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Sample records for advanced optimal traffic

  1. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  2. Fuzzy Multiobjective Traffic Light Signal Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahsavari Pour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a major concern for many cities throughout the world. In a general traffic light controller, the traffic lights change at a constant cycle time. Hence it does not provide an optimal solution. Many traffic light controllers in current use are based on the “time-of-the-day” scheme, which use a limited number of predetermined traffic light patterns and implement these patterns depending upon the time of the day. These automated systems do not provide an optimal control for fluctuating traffic volumes. In this paper, the fuzzy traffic light controller is used to optimize the control of fluctuating traffic volumes such as oversaturated or unusual load conditions. The problem is solved by genetic algorithm, and a new defuzzification method is introduced. The performance of the new defuzzification method (NDM is compared with the centroid point defuzzification method (CPDM by using ANOVA. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the competency of proposed algorithm.

  3. Green Wave Traffic Optimization - A Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warberg, Andreas; Larsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Rene Munk

    The objective of this survey is to cover the research in the area of adaptive traffic control with emphasis on the applied optimization methods. The problem of optimizing traffic signals can be viewed in various ways, depending on political, economic and ecological goals. The survey highlights some...... important conflicts, which support the notion that traffic signal optimization is a multi-objective problem, and relates this to the most common measures of effectiveness. A distinction can be made between classical systems, which operate with a common cycle time, and the more flexible, phase......-based, approach, which is shown to be more suitable for adaptive traffic control. To support this claim three adaptive systems, which use alternatives to the classical optimization procedures, are described in detail....

  4. Traffic Flow Optimization Using a Quantum Annealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Neukart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum annealing algorithms belong to the class of metaheuristic tools, applicable for solving binary optimization problems. Hardware implementations of quantum annealing, such as the quantum processing units (QPUs produced by D-Wave Systems, have been subject to multiple analyses in research, with the aim of characterizing the technology’s usefulness for optimization and sampling tasks. In this paper, we present a real-world application that uses quantum technologies. Specifically, we show how to map certain parts of a real-world traffic flow optimization problem to be suitable for quantum annealing. We show that time-critical optimization tasks, such as continuous redistribution of position data for cars in dense road networks, are suitable candidates for quantum computing. Due to the limited size and connectivity of current-generation D-Wave QPUs, we use a hybrid quantum and classical approach to solve the traffic flow problem.

  5. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic Safety and Mobility in Connected Vehicle Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of Connected Vehicle Technology that facilitates wireless communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at...

  6. Evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) for an urban traffic corridor with heterogeneous traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korlapati, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Due to urbanization and accelerated growth in vehicular traffic, most big cities in India face problems related to traffic management resulting in severe congestion, pollution, and a high rate of accidents during peak hours. Lane blocking incidents on arterials or urban traffic corridors cause major disruption to traffic flow. Peak hour congestion with low average speeds and high accident rates are commonly associated with traffic in major cities in India. The situation is deteriorating further as creation of new facilities are almost impossible, with resource and space constraints. In such scenarios, application of advanced technologies seems to offer hope. One such application area is Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), a component of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to the unique traffic characteristics prevailing in India, the application of such systems needs to first be evaluated before implementation. This paper proposed a research methodology for the evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of ATMS for an urban corridor in India. The evaluation framework combined several relevant modules related to various aspects of traffic control, surveillance and advisory. As part of this study, a simulation model and a simulation optimization model were developed. The simulation model was microscopic in nature and captured the driver behaviour and traffic characteristics realistically by modeling the complex interactions among vehicles traversing a corridor. It was concluded that the results and observations were useful indicators to gauge the potential success of diversion plans. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Traffic modelling validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, R. van; Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a microscopic traffic model for the validation of advanced driver assistance systems. This model describes single-lane traffic and is calibrated with data from a field operational test. To illustrate the use of the model, a Monte Carlo simulation of single-lane traffic scenarios

  8. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  9. Advanced backend optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Touati, Sid

    2014-01-01

    This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipe

  10. Research on the Method of Traffic Organization and Optimization Based on Dynamic Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-bin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern transportation system is becoming sluggish by traffic jams, so much so that it can harm the economic and society in our country. One of the reasons is the surging vehicles day by day. Another reason is the shortage of the traffic supply seriously. But the most important reason is that the traffic organization and optimization hardly met the conditions of modern transport development. In this paper, the practical method of the traffic organization and optimization used in regional area is explored by the dynamic traffic network analysis method. Firstly, the operational states of the regional traffic network are obtained by simulation method based on the self-developed traffic simulation software DynaCHINA, in which the improved traffic flow simulation model was proposed in order to be more suitable for actual domestic urban transport situation. Then the appropriated optimization model and algorithm were proposed according to different optimized content and organization goals, and the traffic simulation processes more suitable to regional optimization were designed exactly. Finally, a regional network in Tai’an city was selected as an example. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible. It can provide strong scientific and technological support for the traffic management department.

