for the first time the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated WAR and pointed out promising results concerning treatment tolerance. The current phase-II study succeeds to the phase-I study to further evaluate the toxicity of this new treatment. Methods/design The OVAR-IMRT-02 study is a single-center one arm phase-II trial. Thirty seven patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer stage FIGO III having a complete remission after chemotherapy will be treated with intensity-modulated WAR as a consolidation therapy. A total dose of 30 Gy in 20 fractions of 1.5 Gy will be applied to the entire peritoneal cavity including the liver surface and the pelvic and para-aortic node regions. Organ at risk are kidneys, liver (except the 1 cm-outer border, heart, vertebral bodies and pelvic bones. Primary endpoint is tolerability; secondary objectives are toxicity, quality of life, progression-free and overall survival. Discussion Intensity-modulated WAR provides

  3. Phase II study evaluating consolidation whole abdominal intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO III - The OVAR-IMRT-02 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis for patients with advanced FIGO stage III epithelial ovarian cancer remains poor despite the aggressive standard treatment, consisting of maximal cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. The median time to recurrence is less than 2 years, with a 5-years survival rate of -20-25%. Recurrences of the disease occur mostly intraperitoneally. Ovarian cancer is a radiosensitive tumor, so that the use of whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) as a consolidation therapy would appear to be a logical strategy. WAR used to be the standard treatment after surgery before the chemotherapy era; however, it has been almost totally excluded from the treatment of ovarian cancer during the past decade because of its high toxicity. Modern intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential of sparing organs at risk like kidneys, liver, and bone marrow while still adequately covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose. Our previous phase I study showed for the first time the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated WAR and pointed out promising results concerning treatment tolerance. The current phase-II study succeeds to the phase-I study to further evaluate the toxicity of this new treatment. The OVAR-IMRT-02 study is a single-center one arm phase-II trial. Thirty seven patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer stage FIGO III having a complete remission after chemotherapy will be treated with intensity-modulated WAR as a consolidation therapy. A total dose of 30 Gy in 20 fractions of 1.5 Gy will be applied to the entire peritoneal cavity including the liver surface and the pelvic and para-aortic node regions. Organ at risk are kidneys, liver (except the 1 cm-outer border), heart, vertebral bodies and pelvic bones. Primary endpoint is tolerability; secondary objectives are toxicity, quality of life, progression-free and overall survival. Intensity-modulated WAR provides a new promising option in the consolidation treatment of

  4. Laparoscopy to predict the result of primary cytoreductive surgery in advanced ovarian cancer patients (LapOvCa-trial: a multicentre randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutten Marianne J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is surgery and chemotherapy. The goal of surgery is to remove all macroscopic tumour, as the amount of residual tumour is the most important prognostic factor for survival. When removal off all tumour is considered not feasible, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT in combination with interval debulking surgery (IDS is performed. Current methods of staging are not always accurate in predicting surgical outcome, since approximately 40% of patients will have more than 1 cm residual tumour after primary debulking surgery (PDS. In this study we aim to assess whether adding laparoscopy to the diagnostic work-up of patients suspected of advanced ovarian carcinoma may prevent unsuccessful primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer. Methods Multicentre randomized controlled trial, including all gynaecologic oncologic centres in the Netherlands and their affiliated hospitals. Patients are eligible when they are planned for PDS after conventional staging. Participants are randomized between direct PDS or additional diagnostic laparoscopy. Depending on the result of laparoscopy patients are treated by PDS within three weeks, followed by six courses of platinum based chemotherapy or with NACT and IDS 3-4 weeks after three courses of chemotherapy, followed by another three courses of chemotherapy. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of PDS's leaving more than one centimetre tumour residual in each arm. In total 200 patients will be randomized. Data will be analysed according to intention to treat. Discussion Patients who have disease considered to be resectable to less than one centimetre should undergo PDS to improve prognosis. However, there is a need for better diagnostic procedures because the current number of debulking surgeries leaving more than one centimetre residual tumour is still high. Laparoscopy before starting treatment for ovarian cancer can be an additional diagnostic tool

  5. Cost of illness of advanced ovarian carcinoma in Italy: results of an empirical, single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lazzaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform an empirical, single-centre, retrospective and secondary cost of illness (COI study of advanced ovarian carcinoma (AOC in Italy. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, health care and non-health care resource consumption data concerning a convenience sample of subsequent patients in 1st line of treatment (100 patients, 2nd line of treatment A (surgery + chemotherapy; 30 patients and 2nd line of treatment B (chemotherapy only; 20 patients were obtained from a database created in 2011 by the Obstetrics and Ginecology Unit at Campus Biomedico teaching hospital, Rome. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. Resources were valued according to the above mentioned database and literature, following the societal viewpoint. Costs are expressed in Euro (€ 2014 and reported as mean and standard deviation (SD. RESULTS: One-year COI for 1st line of treatment reaches € 44,999.7 (SD: €28,757.3, € 55,410.8 (SD: € 32,454.6 and €46,895.6 (SD: € 28,407.4 for 2nd line of treatment A and B, respectively. Regardless the line of treatment, COI is mainly driven by cost borne by patient and her family. Due to the high costs of relapse the mean COI per patient after 2 years from the diagnosis of AOC equals € 81,869.4 (SD: € 30,660.9, or 182% of the COI for the 1st line of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, our results show that increasing progression-free survival could well reduce the COI for AOC in Italy.

  6. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in advanced ovarian cancer: quality-of-life outcomes from the International Collaboration on Ovarian Neoplasms (ICON7) phase 3 randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Dan; Nankivell, Matthew; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Kristensen, Gunnar; Elit, Lorraine; Stockler, Martin; Hilpert, Felix; Cervantes, Andrés; Brown, Julia; Lanceley, Anne; Velikova, Galina; Sabate, Eduardo; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Carey, Mark S; Beale, Philip; Qian, Wendi; Swart, Ann Marie; Oza, Amit; Perren, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup International Collaboration on Ovarian Neoplasms 7 (ICON7) trial, bevacizumab improved progression-free survival in patients with ovarian cancer when used in combination with first-line chemotherapy and as a single-drug continuation treatment for 18 cycles. In a preliminary analysis of a high-risk subset of patients, there was also an improvement in overall survival. This study aims to describe the health-related quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes from ICON7. Methods ICON7 is a randomised, multicentre, open-label phase 3 trial. Between Dec 18, 2006, and Feb 16, 2009, after a surgical procedure aiming to debulk the disease, women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) high-risk stage I–IV epithelial ovarian cancer were randomly allocated (1:1) by computer program and block randomisation to receive either six cycles of standard chemotherapy (total 18 weeks) with carboplatin (area under the curve 5 or 6) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) alone or with bevacizumab (7·5 mg/kg) given intravenously with chemotherapy and continued as a single drug thereafter (total 54 weeks). The primary QoL endpoint was global QoL from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire–core 30 at week 54, analysed by ANOVA and adjusted for baseline score. Analyses were by intention to treat. The ICON7 trial has completed recruitment and remains in follow-up. This study is registered, number ISRCTN91273375. Findings 764 women were randomly assigned to the standard chemotherapy group and 764 to the bevacizumab group. At baseline, 684 (90%) of women in the standard chemotherapy group and 691 (90%) of those in the bevacizumab group had completed QoL questionnaires. At week 54, 502 (66%) women in the bevacizumab group and 388 (51%) women in the standard chemotherapy group provided QoL data. Overall, the mean global QoL score improved during chemotherapy by 7·2 points (SD 24

  7. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with ... male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian cysts. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office ...

  8. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  9. Ovarian reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macklon, NS; Fauser, BCJM

    2005-01-01

    The tendency to delay childbirth has increased the importance of ovarian reserve as a determinant of infertility treatment outcome. In the context of assisted reproduction technology, effective strategies to overcome the impact of ovarian aging and diminished ovarian reserve on pregnancy chances rem

  10. Outcome in Advanced Ovarian Cancer following an Appropriate and Comprehensive Effort at Upfront Cytoreduction: A Twenty-Year Experience in a Single Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marszalek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this retrospective evaluation of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients was to compare outcome with published findings from other centers and to discuss future options for the management of advanced ovarian carcinoma patients. Methods. A retrospective series of 340 patients with a mean age of 58 years (range: 17–88 treated for FIGO stage III and IV ovarian cancer between January 1985 and January 2005 was reviewed. All patients had primary cytoreductive surgery, without extensive bowel, peritoneal, or systematic lymph node resection, thereby allowing initiation of chemotherapy without delay. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in combination with alkylating agents before 2000, whereas carboplatin and paclitaxel regimes were generally used after 1999-2000. Overall survival and disease-free survival were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Results. With a mean followup of 101 months (range: 5 to 203, 280 events (recurrence or death were observed and 245 patients (72% had died. The mortality and morbidity related to surgery were low. The main prognostic factor for overall survival was postoperative residual disease (P<.0002, while the main prognostic factor for disease-free survival was histological tumor type (P<.0007. Multivariate analysis identified three significant risk factors: optimal surgery (RR=2.2 for suboptimal surgery, menopausal status (RR=1.47 for postmenopausal women, and presence of a taxane in the chemotherapy combination (RR=0.72. Conclusion. These results confirm that optimal surgery defined by an appropriate and comprehensive effort at upfront cytoreduction limits morbidity related to the surgical procedure and allows initiation of chemotherapy without any negative impact on survival. The impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to improve resectability while lowering the morbidity of the surgical procedure is discussed.

  11. Analysis of HLA class I-II haplotype frequency and segregation in a cohort of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamzatova, Z; Villabona, L; van der Zanden, H; Haasnoot, G W; Andersson, E; Kiessling, R; Seliger, B; Kanter, L; Dalianis, T; Bergfeldt, K; Masucci, G V

    2007-09-01

    In solid tumors, human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 has been suggested to be a risk factor and a negative prognostic factor. The HLA-A2 allele in Scandinavia has a high prevalence; it decreases with latitude and also with ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. Furthermore, an association of the HLA-A2 allele with severe prognosis in serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary in stages III-IV was found. Thirty-two unrelated Swedish women with relapsing or progressive ovarian cancer were analysed for the genotypes at the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, and HLA-DRB1 loci by the polymerase chain reaction/sequence-specific primer method. The frequencies of HLA alleles of healthy Swedish bone marrow donors provided by the coordinating centre of the Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide Registries, Leiden, the Netherlands were used as controls. When this cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients was compared with healthy Swedish donors, the frequency of HLA-A1 and HLA-A2 gene/phenotype appears, although not statistically significant, to be increased in patients with ovarian carcinoma, while HLA-A3 was decreased. HLA-A2 homozygotes were twofold higher in patients. The A2-B8 haplotype was significantly increased (corrected P value). A2-B5, A2-B15, A2-DRB1*03, A2-DRB1*04, A2-B15-Cw3, and A2-B8-DRB1*03 had odds ratio as well as the level of the lower confidence interval above 1 and significant P value only when considered as single, non-corrected analysis. HLA-B15 and HLA-Cw3 were only present in HLA-A2-positive patients showing that the HLA-A2-HLA-Cw3 and HLA-B15 haplotypes were segregated. In this selected cohort with advanced disease, there are indications of an unusual overrepresentation of HLA class I and II genes/haplotypes as well as segregation for the HLA-A2-HLA-Cw3 and HLA-B15 haplotypes. These findings are presented as a descriptive analysis and need further investigations on a larger series of ovarian cancer patients to establish prognostic associations. PMID:17661908

  12. A randomized phase II study of paclitaxel with carboplatin +/- amifostine as first line treatment in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, F Y F L; Bos, A M E; Schaapveld, M; de Swart, C A M; de Graaf, H; van der Zee, A G J; Boezen, H M; de Vries, E G E; Willemse, P H B

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Will amifostine (A) protect against chemotherapy-induced neuro- and myelotoxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety ovarian cancer patients were randomized to receive standard paclitaxel + carboplatin without (PC) or preceded by amifostine 740 mg/m(2) (PC + A). RESULTS: The mean baseline valu

  13. Prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in primary and metastatic lesions of advanced stage ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffers, Ninke; Gooden, Marloes J. M.; de Jong, Renske A.; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; ten Hoor, Klaske A.; Hollema, Harry; Boezen, H. Marieke; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Daemen, Toos; Nijman, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer patients with intra-tumoral CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in primary tumor tissue have a better prognosis. This study aims to analyze the presence and relative influence of three important T-lymphocyte subsets, tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), CD45R0(+) memory

  14. PHASE-II STUDY OF HIGH-DOSE MEGESTROL-ACETATE IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED OVARIAN-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VEENHOF, CHN; VANDERBURG, MEL; NOOY, M; AALDERS, JG; PECORELLI, S; OLIVEIRA, CF; ROTMENSZ, N; VERMORKEN, JB

    1994-01-01

    The EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Cooperative Group conducted a phase II study of high dose oral megestrol acetate: 800 mg/day for 1 month followed by 400 mg/day as maintenance treatment, in heavily pretreated patients with ovarian cancer. Of 72 patients included in this study, 54 were fully evaluable

  15. Histomorphological Developmental Study of Advanced Postnatal of the Pancreas of Local Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    F.J. Al-Saffar; A.H.A. Al-Hasnawy

    2014-01-01

    Current research aimed to investigate the developmental changes of the pancreatic tissues of the local rabbits during different postnatal periods (one, twenty, forty, sixty and eighty days of age). Histological sections prepared from the specimens of their pancreas were stained with general and special stains then photographed with Dino-eye piece camera and analyzed with its image software. Macroscopic examination showed that the pancreas of the rabbit was struct...

  16. Advanced and developmental technologies for treatment and volume reduction of dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry processes Dry Active Wastes (DAW) to achieve cost-effective volume reduction and/or to produce a residue that is more compatible with final disposal criteria. The two principal processes currently used by the industry are compaction and incineration. Although incineration is often considered the process of choice, capital and operating cost are often high, and in some countries, public opposition and lengthy permitting processes result in expensive delays to bringing the process to operation. Therefore, alternative treatment options (mechanical, thermal, chemical, and biological) are being investigated to provide timely, cost-effective options for industry use. An overview of those developmental processes considered applicable to processing DAW is presented. In each category, open-quotes establishedclose quotes processes are mentioned and/or referenced, but the focus is on open-quotes potentialclose quotes technologies and the status of their development. The emphasis is on processing DAW, and therefore, those developmental processes that primarily treat solids in aqueous streams and melting/sintering technologies, both of lesser applicability to nuclear utility wastes, have been omitted. Included are those developmental technologies that appear to have a potential for radioactive waste application based on development on demonstration programs

  17. The implementation of randomized trials in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with HIPEC: waiting for new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Coccolini F; Lotti M; Catena F; Pisano M; Grosso G; Frigerio L; Ansaloni L

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most frequent mortality causes among female neoplasms. A lot of data is available on the efficiency and the relative safety of the different treatments. In the last twenty years the overall survival (OS) and the disease free survival (DFS) have enormously incremented thanks to the combined chemotherapy regimens and the incredible progresses of surgery. These progresses are also related to the increased ability in managing patients more and more compromised, i...

  18. Outcomes of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with integration of metronomic chemotherapy: An Indian rural cancer centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paclitaxel-platinum and optimal cytoreductive surgery are the standard of care for ovarian carcinoma. Poor socioeconomic profile and therapeutic constraints in rural India poses a therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate outcomes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Objectives: To calculate disease-free survival (DFS, overall survival (OS, and factors affecting outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed as ovarian carcinoma registered between March 2009 and March 2014 were retrieved. Demographic profile, chemotherapy and response, surgery, and disease progression were collected. Patients who underwent surgery or completed three cycles of chemotherapy were selected. Kaplan-Meir survival was used to determine disease-free and OS. Log-rank test used to evaluate factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up is 26 months. 93/102 patients (91% underwent cytoreductive surgery, of which 37 had primary cytoreduction (40% while 56 had interval cytoreduction. 21/93 (23%, 57/93 (61%, and 15/93 (16% patients were operated by local surgeons, surgeons of our hospital, and trained oncosurgeons, respectively. Induction paclitaxel-platinum was used in 35/63 (56% patients while 28/63 patients (44% received neoadjuvant metronomic chemotherapy. Median DFS and OS are 17 and 54 months respectively while 3 year OS of 66%. Median DFS of patients operated by oncosurgeons versus local surgeons were 22 months versus 15 months (P = 0.01, OS was 54 versus 26 months (P = 0.01.40/88 (45% patients received maintenance metronomic therapy after adjuvant chemotherapy with median of 6 months (range 2-18 months. Patients receiving metronomic maintenance had better DFS, 18 months versus 15 months (P = 0.69. Conclusion: Induction therapy in ovarian carcinoma helps in selecting patients for cytoreductive surgery. Outcomes are better if operated by trained oncosurgeons. Maintenance metronomic has potential to delay disease progression.

  19. Vascular intervention treatment role and signiifcance in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and cervical cancer%血管介入治疗对晚期卵巢癌与宫颈癌的治疗作用及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕峰泉; 李焕祥; 刘武军; 马彦寿

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analysis of vascular interventional therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer and cervical cancer role and signiifcance.Methods30 cases of advanced ovarian cancer and 30 cases of cervical cancer patients with vascular interventional therapy, and 30 cases of advanced ovarian cancer and 30 cases of cervical cancer patients with traditional surgery.ResultsThe vascular interventional treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer and cervical cancer patients with efficient and survival rate were obviously higher than that of traditional surgical treatment of patients, with signiifcant difference (P<0.05). ConclusionVascular interventional treatment of advanced ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer patients had a higher therapeutic effect and signiifcance.%目的分析血管介入治疗对晚期卵巢癌与宫颈癌的治疗作用及意义。方法30例晚期卵巢癌及30例宫颈癌患者采用血管介入治疗,另外30例晚期卵巢癌及30例宫颈癌患者采用传统手术治疗。结果晚期卵巢癌与宫颈癌患者血管介入治疗的有效率、存活率都明显高于传统手术治疗的患者,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血管介入治疗晚期卵巢癌与宫颈癌患者有较高的治疗作用及意义。

  20. Lack of relationship between TIMP-1 tumour cell immunoreactivity, treatment efficacy and prognosis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is a natural inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of extracellular matrix thereby favoring tumour cell invasion and metastasis. TIMP-1 activity in tumour tissue may therefore play an essential role in the progression of a malignant tumour. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate TIMP-1 protein immunoreactivity in tissue from primary ovarian cancer patients and associate these findings with the course of the disease including response to treatment in the individual patient. TIMP-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (in tissue micro arrays) in a total of 163 ovarian cancer specimens obtained from primary debulking surgery during 1991-1994 as part of a randomized clinical protocol. Positive TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was found in 12.3% of the tumours. The median survival time for the 143 patients with TIMP-1 negative tumours was 23.7 months [19.0-29.4] 95% CI, while the median survival time for the 20 patients with TIMP-1 positive tumours was 15.9 months [12.3-27.4] 95% CI. Although a difference of 7.8 months in median overall survival in favor of the TIMP-1 tumour negative patients was found, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.28, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test). Moreover, TIMP-1 immunoreactivity was not associated with CA125 response (p = 0.53) or response at second look surgery (p = 0.72). TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue from patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer did not correlate with patient survival or response to combination platinum/cyclophosphamide therapy

  1. First-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without epirubicin (TEC versus TC)-a gynecologic cancer intergroup study of the NSGO, EORTC GCG and NCIC CTG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, K.; Christensen, R. D.; Vergote, I.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The addition of anthracyclines to platinum-based chemotherapy may provide benefit in survival in ovarian cancer patients. We evaluated the effect on survival of adding epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel. Patients and methods: We carried out a prospectively randomized...... phase III study comparing carboplatin plus paclitaxel (TC; area under the curve 5 and 175 mg/m(2)) with the same combination and epirubicin (TEC; 75 mg/m(2) i.v.). Between March 1999 and August 2001, 887 patients with epithelial ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer International Federation of Gynecology...... addition of epirubicin to standard carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment did not improve survival in patients with advanced ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer....

  2. Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Wendy S.; Barabas, Gabor

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes, seizure disorders, and minor physical anomolies are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil's teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role with the children themselves. (Author/EGS)

  3. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Nash, John; Runowicz, Carolyn; Swede, Helen; Stevens, Richard; Li, Zihai

    2010-01-01

    Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:20146807

  4. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  5. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ovarian Cancer Home For Patients Search FAQs Ovarian Cancer ... Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian Cancer Gynecologic Problems What is cancer? What is ...

  6. Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating the Behavioral Science and Neuroscience of Mental Health. Proceedings (Chantilly, Virginia, May 12-15, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Della M., Ed.; Huffman, Lynne C., Ed.; Lederhendler, Israel I., Ed.; Meinecke, Douglas, Ed.

    This book represents the proceedings of the Conference on Advancing Research on Developmental Plasticity: Integrating Behavioral Science and the Neuroscience of Mental Health. The conference featured scientific presentations from many leading scientists in behavioral sciences, neuroscience and psychiatry, as well as a poster session for newer…

  7. Clinical observation and therapeutic evaluation of intravenous pump of recombinant human endostatin combined with TP regimen in treating patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Zhang; Wen-Ying Deng; Ning Li; Su-Xia Luo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the curative effects and adverse reactions of recombinant human (rh)-endostatin injection combined with a TP regimen for treating patients with advanced ovarian cancer.Methods: Fifty-four patients with pathologically confirmed ovarian cancer were randomly divided into a combined treatment (intravenous pump of rh-endostatin + TP regimen) group and a control (single chemotherapy) group, twenty-seven patients in each group.All patients were given a conventional CT examination.The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the size of tumor before treatment, after 2 cycles and after 4 cycles of treatment were determined for the comparison of curative effects and adverse reactions.Results: The effective rate was 37.0% (10/27) and disease control rate was 63.0% (17/27) in the combined treatment group after 2 cycles of treatment.The effective rate was 25.9% (7/27) and disease control rate was 63.0% (17/27) in the control group.The comparison between these two groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05).The effective rate was 63.0% (17/27) and disease control rate was 92.6% (25/27) in the combined treatment group after 4 cycles of treatment.The effective rate was 29.6% (8/27) and disease control rate was 63.0% (17/27) in the control group.The effective rate and disease control rate between these two groups after 4 cycles of treatment showed significant differences (P < 0.05).The incidences of cardiovascular toxicity, myelosuppression, sore muscles and joints, alopecia and gastrointestinal reaction was not significantly different between two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion: The pump delivery of rh-endostatin can down-regulate the expression of VEGF in ovarian cancer and has the better curative effect and slighter adverse reactions.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY

  8. Ovarian lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 % of pediatric oncologic pathology corresponds to mass or solid tumors, reaching about 20 % of total abdomen. The tumors that most frequently occur in the abdomen are nephroblastoma or Wilms tumor, Burkitts lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and ovarian germ cell tumors

  9. Ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of 4 human ovarian cancer cell lines was investigated in vitro by a clonogenic assay and analyzed using the linear-quadratric model. 2 Cell lines were found to be highly radiosensitive (mean inactivation dose (D-bar) 0.82-0.92 Gy; surviving fraction 2 Gy (SF2)2 0.22-0.38). Although the use of external radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has been limited due to the pattern of metastatic spread of this cancer, the present data support the view that ovarian carcinomas are radiosensitive tumors. Investigations on the effects of new approaches, such as delivering radiation more specifically to intraperitoneal ovarian cancer cells, are warranted. (author). 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Sang Song; Hee Seung Kim; Daisuke Aoki; Danny N. Dhanasekaran; Tsang, Benjamin K

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms traditionally sub-classified based on type and degree of differentiation. Although current clinical management of ovarian carcinoma largely fails to take this heterogeneity into account, it is becoming evident that each major histological type has characteristic genetic defects that deregulate specific signaling pathways in the tumor cells. Moreover, within the most common histological types, the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade ver...

  11. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy to Treat Advanced/Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from a Retrospective Study on Prospectively Established Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the best standard treatment, optimal cytoreductive surgery (CRS and platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy, prognosis of advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC remains poor. Recently, CRS plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC has been developed to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CRS+HIPEC to treat PC from advanced/recurrent EOC. METHODS: Forty-six PC patients from advanced EOC (group A or recurrent EOC (group B were treated by 50 CRS+HIPEC procedures. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS; the secondary endpoints were safety profiles. RESULTS: The median OS was 74.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI 8.5-139.5] for group A versus 57.5 months (95% CI 29.8-85.2 for group B (P = .68. The median PFS was not reached for group A versus 8.5 months (95% CI 0-17.5 for group B (P = .034. Better median OS correlated with peritoneal cancer index (PCI 20 group, P = .01, complete cyroreduction (residual disease ≤ 2.5 mm [79.5 months for completeness of cytoreduction (CC score 0-1 vs 24.3 months for CC 2-3, P = .00], and sensitivity to platinum (65.3 months for platinum-sensitive group vs 20.0 for platinum-resistant group, P = .05. Serious adverse events occurred in five patients (10.0%. Multivariate analysis identified CC score as the only independent factor for better survival. CONCLUSION: For advanced/recurrent EOC, CRS+HIPEC could improve OS with acceptable safety.

  12. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth R Smith; Ying eWang; Xiang-Xi Mike Xu

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progressi...

  13. Tolerance of weekly metronomic paclitaxel and carboplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced ovarian cancer patients who are unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S B Dessai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are little data regarding safety and effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT in patients who are considered unfit for receiving 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. The aim of this study was to examine the toxicity and response rates of weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin as NACT in such cohort of patients. Methods: Study population included advanced ovarian cancer patients who were unlikely to tolerate 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin and hence received weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m 2 and carboplatin AUC-2 as NACT. The data regarding the baseline characteristics, chemotherapy tolerance, completion rates, toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02, and radiological response rates are presented. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics is presented. Results: Eleven patients received this schedule. Nine patients completed nine cycles of NACT. Except one, all patients completed NACT with an average relative dose intensity of >0.8. There was no chemotherapy-related mortality. Grade 3-4 life-threatening complications were seen in two patients. The post NACT response rate was 100%. Conclusions: Weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy is safe and efficacious in patients who are unsuitable for 3 weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy schedules.

  14. Ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance, a surrogate for cell of origin

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Rosner, Bernard Alfred; Murphy, Megan A.; Hecht, Jonathan Lewis; Crum, Christopher Paul; Missmer, Stacey Ann; Cramer, Daniel William; Tworoger, Shelley Slate

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating ovarian tumors based on developmental pathway may further our understanding of the disease. Traditionally, ovarian cancers were thought to arise from the ovarian surface epithelium; however, recent evidence suggests some tumors originate in the fallopian tube. We classified cases in a population-based case-control study (NECC) and two cohort studies (NHS/NHSII) by tumor dominance, a proxy for tissue of origin. Dominant tumors (likely ovarian origin) are restricted to one ovary...

  15. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  16. Poor ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor ovarian reserve (POR is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women.

  17. The unique dorsal brood pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca) and description of an advanced developmental stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), with a discussion of mouth part homologies to other Malacostraca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen; Boesgaard, Tom; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    . Here we provide new observations on an ovigerous female of Tulumella unidens with advanced developmental stages in its brood chamber collected from an anchialine cave at the Yucatan Peninsula, which is only the third report on developmental stages of Thermosbaenacea and the first for the genus...

  18. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... widgets/current/fahc.html/ Search Share Embed Ovarian cancer fact sheet Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in the ovaries. ... make female hormones and produce a woman's eggs. Ovarian cancer is a serious cancer that is more ...

  19. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health/premature-ovarian-failure/DS00843 International Premature Ovarian Failure Association: www.ipofa.org ... to further patient education on hormone related issues. Network Sponsors The Hormone ...

  20. FDG-PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer staging: Value and pitfalls in detecting lesions in different abdominal and pelvic quadrants compared with laparoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Iaco, Pierandrea [Department of Gynaecology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Musto, Alessandra [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Orazi, Luca [Department of Gynaecology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Zamagni, Claudio; Rosati, Marta [Department of Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Allegri, Vincenzo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Cacciari, Nicoletta [Department of Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Al-Nahhas, Adil [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Rubello, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.rubello@libero.it [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Radiology, Medical Physics, ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Viale Tre Martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Venturoli, Stefano [Department of Gynaecology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction and aim: Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is a common cancer in the Western Countries, and an important cause of death in patients suffering with gynaecologic malignancies. The majority of patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Treatment with debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy is the standard approach while chemotherapy is contemplated when surgery is not possible. A correct pre-operative staging is important to ensure a most appropriate management. Laparoscopy (LPS) is the standard diagnostic tool for the assessment of intraperitoneal infiltration but is invasive and requires general anaesthesia. FDG-PET/CT is increasingly used for staging different types of cancer, and the aim of this study is to assess the value of FDG-PET/CT in staging advanced OC and its sensitivity to detect lesions in different quadrants of the abdominal-pelvic area compared to laparoscopy. Materials and methods: From September 2004 till April 2008, 40 patients with high suspicion of OC were referred to our hospital for diagnostic LPS to explore the possibility of optimal debulking surgery. Those who were not suitable for surgery were referred for chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy, the patients underwent an FDG-PET/CT scan. The findings in 9 quadrants of abdominal-pelvic area (total 360 quadrants) for PET/CT and LPS were recorded and compared. Results: In 14/360 areas (3.8%), surgical evaluation was not possible because of presence of adhesions, thus the number of areas explored by laparoscopy was 346. Tumour was found in 308 quadrants (38 quadrants free of disease). PET/CT was positive in all 40 patients with true negative results in 26/346 quadrants (7.5%), and true positives results in 243/346 quadrants (70.2%). False positive and negative PET/CT results were found in 12/346 and 65/346 quadrants, respectively. False positive PET/CT findings were evenly present in all quadrants. False negative PET/CT findings were present in 31/109 (28.4%) upper

  1. FDG-PET/CT in advanced ovarian cancer staging: Value and pitfalls in detecting lesions in different abdominal and pelvic quadrants compared with laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and aim: Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is a common cancer in the Western Countries, and an important cause of death in patients suffering with gynaecologic malignancies. The majority of patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Treatment with debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy is the standard approach while chemotherapy is contemplated when surgery is not possible. A correct pre-operative staging is important to ensure a most appropriate management. Laparoscopy (LPS) is the standard diagnostic tool for the assessment of intraperitoneal infiltration but is invasive and requires general anaesthesia. FDG-PET/CT is increasingly used for staging different types of cancer, and the aim of this study is to assess the value of FDG-PET/CT in staging advanced OC and its sensitivity to detect lesions in different quadrants of the abdominal-pelvic area compared to laparoscopy. Materials and methods: From September 2004 till April 2008, 40 patients with high suspicion of OC were referred to our hospital for diagnostic LPS to explore the possibility of optimal debulking surgery. Those who were not suitable for surgery were referred for chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy, the patients underwent an FDG-PET/CT scan. The findings in 9 quadrants of abdominal-pelvic area (total 360 quadrants) for PET/CT and LPS were recorded and compared. Results: In 14/360 areas (3.8%), surgical evaluation was not possible because of presence of adhesions, thus the number of areas explored by laparoscopy was 346. Tumour was found in 308 quadrants (38 quadrants free of disease). PET/CT was positive in all 40 patients with true negative results in 26/346 quadrants (7.5%), and true positives results in 243/346 quadrants (70.2%). False positive and negative PET/CT results were found in 12/346 and 65/346 quadrants, respectively. False positive PET/CT findings were evenly present in all quadrants. False negative PET/CT findings were present in 31/109 (28.4%) upper

  2. 新辅助化疗对晚期卵巢癌的疗效评价%Evaluation on the Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琮; 童晓文

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价新辅助化疗对晚期卵巢癌的疗效。方法选择2010年3月至2012年10月于同济大学医学院附属第十人民医院就诊的60例晚期卵巢癌患者为研究对象,采用随机数字表法分为结合组和常规组,每组30例。结合组采用术前新辅助化疗再结合手术治疗,常规组进行常规的手术治疗。观察并比较两组患者术后疗效;记录患者术中出血量、手术时间、手术残留情况以及腹膜后淋巴清扫术等各项指标,并进行对比分析。结果结合组总有效率为83.3%,常规组为53.3%,两组疗效比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);结合组和常规组患者术中出血量、手术时间比较差异有统计学意义[(426±126) mL比(620±125) mL,(3.4±1.6) h比(4.6±1.4) h](P<0.01),结合组患者术后残留≥2 cm 5例,行腹膜后淋巴清扫术20例,行结肠-直肠切除术1例,常规组患者术后残留≥2 cm 13例,行腹膜后淋巴清扫术9例,行结肠-直肠切除术6例,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论新辅助化疗对治疗晚期卵巢癌安全、可靠,效果良好。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer . Methods A total of 60 patients with advanced ovarian cancer admitted in the Tenth People′s Hospital of Tongji Medical College from Mar.2010 to Oct.2012 were selected and randomly divided into the combined treatment group and conventional surgery group,with 30 cases in each group.Patients in both groups were trea-ted with conventional surgery,while patients in the combined treatment group received extra neoadjuvant chem-otherapy.The postoperative efficacy of the two groups was observed,and the amount of intraoperative blood loss,operation time,surgery residues,and retroperitoneal lymph dissection indicators of the two groups were comparatively analyzed.Results The total effective rate of

  3. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  4. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  5. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer

  6. Effect of paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin on serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Yu Zhu; Jie Tan; Chen-Lu Zhang; Qun-Ying Wu; Xue-Xin Xie; Hua-Fang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin on serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.Methods:A total of 80 patients with advanced ovarian cancer in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=40) and experiment group (n=40) randomly. The control group were treated with paclitaxel and cisplatin, the experiment group were treated with paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin. 21 days for a period of treatment and the two groups were treated for 3 periods. The serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA levels and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results:There were no significantly differences of the serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP, CEA level and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). The serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP and CEA level of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and that of experiment were significantly lower than control group (P<0.05). The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+and NK cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05), and that of experiment were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Paclitaxel liposome combined with nedaplatin can significantly reduce the serum HE4, CA125, CA19-9, AFP and CEA levels, improve peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK levels of patients with advanced ovarian cancer, and it was worthy clinical application.

  7. HOX genes in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Zoë L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HOX genes are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cellular identity during development. Here we review a number of recent studies showing that HOX genes are strongly expressed in ovarian cancer, and that in some cases the expression of specific HOX genes is sufficient to confer a particular identity and phenotype upon cancer cells. We also review the recent advances in elucidating the different functions of HOX genes in ovarian cancer. A literature search was performed using the search terms HOX genes (including specific HOX genes, ovarian cancer and oncogenesis. Articles were accessed through searches performed in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and ScienceDirect. Taken together, these studies have shown that HOX genes play a role in the oncogenesis of ovarian cancer and function in the inhibition of apoptosis, DNA repair and enhanced cell motility. The function of HOX genes in ovarian cancer oncogenesis supports their potential role as prognostic and diagnostic markers, and as therapeutic targets in this disease.

  8. 甘氨双唑钠(CMNa)联合紫杉醇卡铂化疗对中晚期卵巢癌术后CA125升高的影响%Effects of CMNa combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin on elevated CA125 levels in post-operation advanced ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijian Lei; Yuming Jia; Jing Wang; Yiping Du

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of CMNa combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin on elevated CA125 levels in post-operation advanced ovarian cancer patients. Methods: The effects of CMNa combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin on elevated CA125 levels in 25 post-operation advanced ovarian cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those in 20 control cases. Results: After 1 cycle of chemotherapy, CA125 levels had decreasing trend compared with control, but had no statistical significance. While after two cycles of chemotherapy, CA125 levels decreased more rapidly compared with those in control. Side effects in two groups were alike. Conclusion: CMNa combined with paclitaxel and carboplatine has a stronger effect on the decrease of elevated CA125 levels than paclitaxel and carboplatin have in the treatment of post-operation advanced ovarian cancer, which indicates that CMNa has chemo-sensitizing effects on chemotherapy of paclitaxel and carboplatin.

  9. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  10. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  11. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jurjees Hasan; Loaie El-Helw; Emma Dean

    2010-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the a...

  12. Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I; Bast, Robert C; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S; Brenton, James D; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B; Lord, Chris J; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B; Nephew, Kenneth P; Oza, Amit M; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D; Balkwill, Frances R

    2011-10-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies that are collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Opinion article. PMID:21941283

  13. Quality of life of advanced ovarian cancer patients in the randomized phase III study comparing primary debulking surgery versus neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greimel, E.; Kristensen, G.B.; Burg, M.E.L. van der; Coronado, P.; Rustin, G.; Rio, A.S. del; Reed, N.S.; Nordal, R.R.; Coens, C.; Vergote, I.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Ottevanger, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The EORTC 55971 trial compared primary debulking surgery (PDS) versus neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS). The impact of both treatment arms on quality of life (QOL) is reported. METHODS: Patients with stages IIIc or IV ovarian cancer completed th

  14. Clinical management of ovarian small-cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type: A proposal for conservative surgery in an advanced stage of disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.M. Dykgraaf; D. de Jong (Diederick); M. van Veen (Mirjam); P.C. Ewing-Graham (Patricia); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo); M. van der Burg (Mirjam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOvarian small-cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type is a rare and highly malignant tumor. In two thirds of the patients, the tumor is associated with asymptomatic paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. The diagnosis may be impeded; the tumor must be distinguished from other tumors with similar

  15. Ovarian Cancer and Body Size: Individual Participant Meta-Analysis Including 25,157 Women with Ovarian Cancer from 47 Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Cancer of the ovaries, usually referred to as ovarian cancer, is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, and, unfortunately, symptoms (such as abdominal pain and swelling) usually occur late in the disease process; fewer than one-third of ovarian cancers are detected before they have spread outside of the ovaries. There is no definitive evidence that screening reduces mortality from ovarian cancer, and given the poor prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer, ...

  16. Developmental Dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Developmental Dyspraxia Information Page Synonym(s): Dyspraxia Table of Contents (click ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Developmental Dyspraxia? Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers

  18. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  19. 节律化疗作为体力状况较差的晚期卵巢上皮癌患者的姑息治疗%Metronomic chemotherapy as a palliative treatment in poor performance status patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eman I.Ismail; Mohamed A.Elgawad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of metronomic chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Methods: Fifteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma and bad performance status were subjected to daily cyclophosphamide(CTX)after failure of 1st line chemotherapy which included paditaxel and carboplatin. Evaluation of the cases during treatment as regard treatment side effects and progression free survival. Results: Patients could tolerate low dose oral cyclophosphamide treatment without considerable side effects with improvement of performance status. The mean progression free survival was 12 months. Conclusion: Low dose oral cydophosphamide could be considered as a palliative treatment of pretreated ovarian carcinomas with poor performance status.

  20. Adoptive immunotherapy against ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mittica, Gloria; Capellero, Sonia; Genta, Sofia; Cagnazzo, Celeste; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The standard front-line therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is combination of debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence. Although extensive efforts to find new therapeutic options, cancer cells invariably develop drug resistance and disease progression. New therapeutic strategies are needed to improve prognosis of patients with advanced EOC. Recently, several preclinical and clinical studies investigated fea...

  1. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  2. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Badgwell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most deadly of the gynecological cancers. Less than 30% of women with advanced stage disease survive long-term. When diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with conventional surgery and chemotherapy. At present, only 25% of ovarian cancers are detected in stage I due, in part, to the absence of specific symptoms and to lack of an effective screening strategy. Early detection of ovarian cancer might significantly improve the overall survival rate of women with ovarian cancer if 1 most cancers are clonal and unifocal, arising in the ovary rather than in the peritoneum, 2 metastatic disease results from progression of clinically detectable stage I lesions, and 3 cancers remain localized for a sufficient interval to permit cost-effective screening. Given the prevalence of ovarian cancer, strategies for early detection must have high sensitivity for early stage disease (> 75%, but must have extremely high specificity (99.6% to attain a positive predictive value of at least 10%. Transvaginal sonography (TVS, serum markers and a combination of the two modalities have been evaluated for early detection of ovarian cancer. Among the serum markers, CA125 has received the most attention, but lacks the sensitivity or specificity to function alone as a screening test. Greater specificity can be achieved by combining CA125 and TVS and/or by monitoring CA125 over time. Two stage screening strategies promise to be cost effective, where abnormal serum assays prompt TVS to detect lesions that require laparotomy. Accrual has been completed for a 200,000 woman trial in the United Kingdom that will test the ability of a rising CA125 to trigger TVS and subsequent exploratory surgery. Given the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, it is unlikely that any single marker will be sufficiently sensitive to provide an effective initial screen. Sensitivity of serum assays might be enhanced by utilizing a

  3. En bloc pelvic resection for advanced ovarian cancer preceded by central ligation of vessels supplying the tumor bed: a description of surgical technique and a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Sznurkowski, Jacek Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background The resection of all visible malignancies increases the likelihood for long-term survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. The complete extinguishment of pelvic disease is possible using en bloc pelvic resection. The no-touch isolation technique aims to reduce cancer cells flowing from the primary tumor site to the liver and other organs by ligating blood and lymphatic vessels first. objectives are to present the operative details and to establish the feasibility of the modified techn...

  4. CA-125 cut-off value as a predictor for complete interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Furukawa, Naoto; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Shigemitsu, Aiko; AKASAKA, JURIA; Kanayama, Seiji; Kawaguchi, Ryuji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we evaluated changes in CA-125 cut-off values predictive of complete interval debulking surgery (IDS) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Methods This retrospective single-institution study included patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III epithelial ovarian cancer and a pre-NAC serum CA-125 level of greater than 40 U/mL who were treated with neoadjuvant platinu...

  5. Ovarian Drilling for Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Ovarian drilling for infertility This fact sheet was developed ... may be helped with a surgical procedure called ovarian drilling. This procedure is sometimes called “whiffle ball” ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC ...

  7. Premature Ovarian Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is when a woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40. POF is different from ... There is no treatment that will restore normal ovarian function. However, many health care providers suggest taking ...

  8. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AZ Signs & Symptoms Potential signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer: Bloating Pelvic or abdominal pain Trouble eating ... to urinate urgently or often Other symptoms of ovarian cancer can include: Fatigue Upset stomach or heartburn ...

  9. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  11. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a problem that is sometimes seen in women who take fertility medicines ... the belly and chest area. This is called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). OHSS occurs only after the ...

  12. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  13. Targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer: Molecular mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki; Itamochi

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological cancer. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis.Currently, surgical tumor debulking, followed by platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. However, these patients are at great risk of recurrence and emerging drug resistance. Therefore, novel treatment strategies are required to improve outcomes for women with advanced ovarian cancer. A variety of molecular targeted agents, the majority of which are monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule protein-kinase inhibitors, have been explored in the management of ovarian cancer. The targets of these agents include angiogenesis, the human epidermal growth factor receptor family, ubiquitinproteasome pathway, epigenetic modulators, poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which are aberrant in tumor tissue. The antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab, has been reported as the most effective targeted agent and should be included in the standard chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced ovarian cancer. PARP inhibitors, which are mainly used in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene-mutated patients, and mTOR inhibitors are also attractive treatment strategies, either alone or combination with chemotherapy, for ovarian cancer. Understanding the tumor molecular biology and identification of predictive biomarkers are essential steps for selection of the best treatment strategies. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the most promising targeted agents that are under early phase clinical evaluation for ovarian cancer.

  14. 76 FR 55209 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... also reaffirm our commitment to raising awareness about ovarian cancer, and to advancing our screening... effective screening tests, ovarian cancer is often not detected in time for successful interventions. It is... Cancer Awareness Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  15. Ovarian biopsy in the evaluation of amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, K; Mroueh, A

    1978-01-01

    Endoscopic ovarian biopsies were performed on 78 amenorrheic patients in an attempt to determine the etiology of their amenorrhea and predict its prognosis, correlating the histologic examination with physical findings, endocrine patterns and cytogenetic studies. Ovarian follicles were present while gonadotropins were high in 14 cases (6 primary, 8 secondary) and there were no follicles in 4 cases (3 primary, 1 secondary) whose gonadotropins were low. Secondary sex characteristics were well developed without prior estrogen stimulation in 5 cases of primary amenorrhea who had no follicles and whose gonadotropins were either low, 3, or high, 2. The mere presence of ovarian follicles was not enough to make them responsive to gonadotropin stimulation whether endogenous or exogenous; a phenomenon that had to do with the quality and quantity of germinal follicles available. The histologic examination of ovarian tissue for the evaluation of amenorrhea has been made feasible and relatively safe through recent advances in endoscopic techniques. PMID:151477

  16. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhondali W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wadih Rhondali,1 Gilles Freyer,2 Virginie Adam,3 Marilène Filbet,4 Martine Derzelle,5 Gaelle Abgrall-Barbry,6 Sophie Bourcelot,7 Jean-Louis Machavoine,8 Muriel Chomat-Neyraud,9 Olivier Gisserot,10 Rémi Largillier,11 Annick Le Rol,12 Frank Priou,13 Pierre Saltel,14 Claire Falandry15 1Clinique Mon Repos, Clinea, Marseille, France; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 3Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 4Palliative Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 5Institut Jean Godinot, Reims, France; 6Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 7Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 8Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France; 9Centre Hospitalier de la région d’Annecy, Pringy, France; 10Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France; 11Centre Azuréen de Cancérologie, Mougins, France; 12Medical Oncology, Hôpital Perpétuel Secours, Levallois-Perret, France; 13Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Départemental Les Oudairies, La Roche-sur-Yon, France; 14Supportive Care Department, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 15Geriatrics and Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France Background: Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA, and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC.Methods: This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3, designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS, the Hospital

  17. The Potential Mechanisms Underlying Aspirin-induced Inhibition of Ovarian Tumor Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionOvarian cancer remains the most lethal disease of the gynecological cancers. Owing to the lack of an effective screening approach combined with inadequate therapeutic approach for advanced disease, fewer than 25% of ovarian cancers are identified at an early curable stage. Thus these make ovarian cancer a strong candidate for chemoprevention. In 2001, Akhmedkhanov et al. demonstrated a 2-3 folds decrease in epithelial ovarian cancer associated with Aspirin use. These epidemiological observatio...

  18. Primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Michel; Devroey, Paul; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency is a subclass of ovarian dysfunction in which the cause is within the ovary. In most cases, an unknown mechanism leads to premature exhaustion of the resting pool of primordial follicles. Primary ovarian insufficiency might also result from genetic defects, chemotherapy

  19. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  20. MicroRNAs and Recent Insights into Pediatric Ovarian Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Crawford

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common pediatric gynecologic malignancy. When diag-nosed in children, ovarian cancers present unique challenges that differ dramatically from those faced by adults. Here, we review the spectrum of ovarian cancers found in young women and girls and discuss the biology of these diseases. A number of advances have re-cently shed significant new understanding on the potential causes of ovarian cancer in this unique population. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding how altered expression of non-coding RNA transcripts known as microRNAs play a key role in the etiology of ovarian germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Emerging transgenic models for these diseases are also reviewed. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities for understanding pediatric ovarian cancers, delineating clinically useful biomarkers and developing targeted therapies are discussed.

  1. Intersystem Implications of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Advancing Health Promotion in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Michael D; Heaton, Thomas L; Goates, Michael C; Packer, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) theory and life course theory (LCT) are emerging fields of research that have significant implications for the public health and health promotion professions. Using a DOHaD/LCT perspective, social determinants of health (SDH) take on new critical meaning by which health promotion professionals can implement DOHaD/LCT guided interventions, including recommended policies. Through these interventions, public health could further address the sources of worldwide chronic disease epidemics and reduce such disease rates substantially if related policy, programs, and interdisciplinary and multi-sector collaboration are emphasized. Additional characteristics of the most effective interventions involve context-specific adaptation and societal structures that impact upstream, early life environments on a broad scale, influencing multiple locations and/or diseases. PMID:27417633

  2. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham;

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the...

  3. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  4. Treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiosensitizer: report of a pilot study from the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight patients with Stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma were treated with combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy employing a unique protocol. Four cycles of cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternated with four cycles of concurrent cisplatin, whole abdominal radiotherapy, and intraperitoneal misonidazole. The entire treatment program lasted six months. Clinical complete responses were seen in 50% of the patients with an overall response rate of 61%. Pathologic complete response (PCR) confirmed at second look surgery occurred in 18% of the group (5 patients). Median survival of the entire group was 15.2 months with all PCR's alive NED. This outcome was no different than our previous experience with combination chemotherapy alone. Toxicities seen included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. However, these side effects were manageable. Two non-tumor deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining drug and radiation therapy concurrently in the treatment of ovarian cancer; further research is needed to explore different sequencing and dose levels that could improve the outcome

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubeni, Chyke A; Doubeni, Anna R; Myers, Allison E

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Less than one-half of patients survive for more than five years after diagnosis. Ovarian cancer affects women of all ages but is most commonly diagnosed after menopause. More than 75% of affected women are diagnosed at an advanced stage because early-stage disease is usually asymptomatic and symptoms of late-stage disease are nonspecific. The strongest risk factors are advancing age and family history of ovarian and breast cancer. Women who have symptoms concerning for ovarian cancer should undergo a physical examination, transvaginal ultrasonography, and measurement of biomarkers such as cancer antigen 125. If results are suspicious for ovarian cancer, the patient should be referred to a gynecologic oncologist. Despite the low rate of early diagnosis, guidelines recommend against routine screening for ovarian cancer in average-risk women because screening, including routine pelvic examinations, is ineffective and associated with harm. However, a recent trial found a potential benefit of annual screening using an algorithm based on serial cancer antigen 125 measurements followed by transvaginal ultrasonography for women at increased risk, as determined by the algorithm. Women with an increased-risk family history should be referred for genetic counseling and, if genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA mutations) are identified, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy can be considered for risk reduction. In both average- and high-risk women, long-term hormonal contraceptive use reduces risk by about 50%. The treatment of ovarian cancer usually involves surgery, with or without intraperitoneal and intravenous chemotherapy. Primary care physicians have important roles in posttreatment surveillance and end-of-life care. PMID:27281838

  6. Developmental Programming: Effect of Prenatal Steroid Excess on Intraovarian Components of Insulin Signaling Pathway and Related Proteins in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H.; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M.L.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure. PMID:20147730

  7. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can ovarian cancer be found early? Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Most women have one or ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history ...

  8. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Stage III Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  9. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  10. Chemotherapy of ovarian cancer in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiffany A. Troso-Sandoval; Stuart M. Lichtman

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is primarily a disease of older women. Advanced age is risk factor for decreased survival. Optimal surgery and the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy are essential for prolonged progression-free and overall survival (OS). In this article, the available regimens in both the primary treatment and relapsed setting are reviewed.

  11. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  12. The Unique Dorsal Brood Pouch of Thermosbaenacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca and Description of an Advanced Developmental Stage of Tulumella unidens from the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico, with a Discussion of Mouth Part Homologies to Other Malacostraca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Olesen

    Full Text Available The Thermosbaenacea, a small taxon of crustaceans inhabiting subterranean waters, are unique among malacostracans as they brood their offspring dorsally under the carapace. This habit is of evolutionary interest but the last detailed report on thermosbaenacean development is more than 40 years old. Here we provide new observations on an ovigerous female of Tulumella unidens with advanced developmental stages in its brood chamber collected from an anchialine cave at the Yucatan Peninsula, which is only the third report on developmental stages of Thermosbaenacea and the first for the genus Tulumella. Significant in a wider crustacean context, we report and discuss hitherto unexplored lobate structures inside the brood chamber of the female originating at the first (maxilliped and second thoracic segments, which are most likely modified epipods, perhaps serving as gills. At the posterior margin of carapace of the female are rows of large spines preventing the developing stages from falling out. The external morphology of the advanced developmental stages is described in much detail, providing information on e.g., carapace formation and early limb morphology. Among the hitherto unknown structures in the advanced developmental stages provided by this study are the presence of an embryonic dorsal organ and rudimentary 'naupliar processes' of the second antennae. Since most hypotheses on crustacean (and malacostracan and peracaridan relationship rest on external limb morphology, we use early limb bud morphology of Tulumella to better establish thermosbaenacean limb homologies to those of other crustaceans, which is a necessary basis for future morphology based phylogenetic considerations.

  13. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  14. Ovarian cancer treatment: The end of empiricism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, Stephanie; Karakasis, Katherine; Kohn, Elise C; Oza, Amit M

    2015-09-15

    The diagnosis, investigation, and management of ovarian cancer are in a state of flux-balancing ever rapid advances in our understanding of its biology with 3 decades of clinical trials. Clinical trials that started with empirically driven selections have evolved in an evidence-informed manner to gradually improve outcome. Has this improved understanding of the biology and associated calls to action led to appropriate changes in therapy? In this review, the authors discuss incorporating emerging data on biology, combinations, dose, and scheduling of new and existing agents with patient preferences in the management of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26096019

  15. Evaluating the risk of ovarian cancer before surgery using the ADNEX model to differentiate between benign, borderline, early and advanced stage invasive, and secondary metastatic tumours: prospective multicentre diagnostic study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Calster, Ben; Van Hoorde, Kirsten; Valentin, Lil; Testa, Antonia C; Fischerova, Daniela; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Savelli, Luca; Franchi, Dorella; Epstein, Elisabeth; Kaijser, Jeroen; Van Belle, Vanya; Czekierdowski, Artur; Guerriero, Stefano; Fruscio, Robert; Lanzani, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop a risk prediction model to preoperatively discriminate between benign, borderline, stage I invasive, stage II-IV invasive, and secondary metastatic ovarian tumours. Design Observational diagnostic study using prospectively collected clinical and ultrasound data. Setting 24 ultrasound centres in 10 countries. Participants Women with an ovarian (including para-ovarian and tubal) mass and who underwent a standardised ultrasound examination before surgery. The model was deve...

  16. Surgical treatment pattern and outcomes in epithelial ovarian cancer patients from a cancer institute in Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeena, P; Rajanbabu, Anupama; Vijaykumar, DK; Pavithran, K.; Sundaram, KR; Deepak, KS; Sanal, MR

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the treatment and survival pattern of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods and results Retrospective study of all advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients treated in the department of gynaecologic oncology from an academic centre, in a four year period from 1 January 2008–31 December 2011. Selection criteria All patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stage III and IV) who underwent surgery from 2008–2011and had a follow-up of at least t...

  17. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  18. Accumulation and toxicity of antibody-targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles in ovarian cancer cell spheroid model

    OpenAIRE

    Perche, Federico; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded PEG-PE micelles targeting using an ovarian cancer cell spheroid model. Most ovarian cancer patients present at an advanced clinical stage and develop resistance to standard of care platinum/taxane therapy. Doxorubicin is also approved for ovarian cancer but had limited benefits in refractory patients. In this study, we used drug-resistant spheroid cultures of ovarian carcinoma to evaluate the uptake and cytotoxicity of an antibody-targeted doxo...

  19. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  20. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  1. Perspective in infertility: the ovarian stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cafforio, Paola; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and social condition that affects millions of women worldwide and is today considered so far as a new disease. A considerable progress has been recently pursued in the field of the reproductive medicine and the infertility treatment may account for novel and modern procedures such as in vitro oocyte fertilization, egg donation, pregnancy surrogacy and preimplantation diagnosis. However, great interest has lately been reserved to the ovarian stem cells (OSCs) whose existence in woman ovaries has been proven. OSCs are thus suitable for developmental studies in infertility and in other clinical applications as endocrine derangements due to premature ovarian failure, or for infertility treatment after cancer chemotherapies, as well as in restoring the hormonal balance in postmenopausal age. PMID:26250560

  2. Immunoregulation of follicular renewal, selection, POF, and menopause in vivo, vs. neo-oogenesis in vitro, POF and ovarian infertility treatment, and a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovsky Antonin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The immune system plays an important role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis ("tissue immune physiology". Function of distinct tissues during adulthood, including the ovary, requires (1 Renewal from stem cells, (2 Preservation of tissue-specific cells in a proper differentiated state, which differs among distinct tissues, and (3 Regulation of tissue quantity. Such morphostasis can be executed by the tissue control system, consisting of immune system-related components, vascular pericytes, and autonomic innervation. Morphostasis is established epigenetically, during morphogenetic (developmental immune adaptation, i.e., during the critical developmental period. Subsequently, the tissues are maintained in a state of differentiation reached during the adaptation by a “stop effect” of resident and self renewing monocyte-derived cells. The later normal tissue is programmed to emerge (e.g., late emergence of ovarian granulosa cells, the earlier its function ceases. Alteration of certain tissue differentiation during the critical developmental period causes persistent alteration of that tissue function, including premature ovarian failure (POF and primary amenorrhea. In fetal and adult human ovaries the ovarian surface epithelium cells called ovarian stem cells (OSC are bipotent stem cells for the formation of ovarian germ and granulosa cells. Recently termed oogonial stem cells are, in reality, not stem but already germ cells which have the ability to divide. Immune system-related cells and molecules accompany asymmetric division of OSC resulting in the emergence of secondary germ cells, symmetric division, and migration of secondary germ cells, formation of new granulosa cells and fetal and adult primordial follicles (follicular renewal, and selection and growth of primary/preantral, and dominant follicles. The number of selected follicles during each ovarian cycle is determined by autonomic innervation. Morphostasis is altered with

  3. Female genital tract tuberculosis presenting as ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Hasanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is still a major worldwide concern. There is no pathognomonic clinical feature or imaging findings for definite diagnosis of extra pulmonary TB. Therefore, TB involvement of Gastrointestinal or Genitourinary tract can be easily confused with peritoneal carcinomatosis and advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of considering the disease based upon the epidemiologic clues of the patients, while interpreting the positive results for a suspicious ovarian malignancy. Cases: This paper illustrates 8 cases of ovarian or peritoneal tuberculosis, whose initial diagnoses were malignant processes of the GU tract. Conclusion: Tuberculosis ( TB should be always being considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer, especially in the regions that are endemic for the disease.

  4. MV-NIS Infected Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  5. Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Roudebush

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the female ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization and subsequent embryo development and implantation. At birth, the ovary contains a finite number of oocytes available for folliculogenesis. This finite number of available oocytes is termed “the ovarian reserve”. The determination of ovarian reserve is important in the assessment and treatment of infertility. As the ovary ages, the ovarian reserve will decline. Infertility affects approximately 15-20% of reproductive aged couples. The most commonly used biomarker assay to assess ovarian reserve is the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. However, antimüllerian hormone and inhibin-B are other biomarkers of ovarian reserve that are gaining in popularity since they provide direct determination of ovarian status, whereas day 3 FSH is an indirect measurement. This review examines the physical tools and the hormone biomarkers used to evaluate ovarian reserve.

  6. Cancer Vaccines in Ovarian Cancer: How Can We Improve?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Martin Lluesma; Anita Wolfer; Alexandre Harari; Lana E. Kandalaft

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one important cause of gynecologic cancer-related death. Currently, the mainstay of ovarian cancer treatment consists of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy (introduced 30 years ago) but, as the disease is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, its prognosis remains very poor. Clearly, there is a critical need for new treatment options, and immunotherapy is one attractive alternative. Prophylactic vaccines for prevention of infectious dise...

  7. Cytologic changes of ovarian epithelial cancer induced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zheng, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by cytoreduction has now become a part of standard care for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cytologic changes of the cancer cells induced by NACT, however, sometimes may cause confusion in terms of pathologic diagnosis and therefore inappropriate management. The objective of this study was to characterize the histologic or cytologic features of the ovarian cancers from those patients who received NACT in order to improve the diagnosti...

  8. Other Gynecologic Cancers: endometrial, ovarian, vulvar and vaginal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte-Franco, Eliane; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2004-01-01

    Health issue In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from vulvar and vaginal cancers are very low, endometrium and ovarian cancer are important public health problems. Key findings In Canada, there has been no appreciable improvement in survival for women with advanced endometrial (EC) or ovarian cancer (OC) over the past 30 years....