  11. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  12. Trafficability Analysis at Traffic Crossing and Parameters Optimization Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In city traffic, it is important to improve transportation efficiency and the spacing of platoon should be shortened when crossing the street. The best method to deal with this problem is automatic control of vehicles. In this paper, a mathematical model is established for the platoon’s longitudinal movement. A systematic analysis of longitudinal control law is presented for the platoon of vehicles. However, the parameter calibration for the platoon model is relatively difficult because the platoon model is complex and the parameters are coupled with each other. In this paper, the particle swarm optimization method is introduced to effectively optimize the parameters of platoon. The proposed method effectively finds the optimal parameters based on simulations and makes the spacing of platoon shorter.

  13. Autonomic urban traffic optimization using data analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Porqueras, Albert

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on a smart mobility use case where real-time data analytics on traffic measures is used to improve mobility in the event of a perturbation causing congestion in a local urban area. The data monitored is analysed in order to identify patterns that are used to properly reconfigure traffic lights. The monitoring and data analytics infrastructure is based on a hierarchical distributed architecture that allows placing data analytics processes such as machine learning close to the...

  14. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  15. An Efficient PageRank Approach for Urban Traffic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pop

    2012-01-01

    to determine optimal decisions for each traffic light, based on the solution given by Larry Page for page ranking in Web environment (Page et al. (1999. Our approach is similar with work presented by Sheng-Chung et al. (2009 and Yousef et al. (2010. We consider that the traffic lights are controlled by servers and a score for each road is computed based on efficient PageRank approach and is used in cost function to determine optimal decisions. We demonstrate that the cumulative contribution of each car in the traffic respects the main constrain of PageRank approach, preserving all the properties of matrix consider in our model.

  16. A computerized traffic control algorithm to determine optimal traffic signal settings. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to optimally control the traffic signals at each intersection using a discrete time traffic model applicable to heavy or peak traffic. Off line optimization procedures were applied to compute the cycle splits required to minimize the lengths of the vehicle queues and delay at each intersection. The method was applied to an extensive traffic network in Toledo, Ohio. Results obtained with the derived optimal settings are compared with the control settings presently in use.

  17. Optimal Control of Hybrid Systems in Air Traffic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgarpour, Maryam

    Growing concerns over the scalability of air traffic operations, air transportation fuel emissions and prices, as well as the advent of communication and sensing technologies motivate improvements to the air traffic management system. To address such improvements, in this thesis a hybrid dynamical model as an abstraction of the air traffic system is considered. Wind and hazardous weather impacts are included using a stochastic model. This thesis focuses on the design of algorithms for verification and control of hybrid and stochastic dynamical systems and the application of these algorithms to air traffic management problems. In the deterministic setting, a numerically efficient algorithm for optimal control of hybrid systems is proposed based on extensions of classical optimal control techniques. This algorithm is applied to optimize the trajectory of an Airbus 320 aircraft in the presence of wind and storms. In the stochastic setting, the verification problem of reaching a target set while avoiding obstacles (reach-avoid) is formulated as a two-player game to account for external agents' influence on system dynamics. The solution approach is applied to air traffic conflict prediction in the presence of stochastic wind. Due to the uncertainty in forecasts of the hazardous weather, and hence the unsafe regions of airspace for aircraft flight, the reach-avoid framework is extended to account for stochastic target and safe sets. This methodology is used to maximize the probability of the safety of aircraft paths through hazardous weather. Finally, the problem of modeling and optimization of arrival air traffic and runway configuration in dense airspace subject to stochastic weather data is addressed. This problem is formulated as a hybrid optimal control problem and is solved with a hierarchical approach that decouples safety and performance. As illustrated with this problem, the large scale of air traffic operations motivates future work on the efficient