  9. Intensified dose of cyclophosphamide with G-CSF support versus standard dose combined with platinum in first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer a randomised study from the GINECO group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Coquard, I; Paraiso, D; Guastalla, J-P; Leduc, B; Guichard, F; Martin, C; Chauvenet, L; Haddad-Guichard, Z; Lepillé, D; Orfeuvre, H; Gautier, H; Castera, D; Pujade-Lauraine, É

    2007-01-01

    ICON3 trial results have suggested that CAP and carboplatin–taxol regimens as first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) yield similar survival. We explored the impact of increased dose of cyclophosphamide in a modified CAP regimen on the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of AOC patients. From February 1994 to June 1997, 164 patients were randomised to receive six cycles every 3 weeks of either standard CEP (S) combining cyclophosphamide (C), 500 mg m−2, epirubicin (E) 50 mg m−2, and cisplatin (P) 75 mg m−2 or intensive CEP (I) with E and P at the same doses, but with (C) 1800 mg m−2 and filgrastim 5 μg kg−1 per day × 10 days. Response was evaluated at second-look surgery. Patient characteristics were well balanced. Except for grade 3–4 neutropaenia (S: 54%, I: 38% of cycles), Arm1 presented a significantly more important toxicity: infection requiring antibiotics, grade 3–4 thrombocytopaenia, anaemia, nausea-vomiting, diarrhoea, mucositis. Median follow-up was 84 months. DFS (15.9 vs 14.8 months) and OS (33 vs 30 months) were not significantly different between S and I (P>0.05). Increasing cyclophosphamide dose by more than 3 times with filgrastim support in the modified CAP regimen CEP induces more toxicity but not better efficacy in AOC. PMID:17923867

  10. Ovarian reserve tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Rekha Jirge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian reserve plays a crucial role in achieving pregnancy following any treatment in subfertile women. The estimation of ovarian reserve is routinely performed through various ovarian reserve tests (ORTs in an effort to predict the response and outcome in couples prior to In Vitro Fertilization and counsel them. Most widely used tests are basal follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count. The role of ORTs in our routine practice is discussed in this article. A MEDLINE search was done to identify suitable articles for review.

  11. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer Can ovarian cancer be found early? About 20% of ovarian ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a ...

  12. Comparing long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy and open laprotomy for ovarian endometrioma

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitoun, Moustafa M; Zaitoun, Mohamed Moustafa; El Behery, Manal M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the long term impact on ovarian reserve between laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy with bipolar electrocoagulation and laparotomic cystectomy with suturing for ovarian endometrotic cyst. Patient and method(s) 121 patients with benign ovarian endometroitic cysts were randomised to either laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy using bipolar electrocoagulation (61 patients) or laparotomic ovarian cystectomy using sutures (60 patients). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, Antimullerian...

  13. Fischer 344 Rat: A Preclinical Model for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Folate-Targeted Therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    AZAIS, Henri; QUENIAT, Gurvan; Bonner, Caroline; Kerdraon, Olivier; Tardivel, Meryem; Leroux, Bertrand; Frochot, Céline; Betrouni, Nacim; Collinet, Pierre; Mordon, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cancer prognosis remains dire after primary therapy. Recurrence rates are disappointingly high as 60% of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer considered in remission will develop recurrent disease within 5 years. Special attention to undetected peritoneal metastasis and residual tumorous cells during surgery is necessary as they are the main predictive factors of recurrences. Folate receptor [alpha] (FR[alpha]) shows promising prospects in targeting ovarian cancero...

  14. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An inset shows cancer cells in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer ...

  15. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  16. Ovarian reserve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, Julie Lyng; Pinborg, Anja;

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration is influenced by hormonal contraception. This study quantified the effect of hormonal contraception on both endocrine and sonographic ovarian reserve markers in 228 users and 504 non-users of hormonal contraception. On day...... 2-5 of the menstrual cycle or during withdrawal bleeding, blood sampling and transvaginal sonography was performed. After adjusting for age, ovarian reserve parameters were lower among users than among non-users of hormonal contraception: serum AMH concentration by 29.8% (95% CI 19.9 to 38...... was observed between duration of hormonal-contraception use and ovarian reserve parameters. No dose-response relation was found between the dose of ethinyloestradiol and AMH or AFC. This study indicates that ovarian reserve markers are lower in women using sex steroids for contraception. Thus, AMH...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... population data for older age groups are available. Statistics at a Glance Show More At a Glance ... with ovarian cancer in the United States. Survival Statistics Show More How Many People Survive 5 Years ...

  18. Epidemiology of ovarian malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The epidemiology and presentation of ovarian tumours has remained unchanged since last 3 decades. Nulliparity is not as significant a factor in the aetiology of ovarian malignancy however contraception leading to anovulatory cycles (OC pills may have a protective role. Infertility can be suggested as a risk factor but the treatment for infertility and its role in oncogenesis remains controversial. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 186-193

  19. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  20. Pathobiology of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran; Catherine Genestie

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of lesions, displaying distinct tumor pathology and oncogenic potentiel. These tumors are subdivided into three main categories: epithelial, germ cell, and sex-cord stromal tumors. We report herein the newly described molecular abnormalities in epithelial ovarian cancers (carcinomas). Immunohistochemistry and molecular testing help pathologists to decipher the significant heterogeneity of this disease. Our better understanding of the molecular bas...

  1. Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. They may be physical, such as blindness. They may affect mental ability, such as learning disorders. Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down ...

  2. Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic-peritoneal tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary site in young females mimicking an advanced ovarian malignancy. We present 2 cases with the classical triad of advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma-ascites, abdominopelvic masses and elevated serum CA-125 levels. Laparoscopic examination revealed peritoneal nodules which on biopsy showed granulomatous inflammation and no malignant cells. Patients were started on anti-tuberculous therapy and on follow-up their symptoms as well as CA-125 levels normalized. Medical awareness of peritoneal tuberculosis is lacking and many young women with this disease undergo unnecessary extended surgery. Diagnostic laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy seems to be a sufficient and safe method to provide a definitive diagnosis for this curable infection. If left untreated, the disease may disseminate and result in significant organ dysfunctions particularly infertility. (author)

  3. Peripartum disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis simulating ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, David M; Osho, Joseph A; Zinn, Harry; Demetus, Spiro; Huang, Jennifer; Temkin, Sarah; Abulafia, Ovadia

    2005-10-01

    Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an uncommon complication of pregnancy. We present a 26-year-old multiparous immigrant from Haiti who was admitted following an extramural preterm delivery. Marked ascites was confirmed by computerized tomography, which also revealed a thickened greater omentum. These findings were considered suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma, although extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also considered despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. Image-guided omental biopsy demonstrated caseating granulomas substantiating the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, which was later confirmed by cultures. The patient responded well to antituberculosis medications. This case describes the unusual peripartum presentation of abdominal tuberculosis simulating advanced ovarian carcinoma, and demonstrates the importance of considering extrapulmonary tuberculosis when encountering ascites and omental thickening during pregnancy despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. PMID:16215926

  4. Ovarian Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Ovarian Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... for which statistics are available. Rates of Getting Ovarian Cancer by State The number of women who get ...

  5. SPONTANEOUS RESOLUTION OF ANTENATALY DIAGNOSED COMPLEX OVARIAN CYST - A FOLLOW UP SONOGRAPHIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Satyabhuwan Singh; Vishnu; Vivek; Rajesh; Sanjay,

    2014-01-01

    A congenital ovarian cyst in feto - neonatal stage is a rare condition. New advanced Ultrasonography technique increased the incidences. Though benign, large cyst and complex cysts may require surgical management. We fol lowed one case of complex feto - neonatal ovarian cyst till complete resolution.

  6. Miscarriage risk for IVF pregnancies in poor responders to ovarian hyperstimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haadsma, Maaike L.; Groen, Henk; Mooij, Thea M.; Burger, Curt W.; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hoek, Annemiek

    2010-01-01

    The increasing miscarriage rate with advancing female age is attributed to a decline in oocyte quality. A poor response to ovarian hyperstimulation is often an expression of a decrease in oocyte quantity. Although oocyte quality and quantity both decrease as a result of ovarian ageing, it is unclear

  7. Miscarriage risk for IVF pregnancies in poor responders to ovarian hyperstimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haadsma, M.L.; Groen, H.; Mooij, T.M.; Burger, C.W.; Broekmans, F.J.; Lambalk, C.B.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Hoek, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing miscarriage rate with advancing female age is attributed to a decline in oocyte quality. A poor response to ovarian hyperstimulation is often an expression of a decrease in oocyte quantity. Although oocyte quality and quantity both decrease as a result of ovarian ageing, it is unclear

  8. A Current Review of Targeted Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to detect, ovarian cancer typically presents at an advanced stage. Significant progress has been achieved in the treatment of ovarian cancer with therapeutics focused on DNA replication or cell division. However, despite sensitivity to induction chemotherapy the majority of patients will develop recurrent disease. Conventional agents for recurrent disease offer little in terms of long-term responses. Various targeted therapeutics have been explored in the management of ovarian cancer. These include monoclonal antibodies to epidermal growth factor receptors, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies directed at the vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab, and the small tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. Recently, several other agents have come forth as potential therapeutic agents in the management of ovarian cancer. These include monoclonal antibodies to the folate receptor, triple angiokinase inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, aurora kinase inhibitors, inhibitors of the Hedgehog pathway, folate receptor antagonists, and MTOR inhibitors.

  9. The expression of AMH protein between in different developmental stages of the adult mice follicle and in ovarian tissue of different ages%AMH蛋白在性成熟小鼠卵泡发育不同阶段及自然衰老过程卵巢组织中的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田勇; 赖志文; 石良艳; 杨书红; 罗爱月; 王世宣

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过检测抗苗勒氏管激素(AMH)蛋白在成年小鼠卵泡发育不同阶段和自然衰老过程卵巢中的表达变化,为卵泡的生长发育调控及卵巢衰老发生发展的机制研究奠定理论基础.方法:选用12,24,36,48周龄自然衰老C57 BL/6小鼠为模型.收集12周龄C57BL/6小鼠不同发育阶段的卵巢和24,36,48周龄自然衰老C57BL/6小鼠卵巢.采用免疫组织化学方法和蛋白印迹技术检测各组卵巢中AMH蛋白的表达.结果:免疫组织化学显示,AMH蛋白在始基卵泡、初级卵泡,次级卵泡、窦状卵泡的颗粒细胞中均有表达,但在黄体和闭锁卵泡的颗粒细胞中未见表达.始基卵泡颗粒细胞中AMH蛋白表达明显低于初级卵泡、次级卵泡和窦状卵泡(P<0.05);窦状卵泡颗粒细胞中AMH蛋白表达明显低于初级卵泡和次级卵泡(P<0.05);初级卵泡和次级卵泡的AMH蛋白表达未见明显差异(P>0.05).不同鼠龄的小鼠同级别卵泡颗粒细胞AMH的染色程度未见明显差异;但是24周龄以后间质中开始出现AMH蛋白表达,并且AMH的表达随鼠龄增加而上升;48周龄小鼠卵巢间质中AMH蛋白表达明显高于24周龄和36周龄(P<0.05);24周龄与36周龄比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).蛋白印迹技术结果显示,AMH蛋白在小鼠卵巢组织中的表达随鼠龄增加而降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:AMH蛋白主要表达于卵泡发育早期阶段的颗粒细胞,并且其在间质中随鼠龄增加表达增强,但是在整个卵巢组织中其表达量随鼠龄增加而降低.提示AMH可能在卵泡发育以及卵巢衰老中起重要的调控作用.%Objective:Detecting the protein expressions of Anti mullerian hormone ( AMH ) in different developmental stages of the adult mice follicles and ovarian tissue of differ-ent ages which to establish a theory foundation for the regulation of follicle development and the mechanism researching of the development of

  10. The Potential Mechanisms Underlying Aspirin-induced Inhibition of Ovarian Tumor Cell Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu LIU; Jin KE; Shi-Quan LIU; Fu-Xiang ZHOU; Cong-Hua XIE; Yun-Feng ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal disease of the gynecological cancers. Owing to the lack of an effective screening approach combined with inadequate therapeutic approach for advanced disease, fewer than 25% of ovarian cancers are identified at an early curable stage. Thus these make ovarian cancer a strong candidate for chemoprevention. In 2001, Akhmedkhanov et al. demonstrated a 2-3 folds decrease in epithelial ovarian cancer associated with Aspirin use. These epidemiological observations suggest that an improved understanding of the mechanisms by which NSAID may decrease the development of ovarian cancer could lead to improved approaches for chemoprevention of this deadly disease. In this research, we explored the potential mechanism underlying epidemiological observations that ovarian cancer occurs at a lower frequency in women exposed to Aspirin(ASP).

  11. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior. PMID:25224609

  12. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Johnson

    Full Text Available The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species.

  13. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul;

    2004-01-01

    . METHODS: Articles concerning ovarian cysts from a medline literature search during the period 1985-2003 were included in addition to articles found as references in the initial publications. RESULTS: Different methods for discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian cysts are discussed. The...... diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...... findings. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant ovarian cysts is a challenge. Multimodal methods improve the results of single modalities, but we still need improved preoperative diagnostic tools. Furthermore, these methods should be validated in consecutive patient...

  14. Retropancreatic Ovarian Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Soumyo Ranjan; Dasgupta, Prosenjit; Das, Subhobroto; Halder, Sandip; Panda, Nilanjan

    2016-06-01

    Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas are rare lesions (less than 50 reported) characterized by presence of ovary like stroma of unknown origin. However, germinal component of ovary has never been found in them. The pancreas occasionally gives rise to mucinous cystadenomas, but they are always intrapancreatic. We report a unique case of a rare retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas with presence of ovarian follicles in a 45-year-old lady who presented with an abdominal mass. This was successfully excised. Though retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas are rare, presence of ovarian follicle (germ cell) in them has never been reported before. PMID:27358520

  15. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay; Aditya Pratap; Chetan; Ramesh; Rajlaxmi Jaysing

    2014-01-01

    : Immature teratoma (IMT) is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fac...

  16. BILATERAL IMMATURE OVARIAN TERATOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : Immature teratoma (IMT is tumor composed of tissues from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm and is considered the second most common germ cell tumor. IMT account for 10-20% of all ovarian neoplasias in women less than 20 years of age, with peak incidence between 15 and 19 years old. IMT rarely occurs during menopause. We herein reporting a rare case in a 3 years old girl with bilateral immature ovarian teratoma which is very rare in bilateralism of tumor as well as the fact that the patient age is below the average for the occurrence of these tumors.

  17. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard;

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  18. Update of Thyroid Developmental Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupa, Athanasia; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Carré, Aurore; Polak, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient regions and includes a spectrum of developmental anomalies. The genetic components of TD are complex. Although a sporadic disease, advances in developmental biology have revealed monogenetic forms of TD. Inheritance is not based on a simple Mendelian pattern and additional genetic elements might contribute to the phenotypic spectrum. This article summarizes the key steps of normal thyroid development and provides an update on responsible genes and underlying mechanisms of TD. Up-to-date technologies in genetics and biology will allow us to advance in our knowledge of TD. PMID:27241962

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  1. Advances of Developmental Dyslexia and Working Memory Injury%发展性阅读障碍与工作记忆损伤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 陶云; 王晓曦; 马谐; 陈睿; 李思齐

    2015-01-01

    发展性阅读障碍是一种常见的学习障碍, 而工作记忆损伤是造成发展性阅读障碍的一个重要因素. 工作记忆的三个子成分分别与发展性阅读障碍存在一定关系: 中央执行器的三项功能均与阅读能力密切相关; 语音环损伤是造成阅读障碍的主要因素, 并对词汇识别和句子理解产生影响; 视觉工作记忆影响正字法意识、 推理及句子理解等. 另外, 中文发展性阅读障碍的机制可能与拼音文字不同. 对工作记忆与发展性阅读障碍关系的研究将为发展性阅读障碍的矫治提供更多可能.%Developmental dyslexia ( DD) is a common learning disability which can make negative effect on children's school learning. Recently, working memory has been regarded as a main factor of developmental dyslexia, and it also has provided a new perspective for the study. The sub-components of working memoy can effect reading pro-cess both as whole and independently. This review based on Baddley's multi-component model of working memory:three separable components as central executive shifting, updating and inhibition are all closely correlated to read-ing comprehension; the impairment of phonological loop is the core reason of developmental dyslexia; visual-spatial sketchpad contribute to orthographic regularity and reasoning, but the studies hold heterogeneity. In addition, Chi-nese developmental dyslexia may hold it's own features. To sum up, although the results of past studies remain some difference, it all shows that working memory has important impact on developmental dyslexia. The studies of relationship between working memory and developmental dyslexia can provide effective ways for the treatment of the disease.

  2. 发展性阅读障碍与工作记忆损伤研究进展%Advances of Developmental Dyslexia and Working Memory Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 陶云; 王晓曦; 马谐; 陈睿; 李思齐

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia ( DD) is a common learning disability which can make negative effect on children's school learning. Recently, working memory has been regarded as a main factor of developmental dyslexia, and it also has provided a new perspective for the study. The sub-components of working memoy can effect reading pro-cess both as whole and independently. This review based on Baddley's multi-component model of working memory:three separable components as central executive shifting, updating and inhibition are all closely correlated to read-ing comprehension; the impairment of phonological loop is the core reason of developmental dyslexia; visual-spatial sketchpad contribute to orthographic regularity and reasoning, but the studies hold heterogeneity. In addition, Chi-nese developmental dyslexia may hold it's own features. To sum up, although the results of past studies remain some difference, it all shows that working memory has important impact on developmental dyslexia. The studies of relationship between working memory and developmental dyslexia can provide effective ways for the treatment of the disease.%发展性阅读障碍是一种常见的学习障碍, 而工作记忆损伤是造成发展性阅读障碍的一个重要因素. 工作记忆的三个子成分分别与发展性阅读障碍存在一定关系: 中央执行器的三项功能均与阅读能力密切相关; 语音环损伤是造成阅读障碍的主要因素, 并对词汇识别和句子理解产生影响; 视觉工作记忆影响正字法意识、 推理及句子理解等. 另外, 中文发展性阅读障碍的机制可能与拼音文字不同. 对工作记忆与发展性阅读障碍关系的研究将为发展性阅读障碍的矫治提供更多可能.

  3. Proteomics of ovarian cancer: functional insights and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzek, Mohamed A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in applying proteomics to assist in understanding the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, elucidating the mechanism of drug resistance, and in the development of biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer. Although ovarian cancer is a spectrum of different diseases, the strategies for diagnosis and treatment with surgery and adjuvant therapy are similar across ovarian cancer types, increasing the general applicabil- ity of discoveries made through proteomics research. While proteomic experiments face many difficulties which slow the pace of clinical applications, recent advances in proteomic technology contribute significantly to the identification of aberrant proteins and networks which can serve as targets for biomarker development and individualized therapies. This review provides a summary of the literature on proteomics’ contributions to ovarian cancer research and highlights the current issues, future directions, and challenges. We propose that protein-level characterization of primary lesion in ovarian cancer can decipher the mystery of this disease, improve diagnostic tools, and lead to more effective screening programs.

  4. Critical appraisal of bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Yoshida, Akira Yabuno, Keiichi FujiwaraDepartment of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka, Saitama, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab is the first molecular-targeted agent to be used for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor. Two randomized Phase III trials evaluated the combination of bevacizumab plus standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Additional Phase III trials evaluated bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy in platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. All these trials reported a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival but not in overall survival. Furthermore, bevacizumab effectively improved the quality of life with regard to abdominal symptoms in recurrent ovarian cancer patients. Bevacizumab is associated with adverse events not commonly observed with cytotoxic agents used to treat gynecological cancers, such as hypertension, bleeding, thromboembolism, proteinuria, delayed wound healing, and gastrointestinal events. However, most of these events can be adequately managed by gynecologists. The clinical trial results with bevacizumab have supported its recent approval in Europe and the United States as a treatment for ovarian cancer. This review presents the latest evidence for bevacizumab therapy of ovarian cancer and describes selection of patients for personalized treatment.Keywords: anti-angiogenesis, chemotherapy, biomarkers

  5. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan; Phulrenu Chauhan; Girish Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examinatio...

  6. Ovarian cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M; Cerezo, L

    1986-01-01

    Vascular tumors of the female genital tract are rare, especially those of the ovary. Most cases are small lesions that are discovered incidentally. We describe a 68-year-old woman with a benign hemangioma that presented clinically as a very large ovarian mass. PMID:3753575

  7. Ovarian Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? How Is Ovarian Cancer Treated? Information for Health Care Providers Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Related Links ... I Know About Screening? How Is Uterine Cancer Treated? Statistics Rates by ...

  8. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  9. Potential targets for ovarian clear cell carcinoma: a review of updates and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Ueda, Yutaka; Matsuzaki, Satoko; Kakuda, Mamoru; Okazawa, Akiko; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in surgical and medical treatments for ovarian cancer have improved prognoses. Platinum drugs in particular are pivotal for the medical treatment of ovarian cancer. However, previous studies have revealed that some histological subtypes, such as clear cell carcinoma, are resistant to medical treatment, including that with platinum drugs. Consequently, the clinical prognosis of advanced clear cell carcinoma is remarkably inferior, primarily because of its chemoresistant behavior. The ...

  10. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  11. Stress-induced Phosphoprotein 1 as a Secreted Biomarker for Human Ovarian Cancer Promotes Cancer Cell Proliferation*

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chao, Angel; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chang, Chih-Long; Chen, Shun-Hua; Lee, Yun-Shien; Chen, Jen-Kun; Lin, Yi-Jun; Chang, Pi-Yueh; Wang, Chin-Jung; Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancers are frequently not diagnosed until advanced stages, resulting in a high case fatality rate. Because of this, more tumor markers, in addition to CA125, for detecting and monitoring ovarian cancer are needed. During a systematic search for potential biomarkers of ovarian cancer, we compared the protein profiles between tumor interstitial fluid and normal interstitial fluid of ovaries, rationalizing that abnormal levels of proteins in tumor interstitial fluid may be detected in p...

  12. A rare case of ovarian cancer in pregnancy complicated by pulmonary embolus and myocardial infarction: management dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, Sara; von Heymann, Christian; Feldheiser, Aarne; Schäfer-Graf, Ute; Klempert, Iris; Pöllinger, Alexander; Krackhardt, Florian; Henrich, Wolfgang; Sehouli, Jalid; Pietzner, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ovarian neoplasms diagnosed during pregnancy at advanced stages are very rare. The clinical course and prognosis of pregnant patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer is similar to that of non-pregnant patients. We describe our management of a woman diagnosed with FIGO IIIc ovarian cancer at Caesarean section. Immediately after surgery she suffered a pulmonary embolus and a myocardial infarction. She showed signs of a severe pulmonary hypertension (59 mmHg). Four weeks later...

  13. Investigation of ovarian cancer associated sialylation changes in N-linked glycopeptides by quantitative proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Vivekananda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In approximately 80% of patients, ovarian cancer is diagnosed when the patient is already in the advanced stages of the disease. CA125 is currently used as the marker for ovarian cancer; however, it lacks specificity and sensitivity for detecting early stage disease. There is a critical unmet need for sensitive and specific routine screening tests for early diagnosis that can reduce ovarian cancer lethality by reliably detecting the disease at its earliest and treatable stages. Results In this study, we investigated the N-linked sialylated glycopeptides in serum samples from healthy and ovarian cancer patients using Lectin-directed Tandem Labeling (LTL and iTRAQ quantitative proteomics methods. We identified 45 N-linked sialylated glycopeptides containing 46 glycosylation sites. Among those, ten sialylated glycopeptides were significantly up-regulated in ovarian cancer patients’ serum samples. LC-MS/MS analysis of the non-glycosylated peptides from the same samples, western blot data using lectin enriched glycoproteins of various ovarian cancer type samples, and PNGase F (+/− treatment confirmed the sialylation changes in the ovarian cancer samples. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrated that several proteins are aberrantly sialylated in N-linked glycopeptides in ovarian cancer and detection of glycopeptides with abnormal sialylation changes may have the potential to serve as biomarkers for ovarian cancer.

  14. Ovarian Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Ovarian Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting ovarian cancer or dying from ovarian cancer varies by race ...

  15. Handicaps and Developmental Disabilities. Matrix No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Arthur L.

    This paper summarizes the recent advances achieved by research in the area of developmental disabilities, and discusses directions for future research in this area. Approximately 8 to 10 per cent of the pediatric population suffers from one or more developmental disabilities. The most common of these are learning disabilities, which include some…

  16. From primordial germ cells to primordial follicles: a review and visual representation of early ovarian development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wear, Hannah M.; McPike, Matthew J; Watanabe, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal development of reproductive organs is crucial for successful reproduction. In mice the early ovarian developmental process occurs during the embryonic and postnatal period and is regulated through a series of molecular signaling events. Early ovarian development in mice is a seventeen-day process that begins with the rise of six primordial germ cells on embryonic day five (E5) and ends with the formation of primordial follicles on postnatal day two (P2). Results We reviewed ...

  17. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus on...

  18. Animal models of ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw Tanya J; Vanderhyden Barbara C; Ethier Jean-François

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all of the gynecological cancers and can arise from any cell type of the ovary, including germ cells, granulosa or stromal cells. However, the majority of ovarian cancers arise from the surface epithelium, a single layer of cells that covers the surface of the ovary. The lack of a reliable and specific method for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer results in diagnosis occurring most commonly at late clinical stages, when treatment is...

  19. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding has wide resonance in several scientific fields. Here we attempt to adopt it for the study of development. In this perspective, the embryo is conceived as an integral whole, comprised of several hierarchical modules as in a recurrent circularity of emerging patterns...... molecular signalling to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships...

  20. Ovarian dermoid causing pilimiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian dermoid cyst is one of the common problems seen in gynaecology, they make upto 10 - 25% of all ovarian neoplasms and are usually seen in younger age group. Mature cystic teratomas are usually an incidental finding during a clinical examinations, radiographic studies or during abdominal operations performed for other indications. Other presentations include abdominal symptoms from complications of the cyst such as torsion, rupture, infection and malignant transformation. Dermoid cyst in urinary bladder is a very rare condition. Here we are presenting a case report of a female who presented with lower abdominal pain and passage of hair in urine (pilimiction). Upon investigations it was found that patient had right sided dermoid which had penetrated the wall of bladder and expelled its contents in the bladder. This was a very rare presentation and no such case has been reported in Pakistani literature. (author)

  1. Management ovarian brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer is the cause of the most frequent mortality and morbidity from gynaecologist malignant diseases. Nowadays, the standard treatment is the optimal debulkization with the following platinum chemotherapy at all the histological subtypes. Even despite the progress in the surgery and chemotherapy, in the last years 5-year-survival at the patients with initially progressive disease has remained relatively low. One of the least favourable situations is the presence of brain metastasis where the survival is limited only to a few weekends. The brain metastases are not very common at ovarian cancer even despite the fact that in the last years there has been in decrease. Brain metastases typically occur metachromically. Our patient had metachromic metastasis in the brain without the presence of extra cranial disease. Radiotherapy in the area of brain metastasis in a monotherapy was secure and well tolerated at the relatively good efficiency. (author)

  2. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff C; Deodhar K; Patkar V; Fonseca J

    1981-01-01

    Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 mo...

  3. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Kasum, Miro; Orešković, Slavko; Ježek, Davor

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous forms of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) are nearly always reported between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) producing pituitary adenoma. The syndrome has been previously reported in rare instances of increased production of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) such as multiple pregnancies, hydatiforme mole, polycystic ovary disease and elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyreoidism. High lev...

  4. Oxytocin and ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A R

    1988-01-01

    (1) Oxytocin is synthesized in the luteal cells of all species so far studied, including the human. Vasopressin is also synthesized, but at a much lower rate. (2) The oxytocin-neurophysin gene is expressed in granulosa cells and granulosa-derived luteal cells but not in theca cells. Ovulation or spontaneous luteinization initiates the gene expression which peaks in the early luteal phase and ceases around mid-cycle. (3) Luteal oxytocin concentrations rise with considerable delay after the peak of specific mRNA and reach maximal levels around mid-cycle. Oxytocin concentrations fall to low levels in the late luteal phase and in pregnancy. (4) Thecal tissue produces substances such as catecholamines and ascorbic acid that stimulate oxytocin secretion in granulosa cells. The adrenergic innervation of thecal tissue provides a source of catecholamines and may therefore serve a modulatory function in ovarian oxytocin secretion. (5) Oxytocin has little or no direct effect on luteal progesterone production. (6) Oxytocin inhibits LH-stimulated prostacyclin production in luteal cells of cows. Oxytocin may induce the release of PGF-2 alpha or lipo-oxygenase products from the ovary but this has not yet been documented. (7) PGF-2 alpha releases oxytocin from the ovary but does not turn off its synthesis. (8) The concept that ovarian oxytocin participates in the luteolytic process is gaining acceptance. In some species (sheep, goat) ovarian oxytocin acts as a hormone causing PGF-2 alpha release from the uterus. In others it acts in a paracrine or autocrine fashion on ovarian prostanoid production (cow, possibly primates).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3057201

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Peritoneal Metastases from Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Halkia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  6. Diagnosis and management of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkia, Evgenia; Spiliotis, John; Sugarbaker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:22888339

  7. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  8. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  9. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff C

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 months earlier. The 2nd case sought medical attention for backache and leucorrhea of 4 years′ duration. Exploratory laparotomy in the 1st case revealed tubo-ovarian masses; the vermiform appendix was not traceable. The uterine cavity in the 2nd case harbored a wooden stick. Direct extension from established ileocacal actinomycosis was believed to involve the female genital adnexae in the past. Association of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis with the presence of a foreign body in the female genital tract has been reported sporadically in the literature, yet an increase in the incidence may be expected because of the frequent use of intrauterine contraceptive devices in recent times. It is suggested that in women presenting clinically with vague abdominal symptoms, backache and discharge, actinomycosis should be considered and ruled out with the help of cytologic and proper microbial culture methods. Once the diagnosis is established, the infection can be treated with good results with penicillin.

  10. Imunotherapy opportunities in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zh. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, accumulated evidence in favor of that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic tumor. Immunotherapy is aimed at stimulating the innate and adaptive immunity, may cause an effective response in patients with ovarian cancer. Various approaches immunotherapy include cytokinetherapy, use of monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy.

  11. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démonet, Jean-François; Taylor, Margot J; Chaix, Yves

    2004-05-01

    Developmental dyslexia, or specific reading disability, is a disorder in which children with normal intelligence and sensory abilities show learning deficits for reading. Substantial evidence has established its biological origin and the preponderance of phonological disorders even though important phenotypic variability and comorbidity have been recorded. Diverse theories have been proposed to account for the cognitive and neurological aspects of dyslexia. Findings of genetic studies show that different loci affect specific reading disability although a direct relation has not been established between symptoms and a given genomic locus. In both children and adults with dyslexia, results of neuroimaging studies suggest defective activity and abnormal connectivity between regions crucial for language functions--eg, the left fusiform gyrus for reading--and changes in brain activity associated with performance improvement after various remedial interventions. PMID:15121410

  12. Developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  13. Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Serous Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Mehrabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous subtype of ovarian cancer is considered to originate from fallopian epithelium mucosa that has been exposed to physiological changes resulting from ovulation. Ovulation influences an increased in inflammation of epithelial ovarian cells as results of constant exposure of cells to ROS. The imbalance between ROS and antioxidant capacities, as well as a disruption of redox signaling, causes a wide range of damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. This study applied spectrophotometric, dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH assay, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and Western blot analyses to assess the levels of oxidatively modified proteins in 100 primary serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma and normal/surrounding tissues. These samples were obtained from 56 Caucasian and 44 African-American patients within the age range of 61±10 years. Analyses showed that the levels of reactive protein carbonyl groups increased as stages progressed to malignancy. Additionally, the levels of protein carbonyls in serous ovarian carcinoma among African Americans are 40% (P<0.05 higher relative to Caucasian at similar advanced stages. Results suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the modification of carbonyl protein groups, leading to increased aggressiveness of epithelial ovarian tumors and may contribute to the disease's invasiveness among African Americans.

  14. BILATERAL OVARIAN TORSION: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Manohar; Gopalakrishna; Kavyashree; Kala; Karthik

    2014-01-01

    : Bilateral ovarian torsion is a rare event with only a few cases reported in literature in women using ovarian stimulation drugs and in pre-menarchal age group with synchronous and asynchronous ovarian tumors. We hereby present a case of bilateral ovarian torsion in a 16 year old girl who presented as an acute pain abdomen and was diagnosed intra operatively.

  15. Pediatric ovarian torsion: an uncommon clinical entity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwani, Kapil M; Mahomed, Anies

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Pediatric ovarian torsion is an infrequent diagnosis and it often mimics acute appendicitis. Most cases are due to underlying ovarian pathology and if left untreated, ovarian torsion may eventually cause peritonitis. Emergency exploratory laparoscopy represents a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool in suspected ovarian torsion.

  16. Ovarian function and ovarian blood supply following premenopausal abdominal hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrazak, Khaled M.; Elbiaa, Assem A.M.; Farghali, Mohamed M.; Essam, Amr; Zhurabekova, Gulmira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The issue of conserving the ovaries at hysterectomy in premenopausal women with benign gynecologic disease has been the subject of considerable controversy. Some clinicians prefer prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women during hysterectomy to prevent future development of malignant changes in conserved ovaries. Other clinicians prefer to conserve apparently normal ovaries, because bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women results in an abrupt imbalance, sudden onset of menopausal symptoms, decreased libido, increased cardiovascular risk and osteoporosis. Material and methods Two hundred and twenty multipara women (who had completed their families), with benign uterine pathology were included in this prospective study for abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation. Pre-operative vaginal ultrasound, Doppler studies, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were done followed by laboratory studies including Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol for all studied women. Doppler studies, AMH, FSH and estradiol were repeated 6 and 12 months post-operative for assessment of the ovarian function and ovarian blood supply after hysterectomy. Results Pre-operative AMH, FSH and estradiol of the studied women were statistically insignificant compared to AMH, FSH and estradiol 6 and 12 months post-operative. Twelve months post-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.92 ± 0.18 and 6.85 ± 0.19 cm3, respectively) were significantly larger than pre-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.19 ± 0.22 and 5.86 ± 0.23 cm3, respectively), and, 12 months post-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (2.92 ± 0.15 and 2.96 ± 0.16 cm/s, respectively) were significantly lower than pre-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (3.45 ± 0.19 and 3.36 ± 0.2 cm/s, respectively). Eight (3.6%) cases of the studied women developed an ovarian cyst 6 months after hysterectomy, 3

  17. Differences in ovarian aging patterns between races are associated with ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian aging patterns differ between races, and appear to affect fertility treatment outcomes. What causes these differences is, however, unknown. Variations in ovarian aging patterns have recently been associated with specific ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. We, therefore, attempted to determine differences in how functional ovarian reserve (FOR changes with advancing age between races, and whether changes are associated with differences in distribution of ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. Methods We determined in association with in vitro fertilization (IVF FOR in 62 young Caucasian, African and Asian oocyte donors and 536 older infertility patients of all three races, based on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and oocyte yields, and investigated whether differences between races are associated with differences in distribution of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes. Results Changes in distribution of mean FSH, AMH and oocyte yields between young donors and older infertility patients were significant (all P FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes in patients varied significantly between races, with Asians demonstrating fewer het-norm/low sub-genotypes than Caucasians and Africans (P = 0.012. Conclusion FOR changes in different races at different rates, and appears to parallel ovarian FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotype distributions. Differences in ovarian aging between races may, therefore, be FMR1-associated.

  18. Mean Ovarian Diameter (MOD) as a Predictor of Poor Ovarian Response

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimirov, Iavor K.; Tacheva, Desislava M.; Kalinov, Krassimir B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the predictive value of mean ovarian diameter of ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), in outcome with normal FSH level in early follicular phase of menstrual cycle.

  19. Analysis of computed tomography of ovarian tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Makoto; Taniike, Keiko; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu

    1987-07-01

    One hundred and twenty six patients with ovarian mass were studied with computed tomography (CT) and classified into five groups according to its margin and inner structure. The incidence of malignancy of cystic ovarian mass with smooth margin was low and that of solid ovarian mass with irreglar margin was high. Three cases (6.7 %) of malignant ovarian tumor demonstrated completely cystic pattern. Ovarian teratomas contained well defined component of fat density.

  20. Nanoparticle-Delivered Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Reduces Ovarian Tumor Burden in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hung; Zugates, Gregory T.; Peng, Weidan; Holtz, David; Dunton, Charles; Green, Jordan J; Hossain, Naushad; Chernick, Michael R.; Padera, Robert F.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sawicki, Janet A.

    2009-01-01

    There is currently no effective therapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. To address the need for a more effective treatment for this deadly disease, we conducted pre-clinical tests in ovarian tumor-bearing mice to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of using a cationic biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) polymer as a vector for nanoparticulate delivery of DNA encoding a diphtheria toxin suicide gene (DT-A). The promoter sequences of two genes that are highly active in ovarian tumor cell...

  1. Beclin 1 Expression in Ovarian Tissues and Its Effects on Ovarian Cancer Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mingbo Cai; Zhenhua Hu; Juanjuan Liu; Jian Gao; Chuan Liu; Dawo Liu; Mingzi Tan; Danye Zhang; Bei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Beclin 1 is an autophagy-associated protein involved in apoptosis and drug resistance, as well as various malignancies. We investigated the expression of Beclin 1 protein in ovarian epithelial tissues and correlated it with the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Beclin 1 protein expression was determined using immunohistochemistry in 148 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer, 26 with ovarian borderline tumor, 25 with benign ovarian tumor, and 30 with normal ovarian tissue. The relationships betwe...

  2. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Nationw......OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN...

  3. Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, M; Möbs, I

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the role developmental dyspraxia plays in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), based upon a review of literature on apraxia, developmental dyspraxia, and DCD. Apraxia and dyspraxia have often been equated with DCD. However, it is argued that apraxia and dyspraxia primarily refer to the problems of motor sequencing and selection, which not all children with DCD exhibit. The author proposes to distinguish developmental dyspraxia from DCD. Other issues discussed include the assessment, etiology, and treatment of developmental dyspraxia and DCD, and the relationship between DCD and learning disabilities. A research agenda is offered regarding future directions to overcome current limitation. PMID:8866511

  4. "Incessant ovulation" and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J T; Louie, E W; Pike, M C; Roy, S; Ross, R K; Henderson, B E

    1979-07-28

    A case-control study of 150 ovarian cancer patients under the age of 50 and individually matched controls was done to study the influence of fertility and oral contraceptive use on the risk of ovarian cancer. The risk decreased with increasing numbers of live births, with increasing numbers of incomplete pregnancies, and with the use of oral contraceptives. These three factors can be amalgamated into a single index of protection--"protected time"--by considering them all as periods of anovulation. The complement of protected time--viz., "ovulatory age", the period between menarche and diagnosis of ovarian cancer (or cessation of menses) minus "protected time"--was strongly related to risk of ovarian cancer. Other factors found to be associated with increased ovarian cancer risk were obesity, cervical polyps, and gallbladder disease. Women who had an "immediate" intolerance to oral contraceptive use had a fourfold increased risk of ovarian cancer. 7 patients, but no controls, could recall a family history of ovarian cancer. PMID:89281

  5. Expression signatures of TP53 mutations in serous ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in the TP53 gene are extremely common and occur very early in the progression of serous ovarian cancers. Gene expression patterns that relate to mutational status may provide insight into the etiology and biology of the disease. The TP53 coding region was sequenced in 89 frozen serous ovarian cancers, 40 early stage (I/II) and 49 advanced stage (III/IV). Affymetrix U133A expression data was used to define gene expression patterns by mutation, type of mutation, and cancer stage. Missense or chain terminating (null) mutations in TP53 were found in 59/89 (66%) ovarian cancers. Early stage cancers had a significantly higher rate of null mutations than late stage disease (38% vs. 8%, p < 0.03). In advanced stage cases, mutations were more prevalent in short term survivors than long term survivors (81% vs. 30%, p = 0.0004). Gene expression patterns had a robust ability to predict TP53 status within training data. By using early versus late stage disease for out of sample predictions, the signature derived from early stage cancers could accurately (86%) predict mutation status of late stage cancers. This represents the first attempt to define a genomic signature of TP53 mutation in ovarian cancer. Patterns of gene expression characteristic of TP53 mutation could be discerned and included several genes that are known p53 targets or have been described in the context of expression signatures of TP53 mutation in breast cancer

  6. Intrafamilial disclosure of risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: points to consider

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Lee; McClellan, Kelly A.; Avard, Denise; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of breast and ovarian cancer screening is to minimize the cases of advanced disease and therefore its mortality rate. For hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, one method to reach this goal is to disseminate genetic risk information among family members. However, experience tells us that this information does not always reach family members in a timely manner, if at all. There are many moving parts to a decision to disclose genetic risk information within a family, and the la...

  7. Contributions of androgen and estrogen to fetal programming of ovarian dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumesic Daniel A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In female mammals, including humans, deviations from normal androgenic or estrogenic exposure during fetal development are detrimental to subsequent adult ovarian function. Androgen deficiency, without accompanying estrogen deficit, has little apparent impact on ovarian development. Fetal estrogen deficiency, on the other hand, results in impaired oocyte and follicle development, immature and abnormal adult ovaries, and excessive ovarian stimulation from endogenous gonadotropins ultimately generating hemorrhagic follicles. Complete estrogen deficiency lasting into adulthood results in partial ovarian masculinization. Fetal androgen excess, on the other hand, mediated either by direct androgen action or following androgen aromatization to estrogen, reprograms ovarian development and reproductive neuroendocrinology to mimic that found in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: enlarged, polyfollicular, hyperandrogenic, anovulatory ovaries with accompanying LH hypersecretion. Oocyte developmental competence is also compromised. Insulin is implicated in the mechanism of both anovulation and deficient oocyte development. Fetal estrogen excess induces somewhat similar disruption of adult ovarian function to fetal androgen excess. Understanding the quality of the fetal female sex steroid hormone environment is thus becoming increasingly important in improving our knowledge of mechanisms underlying a variety of female reproductive pathologies.

  8. Ovarian actions of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Israel; Duleba, Antoni J

    2015-08-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries, and medicinal plants, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and has been proposed to be a longevity-prolonging agent. There is also growing evidence that resveratrol has cardioprotective properties and beneficial effects on both glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, several studies have examined the use of resveratrol as a therapeutic agent to treat numerous pathological and metabolic disorders. Herein, we present insights into the mechanisms of action, biological effects, and current evidence of actions of resveratrol on the ovary. In vitro, resveratrol inhibits proliferation and androgen production by theca-interstitial cells. Resveratrol also exerts a cytostatic, but not cytotoxic, effect on granulosa cells, while decreasing aromatization and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. In vivo, resveratrol treatment reduced the size of adipocytes and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, resveratrol increased the ovarian follicular reserve and prolonged the ovarian life span in rats. Taken together, resveratrol emerges as a potential therapeutic agent to treat conditions associated with androgen excess, such as PCOS. The efficacy of resveratrol in the treatment of gynecological conditions requires further investigation. PMID:26315293

  9. Correlation of CD44v6 expression with ovarian cancer progression and recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously some groups demonstrated that CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) is correlated with progression and metastasis of ovarian cancer. However, a number of other groups failed to find such an association. Moreover, epithelial ovarian cancer is known to easily metastasize to distinct sites such as the pelvic and abdominal cavities, but the potential association of CD44v6 expression with site-specific metastasis of ovarian cancer has not been explored. This study sought to evaluate the expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44v6 in primary, metastatic and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer to explore the potential association of CD44s and CD44v6 with tumor progression and recurrence. Tumor specimens were procured from patients with advanced (FIGO III, G3) and recurrent ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. CD44s and CD44v6 expression in the tumor tissues was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. Moreover, serum soluble CD44s or CD44v6 concentrations of early stage (FIGO I, G1), advanced (FIGO III, G3) and recurrent ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). CD44v6 expression in a different set of tumor samples on an ovarian cancer tissue chip was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the correlation of CD44v6 expression with clinicopathologic features was analyzed. Finally, the effects of knockdown of CD44v6 in SKOV3 cells on cell adhesion, invasion and migration were assessed. The expression of CD44v6, but not CD44s, is up-regulated in recurrent ovarian serous cancer compared to advanced primary tumor. CD44v6 expression is also preferentially increased in the tumor at the abdominal cavity metastasis site of advanced diseases. Consistently, serum soluble CD44v6 levels of recurrent ovarian cancer were higher than those of early stage and advanced primary diseases. The IHC data demonstrate that CD44v6 expression is correlated with clinicopathologic features and tumor progression. Lastly, knockdown of CD

  10. BILATERAL OVARIAN MASS COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Arjumand; Triveni

    2015-01-01

    A 22 years old patient with 9 months of Amenorrhoea with a abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an Ultrasonography report of Bilateral ovarian mass (14.3x5.9cm in left ovary) and (9.5x7cm in right ovary) with internal vascularity with septations along with single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered by elective caesarean section in V/O breech presenta tion. Left side ovarian cystectomy done Right side ovarian puncture done. Histopathology showed left sid...

  11. Developmental Programming: Prenatal and Postnatal Androgen Antagonist and Insulin Sensitizer Interventions Prevent Advancement of Puberty and Improve LH Surge Dynamics in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Herkimer, Carol; Abi Salloum, Bachir; Moeller, Jacob; Beckett, Evan; Sreedharan, Rohit

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal T excess induces maternal hyperinsulinemia, early puberty, and reproductive/metabolic defects in the female similar to those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. This study addressed the organizational/activational role of androgens and insulin in programming pubertal advancement and periovulatory LH surge defects. Treatment groups included the following: 1) control; 2) prenatal T; 3) prenatal T plus prenatal androgen antagonist, flutamide; 4) prenatal T plus prenatal insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone; 5) prenatal T and postnatal flutamide; 6) prenatal T and postnatal rosiglitazone; and 7) prenatal T and postnatal metformin. Prenatal treatments spanned 30-90 days of gestation and postnatal treatments began at approximately 8 weeks of age and continued throughout. Blood samples were taken twice weekly, beginning at approximately 12 weeks of age to time puberty. Two-hour samples after the synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were taken for 120 hours to characterize LH surge dynamics at 7 and 19 months of age. Prenatal T females entered puberty earlier than controls, and all interventions prevented this advancement. Prenatal T reduced the percentage of animals having LH surge, and females that presented LH surge exhibited delayed timing and dampened amplitude of the LH surge. Prenatal androgen antagonist, but not other interventions, restored LH surges without normalizing the timing of the surge. Normalization of pubertal timing with prenatal/postnatal androgen antagonist and insulin sensitizer interventions suggests that pubertal advancement is programmed by androgenic actions of T involving insulin as a mediary. Restoration of LH surges by cotreatment with androgen antagonist supports androgenic programming at the organizational level. PMID:25919188

  12. Ovarian neoplasms, functional ovarian cysts, and oral contraceptives.

    OpenAIRE

    Vessey, M; Metcalfe, A.; C. Wells; McPherson, K; Westhoff, C; Yeates, D

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of ovarian neoplasms and functional ovarian cysts diagnosed at laparotomy or laparoscopy among the 17,000 women taking part in the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study was investigated. Epithelial cancer of the ovary was only 25% as common among those who had ever taken oral contraceptives as those who had never done so (95% confidence interval 8% to 67%). There was little evidence of any important association between use of oral contraceptives and benign terat...

  13. The Effect of Neighborhood Disadvantage on the Racial Disparity in Ovarian Cancer-Specific Survival in a Large Hospital-Based Study in Cook County, Illinois

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Caryn E.; Rauscher, Garth H.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Kirschner, Carolyn V.; Freels, Sally; Barrett, Richard E.; Kim, Seijeoung; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Joslin, Charlotte E.; Davis, Faith G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White) diagnosed wit...

  14. Exosomal transfer of stroma-derived miR21 confers paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells through targeting APAF1

    OpenAIRE

    Au Yeung, Chi Lam; Co, Ngai-Na; Tsuruga, Tetsushi; Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Kwan, Suet-Ying; Leung, Cecilia S.; LI, YONG; Lu, Edward S.; Kwan, Kenny; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Lu, Karen H.; Mok, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the visceral adipose tissue of the omentum. However, the omental stromal cell-derived molecular determinants that modulate ovarian cancer growth have not been characterized. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we identify significantly higher levels of microRNA-21 (miR21) isomiRNAs in exosomes and tissue lysates isolated from cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) and fibroblasts (CAFs) than in those from ovarian cancer cells. Functional ...

  15. Ovarian Cancer Management: The role of imaging and diagnostic challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharwani, Nishat, E-mail: nishat.bharwani@nhs.net [Barts and the London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, Rodney H.; Rockall, Andrea G. [Barts and the London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Worldwide, ovarian cancer accounts for 4% of all female cancers with over 190,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The incidence rates vary considerably across the globe with the highest rates seen in Europe and the USA and low rates in Africa and Asia. Ovarian cancer has been termed a 'silent' killer with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease due to the vague, non-specific nature of the presenting symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and bloating in 50%. The most important determinant of survival for ovarian cancer patients is the disease stage at diagnosis. Therefore there is a thrust for early detection and two large screening trials are currently underway in the UK and USA. Ovarian cancer is most commonly staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical-pathological staging system. Imaging findings are not a formal component of the staging system but in clinical practice they play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of suspected ovarian cancer. Adnexal masses which are shown to have benign features on imaging can undergo simple excision at a local unit by a non-oncological gynaecologist. If a mass has malignant characteristics on imaging, then a radical surgical approach is indicated and this should be performed by a gynaecological oncological surgeon at a specialist cancer centre, as optimal cytoreductive surgery has been reported to improve outcome. This review article discusses the role of various imaging modalities in the initial assessment of an adnexal mass, the contribution to management planning and to the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Management: The role of imaging and diagnostic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, ovarian cancer accounts for 4% of all female cancers with over 190,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The incidence rates vary considerably across the globe with the highest rates seen in Europe and the USA and low rates in Africa and Asia. Ovarian cancer has been termed a 'silent' killer with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease due to the vague, non-specific nature of the presenting symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and bloating in 50%. The most important determinant of survival for ovarian cancer patients is the disease stage at diagnosis. Therefore there is a thrust for early detection and two large screening trials are currently underway in the UK and USA. Ovarian cancer is most commonly staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical-pathological staging system. Imaging findings are not a formal component of the staging system but in clinical practice they play a significant role in the diagnosis and management of suspected ovarian cancer. Adnexal masses which are shown to have benign features on imaging can undergo simple excision at a local unit by a non-oncological gynaecologist. If a mass has malignant characteristics on imaging, then a radical surgical approach is indicated and this should be performed by a gynaecological oncological surgeon at a specialist cancer centre, as optimal cytoreductive surgery has been reported to improve outcome. This review article discusses the role of various imaging modalities in the initial assessment of an adnexal mass, the contribution to management planning and to the follow-up of patients with ovarian cancer.

  17. Developmental genetics in primitive chordates.

    OpenAIRE

    P. SORDINO; L. Belluzzi; De Santis, R; Smith, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of the genetics and genomics of urochordates testify to a renewed interest in this chordate subphylum, believed to be the most primitive extant chordate relatives of the vertebrates. In addition to their primitive nature, many features of their reproduction and early development make the urochordates ideal model chordates for developmental genetics. Many urochordates spawn large numbers of transparent and externally developing embryos on a daily basis. Additionall...

  18. Developmental systems biology flourishing on new technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Organism development is a systems level process. It has benefited greatly from the recent technological advances in the field of systems biology. DNA microarray, phenome, interactome and transcriptome mapping, the new generation of deep sequencing technologies,and faster and better computational and modeling approaches have opened new frontiers for both systems biologists and developmental biologists to reexamine the old developmental biology questions, such as pattern formation, and to tackle new problems, such as stem cell reprogramming. As showcased in the International Developmental Systems Biology Symposium organized by Chinese Academy of Sciences, developmental systems biology is flourishing in many perspectives, from the evolution of developmental systems, to the underlying genetic and molecular pathways and networks, to the genomic, epigenomic and noncoding levels, to the computational analysis and modeling. We believe that the field will continue to reap rewards into the future with these new approaches.

  19. Developmental systems biology flourishing on new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing-Dong J; Liu, Yi; Xue, Huiling; Xia, Kai; Yu, Hong; Zhu, Shanshan; Chen, Zhang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Jin, Chunyu; Xian, Bo; Li, Jing; Hou, Lei; Han, Yixing; Niu, Chaoqun; Alcon, Timothy C

    2008-10-01

    Organism development is a systems level process. It has benefited greatly from the recent technological advances in the field of systems biology. DNA microarray, phenome, interactome and transcriptome mapping, the new generation of deep sequencing technologies, and faster and better computational and modeling approaches have opened new frontiers for both systems biologists and developmental biologists to reexamine the old developmental biology questions, such as pattern formation, and to tackle new problems, such as stem cell reprogramming. As showcased in the International Developmental Systems Biology Symposium organized by Chinese Academy of Sciences, developmental systems biology is flourishing in many perspectives, from the evolution of developmental systems, to the underlying genetic and molecular pathways and networks, to the genomic, epigenomic and noncoding levels, to the computational analysis and modeling. We believe that the field will continue to reap rewards into the future with these new approaches. PMID:18937914

  20. Comparative molecular developmental aspects of the mammalian- and the avian lungs, and the insectan tracheal system by branching morphogenesis: recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina John N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas exchangers fundamentally form by branching morphogenesis (BM, a mechanistically profoundly complex process which derives from coherent expression and regulation of multiple genes that direct cell-to-cell interactions, differentiation, and movements by signaling of various molecular morphogenetic cues at specific times and particular places in the developing organ. Coordinated expression of growth-instructing factors determines sizes and sites where bifurcation occurs, by how much a part elongates before it divides, and the angle at which branching occurs. BM is essentially induced by dualities of factors where through feedback- or feed forward loops agonists/antagonists are activated or repressed. The intricate transactions between the development orchestrating molecular factors determine the ultimate phenotype. From the primeval time when the transformation of unicellular organisms to multicellular ones occurred by systematic accretion of cells, BM has been perpetually conserved. Canonical signalling, transcriptional pathways, and other instructive molecular factors are commonly employed within and across species, tissues, and stages of development. While much still remain to be elucidated and some of what has been reported corroborated and reconciled with rest of existing data, notable progress has in recent times been made in understanding the mechanism of BM. By identifying and characterizing the morphogenetic drivers, and markers and their regulatory dynamics, the elemental underpinnings of BM have been more precisely explained. Broadening these insights will allow more effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions of developmental abnormalities and pathologies in pre- and postnatal lungs. Conservation of the molecular factors which are involved in the development of the lung (and other branched organs is a classic example of nature’s astuteness in economically utilizing finite resources. Once purposefully formed, well

  1. The origin of ovarian teratomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Parrington, J M; West, L F; Povey, S

    1984-01-01

    Chromosome and enzyme markers have been studied in 21 benign ovarian teratomas from 14 patients. Markers heterozygous in the patient were completely homozygous in 52% of the teratomas and completely heterozygous in 19%. The remainder showed a mixture of the two, 10% having homozygous centromeres with some heterozygous enzyme markers and 19% having heterozygous centromeres and some homozygous enzyme markers. These results suggest that benign ovarian teratomas in the present series arise from g...

  2. Ovarian Abscess Following Therapeutic Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Bradford A.; Lane Mercer; Albert J. Peters; Ralph Kazer

    1994-01-01

    Background: Artificial insemination is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of various forms of infertility. Infectious complications have only rarely been noted as a complication of intrauterine insemination (IUI). Case: In this presentation, we report the first case of an ovarian abscess following IUI with the husband's semen. Despite treatment with triple antibiotics, an oophorectomy was required. Surgical as well as pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of an ovarian...

  3. Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Vera M. Abeler; Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes G; Heim, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods We cytogenetically analyzed 110 new cases of ovarian carcinoma of different histologic...

  4. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  5. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline—“developmental psychopathology”—which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and inte...

  6. BILATERAL OVARIAN MASS COMPLICATING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjumand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 22 years old patient with 9 months of Amenorrhoea with a abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an Ultrasonography report of Bilateral ovarian mass (14.3x5.9cm in left ovary and (9.5x7cm in right ovary with internal vascularity with septations along with single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered by elective caesarean section in V/O breech presenta tion. Left side ovarian cystectomy done Right side ovarian puncture done. Histopathology showed left side – Mucinous cystadenoma. Right Side – Follicular cyst. Mucinous cystadenomas are benign epithelial ovarian tumors which tend to be unilateral, bilateral a nd multilocular with smooth surface and contain mucinous fluid, 75% of all mucinous tumors are benign, while 10% are borderline and 15% are invasive carcinomas. Benign mucinous tumors are most common in the third to fifth decades of life and may be 20 - 30 c ms in size. The incidence of ovarian cysts during pregnancy is less than 5% and most of them are benign in nature. G i ant cysts found in less than 1% of the cases of ovarian cysts with pregnancy.

  7. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and...... postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register of...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  8. Tamoxifen and ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Berliere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that the clinical parameter "amenorrhea" is insufficient to define the menopausal status of women treated with chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In this study, we investigated and compared the ovarian function defined either by clinical or biological parameters in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen administered as adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2003, 138 premenopausal patients consecutively treated for early breast cancer were included. Sixty-eight received tamoxifen in monotherapy as the only adjuvant systemic treatment (Group I and 70 were treated with tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy (Group II. All patients had a confirmed premenopausal status based on clinical parameters and hormonal values at study entry. They were followed prospectively every 3 months for 3 years: menses data, physical examination and blood tests (LH, FSH, 17-beta-estradiol. Vaginal ultrasonography was carried out every 6 months. After 3 years, prospective evaluation was completed and monitoring of ovarian function was performed as usual in our institution (1x/year. All data were retrospectively evaluated in 2011. RESULTS: Three patients were excluded from the study in group I and 2 were excluded in group II. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to clinical data, i.e. menses patterns. These patterns were assessed by questionnaires. a: Regular menses (>10 cycles/year b: Oligomenorrhea (5 to 9 cycles/year c: Severe oligomenorrhea (1 to 4 cycles/year d: Complete amenorrhea Estrogen levels did not appear to have any impact on disease-free survival rates after 3 or 8 years. FSH values were also documented and analyzed. They exhibited the same profile as estradiol values. CONCLUSIONS: Amenorrhea is an insufficient parameter to define menopausal status in patients receiving tamoxifen. Low estradiol levels must be coupled with other biological parameters to characterize endocrine status

  9. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.......The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors....