  18. Mechanical Design Optimization Using Advanced Optimization Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, R Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical design includes an optimization process in which designers always consider objectives such as strength, deflection, weight, wear, corrosion, etc. depending on the requirements. However, design optimization for a complete mechanical assembly leads to a complicated objective function with a large number of design variables. It is a good practice to apply optimization techniques for individual components or intermediate assemblies than a complete assembly. Analytical or numerical methods for calculating the extreme values of a function may perform well in many practical cases, but may fail in more complex design situations. In real design problems, the number of design parameters can be very large and their influence on the value to be optimized (the goal function) can be very complicated, having nonlinear character. In these complex cases, advanced optimization algorithms offer solutions to the problems, because they find a solution near to the global optimum within reasonable time and computational ...

  19. Advanced BDD optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ebendt, Rudiger; Drechsler, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    BDD and SAT are major concepts in VLSI CADNew objective functions for design space exploration require new algorithms for BDD optimizationLatest trend: fusion of the concepts BDD and SATMajor impulses come from Artificial Intelligence (AI)Unifying view, transfers the latest theoretical insights into practical applications.

  20. Recent advances in computational optimization

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Optimization is part of our everyday life. We try to organize our work in a better way and optimization occurs in minimizing time and cost or the maximization of the profit, quality and efficiency. Also many real world problems arising in engineering, economics, medicine and other domains can be formulated as optimization tasks. This volume is a comprehensive collection of extended contributions from the Workshop on Computational Optimization. This book presents recent advances in computational optimization. The volume includes important real world problems like parameter settings for con- trolling processes in bioreactor, robot skin wiring, strip packing, project scheduling, tuning of PID controller and so on. Some of them can be solved by applying traditional numerical methods, but others need a huge amount of computational resources. For them it is shown that is appropriate to develop algorithms based on metaheuristic methods like evolutionary computation, ant colony optimization, constrain programming etc...

  1. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  2. OPTIMAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR AIRCRAFT APPROACHING THE AERODROME LANDING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Ivenin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research proposes a mathematical optimization approach of arriving aircraft traffic at the aerodrome zone. The airfield having two parallel runways, capable of operating independently of each other, is modeled. The incoming traffic of aircraft is described by a Poisson flow of random events. The arriving aircraft are distributed by the air traffic controller between two runways. There is one approach flight path for each runway. Both approach paths have a common starting point. Each approach path has a different length. The approach trajectories do not overlap. For each of the two approach procedures, the air traffic controller sets the average speed of the aircraft. The given model of airfield and airfield zone is considered as the two-channel system of mass service with refusals in service. Each of the two servicing units includes an approach trajectory, a glide path and a runway. The servicing unit can be in one of two states – free and busy. The probabilities of the states of the servicing units are described by the Kolmogorov system of differential equations. The number of refusals in service on the simulated time interval is used as criterion for assessment of mass service system quality of functioning. This quality of functioning criterion is described by an integral functional. The functions describing the distribution of aircraft flows between the runways, as well as the functions describing the average speed of the aircraft, are control parameters. The optimization problem consists in finding such values of the control parameters for which the value of the criterion functional is minimal. To solve the formulated optimization problem, the L.S. Pontryagin maximum principle is applied. The form of the Hamiltonian function and the conjugate system of differential equations is given. The structure of optimal control has been studied for two different cases of restrictions on the control of the distribution of incoming aircraft

  3. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  5. Traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtblau, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with passenger and freight traffic, public and private transportation, traffic related environmental impacts, future developments, traffic indicators, regional traffic planning, health costs due to road traffic related air pollution, noise pollution, measures and regulations for traffic control and fuels for traffic. In particular energy consumption, energy efficiency, pollutant emissions ( CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , HC, CO, N 2 O, NH 3 and particulates) and environmental effects of the different types of traffic and different types of fuels are compared and studied. Legal regulations and measures for an effective traffic control are discussed. (a.n.)

  6. Optimal Advance Selling Strategy under Price Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Chenhang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a two-period model with experienced consumers and inexperienced consumers. The retailer determines both advance selling price and regular selling price at the beginning of the first period. I show that advance selling weekly dominates no advance selling, and the optimal advance selling price may be at a discount, at a premium or at the regular selling price. To help the retailer choose the optimal pricing strategy, conditions for each possible advance selling strategy to ...