  10. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  11. Differentiation of ovarian development and the evolution of fecundity in rapidly diverging exotic beetle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Anna L M; Beckers, Oliver M; Moczek, Armin P

    2015-11-01

    Fecundity is a fundamental determinant of fitness, yet the proximate developmental and physiological mechanisms that enable its often rapid evolution in natural populations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated two populations of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus that were established in exotic ranges in the early 1970s. These populations are subject to drastically different levels of resource competition in the field, and have diverged dramatically in female fecundity. Specifically, Western Australian O. taurus experience high levels of resource competition, and exhibit greatly elevated reproductive output compared to beetles from the Eastern US, where resource competition is minimal and female fecundity is low. We compared patterns of ovarian maturation, relative investment into and timing of egg production, and potential trade-offs between ovarian investment and the duration of larval development and adult body size between populations representative of both exotic ranges. We found that the rapid divergence in fecundity between exotic populations is associated with striking differences in several aspects of ovarian development: (1) Western Australian females exhibit accelerated ovarian development, (2) produce more eggs, (3) bigger eggs, and (4) start laying eggs earlier compared to their Eastern US counterparts. At the same time, divergence in ovarian maturation patterns occurred alongside changes in (5) larval developmental time, and (6) adult body size, and (7) mass. Western Australian females take longer to complete larval development and, surprisingly, emerge into smaller yet heavier adults than size-matched Eastern US females. We discuss our results in the context of the evolutionary developmental biology of fecundity in exotic populations. PMID:26300520

  12. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, a single institution-based study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Kumar Saini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among all cancers of female genital tract in countries where effective cervical cancer screening program exists. As the world's population ages, remarkable increase in the total number of ovarian cancer cases are expected. This is preliminary epidemiological study to decide priorities in ovarian cancer research. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with primary epithelial ovarian cancer cases registered in J. K. Cancer Institute, Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh, from 2007 to 2009. Patients' age at diagnosis, clinical feature, parity of patients, tumor histological type, Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, chemotherapy regimens, and overall survival data were collected and analyzed. Results: One hundred and sixty-three cases of primary ovarian epithelial cancer were analyzed. Patients' mean age at diagnosis was 55.98 ± 9.24 (median = 55. Serous adenocarcinoma (49.69% was the most prevalent type of histopathology followed by endometroid (19.1%, mucinous (10.42% and clear cell (4.29%. Combination of taxane and platin was most commonly used first line regimen in newly diagnosed as well as in relapsed patients post 1 year. Survival was not significantly different in various histopathology (log-rank P = 0.7406, but advancing stage demonstrated gradually poor survival (log-rank P < 0.05 when compared with early stage disease. Conclusion: Research efforts should be in the direction to find early diagnostic and effective screening tools as well as better therapeutic approaches for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  14. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the management of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Ferrandina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriella Ferrandina1,2, Giacomo Corrado1, Angelo Licameli1, Domenica Lorusso2, Gilda Fuoco1, Salvatore Pisconti3, Giovanni Scambia2 1Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, Catholic University of Campobasso, Campobasso, Italy; 2Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 3Salvatore Pisconti, Oncology Unit, Taranto Hospital, Taranto, Italy Abstract: Among the pharmaceutical options available for treatment of ovarian cancer, much attention has been progressively focused on pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, whose unique formulation, which entraps conventional doxorubicin in a bilayer lipidic sphere ­surrounded by a polyethylene glycol layer, prolongs the persistence of the drug in the ­circulation and potentiates intratumor drug accumulation. These properties enable this drug to sustain its very favorable toxicity profile and to be used safely in combination with other drugs. PLD has been already approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer patients failing first-line platinum-based treatment. Moreover, phase III trials have been already completed, and results are eagerly awaited, which hopefully will expand the range of PLD clinical application in this neoplasia both in front-line treatment, and in the salvage setting in combination with other drugs. Moreover, attempts are continuing to enable this drug to be combined with novel cytotoxic drugs and target-based agents. This review aims at summarizing the available evidence and the new perspectives for the clinical role of PLD in the management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.Keywords: pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, ovarian cancer, clinical trials

  15. Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallapu Murali M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Methods Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and β-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on β-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Results Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre

  16. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John; Coleman, Michel P; Hacker, Neville; Hanna, Louise; Mosgaard, Berit J; Nordin, Andy; Rosen, Barry; Engholm, Gerda; Gjerstorff, Marianne L; Hatcher, Juanita; Johannesen, Tom B; McGahan, Colleen E; Meechan, David; Middleton, Richard; Tracey, Elizabeth; Turner, Donna; Richards, Michael A; Rachet, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  17. Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159486.html Exercise May Help Thwart Ovarian Cancer Chronic inactivity linked ... TUESDAY, June 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of exercise is associated with an increased risk of ovarian ...

  18. Advances in Researches on the Relationship between P38MAPK Signaling Pathway and Ovarian Carcinoma%P38MAPK信号传导通路与卵巢癌关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈砚芬; 徐海帆

    2012-01-01

    丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(mitogen-activated proteinkinases,MAPKs)级联反应是细胞内重要的信号传导系统之一,参与细胞生长、发育、分化和凋亡等一系列生理、病理过程.P38 MAPK信号传导通路是MAPK通路的分支之一,介导了应激、炎性细胞因子、细菌产物等多种刺激引起的细胞反应,对细胞周期调控具有重要作用.但对不同的卵巢癌细胞系,或者不同的刺激,P38通路的作用不完全相同,甚至可能相反,提示对P38通路的功能仍需进一步的研究,他可能是肿瘤治疗的新靶点.本文就P38 MAPK信号传导通路与卵巢癌关系作一综述.%The cascade reaction of mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)is one of the vital intracellular signal transduction systems, participating in many physiological progressions, such as cell growth,proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis. P38 is a member of MAPKs, mediating many cell reactions induced by stress, inflammatory cytokines or bacterial products and playing a key role in the regulation of cell cycle. For different cell lines of ovarian carcinoma,P38 has different functions.The same phenomenon can be seen when the cells are presented under different stimulus.P38 pathway may be one candidate target of cancer therapy. This paper will review the relationship between P38MAPK signaling pathway and ovarian carcinoma.

  19. Overview: developmental toxicology: new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Dana; Kim, James H

    2011-10-01

    Since regulatory agencies began implementing the use of standardized developmental toxicology protocols in the mid-1960s, our knowledge base of embryo-fetal development and technologies for experimentation has grown exponentially. These developmental toxicology protocols were a direct result of the thalidomide tragedy from earlier that decade, when large numbers of women were exposed to the drug and over 10,000 cases of phocomelia resulted. In preventing a recurrence of such tragedies, the testing protocols are immensely successful and the field of toxicology has been dedicated to using them to advance safety and risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Recently, our perspectives on toxicity testing have been challenged by a growing awareness that while we have excelled in hazard identification, we are in dire need of improved methodologies for human health risk assessment, particularly with respect to the large numbers of environmental chemicals for which we have little toxicology data and to the growing sentiment that better alternatives to whole animals tests are needed. To provide a forum for scientists, researchers, and regulators, the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute organized a 2-day workshop titled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions" to evaluate lessons learned over the past 30 years and discuss the future of toxicology testing. The following four articles describe different presentations and discussions that were held over the course of those 2 days. PMID:21770024

  20. Neonatal Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Haji Ebrahim Tehrani; Zohreh Kavehmanesh; Mahbod Kaveh; Fateme Davari Tanha

    2007-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cysts are the most frequent, prenatally diagnosed intra-abdominal cysts. Prenatal ultrasonography allows diagnosis of ovarian cysts and may suggest antenatal complications. The management of fetal ovarian cysts is still controversial despite the improvement in prenatal diagnosis with ultrasonography. Some studies suggest an aggressive management, while others plead for a conservative one.Case report:  We report on the first successfully treated large neonatal ovarian cyst ...

  1. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xue-qiang; Zheng Nan-nan; Yu Lei; Lu Wei; Bian Hong-qiang; Yang Jun; Duan Xu-fei; Qin Xin-ke

    2015-01-01

    Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusi...

  2. Genetic analysis of ovarian microcystic stromal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Cho, Nam Hoon; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) of the ovary is a rare subtype of ovarian tumor first described in 2009. Although high nuclear expression of β-catenin and β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutation are related with ovarian MCST, the origin and genetic background of ovarian MCST remain unclear. In this study, two cases of ovarian MCST are presented. Microscopically, the tumors showed a microcystic pattern and regions with lobulated cellular masses with intervening hyalinized, fibrous stroma. Tumor cell...

  3. REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Laura; Vesterkvist, Pia; Roering, Pia; Korpela, Taina; Hattara, Liisa; Kaipio, Katja; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Hynninen, Johanna; Auranen, Annika; Davidson, Ben; Haglund, Caj; Iljin, Kristiina; Grenman, Seija; Siitari, Harri; Carpen, Olli

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:26981633

  4. Developmental reading disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001406.htm Developmental reading disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental reading disorder is a reading disability that occurs when ...

  5. Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, Frank J.; Visser, Jenny A.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Broer, Simone L.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Fauser, Bart C.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has important roles in postnatal ovarian function. Produced by ovarian granulosa cells, AMH is involved in initial follicle development. In fact, serum AMH level correlates with ovarian follicle number. In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), AMH levels are el

  6. Do We Know What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes ovarian cancer? We don’t yet know exactly what causes most ovarian cancers. As discussed in the previous section, we do know some factors that make a woman ...

  7. A retrospective study of ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Neelgund

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Unilocular simple ovarian cysts are usually functional ovarian cysts and resolve spontaneously. Therapy by 3 to 6 months of Oral Contraceptives, usually resolves them and this also helps to distinguish between physiological and pathological ovarian cysts [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1969-1973

  8. Ovarian teratoma and endometritis in a mare

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre , Réjean; Theoret, Christine; Doré, Monique; Girard, Christine; Laverty, Sheila; Vaillancourt, Denis

    2005-01-01

    An 8-year-old Arabian mare was admitted for a large ovarian anovulatory follicle. A clinical diagnosis of ovarian tumor and endometritis was established. Histological examinations revealed an ovarian teratoma and a grade II endometritis. Three months after unilateral ovariectomy, the mare was confirmed pregnant and eventually gave birth uneventfully.

  9. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  10. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Inaba; Kazumi Tada; Ichio Fukasawa; Nobuaki Kosaka; Akiko Shoda; Keiichi Kubota; Hitoshi Nagata; Takahiro Fujimori; Shigeki Tomita; Masaru Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological ...

  11. The use of genetic transformation in the study of ovarian-specific gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using genetic and molecular approaches to understand the mechanisms controlling the establishment of the cellular specificity of expression during oogenesis. Female-sterile mutations have been isolated and the molecular analysis is revealing interesting cell-cell interaction systems that work not only during oogenesis but also at other developmental stages. We will review in this paper our most recent studies on genes involved in ovarian development. (author)

  12. The microRNAs important for ovarian and early embryonic development in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Yao, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in genomic analysis and other biochemical methods has led to the discovery of a large population of microRNAs (miRNAs), which have been demonstrated to play important roles in diseases and a wide range of developmental processes. Characterization of miRNA expression profiles in different stages of ovarian follicular development and early embryogenesis has suggested the potential roles of miRNAs in follicular development, maturation of oocytes, and preimplantation embryonic dev...

  13. CT features of ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings were compared with macroscopic and histopathologic findings in 84 patients with ovarian tumors. Marginal irregularity of the tumor shown on CT exhibited marked adhesion to the greater omentum, enteron or pelvic wall at laparotomy. CT showed tumor capsules more than 10 mm in thickness in 5 of 27 patients with malignant ovarian carcinomas (18.5%) and 2 of 15 patients with endometrioid cystadenoma (13.3%). Various thickness of the capsule was seen on CT in 48.1% of the patients with malignant ovarian carcinomas and 60.0% of the patients with endometrioid cystadenoma. Diagnostic accuracy of CT for the presence of absence of solid tumors was 89.3%. Misdiagnosis was attributed to the presence of high specific gravidity of fluid contents within the tumor, partial volume phenomenon, various thickness of the capsule, coagulation, and hair mass seen in dermoid cyst. Solid tumor-like density was larger and more irregular in the group with malignant ovarian tumors than in the group with benign ones. Irregular cystic parts were seen on CT in a high incidence among the group with malignant ovarian carcinomas. Dermoid cyst was diagnosed easily by CT because CT numbers were specific to the contents of cyst. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  15. A role for PAX8 in the tumorigenic phenotype of ovarian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAX8 is a member of the paired box (Pax) multigene family of transcription factors, which are involved in the developmental and tissue-specific control of the expression of several genes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previously, several studies reported that PAX8 is expressed at high levels in specific types of tumors. In particular, PAX8 has been recently reported to be conspicuously expressed in human ovarian cancer, but the functional role of PAX8 in the carcinogenesis of this type of tumor has not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the contribution of PAX8 in ovarian cancer progression. Stable PAX8 depleted ovarian cancer cells were generated using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs. PAX8 mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR, immunoblot and immunofluorescence. Cell proliferation, motility and invasion potential of PAX8 silenced cells were analyzed by means of growth curves, wound healing and Matrigel assays. In addition, PAX8 knockdown and control cells were injected into nude mice for xenograft tumorigenicity assays. Finally, qPCR was used to detect the expression levels of EMT markers in PAX8-overexpressing and control cells. Here, we show that PAX8 plays a critical role in the migration, invasion and tumorigenic ability of ovarian cancer cells. Our results show that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PAX8 expression in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells produces a significant reduction of cell proliferation, migration ability and invasion activity compared with control parental SKOV-3 cells. Moreover, PAX8 silencing strongly suppresses anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Notably, tumorigenesis in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model is also significantly inhibited. Overall, our results indicate that PAX8 plays an important role in the tumorigenic phenotype of ovarian cancer cells and identifies PAX8 as a potential new target for the treatment of ovarian cancer

  16. Molecular imaging in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyners, A K L; Broekman, K E; Glaudemans, A W J M; Brouwers, A H; Arts, H J G; van der Zee, A G J; de Vries, E G E; Jalving, M

    2016-04-01

    Ovarian cancer has a high mortality and novel-targeted treatment strategies have not resulted in breakthroughs for this disease. Insight into the molecular characteristics of ovarian tumors may improve diagnosis and selection of patients for treatment with targeted therapies. A potential way to achieve this is by means of molecular imaging. Generic tumor processes, such as glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) and DNA synthesis ((18)F-fluorodeoxythymidine), can be visualized non-invasively. More specific targets, such as hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, growth factors and targets of immunotherapy, can also be visualized. Molecular imaging can capture data on intra-patient tumor heterogeneity and is of potential value for individualized, target-guided treatment selection. Early changes in molecular characteristics during therapy may serve as early predictors of response. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on molecular imaging in the diagnosis and as an upfront or early predictive biomarker in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27141066

  17. MR imaging of ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred patients with surgically proved ovarian neoplasms underwent MR imaging performed with a 0.6-T superconducting magnet and relatively T1- and T2-weighted imaging sequences. The MR imaging findings were compared with findings on CT. Of 26 benign lesions, the two simple ovarian cysts, three endometriomas, and six dermoid cysts had a characteristic appearance on MR imaging, but the ten cystadenomas were distinguishable from cystadenocarcinomas. Both MR imaging and CT were useful for identifying the primary site and local extent of carcinoma. CT was better in depicting abdominal implants, adenopathy, and ascites. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging and CT in staging ovarian carcinoma is compared in detail

  18. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding; Macklon, Kirsten T

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond an...... was 95%. Sixteen of the patients (17%) stated that they wanted disposal of their tissue; the main reason was completion of family (63%). The mean age of those requesting disposal was 36.6 years, whereas those still wanting their tissue stored were significantly younger, with a mean age of 33.0 years...... (P < 0.008). In conclusion, most women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family....

  19. Methoxyamine, Cisplatin, and Pemetrexed Disodium in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Mesothelioma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery or Mesothelioma That Is Refractory to Cisplatin and Pemetrexed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-04

    Advanced Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Advanced Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Solid Neoplasm; Stage III Pleural Mesothelioma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Pleural Mesothelioma; Thymoma

  20. Tissue Biomarkers in Prognostication of Serous Ovarian Cancer following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Binny Khandakar; Sandeep R Mathur; Lalit Kumar; Sunesh Kumar; Siddhartha Datta Gupta; Venkateswaran K Iyer; Kalaivani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in females with poor prognosis because of advanced stage at presentation. Recently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is being used for management of advanced SOC, but role of tissue biomarkers in prognostication following NACT is not well established. The study was conducted on advanced stage SOC patients (n = 100) that were treated either conventionally (n = 50) or with NACT (n = 50), followed by surgery. In order t...

  1. HUGE OVARIAN CYST IN TERM PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Nandkishor; Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The incidence of ovarian tumor in pregnant women is 1 in 1000 3 . The maximum reported size of ovarian tumor in pregnancy is 22 x 1 8 cms 4 .The occurance of large Ovarian Tumour in full term pregnancy is still rarer. We pres ent a case of third gravida with full term pregnancy having huge Ovarian Cyst of the size 34 x 23 cms. The patient had severe oligohydramnios as if to accommodate the tumour. Pr obably this case is the largest ovarian ...

  2. Photoacoustic characterization of ovarian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Guo, Puyun; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a five-year survival rate of only 30%. Because current imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET) are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early, most diagnoses occur in later stages (III/IV). Thus many women are not correctly diagnosed until the cancer becomes widely metastatic. On the other hand, while the majority of women with a detectable ultrasound abnormality do not harbor a cancer, they all undergo unnecessary oophorectomy. Hence, new imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. One such technique is photoacoustic imaging, which has great potential to reveal early tumor angiogenesis through intrinsic optical absorption contrast from hemoglobin or extrinsic contrast from conjugated agents binding to appropriate molecular receptors. To better understand the cancer disease process of ovarian tissue using photoacoustic imaging, it is necessary to first characterize the properties of normal ovarian tissue. We have imaged ex-vivo ovarian tissue using a 3D co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system. The system is capable of volumetric imaging by means of electronic focusing. Detecting and visualizing small features from multiple viewing angles is possible without the need for any mechanical movement. The results show strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea, and low absorption from follicles. We will present correlation of photoacoustic images from animals with histology. Potential application of this technology would be the noninvasive imaging of the ovaries for screening or diagnostic purposes.

  3. MR imaging of ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging of 105 patients with surgically proved ovarian neoplasms was performed on a 0.6-T superconducting magnet using two-dimensional spin-echo technique. Findings were correlated with CT and US scans. In both benign (n = 27) and malignant (n = 78) cases, the primary site was identified, but only some benign cysts, dermoid cysts, and endometriomas had characteristic appearances. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging in staging ovarian carcinomas will be compared to those of CT. MR imaging and CT were nonspecific in distinguishing benign from malignant disease and equivalent in defining the intrapelvic extent; however, CT was better for detection of abdominal implants, adenopathy, and ascites

  4. Thrombosis of right ovarian vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare postpartum complication (0.1%). It can be fatal, since it can lead to sepsis, pulmonary thromboembolisms and inferior vena cava or renal vein thrombosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the techniques of choice for its diagnosis, while the value of ultrasound is limited due to its low sensitivity and specificity. We report the case of a woman who, during puerperium, developed thrombosis of right ovarian vein that presented clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features of appendicitis. We describe the radiological sings and stress the fact that this diagnosis should be suspected in puerperal women. (Author) 9 refs

  5. What is developmental dyspraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, D

    1995-12-01

    The idea of developmental dyspraxia has been discussed in the research literature for almost 100 years. However, there continues to be a lack of consensus regarding both the definition and description of this disorder. This paper presents a neuropsychologically based operational definition of developmental dyspraxia that emphasizes that developmental dyspraxia is a disorder of gesture. Research that has investigated the development of praxis is discussed. Further, different types of gestural disorders displayed by children and different mechanisms that underlie developmental dyspraxia are compared to and contrasted with adult acquired apraxia. The impact of perceptual-motor, language, and cognitive impairments on children's gestural development and the possible associations between these developmental disorders and developmental dyspraxia are also examined. Also, the relationship among limb, orofacial, and verbal dyspraxia is discussed. Finally, problems that exist in the neuropsychological assessment of developmental dyspraxia are discussed and recommendations concerning what should be included in such an assessment are presented. PMID:8838385

  6. Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis: A Model in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Karst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease for which there is no effective means of early detection. Ovarian carcinomas comprise a diverse group of neoplasms, exhibiting a wide range of morphological characteristics, clinical manifestations, genetic alterations, and tumor behaviors. This high degree of heterogeneity presents a major clinical challenge in both diagnosing and treating ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the early events leading to ovarian carcinoma development are poorly understood, thus complicating efforts to develop screening modalities for this disease. Here, we provide an overview of the current models of ovarian cancer pathogenesis, highlighting recent findings implicating the fallopian tube fimbria as a possible site of origin of ovarian carcinomas. The ovarian cancer model will continue to evolve as we learn more about the genetics and etiology of this disease.

  7. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  8. Treatment Strategy for Recurrent and Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Efficacy of High-Dose Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Muramatsu, Toshinari; Shinozuka, Takao; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Tsukada, Hitomi; Maeda, Hironobu; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Masaru; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Masanori; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Mikami, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    According to population statistics in Japan, approximately 3,800 women die of ovarian ­cancer annually, and approximately 6,000 are affected by this disease. Ovarian cancer is ­referred to as a “silent tumor”, since patients have few subjective symptoms and by the time symptoms are observed, the cancer has progressed to Stage III or IV in about half of the patients. The basic treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is to remove as much of the tumor as possible, and subsequently to pe...

  9. Defining ovarian reserve to better understand ovarian aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Though a widely utilized term and clinical concept, ovarian reserve (OR has been only inadequately defined. Based on Medline and PubMed searches we here define OR in its various components, review genetic control of OR, with special emphasis on the FMR1 gene, and discuss whether diminished OR (DOR is treatable. What is generally referred to as OR reflects only a small portion of total OR (TOR, a pool of growing (recruited follicles (GFs at different stages of maturation. Functional OR (FOR depends on size of the follicle pool at menarche and the follicle recruitment rate. Both vary between individuals and, at least partially, are under genetic control. The FMR1 gene plays a role in defining FOR at all ages. Infertility treatments have in the past almost exclusively only centered on the last two weeks of folliculogenesis, the gonadotropin-sensitive phase. Expansions of treatments into earlier stages of maturation will offer opportunity to significantly improve ovarian stimulation protocols, especially in women with DOR. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may represent a first such intervention. Data generated in DHEA-supplemented women, indeed, suggest a new ovarian aging concept, based on aging of ovarian environments and not, as currently is believed, aging oocytes.

  10. Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Oresković, Slavko; Jezek, Davor

    2013-06-01

    Spontaneous forms of the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (sOHSS) are nearly always reported between 8 and 14 weeks of pregnancy and also with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) producing pituitary adenoma. The syndrome has been previously reported in rare instances of increased production of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) such as multiple pregnancies, hydatiforme mole, polycystic ovary disease and elevated concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyreoidism. High levels of these hormones are able to stimulate by natural promiscuous activation the wild-type FSHr, resulting in sporadic presentations of the syndrome. Since 2003, only six different activating FSHr gene mutations have been reported in cases of familial or habitual sOHSS. In addition to five mutations which have been found in the transmembrane helices (Asp567Asn, Asp567Gly, Thr449Ile, Thr449Ala, Ile545Thr), the first germline mutation (c.383C > A, p. Ser 128 Tyr) in the extracelullar domain was identified. All five mutants were abnormally activated by TSH and normal levels of hCG while displaying constitutive activity. In contrast to these mutations, the p.Ser128Tyr mutant displayed an increase in sensitivity only toward hCG. Accordingly, the mutated FSHrs, may be hyperstimulated by the pregnancy-derived hCG or TSH, inducing the occurrence of the syndrome. In the differential diagnosis, malignancy, pregnancy luteoma and hyperreactio luteinalis would have to be excluded. In almost all of the cases the disease regresses spontaneously and could be managed expectantly or conservatively, but with termination of pregnancy or surgery in cases of complications. PMID:23941020

  11. Acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction following paclitaxel administration for ovarian carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Shah; Sudeep Gupta; Jaya Ghosh; Jyoti Bajpai; Amita Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (AMI) induced by paclitaxel in a patient with ovarian cancer. A 45-year-old premenopausal lady without any co-morbidity was started on the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel-based regimen for advanced stage ovarian cancer. The patient developed chest pain 3 h after paclitaxel infusion with characteristic electrocardiographic changes of antero-apical myocardial infarction. The patient recovered on conserva...

  12. A meta-analysis: neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus primary surgery in ovarian carcinoma FIGO stageIII and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Dai-yuan, Ma; Bang-xian, Tan; Xian-fu, Li; Ye-qin, Zhou; Hong-Wei, Cai

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study is to analyze the existing data comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with primary debulking surgery (PDS) in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma. Methods Patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer were identified from articles in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE database (1989 to February 2013). Two authors independently extracted the data. To assess the risk of bias of included literatures, Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias ...

  13. The role of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Ovarian Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Aditi; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage (Stages III and IV) when peritoneal cancer spread has already occurred. The standard treatment comprises of surgery to remove all macroscopic disease followed by systemic chemotherapy. Despite all efforts, it recurs in over 75 % of the cases, most of these recurrences being confined to the peritoneal cavity. Recurrent ovarian cancer has a poor long term outcome and is generally treated with multiple lines of systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The propensity of ovarian cancer to remain confined to the peritoneal cavity warrants an aggressive locoregional approach. The combined treatment comprising of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) that removes all macroscopic disease and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy) has been effective in providing long term survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases of gastrointestinal origin. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy used as adjuvant therapy has shown a survival benefit in ovarian cancer. This has prompted the use of CRS and HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer as a part of first line therapy and second line therapy for recurrent disease. This article reviews the current literature and evidence for the use of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:27065709

  14. Genomic/Epigenomic Alterations in Ovarian Carcinoma: Translational Insight into Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Anliang; Lu, Yan; Lu, Bingjian

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy worldwide. Recent advance in genomic/epigenomic researches will impact on our prevention, detection and intervention on ovarian carcinoma. Detection of germline mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, mismatch repair genes, and other genes in the homologous recombination/DNA repair pathway propelled the genetic surveillance of most hereditary ovarian carcinomas. Germline or somatic mutations in SMARCA4 in familial and sporadic small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemia type, lead to our recognition on this rare aggressive tumor as a new entity of the atypical teratoma/rhaboid tumor family. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic variants that will contribute to the evaluation of ovarian carcinoma risk and prognostic prediction. Whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing discovered rare mutations in other drive mutations except p53, but demonstrated the presence of high genomic heterogeneity and adaptability in the genetic evolution of high grade ovarian serous carcinomas that occurs in cancer progression and chemotherapy. Gene mutations, copy number aberrations and DNA methylations provided promising biomarkers for the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy response and targets of ovarian cancer. These findings underscore the necessity to translate these potential biomarkers into clinical practice. PMID:27471560

  15. Tumour-stromal interactions: Reciprocal regulation of extracellular matrix proteins and ovarian steroid activity in the mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the critical importance of ovarian steroids in the treatment of breast cancer, little is known about the acquisition or loss of estrogen and progesterone responsiveness in either the normal or neoplastic mammary gland. This review focuses on the interactions among mammary stroma-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, integrins and ovarian hormone-dependent proliferation in normal and neoplastic mammary cells both in vivo and in vitro. In vitro studies show that fibronectin is required for progesterone-induced proliferation of normal mammary epithelial cells and that specific ECM proteins also regulate interactions between growth factors and ovarian hormones. Studies with human breast cancer cell lines have shown that laminin inhibits estrogen-induced proliferation and estrogen-response-element-mediated transcription in vitro and also inhibits estrogen-induced proliferation in vivo. Reciprocally, ovarian steroids regulate the expression of ECM proteins and their cellular receptors, integrins, during mammary gland development in vivo. The fibronectin-specific integrin, α5β1 is regulated by ovarian steroids and its expression is positively correlated with developmental stages of peak proliferation. These studies suggest that the coordinated regulation of ovarian hormone responsiveness and ECM/integrin expression may be critical to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression

  16. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  17. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  18. Drug discovery in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Dana M; Mathur, Nidhee; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2010-11-01

    Drug discovery in the ovarian cancer arena has led to the activation of several important clinical trials. Many biologic agents have come down the pipeline and are being studied in phase II trials for recurrent disease. These agents include antivascular compounds that disrupt angiogenesis through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., prevention of ligand-binding to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), high-affinity VEGF blockade, oral inhibitors of tyrosine kinases stimulated by VEGF, inhibition of alpha5beta1 integrin, neutralization of angioproteins, etc.). Other novel drugs include oral platinum compounds as well as those that antagonize the tumor proliferation genes in the Hedgehog pathway, and that target folic acid receptors which are expressed by ovarian cancer cells. In addition, studies are underway with oral agents that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity associated with two oncogenes (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2/neu). Finally, emerging technologies in clinical trials include nanotechnology to enhance delivery of chemotherapy to ovarian tumors, drug resistance/sensitivity assays to guide therapy, and agents that mobilize and induce proliferation of hematopoetic progenitor cells to aid in red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet recovery following chemotherapy. The relevant patents in drug discovery of ovarian cancer are discussed. PMID:20524931

  19. Ovarian irradiation in recurrent endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a case of a young woman with a history of an aplastic anaemia in which pelvic radiotherapy was used successfully in the management of a recurrent and inoperable endometriosis. The use of therapeutic pelvic or ovarian irradiation in endometriosis may be considered, when surgical and medical treatments have been exhausted and have failed. (authors)

  20. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and...

  2. Genomic profile of ovarian carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Micci, Francesca; Haugom, Lisbeth; Vera M. Abeler; Davidson, Ben; Tropé, Claes G; Heim, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that all tumors studied in sufficient number to draw conclusions show characteristic/specific chromosomal rearrangements, and the identification of these chromosomes and the genes rearranged behind the aberrations may ultimately lead to a tailor-made therapy for each cancer patient. Knowledge about the acquired genomic aberrations of ovarian carcinomas is still unsatisfactory. Methods ...

  3. Ovarian ageing, follicle depletion, and cancer: a hypothesis for the aetiology of epithelial ovarian cancer involving follicle depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The association between ovarian cancer risk and reproductive factors has been well established, and two main theories, incessant ovulation and gonadotropin stimulation, have been proposed to explain the mechanism. Recent studies using animal models of ovarian tumorigenesis, and analysis of ovarian tissues from prophylactic oophorectomies, suggest that depletion of ovarian follicles might underlie the epidemiological findings linking reproductive history and ovarian cancer risk.

  4. Radioummunoassay of steroids in serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in steroid hormone levels in the serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish were studied by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovulated eggs retained in the ovarian cavity became overripe at around 12h after ovulation based on loss of fertilizability with advanced degeneration by 24 hour. Blood and ovarian fluid (OF) were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 12, 187 and 24h after ovulation. Prior to RIA, serum steroids were extracted directly with redistilled diethyl ether. Because of limited availability, steroids were separated from the ovarian fluid by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both serum and ovarian fluid progesterone (P) showed a highly significant decline at 18h with a further decline at 24h. In the ovarian fluid, P levels were higher than in the serum. Serum 17 α, 20B-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20B-P) levels showed a progressive and more rapid decline, decreasing significantly at 12h with further decreases by 18h and 24h. Serum testosterone (T) increased significantly at 3h, remained high till 18h, and declined thereafter to the 0h level. for estradiol-17B (E2, levels there were no significant changes observed in the serum fluid, there were no significant difference between 6 and 24h. In the ovarian fluid, there were no significant changes in E2, T or 17,20B-P levels. The time course of changes in the levels of steroids in the serum and ovarian fluid (OF) did not strictly coincide with that of overripening based on egg viability. (author)

  5. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  6. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  7. Overexpression of SnoN/SkiL, amplified at the 3q26.2 locus, in ovarian cancers: A role in ovarian pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanjundan, Meera; Cheng, Kwai Wa; Zhang, Fan; Lahad, John; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Smith-McCune, Karen; Fishman, David; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2008-07-18

    High-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization of 235 serous epithelial ovarian cancers demonstrated a regional increase at 3q26.2 encompassing SnoN/SkiL, a coregulator of SMAD/TGF{beta} signaling. SnoN RNA transcripts were elevated in {approx}80% of advanced stage serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In both immortalized normal (TIOSE) and ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCA), SnoN RNA levels were increased by TGF{beta} stimulation and altered by LY294002 and JNK II inhibitor treatment suggesting that the PI3K and JNK signaling pathways may regulate TGF{beta}-induced increases in SnoN RNA. In TIOSE, SnoN protein levels were reduced 15min post TGF{beta}-stimulation, likely by proteosome-mediated degradation. In contrast, in OVCA, SnoN levels were elevated 3h post-stimulation potentially as a result of inhibition of the proteosome. To elucidate the role of SnoN in ovarian tumorigenesis, we explored the effects of both increasing and decreasing SnoN levels. In both TIOSE and OVCA, SnoN siRNA decreased cell growth between 20 and 50% concurrent with increased p21 levels. In TIOSE, transient expression of SnoN repressed TGF{beta} induction of PAI-1 promoters with little effect on the p21 promoter or resultant cell growth. In contrast to the effects of transient expression, stable expression of SnoN in TIOSE led to growth arrest through induction of senescence. Collectively, these results implicate SnoN levels in multiple roles during ovarian carcinogenesis: promoting cellular proliferation in ovarian cancer cells and as a positive mediator of cell cycle arrest and senescence in non-transformed ovarian epithelial cells.

  8. Management Dilemmas in Borderline Ovarian Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Haritwal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT constitute 15% of all epithelial ovarian cancers. The aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the management dilemmas associated with BOT. The purpose of this article was to collect and review the data on management dilemmas of BOT from numerous articles published since 1995. Additionally, the data of four patients with BOT, who were treated in our Institute, are presented and analyzed. Materials and Methods: For literature review we performed a literature search of relevant articles that were based on management dilemmas. Additionally, the data of 4 patients with BOT, who were treated in our Institute, are reported and reviewed by medical data information and patient interview, to establishing a database for a better understanding of the management dilemmas of BOT. Results: All the four cases were of reproductive age group. In three cases conservative fertility sparing surgery was done and in one patient radical surgery was done. All the four cases did not require adjuvant therapy. BOTs did not affect the outcome of pregnancy. Follow up of all the four cases is uneventful with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion: Surgical management to excise all visible tumor tissue remains the keystone of therapy. Fertility being an important issue; conservative laparoscopic surgery is also a viable treatment option. Progression free survival is not influenced by the type of surgical approach (laparoscopic v/s laparotomy. Overall survival does not depend on the type of surgery (fertility sparing v/s non-sparing surgery. Even in advanced disease there is no proven benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of an oncolytic adenovirus containing RGD ligand in minor capsid protein IX and Fiber, Δ24DoubleRGD, in an ovarian cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V Borovjagin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological disease death despite advances in medicine. Therefore, novel strategies are required for ovarian cancer therapy. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds, genetically modified as anti-cancer therapeutics, are one of the most attractive candidate agents for cancer therapy. However, a paucity of coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR expression on the surface of ovarian cancer cells has impeded treatment of ovarian cancer using this approach.This study sought to engineer a CRAd with enhanced oncolytic ability in ovarian cancer cells, “Δ24DoubleRGD.” Δ24DoubleRGD carries an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD motif incorporated into both fiber and capsid protein IX (pIX and its oncolytic efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer. In vitro analysis of cell viability showed that infection of ovarian cancer cells with Δ24DoubleRGD leads to increased cell killing relative to the control CRAds. Data from this study suggested that not only an increase in number of RGD motifs on the CRAd capsid, but also a change in the repertoir of targeted integrins could lead to enhanced oncolytic potency of Δ24DoubleRGD in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In an intraperitoneal model of ovarian cancer, mice injected with Δ24DoubleRGD showed, however, a similar survival rate as mice treated with control CRAds.

  10. Clinicopathologic features of ovarian neoplasms with emphasis on borderline ovarian tumors: an institutional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Bhagwani, Aneel Roy; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil; Faridi, Naveen; Hussain, Syed Danish; Khan, Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and it represents third most common malignancy in Karachi (after breast and oral cancer). Due to lack of well established cancer registry in our country, changing trends of ovarian tumors has not been determined. Therefore we aimed to establish the current trends and classification of ovarian tumors in our setup according to latest WHO guidelines. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 162 cases of ovarian tumors that underwent ...

  11. Prediction of response to chemotherapy by ERCC1 immunohistochemistry and ERCC1 polymorphism in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, M.; Jeppesen, Ulla;

    2007-01-01

    118 polymorphism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and their possible predictive value in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 159 patients with advanced EOC were used for immunohistochemistry. Ercc1 codon 118 SNP genotyping was...

  12. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression was...... used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  13. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  14. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A;

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...... with preserved ovarian function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between circulating AMH and ovarian status in TS patients. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for pediatric and gynecologic endocrinology. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 TS patients, aged 0...... to 48 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Longitudinal measurements of AMH, FSH, LH, estradiol, and inhibin B according to age, karyotype (45,X; 45,X/46,XX mosaicism; miscellaneous karyotypes), and ovarian status (group 0, prepubertal; group 1, never ovarian function; group 2, ongoing ovarian function...

  15. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    2000-01-01

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian failur

  16. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izza Rozalli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically.

  17. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza Rozalli, Faizatul; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Boylan, Colm; Deb, Pratima

    2015-10-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically). PMID:26715980

  18. Decidualized Ovarian Endometrioma in a Pregnant Woman Mimicking Ovarian Malignancy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonographic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Izza Rozalli; Rahmat; Fadzli; Boylan; Deb

    2015-01-01

    Decidualized ovarian endometrioma is a rare phenomenon in pregnancy, which can mimic ovarian malignancy in imaging and often poses a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a large ruptured decidualized ovarian endometrioma in a 15 weeks gestation patient, and we will describe the imaging characteristics (ultrasonography and MR imaging findings) and the histopathological findings (macro- and microscopically).

  19. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome mimicking ovarian malignancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic complication. In most cases, the clinical manifestations of OHSS are self-limited and OHSS resolves spontaneously within a few days, provided that appropriate supportive measures are taken. However, OHSS has been associated with substantial morbidity, principally acute respiratory distress, and fatal complications have been reported in patients with severe or critical OHSS. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 2088-2090

  20. Recurring Acute Abdomen, Ovarian Cyst and Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    T Rohatgi, N Rohatgi and K Buckshee

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation, large ovarian cyst and multicystic ovaries associated with primaryhypothyroidism is infrequently reported and not widely recognized in gynaecologic literature. We reporta case of a 15 year old girl who had an acute abdomen and emergency laparotomy revealed bilaterallyenlarged ovaries, a large ovarian cyst with torsion in the right ovary and ascites. Thus right adnexa wasremoved. At that time thyroid dysfunction was neither suspected nor investigated. Five...

  1. GCIG Consensus Review: Uterine and Ovarian Leiomyosarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Martee L.; Barrette, Brigitte A.; Baumann, Klaus; Gaffney, David; Hamilton, Anne L.; Kim, Jae-Weon; Maenpaa, Johanna U.; Pautier, Patricia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The GCIG aimed to provide an overview of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management. Methods Published articles and author experience were used to draft management overview. The draft manuscript was circulated to international members of the GCIG for review and comment, and appropriate revisions were made. Results The approach to management of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management is reviewed. Conclusions Uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive cancers that require specialized expertise for optimal management. PMID:25341583

  2. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T;

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...... in the teratoma. The patient died 6 months later from progressive disease after a transient adriamycin-induced tumor response. The literature on ovarian immature teratoma and ovarian rhabdomyosarcoma is briefly reviewed, and the available treatment is discussed....

  3. Clinical significance of ovarian stromal blood flow in assessment of ovarian response in stimulated cycle for in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Aashima Arora; Shalini Gainder; Lakhbir Dhaliwal; Vanita Suri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several ultrasound parameters have been examined to predict the ovarian response to gonadotropins. The only parameter that has been conclusively proven to predict ovarian response is the antral follicle count. It has been suggested that ovarian blood flow may play a crucial role in the development of ovarian follicles. The present study was planned to prospectively analyse the effect of ovarian stromal blood flow on ovarian responsiveness in terms of number of oocytes retrieved in...

  4. Progesterone Signaling Mediated Through Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 in Ovarian Cells with Special Emphasis on Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peluso, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, ...

  5. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  6. Laparoscopic management of neonatal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first prenatal detection of an ovarian cyst was by Valenti in 1975. Since then antenatal and neonatal ovarian cysts are encountered more frequently due to the improvement of imaging techniques as well as routine antenatal ultrasound scanning. We discuss here the laparoscopic management of three cases of neonatal ovarian cysts. This approach is well tolerated by neonates, and it may overcome the controversy between the ′wait and see′ policy and early surgical intervention, as laparoscopy has both diagnostic and therapeutic value with minimal morbidity, and ovarian salvage whenever possible.

  7. Ovarian tissue characterization in ultrasound: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Molinari, Filippo; Sree, S Vinitha; Swapna, G; Saba, Luca; Guerriero, Stefano; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among gynecological malignancies. We discuss different types of clinical and nonclinical features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems of high accuracy are being developed as an initial test for ovarian tumor classification instead of biopsy, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. We also discuss different aspects of developing a reliable CAD system for the automated classification of ovarian cancer into benign and malignant types. A brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound-based CAD systems is also given. PMID:25230716

  8. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjuna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on the diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 36 cases of ovarian lesions presented to Niloufer Hospital during the study period. The age of the patients ranged from newborn to 14 years. The most common presenting symptom was an abdominal or pelvic mass. The most common ultrasound character of the non-neoplastic ovarian lesion was cystic whereas that of a neoplastic ovarian lesion was complex or mixed. Non neoplastic lesions were present in 22 patients. Neoplastic lesions were seen in 14 patients. CONCLUSION: Physiological or functional ovarian cysts are the commonest ovarian lesions seen in the paediatric age group. Ultrasonogram is accurate and very reliable in distinguishing neoplastic from non-neoplastic and malignant from benign ovarian lesions. Non-neoplastic lesions can be managed conservatively in about 40% of cases. Neoplastic lesions in children require a less radical approach in order to preserve ovarian function.

  9. Primary ovarian pregnancy with intrauterine contraceptive device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Saichandran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare variant of extra-uterine pregnancies. However the cause for primary ovarian pregnancy is still obscure. Some studies have reported a strong correlation of this condition with intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD. The diagnosis of ovarian ectopic pregnancy is seldom made before surgery though ultrasound proves to be an invaluable tool for its diagnosis. We describe here about a case of primary ovarian pregnancy which was diagnosed only at the time of operation and was managed with wedge resection of the ovary. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1191-1193

  10. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  11. Ultrasonographic findings of ovarian teratomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Il Gi; Kwak, Dong Yeob; Kim, Si Woon; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    24 cases of surgically proven ovarian teratomas were analyzed. 1. The most prevalent age group was 3rd decades (57%). 2. The size of most tumors falls into 5-15cm (96%). 3. The site of involvement was more common on left side than right. 4. Well developed teeth or bones were identified in 9 patients on simple abdominal films (39%). 5. Ultrasonographic findings of the tumors were purely cystic in 3 cases (12.5%), mixed in 15 cases (62.5%), and solid in 6 cases (25%). 6. Among mixed typed masses, predominant cystic tumors were 11 cases, and the remained (4 cases) were predominantly solid type. 7. Various ultrasonic findings were seen such as hair-fluid level, linear echoes, scattered echoes, nodular intermixed dense echoes, papillary echogenic mass, and calcifications. 8. Echogenic nodular foci on nonindependent portion were considered to be a helpful diagnostic sign of ovarian teratomas.

  12. Extracellular matrix in ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F; van Wezel, I L

    2000-05-25

    A lot is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones, but less is known about the roles of extracellular matrix in the control of follicular growth and development. In this review we focus on the specialized extracellular matrix of the basal laminas that are present in ovarian follicles. These include the follicular basal lamina itself, the Call-Exner bodies of the membrana granulosa, the subendothelial and arteriole smooth muscle basal laminas in the theca, and the basal lamina-like material of the thecal matrix. We discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition, that many of its components are produced by the granulosa cells, and that the follicular basal laminas of different follicles have different ultrastructural appearances, linked to the shape of the aligning granulosa cells. All these studies suggest that the follicular basal lamina is extremely dynamic during follicular development. PMID:10963877

  13. [Cytostatic treatment of ovarian carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijt, J P

    1999-10-30

    Shortly after treatment with the cytostatic combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel was generally accepted as the standard therapy for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma, many have come to regard the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as a better choice. The latter combination causes fewer side effects and may be used in the outpatient clinic. Conceivably, the carboplatin-paclitaxel scheme will shortly have to be adjusted again owing to results of current research. The intensive basic research of recent years, namely, is beginning to yield benefits for the therapeutic arsenal against ovarian carcinoma. Possibilities are inhibitors of the breakdown of extracellular matrix (such as marimastat) and inhibitors of signal transduction (such as trastuzumab). PMID:10578409

  14. Preservation of ovarian function by ovarian transposition performed before pelvic irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaud, E; Ramirez, M; Brauner, R; Flamant, F; Zucker, J M; Fékété, C; Rappaport, R

    1992-12-01

    Ovarian transposition in adults has been shown to protect ovarian function in about 60% of cases by reducing ovarian exposure to less than 4 to 7 Gy. We therefore evaluated the effect of ovarian transposition during childhood or adolescence. Eighteen girls had ovarian transposition performed at a mean (+/- SEM) age of 9.4 +/- 1.2 years (range, 1.2 to 16 years). Twelve were prepubertal and six had menstruated at the time of ovarian transposition. The initial abnormalities were Hodgkin disease (5 cases), iliac Ewing sarcoma (3), medulloblastoma (2), ovarian seminoma (1), and vaginal or uterine tumor (7). The irradiation was external in 11 cases and local by vaginal curietherapy in 7 cases. Fifteen girls received chemotherapy. The ovarian transposition was bilateral in 15 patients and unilateral in 3 cases; in the latter the other ovary had been destroyed by the tumor or by abdominal irradiation. Ovaries were placed just below the iliac crest (15 cases) or posterolateral to the uterus (3); thus, the calculated ovarian radiation dose was up to 9.5 Gy. At the time of evaluation (8.6 +/- 0.9 years after ovarian transposition), 16 girls had menstruated and 2 remained amenorrheic because of major lesions of the vagina and uterus caused by the vaginal curietherapy. Basal plasma gonadotropin values were normal. Ovulation was documented in seven cases. Two pregnancies occurred. Complications of ovarian transposition were present in four patients: intestinal occlusion, dyspareunia, functional ovarian cysts, and pelvic adhesions with tubal obstruction. We conclude that ovarian transposition, performed before abdominopelvic irradiation during childhood, can preserve ovarian function. Longer follow-up is required to assess the risk of ovarian dystrophy because of vascular lesions or chemotherapy. PMID:1447649

  15. Natural history of ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Arturo Novoa

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease laden with paradigms, and it is a serious health problem. It is important to know its natural history, as it is multifactorial in origin, and also to understand its behaviour given its risk factors which can lead to death from metastasis in patients. It continues to be a challenge for oncologists. An analytical literature review was performed to update the latest concepts of its origin, evolution, risk factors, pre-clinical horizon, and its clinical manifestations;...

  16. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi; Pratibha; Santosh Kumar; Neeeta; Kamal

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We repo...

  17. A KRAS-variant in Ovarian Cancer Acts as a Genetic Marker of Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Elena; Lu, Lingeng; Boeke, Marta; Barnett, Rachel; Nallur, Sunitha; Chin, Lena J; Pelletier, Cory; Blitzblau, Rachel; Tassi, Renata; Paranjape, Trupti; Hui, Pei; Andrew K Godwin; Yu, Herbert; Risch, Harvey; Rutherford, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the single most deadly form of women’s cancer, typically presenting as an advanced disease at diagnosis in part due to a lack of known risk factors or genetic markers of risk. The KRAS oncogene and altered levels of the microRNA let-7 are associated with an increased risk of developing solid tumors. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized association between an increased risk of ovarian cancer and a variant allele of KRAS at rs61764370, referred to as the KRAS-variant,...

  18. Effect of progesterone combined with chemotherapy on epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓军; 丰有吉

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify an effective auxiliary therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Progesterone acetate given at 250 mg intramuscularly twice a week for 1 month followed by increased administration to 500 mg intramuscularly every two weeks for 3 years was used in combination with platinum based chemotherapy to treat patients with epithelial ovarian cancer as a first-line therapy. Prognoses of the patients receiving progesterone combined with chemotherapy (progesterone group) and those receiving chemotherapy only (control group) were compared. Results Three-year recurrence and survival conditions of the progesterone and control groups were as follows. Stage Ⅰa: no patient relapsed or died in either group. Stage Ⅰb-Ⅰc: three-year recurrence rates were 14.2% and 37.5%, respectively (P=0.2845); three-year survival rates were 92.3% and 87.5% (P=0.7221). Stage Ⅱ: 1 patient relapsed and died among the 3 patients in the progesterone group; among the 4 patients in the control group, 1 patient relapsed, none died. Stage Ⅲ: three-year recurrence rates were 30.8% and 64.3%, respectively (P=0.1170); three-year survival rates were 85.7% and 42.9%, respectively (P=0.005). Stage Ⅳ: 4 patients relapsed and 1 patient died among the 7 patients in the progesterone group; both the patients in the control group relapsed and died. Conclusions The results indicated that progesterone combined with platinum based chemotherapy as a first-line therapy may improve the prognosis of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but would not change the prognosis of early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.

  19. Introduction to managing patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabra, Hani

    2014-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cancer found in women in the UK. It is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer, and is the 4th most common cause of cancer death among UK women. Similar to the majority of other cancers, relative survival rates for ovarian cancer are improving, although 5-year mortality rates remain stubbornly low. The stage of the disease at diagnosis is the single most important determinant of ovarian cancer survival, as many patients first present with advanced disease. Treatment of ovarian cancer involves a combination of 'upfront' primary surgery followed by chemotherapy. Platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy is the recommended standard-of-care first-line chemotherapy, but the majority of patients will relapse with drug-resistant disease within 3-5 years. However, not all patients can continue with platinum combination therapies due to loss of activity or toxicity-related issues, including hypersensitivity, neurotoxicity, alopecia and ototoxicity. Therefore the choice of second-line chemotherapy must take into account factors such as platinum-free treatment interval (PFI); patient's performance status; current symptoms; history of and likely future toxicities while on chemotherapy; dosing schedule requirement; and cost of treatment. A consensus in 2010 established 4 distinct subgroups within the ROC patient population based on the PFI: (platinum sensitive <12 months, partially platinum sensitive 6-12 months, platinum resistant <6 months, and refractory disease ≤4 weeks). Within patients with platinum sensitive disease, those with partially platinum sensitive disease remain the most clinically challenging to manage effectively. Non-platinum based combination therapies, in particular trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), offers new options together with a significant survival advantage relative to PLD alone for these patients. PMID:26759525

  20. Introduction to managing patients with recurrent ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Gabra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cancer found in women in the UK. It is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer, and is the 4th most common cause of cancer death among UK women. Similar to the majority of other cancers, relative survival rates for ovarian cancer are improving, although 5-year mortality rates remain stubbornly low. The stage of the disease at diagnosis is the single most important determinant of ovarian cancer survival, as many patients first present with advanced disease. Treatment of ovarian cancer involves a combination of ‘upfront’ primary surgery followed by chemotherapy. Platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy is the recommended standard-of-care first-line chemotherapy, but the majority of patients will relapse with drug-resistant disease within 3-5 years. However, not all patients can continue with platinum combination therapies due to loss of activity or toxicity-related issues, including hypersensitivity, neurotoxicity, alopecia and ototoxicity. Therefore the choice of second-line chemotherapy must take into account factors such as platinum-free treatment interval (PFI; patient's performance status; current symptoms; history of and likely future toxicities while on chemotherapy; dosing schedule requirement; and cost of treatment. A consensus in 2010 established 4 distinct subgroups within the ROC patient population based on the PFI: (platinum sensitive <12 months, partially platinum sensitive 6-12 months, platinum resistant <6 months, and refractory disease ≤4 weeks. Within patients with platinum sensitive disease, those with partially platinum sensitive disease remain the most clinically challenging to manage effectively. Non-platinum based combination therapies, in particular trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, offers new options together with a significant survival advantage relative to PLD alone for these patients.

  1. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P < 0.05) in vitrified fragments, when compared to whole ovaries. There were no significant differences in follicular survival and growth when the two vitrification devices were compared. PMID:26408854

  2. Krukenberg tumors diagnosed during pregnancy simultaneously with advanced gastric cancer; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myung Won; Jung, Yoon Young; Shin, Jung Hwan; Hong, Young Ok [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Krukenberg tumors recognized during pregnancy are rarely reported. The preoperative diagnosis can be challenging because of the confusing morphological features and symptoms during pregnancy. Here, we report a case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman at 29 weeks gestation presenting with bilateral solid ovarian masses, which were later diagnosed as metastatic ovarian cancer originating from advanced gastric cancer. This case suggests that Krukenberg tumors should be considered when bilateral ovarian solid masses are encountered regardless of pregnancy.

  3. Krukenberg tumors diagnosed during pregnancy simultaneously with advanced gastric cancer; A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukenberg tumors recognized during pregnancy are rarely reported. The preoperative diagnosis can be challenging because of the confusing morphological features and symptoms during pregnancy. Here, we report a case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman at 29 weeks gestation presenting with bilateral solid ovarian masses, which were later diagnosed as metastatic ovarian cancer originating from advanced gastric cancer. This case suggests that Krukenberg tumors should be considered when bilateral ovarian solid masses are encountered regardless of pregnancy

  4. CA-125 and Ceruloplasmin Levels in Ovarian Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mangala Hegde; Yousef Rezaei Chianeh; Jeevan Shetty; Donald J. Fernandes; Pragna Rao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The initial stage of proliferation of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa) is usually asymptomatic. Due to the lack of sensitive and reliable markers in majority of patients the disease is widespread at the time of diagnosis. The reliable serum biomarkers currently accepted is CA125 but there is limitation in case of sensitivity of CA125 as it is detectable only in 50% of patients in stage I and 80% of patients with advanced stage. We have investigated a correlation between serum CA12...

  5. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  6. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  7. The Concept of Development in Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-12-01

    So important is the perspective of development for understanding psychopathology that it spawned a new discipline-"developmental psychopathology"-which has seen remarkable advances since its introduction,, but has yet to completely fulfill its promise. To do this requires maintaining a thoroughgoing developmental perspective. When we take development seriously, there are implications for how we understand psychopathology, describe and conceptualize the origins and course of disorder, and interpret research findings. From this perspective, disorders are complex products of development; for example, we can view neurophysiological associates of disorder not as causes but as markers, the development of which we need to understand. Research on developmental psychopathology requires an examination of the history of problem behavior from early in life, and it unites multiple features of adaptation and maladaptation (contextual, experiential, physiological, and genetic). PMID:20161376

  8. Potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in stage III ovarian serous carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Björn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Establishing predictive markers of chemoresponse would help to individualize therapy and improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. Chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer has been studied thoroughly and several non-overlapping single genes, gene profiles and copy number alterations have been suggested as potential markers. The objective of this study was to explore genetic alterations behind chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer with the ultimate aim to find potential predictive markers. Methods To create the best opportunities for identifying genetic alterations of importance for resistance, we selected a homogenous tumor material concerning histology, stage and chemotherapy. Using high-resolution whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, we analyzed the tumor genomes of 40 fresh-frozen stage III ovarian serous carcinomas, all uniformly treated with combination therapy paclitaxel/carboplatin. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences. Subsequently, we examined four genes in the significant regions (EVI1, MDS1, SH3GL2, SH3KBP1 plus the ABCB1 gene with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR to evaluate the impact of DNA alterations on the transcriptional level. Results We identified gain in 3q26.2, and losses in 6q11.2-12, 9p22.3, 9p22.2-22.1, 9p22.1-21.3, Xp22.2-22.12, Xp22.11-11.3, and Xp11.23-11.1 to be significantly associated with chemotherapy resistance. In the gene expression analysis, EVI1 expression differed between samples with gain versus without gain, exhibiting higher expression in the gain group. Conclusion In conclusion, we detected specific genetic alterations associated with resistance, of which some might be potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in advanced ovarian serous carcinomas. Thus, further studies are required to validate

  9. Potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in stage III ovarian serous carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemotherapy resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Establishing predictive markers of chemoresponse would help to individualize therapy and improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. Chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer has been studied thoroughly and several non-overlapping single genes, gene profiles and copy number alterations have been suggested as potential markers. The objective of this study was to explore genetic alterations behind chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer with the ultimate aim to find potential predictive markers. To create the best opportunities for identifying genetic alterations of importance for resistance, we selected a homogenous tumor material concerning histology, stage and chemotherapy. Using high-resolution whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we analyzed the tumor genomes of 40 fresh-frozen stage III ovarian serous carcinomas, all uniformly treated with combination therapy paclitaxel/carboplatin. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences. Subsequently, we examined four genes in the significant regions (EVI1, MDS1, SH3GL2, SH3KBP1) plus the ABCB1 gene with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to evaluate the impact of DNA alterations on the transcriptional level. We identified gain in 3q26.2, and losses in 6q11.2-12, 9p22.3, 9p22.2-22.1, 9p22.1-21.3, Xp22.2-22.12, Xp22.11-11.3, and Xp11.23-11.1 to be significantly associated with chemotherapy resistance. In the gene expression analysis, EVI1 expression differed between samples with gain versus without gain, exhibiting higher expression in the gain group. In conclusion, we detected specific genetic alterations associated with resistance, of which some might be potential predictive markers of chemotherapy resistance in advanced ovarian serous carcinomas. Thus, further studies are required to validate these findings in an independent ovarian tumor series

  10. Novel use of the ovarian follicular pool to postpone menopause and delay osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy has increased by more than 30 years during the last century and continues to increase. Many women already live decades in menopause deprived of naturally produced oestradiol and progesterone, leading to an increasing incidence of menopause-related disorders such as osteoporosis......, cardiovascular diseases and lack of general well-being. Exogenous oestradiol has traditionally been used to alleviate menopause-related effects. This commentary discusses a radical new method to postpone menopause. Part of the enormous surplus of ovarian follicles can now be cryostored in youth for use after...... menopause. Excision of ovarian tissue will advance menopause marginally and will not reduce natural fertility. Grafted tissue restores ovarian function with circulating concentrations of sex steroids for years in post-menopausal cancer survivors. Future developments may further utilize the enormous store of...

  11. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor S.S.;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES...... differences in tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In a pooled analysis, we investigated whether SES as represented by level of education is predictive for advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer, overall and by histotype. The effect of cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the...... association was also evaluated. METHODS: From 18 case-control studies, we obtained information on 10,601 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled...

  12. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  13. The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tumors from 500 patients were examined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Re

  14. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann;

    2011-01-01

    . Design. BRCA1-immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and methylation analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue. Sample: 54 ovarian cancers; 15 BRCA1 cancers, 4 BRCA2 cancers, 10 cancers from patients with a family history but no...

  15. Torsion of ovarian tumor : CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate characteristic CT features of twisted ovarian tumors and to assess the diagnostic value of the existence of twisted vascular pedicle in torsion of ovarian tumors. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and CT findings in eleven patients with ovarian tumor torsion confirmed by surgery. Pre- and post-contrast CT were available in nine patients and post-contrast CT in two. All twisted ovaries, tubes, and tumors showed hemorrhagic infarction and necrosis. All patients had twisted vascular pedicle of the ovarian tumor evaluated by CT. Eight patients with left ovarian tumor had twisted vascular pedicle on the left side of the tumor, and three patients with right ovarian tumor on the right side of the tumor. The morphologic characteristics of twisted vascular pedicle were coiled target appearance (4 cases), beak appearance (3 cases), doughnut appearance (3 cases), and mass with irregular margin (1 case). High density on precontrast CT scan was present in the pedicle in four cases and linear contrast enhancement was seen in the peripheral portion of the pedicle in four cases. The shape, density and location of ovarian tumors were inconsistent, however, contrast enhancement was not seen in all patients. Other findings were uterine deviation, loss of fat plane and pelvic fluid. Detection of twisted vascular pedicle by CT may be useful for the diagnosis of ovarian tumor torsion

  16. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  17. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed fr...

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  19. The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

  20. PET as a substitute for second-look surgery in patients with advnaced epithelia ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the prognostic value o PET with second look laparotomy(SLL) in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma following primary chemotherapy. 55 patients undergone cytoreductive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian carcinoma were enrolled in this study. 30 patients underwent SLL after primary treatment. 25 patients underwent PET after primary treatment without SLL. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients for comparison of relapse-free interval. Ovarian carcinomas recurred in 12 of 55 patients. FDG PET detected the recurrence of ovarian carcinoma in 8 patients(sensitivity=66.7%; specificity=88.7%; p=0.003), and better than CT/MRI (sensitivity=41.7%; specificity=58.2%; p>0.05). The median duration of survival after SLL was 29.6 months and that after PET was 30.9 months(p>0.05). FDG PET can be a sustitute for SLL for following up patients who have had ovarian carcinoma, especially with high risk for recurrence

  1. The Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the HGF/cMET Axis in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Jones, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Survival rates for ovarian cancer have remained relatively stable for the past 2 decades despite advances in surgical techniques and cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, indicating a requirement for better therapies. One pathway currently proposed for targeting is the HGF/cMET pathway. Upregulated in a number of tumour types, cMET is a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed on epithelial cells. In ovarian cancer, it has been identified as highly expressed in the four major subtypes, with expression estimates ranging from 11 to 68 % of cases. HGF, the only known ligand for cMET, is found at high levels in both serum and ascites in women with ovarian cancer, and is proposed to induce both migration and metastasis. However, clinically validated biomarkers are not yet available for either HGF or cMET, preventing a clear understanding of the true rate of overexpression, or its correlation with prognosis. Despite this, a number of agents against HGF and cMET are currently being investigated in clinical trials for multiple tumour types, including ovarian. However, a lack of patient selection, biomarker usage, and post hoc analysis correlating response with expression has resulted in the majority of these trials showing little beneficial effect from these agents, indicating that additional research is required to determine their usefulness in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:27139908

  2. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26046426

  3. OVARIAN METASTASIS IN PATIENT WITH ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-zhi; CHEN Yi-nan; ZHANG Guo-nan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical pathological characteristics of ovarian metastasis of endometrial carcinoma and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made to the clinical pathological outcome of endometrial carcinoma patients receiving surgical treatment in our hospital from January 1990 to December 2002. Results:Among the 191 cases of endometrial carcinoma patients, 17 cases (8.9%) had ovarian metastasis and young patients were more likely to have ovarian metastasis. The multiple factor analysis showed that the independent risk factors of ovarian metastasis in endometrial carcinoma included the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and pathological types. Conclusion: Ovarian metastasis in patients with endometrial carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and histologic types are independent risk factors affecting the prognosis. For young patients at early stage of the disease, it should be prudent as to whether to retain the ovary.