  7. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 8. Operational Logic Flow Diagrams for a Generic Advanced Air Traffic Management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of the services a generic Advanced Air Traffic Management System (AATMS) should provide to the useres of the system to facilitate the safe, efficient flow of traffic. It provides a definition of the functions which t...

  8. Evolutionary design optimization of traffic signals applied to Quito city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Rolando; Aguirre, Hernán; Daolio, Fabio; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    This work applies evolutionary computation and machine learning methods to study the transportation system of Quito from a design optimization perspective. It couples an evolutionary algorithm with a microscopic transport simulator and uses the outcome of the optimization process to deepen our understanding of the problem and gain knowledge about the system. The work focuses on the optimization of a large number of traffic lights deployed on a wide area of the city and studies their impact on travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. An evolutionary algorithm with specialized mutation operators is proposed to search effectively in large decision spaces, evolving small populations for a short number of generations. The effects of the operators combined with a varying mutation schedule are studied, and an analysis of the parameters of the algorithm is also included. In addition, hierarchical clustering is performed on the best solutions found in several runs of the algorithm. An analysis of signal clusters and their geolocation, estimation of fuel consumption, spatial analysis of emissions, and an analysis of signal coordination provide an overall picture of the systemic effects of the optimization process.

  9. Marine Traffic Optimization Using Petri Net and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gudelj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the traffic control and job optimization in the marine canal system. The moving of vessels can be described as a set of discrete events and states. Some of these states can be undesirable such as conflicts and deadlocks. It is necessary to apply adequate control policy to avoid deadlocks and blocks the vessels’ moving only in the case of dangerous situation. This paper addresses the use of Petri net as modelling and scheduling tool in this context. To find better solutions the authors propose the integration of Petri net with a genetic algorithm. Also, a matrix based formal method is proposed for analyzing discrete event dynamic system (DEDS. The algorithm is developed to deal with multi-project, multi-constrained scheduling problem with shared resources. It is verified by a computer simulation using MATLAB environment.

  10. Optimization of traffic light control system of an intersection using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers an automated static road traffic control system of an intersection for the purpose of minimizing the effects of traffic jam and hence its attendant consequences such as prolonged waiting time, emission of toxic hydrocarbons from automobiles, etc. Using real-time road traffic data, a dynamic round-robin ...

  11. Modelling of road traffic for traffic flow optimization of modern regional center as an example of Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myronenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present sharply there is a problem of traffic management especially in big cities. The increase in the number of vehicles, both personal and public, led to congestion of city roads, many hours of traffic jams, difficulty of movement of pedestrians, increase the number of accidents, etc. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of using simulation models to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. To achieve this goal in a simulation environment the data base of the transport network will be developed. Materials and Methods: The problem of analysis and optimization of traffic flow is considered by the example of the city of Odessa (Ukraine, the results and recommendations can be easily adapted for other cities of Ukraine, and for the cities of most countries of the former socialist bloc. Features of transport systems make it impossible to build an adequate analytical model to explore options for the management of the system and its characteristic in different conditions. At the same time simulation modelling as a method to study such objects is a promising for the solution to this problem. As a simulation environment an OmniTRANS package as a universal tool for modeling of discrete, continuous and hybrid systems. Results: With OmniTRANS programs the model of traffic in Odessa was derived and the intensity of the traffic flow. B first approximation the transport network of the central district of the city was considered and built; without calibration and simulation it was developed a database of elements of the transport network and shown how it can be used to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. Models constructed from elements of created database, allows you to change the level of detail of the simulated objects and phenomena, thereby obtaining models as macro and micro level.

  12. Recent advances in stellarator optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, D. A.; Boozer, A. H.; Brown, T.; Breslau, J.; Curreli, D.; Landreman, M.; Lazerson, S. A.; Lore, J.; Mynick, H.; Neilson, G. H.; Pomphrey, N.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    2017-12-01