  4. [Ovarian torsion revealing an ovarian cavernous hemangioma in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'pemba Loufoua-Lemay, A-B; Peko, J-F; Mbongo, J-A; Mokoko, J-C; Nzingoula, S

    2003-11-01

    The authors report one case of cavernous hemangioma of the left ovary, which was revealed by ovarian torsion. Such benign tumors of the blood vessels are rare in ovaries during childhood. This hemangioma was observed in a 13-year-old patient, who presented with abdominal and pelvic pain and vomiting. The pelvic mass was noted and sonography revealed a cystic tumor. An annexectomia was realized. Histology showed narcotized ovary cells, with an increased number of vascular channels composed of thin walled vessels, whose wall consisted of an endothelium. This aspect evoked a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. PMID:14613693

  5. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan;

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...

  6. 新辅助化疗联合间隔减瘤术在晚期卵巢癌中的临床应用研究%Clinical application research of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁; 沈立翡; 朱岚; 蔡蕾

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the application value of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery ( NAC/IDS) in treating patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer ( EOC) . Methods We retrospectively reviewed 109 patients with stage IIIC or IV EOC treated at Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from June 2000 to January 2013. 53 patients underwent PDS were selected into PDS group, while 56 patients underwent NAC/IDS were selected into NAC/IDS group, the survival rate and perioperative morbidity were compared between two groups. Results No difference in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) were observed between NAC/IDS group and PDS group (P>0. 05). The optimal debulking rate of NAC/IDS group (53. 6 %) was significantly higher than that of the PDS group (43. 4 %) (P0.05)。 NACT/IDS组手术切除率(53.6%)明显高于PDS组(43.4%)(P<0.05);NACT/IDS组手术出血量、术后恢复、并发症的发生情况优于PDS组(P<0.05)。结论 NACT/IDS增加了手术切除率,减少了手术创伤,术后生存率与PDS无明显差异。在Ⅲc期和Ⅳ期卵巢癌患者,并非强调直接行PDS,NACT/IDS是有效的治疗方法。

  7. Developmental potential of human oocytes matured in vitro followed by vitrification and activation

    OpenAIRE

    Imesch, Patrick; Scheiner, David; Xie, Min; Fink, Daniel; Macas, Erwin; Dubey, Raghvendra; Imthurn, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and cryopreservation at the time of routine ovarian tissue freezing may be offered to cancer patients as an additional option for fertility preservation. This study aimed to investigate the developmental capacity of oocytes isolated from unstimulated ovaries. Methods Immature oocytes (n = 63) from seven consenting premenopausal patients were analysed. Oocytes were collected during routine laparoscopic examination with biopsy of an ovary (cystic adne...

  8. Developmental potential of human oocytes matured in vitro followed by vitrification and activation

    OpenAIRE

    Imesch, Patrick; Scheiner, David; Xie, Min; Fink, Daniel; Macas, Erwin; Dubey, Raghvendra; Imthurn, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and cryopreservation at the time of routine ovarian tissue freezing may be offered to cancer patients as an additional option for fertility preservation. This study aimed to investigate the developmental capacity of oocytes isolated from unstimulated ovaries. METHODS: Immature oocytes (n = 63) from seven consenting premenopausal patients were analysed. Oocytes were collected during routine laparoscopic examination with biopsy of an ovary (cystic ad...

  9. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on the racial disparity in ovarian cancer-specific survival in a large hospital-based study in Cook County, Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryn E. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Data were obtained from 581 women (100 African-American and 481 White diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between June 1, 1994, and December 31, 1998 in Cook County, Illinois, which includes the city of Chicago. Neighborhood disadvantage score at the time of diagnosis was calculated for each woman based on Browning and Cagney’s index of concentrated disadvantage. Cox proportional hazard models measured the association of self-identified African-American race with ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for age, tumor characteristics, surgical debulking, and neighborhood disadvantage. There was a statistically significant negative association (-0.645 between ovarian cancer-specific survival and neighborhood disadvantage (p = 0.008. After adjusting for age and tumor characteristics, African-American women were more likely than Whites to die of ovarian cancer (HR = 1.59, p = 0.003. After accounting for neighborhood disadvantage, this risk was attenuated (HR = 1.32, p = 0.10. These findings demonstrate that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with ovarian cancer-specific survival and may contribute to the racial disparity in survival.

  10. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultimately cure this and similar disorders. NIH Patient Recruitment for Pervasive Developmental Disorders Clinical Trials At NIH ... 1055 (TTY) National Institute of Child Health and Human Information Resource Center P.O. Box 3006 Rockville, MD 20847 ...

  11. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do if you’re concerned » Developmental Monitoring and Screening A child’s growth and development are followed through ... to prevent illness. Some health conditions, such as asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, eczema and skin allergies, and migraine ...

  12. Oncolytic reovirus against ovarian and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Sandra G; Norman, Kara L; Alain, Tommy; Kossakowska, Anna; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-15

    Reovirus selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing) as an antihuman colon and ovarian cancer agent. In in vitro studies, reovirus infection in human colon and ovarian cell lines was assessed by cytopathic effect as detected by light microscopy, [(35)S]Methionine labeling of infected cells for viral protein synthesis and progeny virus production by plaque assay. We observed that reovirus efficiently infected all five human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, DLD-1, HCT-116, HT-29, and SW48) and four human ovarian cancer cell lines (MDAH2774, PA-1, SKOV3, and SW626) which were tested, but not a normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) or a normal ovarian cell line (NOV-31). We also observed that the Ras activity in the human colon and ovarian cancer cell lines was elevated compared with that in normal colon and ovarian cell lines. In animal models, intraneoplastic as well as i.v. inoculation of reovirus resulted in significant regression of established s.c. human colon and ovarian tumors implanted at the hind flank. Histological studies revealed that reovirus infection in vivo was restricted to tumor cells, whereas the surrounding normal tissue remained uninfected. Additionally, in an i.p. human ovarian cancer xenograft model, inhibition of ascites tumor formation and the survival of animals treated with live reovirus was significantly greater than of control mice treated with UV-inactivated reovirus. Reovirus infection in ex vivo primary human ovarian tumor surgical samples was also confirmed, further demonstrating the potential of reovirus therapy. These results suggest that reovirus holds promise as a novel agent for human colon and ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:11912142

  13. Developmental Effects of Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Steculorum, Sophie M.; Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a pleiotropic hormone that was originally described as promoting feeding and stimulating growth hormone release in adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that ghrelin may also exert developmental and organizational effects during perinatal life. The perinatal actions of ghrelin include the regulation of early developmental events such as blastocyst development and perinatal growth. Moreover, alterations in perinatal ghrelin levels result in structural differences in various pe...

  14. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eryılmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  15. Towards Deep Developmental Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sigaud, Olivier; Droniou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience Deep learning techniques are having an undeniable impact on general pattern recognition issues. In this paper, from a developmental robotics perspective, we scrutinize deep learning techniques under the light of their capability to construct a hierarchy of meaningful multimodal representations from the raw sensors of robots. These investigations reveal the differences between the methodological constraints of pattern recognition and those of developmental robotics. I...

  16. Multimodal treatment combining chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy for ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been increasing interest in the use of heat in the treatment of cancer. Theoretically cells are the most sensitive to ionizing radiation at mitosis, whereas the cycle phase that is the most resistant to ionizing radiation namely late in the DNA. Synthetic phase (late S) is the most sensitive to hyperthermia. Hyperthermia has been reported to enhance the cytocidal effects of several active chemotherapeutic agents. When thermal potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents against malignant cells is contemplated, normal tissues have a relatively high ambient blood flow which increases in response to thermal stress, thereby dissipating heat, compared to tumors. Tumors, with relatively poor blood flow and a responsive neovasculature, are in capable of augmenting flow and acting as a heat reservoir. This is the phenomenon of a heat reservoir which is one factor to enhance the cytocidal effects of several active anticancer agents for enhancing the uptake in tumor. The importance is in the adjuvant chemotherapy treated for post operative, advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer. Heating enhances the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Thirty patients with ovarian cancer were subjected to the multidisciplinary treatment with combination of hyperthermochemotherapy and radiation. The 30 patients consisted of 18 with endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 7 with serious post operative or recurrent status. Two types of equipments with rediofrequencies of 70 MHz (BSD-1000) or 434 MHZ (TAG MED·HS 434) were used for hyperthermia. Chemotherapeutic agents such as adriamycin, cis DDP, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were injected intravenously. Arterial infusion with reservoir was very effective in advanced stage of ovarian cancer. No severe or fatal side effects were observed. Hyperthermochemotherapy is useful and effective for the postoperative management or the treatment of recurrent cancer of the ovary. (J.P.N.)

  17. Ovarian cancer:a molecularly insidious disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delia Mezzanzanica

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of theChinese Journal of Cancer, European, American, and Chinese experts review the current management and future perspectives of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths. Although major advances have been made in understanding the cellular and molecular biology of this highly heterogeneous malignancy, the survival rate of women with EOC has changed little since the introduction of platinum-based treatment as a front-line therapy. The papers describe the progress in deciphering the molecular complexity of this disease and the newly available molecular-driven therapies, which have been applied by shifting trial designs toward restricting eligibility to specific subgroups of patients rather than testing agents in unselected populations. These new trial designs provide potential opportunities for improved efficacy in targeted populations. Given the molecular complexity of this disease, patient survival may be increased by searching for new molecular prognostic/predictive signatures as well as by translating the recent insight of microRNA involvement in EOC progression into new, targeted therapies. Particular attention has been given to the issue of fertility sparing for women affected by curable diseases.

  18. Autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in 12 women with chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure: the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Ernst, Erik; Loft, Anne; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Dueholm, Margit; Ottosen, Christian; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    To describe a cohort of 12 Danish women who received autotransplantation of frozen-thawed cryopreserved ovarian tissue because of premature ovarian failure after cancer treatment.......To describe a cohort of 12 Danish women who received autotransplantation of frozen-thawed cryopreserved ovarian tissue because of premature ovarian failure after cancer treatment....

  19. OVARIAN CALCIFICATION MIMICKING VESICLE CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Calcification in ovary is usually dystrophic in natu re, forming secondary to degeneration of the epithelium or in association wit h areas of necrosis. It may occur in cases of endometriosis [1] or in some ovarian tumor eg. Fibro thecoma [2] , Brenner’s tumor [3] , cavernous hemangioma [4] etc. Benign unilateral densely calcified ovary wit hout any association with tumor or endometriosis has not been reported previously. We report a case of heavily calcified left ovary which mimicked as vesicle calculus on X- ray leading to confusion in diagnosis.

  20. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier Chene; Frédérique Penault-Llorca; Anne Tardieu; Anne Cayre; Nicole Lagarde; Patricia Jaffeux; Bruno Aublet-Cuvelier; Pierre Dechelotte; Bertrand Felloni; Jean-Luc Pouly; Jacques Dauplat

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cyste...

  1. Ultrasonography of ovarian masses using a pattern recognition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Il Jung

    2015-01-01

    As a primary imaging modality, ultrasonography (US) can provide diagnostic information for evaluating ovarian masses. Using a pattern recognition approach through gray-scale transvaginal US, ovarian masses can be diagnosed with high specificity and sensitivity. Doppler US may allow ovarian masses to be diagnosed as benign or malignant with even greater confidence. In order to differentiate benign and malignant ovarian masses, it is necessary to categorize ovarian masses into unilocular cyst, ...

  2. Ovarian Reserve Test L The Use in Daily Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Nusratuddin

    2013-01-01

    To Evaluate the significance of conducting ovarian reserve testing decide when to order this testing in the clinical setting. and also to give individualized counseling to patients regarding the prognosis of infertility treatment based on their ovarian reserve tests, such as; basal antral follicle count, basal ovarian volume, ovarian stromal blood flow, ovarian biopsy, basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), basal serum estradiol, basal serum inhibin B, basal anti-Mullerian hormone s...

  3. Ovarian Reserve Test : The Use in Daily Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Nusratuddin

    2013-01-01

    To Evaluate the significance of conducting ovarian reserve testing decide when to order this testing in the clinical setting. and also to give individualized counseling to patients regarding the prognosis of infertility treatment based on their ovarian reserve tests, such as; basal antral follicle count, basal ovarian volume, ovarian stromal blood flow, ovarian biopsy, basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), basal serum estradiol, basal serum inhibin B, basal anti-Mullerian hormone se...

  4. The ecdysone regulatory cascade and ovarian development in lepidopteran insects: insights from the silkmoth paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swevers, Luc; Iatrou, Kostas

    2003-12-01

    The developing ovariole of the silkmoth Bombyx mori represents an excellent model for studies on the changes that occur in gene expression during the execution of long-term developmental programs. All stages of follicle development, which differ from each other by 2-2.5 h of developmental time, are organized in a single array and can be isolated simultaneously for physiological, biochemical and gene expression studies from a single animal. Recently, significant progress has been made toward the understanding of the hormonal regulation and autonomous implementation of the developmental program that governs follicular cell differentiation during oogenesis in Bombyx. In this review, the developmental career of the ovarian follicle during pharate adult development is discussed in view of the new physiological, biochemical and gene expression data that have recently accumulated. An overview is presented of the changes in expression of structural and regulatory genes and their hormonal regulation in the developing follicle during the transitions among the broad developmental periods of previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. Ovarian development in silkmoth pharate adults is induced by 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E) through the activation of a regulatory cascade similar to the one observed during Drosophila development. The transition from previtellogenesis to vitellogenesis corresponds to a late response to the hormone and is characterized by the induction of the expression of a unique isoform of the nuclear receptor BmHR3 and the follicular cell-specific yolk protein ESP. The transition from early to middle and late vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, on the other hand, is regulated by positively and negatively acting intra- and extra-ovarian factors. In vitro cultures of developing ovarioles reveal the requirement for the presence of an as yet unidentified growth factor(s) in the hemolymph, while the follicle developmental arrest that is observed after treatment

  5. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. This study found significantly elevated Mucin-1 serum

  6. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C;

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv......, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case...

  7. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, W; Kruitwagen, R; Bastiaans, B; Hanselaar, T; Rolland, R

    1993-04-17

    Ovarian stimulation in the treatment of infertility is far from physiological because patients and their ovaries are exposed to high concentrations of gonadotropins. Many studies have focused on the two most common side-effects of ovarian stimulation--ie, hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy. We describe 12 patients in whom granulosa-cell tumour was discovered after ovarian stimulation treatment with clomiphene citrate and/or gonadotropins. Although we cannot prove a causal link between the tumour and the medication, investigations in animals have shown a relation between gonadotropin exposition and the development of granulosa-cell tumours. The possible relation of ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumours in human beings has not been published before. We postulate three explanations for this finding; first, the granulosa-cell tumour is present in the ovary, waiting for a hormonal trigger; second, increased follicle stimulating hormone concentrations are oncogenic to granulosa cell; and third, the onset of the granulosa-cell tumour during ovarian stimulation is coincidental. We recommend that ovarian stimulation is done only if there is a valid indication after proper assessment of the ovaries, and that women who have had ovarian stimulation are followed for longer than at present. PMID:8096944

  8. Is CA72-4 a Useful Biomarker in Differential Diagnosis between Ovarian Endometrioma and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Anastasi; Lucia Manganaro; Teresa Granato; Pierluigi Benedetti Panici; Luigi Frati; Maria Grazia Porpora

    2013-01-01

    Background. Surgical excision of ovarian endometriomas in patients desiring pregnancy has recently been criticized because of the risk of damage to healthy ovarian tissue and consequent reduction of ovarian reserve. A correct diagnosis in cases not scheduled for surgery is therefore mandatory in order to avoid unexpected ovarian cancer misdiagnosis. Endometriosis is often associated with high levels of CA125. This marker is therefore not useful for discriminating ovarian endometrioma from ova...

  9. Anti-galectin-3 therapy: a new chance for multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Leonardo; Nguyen, Diane D; Rahman, Rakhshanda L; Grizzi, Fabio; Yuefei, Yu; Figueroa, José A; Jenkins, Marjorie R; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Here we review the role of Galectins in the molecular pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer, with a special focus on Glectin-3. Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Because the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma is still incompletely understood, there is no ultimately effective cure, and this cancer results fatal. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide. Due to the lack of screening techniques for early detection, patients are mostly diagnosed with advanced disease, which results ultimately fatal. Multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer have different biologies, but they share a strong dependence on adhesion with extracellular matrix and other cells. Galectin-3 plays a key role in regulating such adhesive abilities of tumor cells. Here we discuss the outcomes and possible mechanism of action of a truncated, dominant negative form of Galectin-3, Galectin-3C, in these malignancies. Overall, we report that Galectin-3C is a promising new compound for effective adjuvant therapies in advanced, refractory multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. PMID:24801755

  10. Predicting Ovarian Cancer Patients' Clinical Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy by Their Tumor Proteomic Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Levine, Douglas A; Zhang, Hui; Chan, Daniel W; Zhang, Zhen; Snyder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States with most patients diagnosed in the advanced stage of the disease. Platinum-based antineoplastic therapeutics is indispensable to treating advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. However, patients have heterogeneous responses to platinum drugs, and it is difficult to predict these interindividual differences before administering medication. In this study, we investigated the tumor proteomic profiles and clinical characteristics of 130 ovarian serous carcinoma patients analyzed by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), predicted the platinum drug response using supervised machine learning methods, and evaluated our prediction models through leave-one-out cross-validation. Our data-driven feature selection approach indicated that tumor proteomics profiles contain information for predicting binarized platinum response (P drug responses as well as provided insights into the biological processes influencing the efficacy of platinum-based therapeutics. Our analytical approach is also extensible to predicting response to other antineoplastic agents or treatment modalities for both ovarian and other cancers. PMID:27312948

  11. Development of a prosaposin-derived therapeutic cyclic peptide that targets ovarian cancer via the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suming; Blois, Anna; El Rayes, Tina; Liu, Joyce F; Hirsch, Michelle S; Gravdal, Karsten; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Bielenberg, Diane R; Akslen, Lars A; Drapkin, Ronny; Mittal, Vivek; Watnick, Randolph S

    2016-03-01

    The vast majority of ovarian cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic dissemination of tumor cells, resulting in subsequent organ failure. However, despite our increased understanding of the physiological processes involved in tumor metastasis, there are no clinically approved drugs that have made a major impact in increasing the overall survival of patients with advanced, metastatic ovarian cancer. We identified prosaposin (psap) as a potent inhibitor of tumor metastasis, which acts via stimulation of p53 and the antitumorigenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to metastatic sites. We report that more than 97% of human serous ovarian tumors tested express CD36, the receptor that mediates the proapoptotic activity of TSP-1. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether a peptide derived from psap would be effective in treating this form of ovarian cancer. To that end, we developed a cyclic peptide with drug-like properties derived from the active sequence in psap. The cyclic psap peptide promoted tumor regression in a patient-derived tumor xenograft model of metastatic ovarian cancer. Thus, we hypothesize that a therapeutic agent based on this psap peptide would have efficacy in treating patients with metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26962158

  12. Loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 19q in early-stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirnisdottir Ingiridur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and prognosis for apparently similar cases of ovarian cancer varies. Recurrence of the disease in early stage (FIGO-stages I-II serous ovarian cancer results in survival that is comparable to those with recurrent advanced-stage disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are specific genomic aberrations that may explain recurrence and clinical outcome. Methods Fifty-one women with early stage serous ovarian cancer were included in the study. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed samples containing tumor cells from ovarian tumors. Tumor samples from thirty-seven patients were analysed for allele-specific copy numbers using OncoScan single nucleotide polymorphism arrays from Affymetrix and the bioinformatic tool Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite. Genomic gains, losses, and loss-of-heterozygosity that associated with recurrent disease were identified. Results The most significant differences (p  Conclusions The results of our study indicate that presence of two aberrations in TP53 on 17p and LOH on 19q in early stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease. Further studies related to the findings of chromosomes 17 and 19 are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the recurring genomic aberrations and the poor clinical outcome.

  13. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  14. Comparison of different ovarian hyperstimulation protocols efficacy in poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Linli; Bu, Zhiqin; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; ZHAI, JUN; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols have been proposed to improve IVF outcomes for poor ovarian responders. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age, ovarian hyperstimulation protocol and IVF/ICSI outcomes in poor ovarian responder (POR) according to the Bologna criteria, and to compare the efficacy of different protocols used in PORs undergoing IVF/ICSI. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 4875 IVF/ICSI cycles, including 592 cycles of women diagnosed with POR according to Bologn...

  15. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, C. M.; Nagle, C. M.; Whiteman, D C; Ness, R; C. L. Pearce; Pike, M. C.; Rossing, M A; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Wu, A. H.; Risch, H A; Yu, H.; Doherty, J. A.; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R.; Nickels, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher body-mass index (BMI) increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We ev...

  16. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, David D; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S; Birrer, Michael J; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A; Brenton, James D; Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; Lu, Karen H; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steven A; Nelson, Brad H; Nephew, Kenneth P; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L; Scott, Clare L; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Balkwill, Frances R

    2015-11-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This 'roadmap' for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  17. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, David D.; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C.; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S.; Birrer, Michael J.; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A.; Brenton, James; Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G.; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Karen H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steve A.; Nelson, Brad H.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J.; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L.; Scott, Clare L.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  18. Bilateral ovarian mixed epithelial adenocarcinoma in a postmenopausal woman with unilateral ovarian yolk sac tumor component

    OpenAIRE

    Qin CHEN; Chen, Xiaoduan

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian yolk sac tumors (YSTs) usually occur in the young women and have been rarely documented in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The different age distribution supposes their complex nomenclature and histogenesis. We report a case of bilateral ovarian epithelial carcinoma with right ovarian YST component in a postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated by surgery and adjuvant combination chemotherapy of taxol and carboplatin for 6 courses and has been clinically free of tumor for...

  19. Olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, E; Jimeno, A

    2016-01-01

    Olaparib, an oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, is the first FDA-approved drug in its class for patients with ovarian cancer, specifically in a subset of patients with BRCA mutations and prior chemotherapy treatments. PARP inhibitors have had other implications in different solid tumor types including breast, gastric and pancreatic malignancies. In light of the recent FDA approval of olaparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer, this article aims to outline the mechanisms and implications of the drug. With a favorable adverse event profile and improved outcomes, including progression-free survival, olaparib has demonstrated augmentation to therapeutic options in the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:26937492

  20. Ovarian Cancer in Hereditary Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechny, Quentin B; Gilks, C Blake

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome and Lynch syndrome (LS) are associated with increased risk of developing ovarian carcinoma. Patients with HBOC have a lifetime risk of up to 50% of developing high-grade serous carcinoma of tube or ovary; patients with LS have a 10% lifetime risk of developing endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Testing all patients with tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma for mutations associated with HBOC syndrome, and all patients presenting with endometrioid or clear cell carcinoma of the ovary for mutations associated with LS can identify patients with undiagnosed underlying hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes. PMID:27241103

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of cystic ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 48 cases of cystic ovarian tumors by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 0.15 T resistive system and examined the ability of qualitative diagnosis by means of signal intensities and caluculated T1 values. MRI supposed to discriminate among various kinds of cystic ovarian tumors in most cases, especially dermoid cysts, endometrial cysts and cystadenomas. MRI has lots of merits which other imaging methods cannot offer, though it takes a long scan time and high cost at the present time. It plays an important role in the diagnosis of cystic ovarian tumors. (author)

  2. Premature ovarian failure: morphological and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, M A; Baracat, E C; Simões, M J; Focchi, G R; Evêncio Neto, J; de Lima, G R

    1994-01-01

    The authors documented by means of light and transmission electron microscopy that the ovaries of women with premature ovarian failure (POF) displayed dense connective tissue and rare corpora albicantia. Eight of the ten studied cases did not present ovarian follicles; in two cases, it was verified the presence of ovarian follicles, atypical primordial follicles and in one case, a corpus luteum was identified (after stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophin). Regarding the ultrastructural analysis, it was noted that the fibroblasts were united one to each other by cellular prolongations that formed a woof, constituting a cellular syncicius. PMID:7610321

  3. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  4. CT findings of metastatic ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of 18 metastatic ovarian tumors were reviewed. 9 cases had all bilateral ovarian tumors. Primary lesions were 7 gastric cancers, 1 pancreas cancer, and 1 sigmoid colon cancer. 2 lesions could not be detected by CT because of too wide scan interval and poor preparation. 10 lesions were solid masses containing small low density areas. 4 lesions were complex masses with ill-defined multilocular low density areas. These low density areas were due to follicle cysts, small necrotic areas and accumulated mucin. They were able to be differentiated from primary ovarian cancers by proportion of solid component and ill-defined multilocular cystic areas. 2 lesions from sigmoid colon cancer were well-defined multilocular cystic masses and they could not be differentiated from primary ovarian cancer. (author)

  5. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

    quality of treatment.   Patients/ Methods We developed an interdisciplinary programme including patient data from the records of doctors, nurses, anaesthetists and observations. This programme was applied on a population of 65 women with ovarian malignancies. Subsequently analyses were performed...

  6. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

      Introduction Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer, with more than 200,000 new cases each year and 125,000 related deaths. During the last decade, centralization and standardisation of surgical treatment have proven to be important tools in ovarian cancer to improve...... quality and survival. However, treatment efforts must be combined with high quality care, psychosocial support and organisational improvements.   Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimal debulking surgery programme in ovarian cancer, and subsequently develop a method of monitoring...... care resources and in future research. By using the interdisciplinary approach, women with ovarian cancer can benefit from a coherent and collaborative health care system.  ...

  7. Axillary node metastasis from primary ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti S Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization and distinction from mammary carcinoma is of great clinical importance because of different treatment modalities. Here, we discuss a case of stage IIIC ovarian serous carcinoma, presenting with bilateral axillary nodes metastasis after 25 months interval of its initial presentation. Increased serum CA-125 level caused clinical suspicion. Computed tomography scan of abdomen and pelvis showed no residual disease or any abdominal lymphadenopathy. Mammography of both breast were normal. Bilateral axillary nodes were noted. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and biopsy of ovarian carcinoma to axillary node is a rare event. Its recogn done. Cytomorphology revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma, compatible to that of primary ovarian tumor. Thus, metastatic carcinoma to axillary node from ovary was confirmed. This case illustrates a rare metastatic presentation of ovarian carcinoma and unequivocal role of FNAC to provide rapid diagnosis and preferred to be first line diagnostic procedure.

  8. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADCL/rADCF) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADCL /rADCF ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADCL /rADCF ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  9. Novel Treatment Shrinks Ovarian Tumors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a new approach for treating tumors that express mutant versions of the p53 protein, which are present in more than half of all cancers, including an aggressive and common subtype of ovarian cancer.

  10. Genetic and molecular changes in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Robert L; Gourley, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, and can be divided into five main histological subtypes: high grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous. These subtypes represent distinct disease entities, both clinically and at the molecular level. Molecular analysis has revealed significant genetic heterogeneity in ovarian cancer, particularly within the high grade serous subtype. As such, this subtype has been the focus of much research effort to date, revealing molecular subgroups at both the genomic and transcriptomic level that have clinical implications. However, stratification of ovarian cancer patients based on the underlying biology of their disease remains in its infancy. Here, we summarize the molecular changes that characterize the five main ovarian cancer subtypes, highlight potential opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention and outline priorities for future research.

  11. Pembrolizumab, Bevacizumab, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  12. Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Neutrophil Depression: A Pharmacogenomic Study of Paclitaxel in 92 Women with Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Troels K; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Gréen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

      The standard treatment for ovarian cancer in advanced stages is post-surgery treatment with taxane-platin chemotherapy. Despite an initial high response rate, most patients eventually relapse. The dose-limiting toxicities of paclitaxel are neutropenia and neuropathy, but the inter-individual va...

  13. Mutational analysis of BRAF and KRAS in ovarian serous borderline (atypical proliferative) tumours and associated peritoneal implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardighieri, Laura; Zeppernick, Felix; Hannibal, Charlotte G;

    2014-01-01

    There is debate as to whether peritoneal implants associated with serous borderline tumours/atypical proliferative serous tumours (SBT/APSTs) of the ovary are derived from the primary ovarian tumour or arise independently in the peritoneum. We analysed 57 SBT/APSTs from 45 patients with advanced...

  14. Phase III trial of carboplatin plus paclitaxel with or without gemcitabine in first-line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Bois, Andreas; Herrstedt, Jørn; Hardy-Bessard, Anne-Claire;

    2010-01-01

    One attempt to improve long-term survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer was thought to be the addition of more non-cross-resistant drugs to platinum-paclitaxel combination regimens. Gemcitabine was among the candidates for a third drug....

  15. Integrated proteogenomic characterization of human high grade serous ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Payne, Samuel H.; Zhang, Bai; McDermott, Jason E.; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Chen, Li; Ray, Debjit; Sun, Shisheng; Yang, Feng; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Jing; Shah, Punut; Cha, Seong Won; Aiyetan, Paul; Woo, Sunghee; Tian, Yuan; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Choi, Caitlin; Monroe, Matthew E.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Nie, Song; Wu, Chaochao; Moore, Ronald J.; Yu, Kun-Hsing; Tabb, David L.; Fenyo, David; Bafna, Vineet; Wang, Yue; Rodriguez, Henry; Boja, Emily; Hiltket, Tara; Rivers, Robert; Sokoll, Lori J.; Zhu, Heng; Shih, Ie-Ming; Cope, Leslie; Pandey, Akhilesh; Zhang, Bing; Snyder, Michael; Levine, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Chan, Daniel W.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2016-07-28

    Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, despite recent advances in genomic information and treatment. To better understand this disease, define an integrated proteogenomic landscape, and identify factors associated with homologous repair deficiency (HRD) and overall survival, we performed a comprehensive proteomic characterization of ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC) previously characterized by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We observed that messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict abundance for 10,030 proteins across 174 tumors. Clustering of tumors based on protein abundance identified five subtypes, two of which correlated robustly with mesenchymal and proliferative subtypes, while tumors characterized as immunoreactive or differentiated at the transcript level were intermixed at the protein level. At the genome level, HGSC is characterized by a complex landscape of somatic copy number alterations (CNA), which individually do not correlate significantly with survival. Correlation of CNAs with protein abundances identified loci with significant trans regulatory effects mapping to pathways associated with proliferation, cell motility/invasion, and immune regulation, three known hallmarks of cancer. Using the trans regulated proteins we also created models significantly correlated with patient survival by multivariate analysis. Integrating protein abundance with specific post-translational modification data identified subnetworks correlated with HRD status; specifically, acetylation of Lys12 and Lys16 on histone H4 was associated with HRD status. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics data covering 4,420 proteins as reflective of pathway activity, we identified the PDGFR and VEGFR signaling pathways as significantly up-regulated in patients with short overall survival, independent of PDGFR and VEGFR protein levels, potentially informing the use of anti-angiogenic therapies. Components of

  16. Scope of nanotechnology in ovarian cancer therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Yallapu Murali M; Jaggi Meena; Chauhan Subhash C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review describes the use of polymer micelle nanotechnology based chemotherapies for ovarian cancer. While various chemotherapeutic agents can be utilized to improve the survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer, their distribution throughout the entire body results in high normal organ toxicity. Polymer micelle nanotechnology aims to improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs while minimizing the side effects. Herein, different types of polymer micelle technology ...

  17. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of pr...

  18. Repopulation of Ovarian Cancer Cells After Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Telleria, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    The high mortality rate caused by ovarian cancer has not changed for the past thirty years. Although most patients diagnosed with this disease respond to cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy and undergo remission, foci of cells almost always escape therapy, manage to survive, and acquire the capacity to repopulate the tumor. Repopulation of ovarian cancer cells that escape front-line chemotherapy, however, is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here I analyze cancer-initiating ce...

  19. Pure ovarian choriocarcinoma: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare condition of gestational or nongestational origin. The possibility of gestational origin can be suspected by the presence of a corpus luteum of pregnancy but definite diagnosis would be based on genetic analysis. Here, we present two cases of pure ovarian choriocarcinoma in the forth decade of life with the possibility of gestational origin.
    • Keywords: Gestational, choriocarcinoma, ovary.

  20. Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Causing Distal Ureteral Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, WD; Mayhew, RG; Mitchell, S; Stennett, M; Johnson, P.

    2015-01-01

    A case of a 45-year old woman with an ovarian dermoid cyst causing ureteric colic secondary to distal ureteral obstruction is reported. The dermoid cyst was observed on computed tomography to be adjacent to and compressing the distal left ureter and this was confirmed at surgical exploration. Following oophorectomy, the patient's symptoms completely resolved and the excised ovarian cyst was confirmed on pathological evaluation to be a dermoid cyst. This appears to be the first reported case o...

  1. Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, A. J.; de Bruyn, R; Grant, D B

    1985-01-01

    Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further ovarian cyst formation was found in one of these patients. Endocrine studies performed before resolution of the cys...

  2. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the cond...

  3. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Urmila; Elisa V Bandera; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New J...

  4. Ovarian cystadenofibroma: A masquerader of malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wasnik Ashish; Elsayes Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare benign ovarian tumor that contains both epithelial and fibrous stromal components. The appearance of cystadenofibroma on imaging is often complex; cystic- to solid-appearing masses may be visualized and it often resembles a malignant tumor. Owing to the fibrous component of this tumor, MRI shows low-signal intensity on T2W images. This finding may help a radiologist make a preoperative diagnosis of this tumor and thus perhaps avoid aggressive surg...

  5. STUDY OF OVARIAN LESIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarjuna; Srinivas,; Ramesh Reddy; Lavanya; Inugala

    2015-01-01

    : AIM: To study ovarian lesions in paediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of ovarian lesions presenting to Niloufer Hospital during the study period spanning 7 years were included in the study. All cases were clinically examined and evaluated with serum markers like α-fetoprotein and β-HCG, ultrasonography of abdomen and pelvis and contrast enhanced computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis. The cases were managed either conservatively or surgically depending on...

  6. ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN OVARIAN TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    Lubna; Amita; Asha,; Chayanika; Sanjay; Rahul K.; Kiran

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are characterized by marked heterogeneity in their clinical presentation, so an accurate histopathological diagnosis is needed. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in vast number of cases where the morphology and clinical data alone do not allow definite diagnosis of tumor present in tissue sections. AIMS: 1. To evaluate the role of immune- histochemistry in classification and histogenesis of ovarian tumours and in resolving diagnostic dilemma in clo...

  7. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAMURA, KANAKO; Banno, Kouji; YANOKURA, MEGUMI; Iida, Miho; ADACHI, MASATAKA; Masuda, Kenta; UEKI, ARISA; KOBAYASHI, YUSUKE; NOMURA, HIROYUKI; Hirasawa, Akira; TOMINAGA, EIICHIRO; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9–2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10–15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65–75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage II...

  8. Ovarian dysgerminoma in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander F Aldhafery

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although rare, dysgerminomas are important irrespective of incidence because they affect women of reproductive age (i.e., <45 years. Dysgerminomas make up two thirds of all malignant ovarian neoplasms in women younger than 20 years. All dysgerminomas are considered malignant, but only one third of dysgerminomas behave aggressively. Their exact etiology has not been determined. Few reports are found in the review of the literature on the incidence of dysgerminoma and other germ cell tumors in families. Some of these reports focus on the genetic abnormalities associated with germ cell tumor and the responsible gene. Two cases of dysgerminomas diagnosed in two sisters aged 14 and 19 years old are presented here with their radiological studies.

  9. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Diane M.; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan; Ebeling, Mara C.; Bauer, Nichole A.; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25306892

  10. Unbalanced estrogen metabolism in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muhammad; Beseler, Cheryl L; Hall, James B; LeVan, Tricia; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2014-05-15

    Greater exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. To investigate the role of estrogens in ovarian cancer, a spot urine sample and a saliva sample were obtained from 33 women with ovarian cancer and 34 age-matched controls. Thirty-eight estrogen metabolites, conjugates and DNA adducts were analyzed in the urine samples using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and the ratio of adducts to metabolites and conjugates was calculated for each sample. The ratio of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts to estrogen metabolites and conjugates was significantly higher in cases compared to controls (p < 0.0001), demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. DNA was purified from the saliva samples and analyzed for genetic polymorphisms in the genes for two estrogen-metabolizing enzymes. Women with two low-activity alleles of catechol-O-methyltransferase plus one or two high-activity alleles of cytochrome P450 1B1 had higher levels of estrogen-DNA adducts and were more likely to have ovarian cancer. These findings indicate that estrogen metabolism is unbalanced in ovarian cancer and suggest that formation of estrogen-DNA adducts plays a critical role in the initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:24170413

  11. Computed tomography of the ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) provides valuable informations in the diagnosis of the female pelvic masses. CT findings of 109 cases of surgically proved ovarian masses were reviewed regarding number, size, contour, and internal consistency (cystic, solid, and mixed masses). Differentiation between malignant and benign ovarian tumors depended on number and internal consistency of the mass. Most of malignant tumors showed bilateral mixed or solid masses and contained solid components. Most of metastatic ovarian cancer were demonstrated as bilateral mixed or solid masses. They were able to be differentiated from primary ovarian cancer because metastatic tumors contained more solid components than primary ones did and had ill-defined margins between cystic and solid components in mixed masses. In benign ovarian tumors, differentiation between mucinous cystadenomas, endometrial cysts, and dermoid cysts were possible. Mucinous cystadenomas showed the largest mulilocular cystic masses with band like septal thickening and their each locule demonstrated different densities. Endometrial cysts showed uni- or bilocular cystic masses with thick wall. Dermoid cysts were characterized by the presence of fatty component. It was concluded that CT is very useful in the tissue characterization of the ovarian masses by specific CT findings. (author)

  12. Homologous recombination deficiency and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jonathan A; Drew, Yvette; Kristeleit, Rebecca S

    2016-06-01

    The discovery that PARP inhibitors block an essential pathway of DNA repair in cells harbouring a BRCA mutation has opened up a new therapeutic avenue for high-grade ovarian cancers. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are essential for high-fidelity repair of double-strand breaks of DNA through the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. Deficiency in HRR (HRD) is a target for PARP inhibitors. The first PARP inhibitor, olaparib, has now been licensed for BRCA-mutated ovarian cancers. While mutated BRCA genes are individually most commonly associated with HRD other essential HRR proteins may be mutated or functionally deficient potentially widening the therapeutic opportunities for PARP inhibitors. HRD is the first phenotypically defined predictive marker for therapy with PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer. Several different PARP inhibitors are being trialled in ovarian cancer and this class of drugs has been shown to be a new selective therapy for high-grade ovarian cancer. Around 20% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers harbour germline or somatic BRCA mutations and testing for BRCA mutations should be incorporated into routine clinical practice. The expanded use of PARP inhibitors in HRD deficient (non-BRCA mutant) tumours using a signature of HRD in clinical practice requires validation. PMID:27065456

  13. Multi-step radioimmunotherapy of ovarian carcinomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among gynecological malignancies. Some 70 - 80% of patients fail conventional therapy, eventually succumbing to ovarian carcinomatosis. We are exploring a multi-step targeting approach as an adjuvant therapy to surgical debulking of the tumour. The prospective intraperitoneal treatment involves administration of a bispecific antibody to target CA-125 on the surface of ovarian cancer cells and biotin; followed by administration of biotinylated, radiolabeled liposomes to effect selective tumour cell killing within the peritoneal cavity. The goal of the study is to provide efficacious control of peritoneal metastatic disease, with improved quality and duration of the life of the patient. Bispecific antibodies to the human ovarian tumour-associated antigen, CA-125, were engineered and their selective targeting of human NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Co-localisation of biotinylated, long-circulating liposomes was demonstrated, using the same technique. Kinetics analysis of internalisation and shedding of the antigen/antibody complex demonstrates an effective residency on the cell surface for at least four hours in vitro. Biodistribution studies in immunodeficient Balb/c mice demonstrate selective tumour association of radiolabeled, targeted liposomes. Tumour growth delay/control studies are imminently planned. Our current results warrant further development of this approach as a potential therapy for human ovarian carcinomatosis

  14. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.' PMID:27242648

  15. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  16. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...

  17. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  18. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  19. Malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy:a clinicopathological study of twenty-one cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xue-ying; Huang Hui-fang; Lian Li-juan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinicopathological characters of malignant ovarian tumors during pregnancy. The rationale for appropriate management was discussed.Methods: Twenty-one cases of malignant ovarian tumors complicating pregnancy treated between 1985 and 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. In reference with the reports from the current literatures, the rationale of the treatment for the best outcome of both mother and child was discussed.Results:In the patients reviewed, 9 were found with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary, 6 with low malignant potential tumors, 4 with invasive epithelial tumors, and 2 with sex cord-stromal tumors. Sixteen (76.2 %) of the patients diagnosed in stage I, and all had achieved complete response to the treatment. Three of the four patients in advanced stage died, of which two were invasive epithelial cancers and one stage Ⅳ endodermal sinus tumor. All patients had surgery, and fourteen of them got conservative surgery. All sixteen patients accepted for chemotherapy took adjuvant chemotherapies after abortions or deliveries. Fourteen healthy live births were recorded in this group and there were no documented birth defects, but one died of respiratory distress syndrome.Conclusion: The managements of malignant ovarian cancers during pregnancy differed in different histological types. In ovarian borderline tumors and malignant germ cell tumors including stage Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, surgery can be conservative. For advanced epithelial cancers, aggressive surgery should be instituted. Chemotherapy could be considered for the malignant germ cell tumor during the second and third trimester. Ovarian borderline tumors should not take chemotherapy.Epithelial cancer should be given combination platinum-based chemotherapy. Hysterectomy during pregnancy is rarely indicated unless it contributes significantly to tumor debulking, and pregnancy often could be allowed to continue until near-term.

  20. Enhanced efficacy and specificity of epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis by embedding a DMBA-coated cloth strip in the ovary of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yiping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is predominant of epithelial cell origin and often present at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. Most animal models of ovarian carcinoma yield thecal/granulose cell tumors, rather than adenocarcinomas. The best reported induction rate of adenocarcinoma in rats is 10-45% by an ovarian implantation of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA coated silk suture. We provided an improved procedure to construct the model by the ovarian implantation of DMBA-coated cloth strip. Methods A sterile suture (as S group or a piece of cloth strip (as CS group was soaked in DMBA before ovarian implantation in Wistar rats. Tumor size, incidence rate and pathological type were analyzed. Results Ovarian tumors in rats of CS group were first noted at 16 wk post implantation and reached a cumulative incidence of 75% (96/128 at 32 wk, while the tumor incidence rate in S group at 32 wk was only 46.25% (37/80. The tumor size in CS group (3.63 ± 0.89 cm was larger than that of S group (2.44 ± 1.89 cm (P  Conclusion The model in our study yields much higher incidence and specificity of epithelial derived tumors and showed histological similarities to human ovarian cancers, which would be more suitable for therapeutic research.

  1. Predictors of ovarian response : progress towards individualized treatment in ovulation induction and ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Diedrich, K.; Devroey, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation is applied in the clinic to restore mono-ovulatory cycles in anovulatory women (ovulation induction) or to induce the development of multiple dominant follicles for assisted reproduction. Ovarian response is the endocrine and follicular reaction of the ovaries to stimulation. Ach

  2. Comparison of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ji Hee; Cha, Sun Hwa; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Young; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo; Kim, Hye Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the IVF outcomes of mild ovarian stimulation with conventional ovarian stimulation in poor responders. Methods From 2004 to 2009, 389 IVF cycles in 285 women showed poor responses (defined as either a basal FSH level ≥12 mIU/mL, or the number of retrieved oocytes ≤3, or serum E2 level on hCG day

  3. Conservative Management versus Aspiration of Functional Ovarian Cysts Before Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Fiszbajn, Gabriel E.; Lipowicz, Rubén G.; Elberger, Laura; Grabia, Adriana; Papier, Sergio D.; Brugo Olmedo, Santiago P.; Chillik, Claudio F.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficiency of transvaginal ultrasound-guided functional ovarian cyst aspiration, withconservative management, in the outcome of patientsundergoing assisted reproductive technique (ART) (in vitrofertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection). Thesecysts were identified before ovarian stimulation begun andafter administration of a midluteal GnRH agonist.

  4. Bilateral ovarian cystic teratomata mimicking bilateral pure ovarian hemangiomata: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, I M; Aronson, B L; McCarthy, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral, benign cystic ovarian teratomata which were composed predominantly of cavernous hemangiomatous elements. The right-sided lesion, in particular, mimicked a pure ovarian hemangioma. The clinical presentation, bilaterality of the lesions, the sizes of the hemangiomata, and the subsequent hemangioma of the leg are all of interest in this very rare lesion. PMID:6511164

  5. Predictive and Prognostic Protein Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Recommendation for Future Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Le Page, Cécile; David G Huntsman; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Due to its lack of symptoms, this disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the cancer has already spread to secondary sites. While initial rates of response to first treatment is >80%, the overall survival rate of patients is extremely low, mainly due to development of drug resistance. To date, there are no reliable clinical factors that can properly stratify patients for suitable chemotherapy strategies. Clinical pa...

  6. Predictive and Prognostic Protein Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Recommendation for Future Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cécile Le Page; David G Huntsman; Provencher, Diane M; Anne-Marie Mes-Masson

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Due to its lack of symptoms, this disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when the cancer has already spread to secondary sites. While initial rates of response to first treatment is >80%, the overall survival rate of patients is extremely low, mainly due to development of drug resistance. To date, there are no reliable clinical factors that can properly stratify patients for suitable chemotherapy strategies. Clinical...

  7. Clinical relevance of circulating cell-free microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakatsuka, Erika; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Since ovarian cancer develops asymptomatically, it is often diagnosed at an advanced and incurable stage. Despite many years of research, there is still a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and methods for early detection and screening. Recently, it was discovered that cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in the body fluids of healthy and diseased patients, suggesting that they may serve as a novel diagnostic marker. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential clinical relevance of circulating cell-free miRNA for ovarian cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. Despite the high levels of ribonucleases in many types of body fluids, most of the circulating miRNAs are packaged in microvesicles, exosomes, or apoptotic bodies, are binding to RNA-binding protein such as argonaute 2 or lipoprotein complexes, and are thus highly stable. Cell-free miRNA signatures are known to be parallel to those from the originating tumor cells, indicating that circulating miRNA profiles accurately reflect the tumor profiles. Since it is well established that the dysregulation of miRNAs is involved in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, cell-free miRNAs circulating in body fluids such as serum, plasma, whole blood, and urine may reflect not only the existence of ovarian cancer but also tumor histology, stage, and prognoses of the patients. Several groups have successfully demonstrated that serum or plasma miRNAs are able to discriminate patients with ovarian cancer patients from healthy controls, suggesting that the addition of these miRNAs to current testing regimens may improve diagnosis accuracies for ovarian cancer. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that changes in levels of cell-free circulating miRNAs are associated with the condition of cancer patients. Discrepancies between the results across studies due to the lack of an established endogenous miRNA control to

  8. Alterations of c-Myc and c-erbB-2 genes in ovarian tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women. The causes of ovarian cancer remain largely unknown but various factors may increase the risk of developing it, such as age, family history of cancer, childbearing status etc. This cancer results from a succession of genetic alterations involving oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, which have a critical role in normal cell growth regulation. Mutations and/or overexpression of three oncogenes, c-erbB-2, c-Myc and K-ras, and of the tumour suppressor gene p53, have been frequently observed in a sporadic ovarian cancer. Objective. The aim of the present study was to analyze c-Myc and c-erbB-2 oncogene alterations, specifically amplification, as one of main mechanisms of their activation in ovarian cancers and to establish a possible association with the pathogenic process. Methods. DNA was isolated from 15 samples of malignant and 5 benign ovarian tumours, using proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol-chloroform isoamyl extraction and ethanol precipitation. C-Myc and c-erbB-2 amplification were detected by differential PCR. The level of gene copy increase was measured using the Scion image software. Results. The amplification of both c-Myc and c-erbB-2 was detected in 26.7% of ovarian epithelial carcinoma specimens. Only one tumour specimen concomitantly showed increased gene copy number for both studied genes. Interestingly, besides amplification, gene deletion was also detected (26.7% for c-erbB-2. Most of the ovarian carcinomas with alterations in c-Myc and c-erbB-2 belonged to advanced FIGO stages. Conclusion. The amplification of c-Myc and c-erbB-2 oncogenes in ovarian epithelial carcinomas is most probably a late event in the pathogenesis conferring these tumours a more aggressive biological behaviour. Similarly, gene deletions point to genomic instability in epithelial carcinomas in higher clinical stages as the

  9. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we....... RESULTS: Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer. No...

  10. ROLE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN OVARIAN TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are characterized by marked heterogeneity in their clinical presentation, so an accurate histopathological diagnosis is needed. Immunohistochemistry is helpful in vast number of cases where the morphology and clinical data alone do not allow definite diagnosis of tumor present in tissue sections. AIMS: 1. To evaluate the role of immune- histochemistry in classification and histogenesis of ovarian tumours and in resolving diagnostic dilemma in closely mimicking and poorly differentiated tumours. 2. To evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry in ovarian tumours and to differentiate primary from metastatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 80 operated cases of ovarian tumours over a period of one and half year (January 2008 to September 2010 were studied. Paraffin blocks of various ovarian tumours for relevant immunostains were subjected for automated immunostaining. Total 52 immunostains were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of the 80 cases of ovarian tumours, benign ovarian lesions were more common (75% than malignant lesions (25%. Serous cystadenoma was the commonest benign tumor (45%. Overall surface epithelial carcinomas were responsible for 70% of all malignant lesions among which serous cyst adenocarcinoma was most common (45%. 88.8% cases of serous carcinomas showed diffuse positivity for CK7, 60% showed positivity for CA125 and 100% were negative for CK20. 100% cases of mucinous carcinoma showed positivity for CK7, 66.66% showed positivity for CEA and 100% were negative for CA125. ER and PR showed nuclear positivity in both cases (100% of endometrioid carcinoma. Dysgerminoma showed positivity for placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP. Yolk sac tumor was positive for alpha-feto protein (AFP. Embryonal carcinoma was positive for CD30. Granulosa cell tumor was positive for Calretinin and Inhibin and negative for AFP. CONCLUSION: Thus IHC is helpful in confirming the histological diagnosis, to know the histogenesis

  11. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for ovarian cancer is based on data from six randomized trials. Moreover, data from one prospective study and three retrospective studies were used. In total, 10 scientific articles are included, involving 1,282 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15,042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in the following points: There is no scientific documentation supporting adjuvant radiotherapy for early-stage, low-risk patients. No studies have been reported where adjuvant radiotherapy has been compared with no adjuvant therapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy, either whole abdominal irradiation or intraperitoneal P32, has been compared with adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. There is no scientific evidence to show that there is a difference in efficacy. There is some evidence to suggest that adjuvant radiotherapy after radical surgery leads to an increase in disease-free survival rate for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. There is little documentation on long-term side effects (second malignancy) after adjuvant radiotherapy and no conclusions can be drawn

  12. Other Gynecologic Cancers: endometrial, ovarian, vulvar and vaginal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Franco, Eliane; Franco, Eduardo L

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from vulvar and vaginal cancers are very low, endometrium and ovarian cancer are important public health problems. KEY FINDINGS: In Canada, there has been no appreciable improvement in survival for women with advanced endometrial (EC) or ovarian cancer (OC) over the past 30 years. The prognosis of EC is good for most patients because diagnosis is made at early stages. However, survival of OC is poor; more than 70% of cases are diagnosed at late stages. Up to 10% of OCs is linked to familial aggregation. Cancers of the vulva and of the vagina are very rare. The survival experience for women with the latter is worse than for those with the former. Both share many risk factors with cervical cancer and the recent developments in the study of HPV infection should be applicable to these diseases as well. Of particular interest will be the advent of vaccines for the primary prevention of HPV infection. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: At present, the best available means to diagnose gynecologic malignancies is a detailed clinical examination, considering the totality of information on potential and proven risk factors, such as age, reproductive health, sexual practices, use unopposed estrogens or of oral contraceptives or tubal ligation, obesity, diet, smoking, and the familial clustering of some of these cancers. PMID:15345077

  13. Ovarian response during IVF cycle following laparascopic cystectomy of ovarian endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Moghadami Tabrizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrioma of ovary is one of the common diseases during reproductive age and the effect of laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma on infertility is still matter of debate. We designed this case control study to evaluate the ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF (In vitro fertilization cycle following laparoscopic unilateral cystectomy of endometrioma. Methods: In a case control study, we enrolled 30 women with history of unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of ovarian endometrioma in stripping method who underwent IVF cycle in women Hospital, 2009-2012. The numbers of follicles in response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF cycle in the ovary with history of  unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. Results: The mean age (±SD of patients was 32.3 (±3.4. The mean (±SD diameter of excised ovarian endometrioma was 42.4 (±10.4 mm. Interval since ovarian surgery to induction ovulation was 2.7 (±2.6 years. Mean number of follicles in the ovary with history of unilateral laparoscopic cystectomy of endometrioma was 2.5 (±1.2 with the range of 1 to 5 and in the control ovary 3.9 (±1.4 with the range of 1 to 6. There was significant difference in the number of follicles in the ovary with laparascopic cystectomy of endometrioma compared with opposite one (P<0.001.Conclusion: Laparoscopic cystectomy for unilateral endometrioma is associated with a reduced ovarian response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF cycle. We did not find any statistically significant difference in reduced ovarian response with regard to patients age, body mass index, size and location of the cyst, and time duration since ovarian cystectomy.

  14. Ovarian cancer plasticity and epigenomics in the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Nicholas B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aggressive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is genetically and epigenetically distinct from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE and early neoplasia. Co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in EOC suggests an involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in cancer initiation and progression. This phenomenon is often associated with acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype and chemoresistance that correlate with the specific gene expression patterns accompanying transformation, revealing a plasticity of the ovarian cancer cell genome during disease progression. Differential gene expressions between normal and transformed cells reflect the varying mechanisms of regulation including genetic changes like rearrangements within the genome, as well as epigenetic changes such as global genomic hypomethylation with localized promoter CpG island hypermethylation. The similarity of gene expression between ovarian cancer cells and the stem-like ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC are surprisingly also correlated with epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in normal stem cells. Both normal and cancer stem cells maintain genetic flexibility by co-placement of activating and/or repressive epigenetic modifications on histone H3. The co-occupancy of such opposing histone marks is believed to maintain gene flexibility and such bivalent histones have been described as being poised for transcriptional activation or epigenetic silencing. The involvement of both-microRNA (miRNA mediated epigenetic regulation, as well as epigenetic-induced changes in miRNA expression further highlight an additional complexity in cancer stem cell epigenomics. Recent advances in array-based whole-genome/epigenome analyses will continue to further unravel the genomes and epigenomes of cancer and cancer stem cells. In order to illuminate phenotypic signatures that delineate ovarian cancer from their associated cancer stem cells, a priority must lie

  15. Trabectedin as a single agent and in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin – activity against ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marczak, Agnieszka; Denel, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Over 225 000 new cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed each year. Symptoms are often vague, so most cases are detected when the disease is at an advanced stage. There is a need to find new drugs which will be able to treat ovarian cancer effectively. One of the most promising antineoplastic agents is trabectedin (Yondelis), derived from the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata, approved by the European Union in July 2007 for the treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas. This drug shows a mechanis...

  16. Will Chinese ovarian cancer patients benefit from knowing the BRCA2 mutation status?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Yan Liu; Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries,the mutation status of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is commonly determined for genetic counseling among members of families with a history of breast or ovarian cancer,especially for women of the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity.Recent studies in the Cancer Genome Atlas project have demonstrated that BRCA2 mutation carriers are more responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy among high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.Thus,in Western countries,the mutation status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is recognized to have an important value with which to assess cancer risk and therapeutic response.However,very limited studies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and their implications for counseling and therapeutic prediction have been conducted in China.Therefore,a potentially important genetic test that is technically simple has not benefited Chinese women with an increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer.This article summarizes the current progress in the study of BRCA1/2 mutation in China and recommends an increased effort in applying advances in genetic testing to the clinical management of Chinese patients with ovarian cancer.

  17. Coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging and classification of ovarian cancer: ex vivo and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Li, Hai; Merkulov, Alex; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Vavadi, Hamed; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly A.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-04-01

    Most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages due to the lack of efficacious screening techniques. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has a potential to image tumor angiogenesis and detect early neovascular changes of the ovary. We have developed a coregistered PAT and ultrasound (US) prototype system for real-time assessment of ovarian masses. Features extracted from PAT and US angular beams, envelopes, and images were input to a logistic classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to diagnose ovaries as benign or malignant. A total of 25 excised ovaries of 15 patients were studied and the logistic and SVM classifiers achieved sensitivities of 70.4 and 87.7%, and specificities of 95.6 and 97.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the ovaries of two patients were noninvasively imaged using the PAT/US system before surgical excision. By using five significant features and the logistic classifier, 12 out of 14 images (86% sensitivity) from a malignant ovarian mass and all 17 images (100% specificity) from a benign mass were accurately classified; the SVM correctly classified 10 out of 14 malignant images (71% sensitivity) and all 17 benign images (100% specificity). These initial results demonstrate the clinical potential of the PAT/US technique for ovarian cancer diagnosis.

  18. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to improve clinical care and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eKarakasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer, those at risk of developing cancer, but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement.

  19. Implementing rapid, robust, cost-effective, patient-centred, routine genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Angela; Riddell, Daniel; Seal, Sheila; Talukdar, Sabrina; Mahamdallie, Shazia; Ruark, Elise; Cloke, Victoria; Slade, Ingrid; Kemp, Zoe; Gore, Martin; Strydom, Ann; Banerjee, Susana; Hanson, Helen; Rahman, Nazneen

    2016-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing have made genetic testing fast and affordable, but limitations of testing processes are impeding realisation of patient benefits. Ovarian cancer exemplifies the potential value of genetic testing and the shortcomings of current pathways to access testing. Approximately 15% of ovarian cancer patients have a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation which has substantial implications for their personal management and that of their relatives. Unfortunately, in most countries, routine implementation of BRCA testing for ovarian cancer patients has been inconsistent and largely unsuccessful. We developed a rapid, robust, mainstream genetic testing pathway in which testing is undertaken by the trained cancer team with cascade testing to relatives performed by the genetics team. 207 women with ovarian cancer were offered testing through the mainstream pathway. All accepted. 33 (16%) had a BRCA mutation. The result informed management of 79% (121/154) women with active disease. Patient and clinician feedback was very positive. The pathway offers a 4-fold reduction in time and 13-fold reduction in resource requirement compared to the conventional testing pathway. The mainstream genetic testing pathway we present is effective, efficient and patient-centred. It can deliver rapid, robust, large-scale, cost-effective genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 and may serve as an exemplar for other genes and other diseases. PMID:27406733

  20. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to Improve Clinical Care and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasis, Katherine; Burnier, Julia V; Bowering, Valerie; Oza, Amit M; Lheureux, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities, where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much-needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer and those at risk of developing cancer but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many of which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement. PMID:27242959