    Computational optimization has revolutionized the field of stellarator design. To date, optimizations have focused primarily on optimization of neoclassical confinement and ideal MHD stability, although limited optimization of other parameters has also been performed. The purpose of this paper is to outline a select set of new concepts for stellarator optimization that, when taken as a group, present a significant step forward in the stellarator concept. One of the criticisms that has been leveled at existing methods of design is the complexity of the resultant field coils. Recently, a new coil optimization code—COILOPT++, which uses a spline instead of a Fourier representation of the coils,—was written and included in the STELLOPT suite of codes. The advantage of this method is that it allows the addition of real space constraints on the locations of the coils. The code has been tested by generating coil designs for optimized quasi-axisymmetric stellarator plasma configurations of different aspect ratios. As an initial exercise, a constraint that the windings be vertical was placed on large major radius half of the non-planar coils. Further constraints were also imposed that guaranteed that sector blanket modules could be removed from between the coils, enabling a sector maintenance scheme. Results of this exercise will be presented. New ideas on methods for the optimization of turbulent transport have garnered much attention since these methods have led to design concepts that are calculated to have reduced turbulent heat loss. We have explored possibilities for generating an experimental database to test whether the reduction in transport that is predicted is consistent with experimental observations. To this end, a series of equilibria that can be made in the now latent QUASAR experiment have been identified that will test the predicted transport scalings. Fast particle confinement studies aimed at developing a generalized optimization algorithm are also

  13. Cooperative driving in mixed traffic networks - Optimizing for performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Broek, T.H.A. van den; Noort, M. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a cooperative adaptive cruise control application and its effects on the traffic system. In previous work this application has been tested on the road, and traffic simulation has been used to scale up the results of the field test to larger networks and more vehicles. The

  14. Robust, Optimal, Predictive, and Integrated Road Traffic Control : Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weg, G.S.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The development of control strategies for traffic lights, ramp metering installations, and variable speed limits to improve the throughput of road traffic networks can contribute to a more efficient use of road networks. In this project, a hierarchical controller will be developed for the

  15. Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslani, Mohammad; Seipel, Stefan; Wiering, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on

  16. Making the connection: advancing traffic incident management in transportation planning : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    "The intent of this primer is to inform and guide traffic incident management (TIM) professionals and transportation planners to initiate and develop collaborative relationships and advance TIM programs through the metropolitan planning process. The ...

  17. Advanced commercial Tokamak optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, R.H.; Berwald, D.H.; Gordon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Our recent studies have concentrated on developing optimal high beta (bean-shaped plasma) commercial tokamak configurations using TRW's Tokamak Reactor Systems Code (TRSC) with special emphasis on lower net electric power reactors that are more easily deployable. A wide range of issues were investigated in the search for the most economic configuration: fusion power, reactor size, wall load, magnet type, inboard blanket and shield thickness, plasma aspect ratio, and operational β value. The costs and configurations of both steady-state and pulsed reactors were also investigated. Optimal small and large reactor concepts were developed and compared by studying the cost of electricity from single units and from multiplexed units. Multiplexed units appear to have advantages because they share some plant equipment and have lower initial capital investment as compared to larger single units

  18. A Wavelet Neural Network Optimal Control Model for Traffic-Flow Prediction in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Darong; Bai, Xing-Rong

    Based on wavelet transform and neural network theory, a traffic-flow prediction model, which was used in optimal control of Intelligent Traffic system, is constructed. First of all, we have extracted the scale coefficient and wavelet coefficient from the online measured raw data of traffic flow via wavelet transform; Secondly, an Artificial Neural Network model of Traffic-flow Prediction was constructed and trained using the coefficient sequences as inputs and raw data as outputs; Simultaneous, we have designed the running principium of the optimal control system of traffic-flow Forecasting model, the network topological structure and the data transmitted model; Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effectively and exactly. The theoretical results indicated that the wavelet neural network prediction model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.

  19. Multilevel Control & Optimization of Future Air Traffic Systems via Managem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We investigate solutions to problems of air traffic control subject to real-world limitations on the computational/communication cost of finding that solution. The...

  20. ATC-lab(Advanced): an air traffic control simulator with realism and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Selina; Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    ATC-lab(Advanced) is a new, publicly available air traffic control (ATC) simulation package that provides both realism and experimental control. ATC-lab(Advanced) simulations are realistic to the extent that the display features (including aircraft performance) and the manner in which participants interact with the system are similar to those used in an operational environment. Experimental control allows researchers to standardize air traffic scenarios, control levels of realism, and isolate specific ATC tasks. Importantly, ATC-lab(Advanced) also provides the programming control required to cost effectively adapt simulations to serve different research purposes without the need for technical support. In addition, ATC-lab(Advanced) includes a package for training participants and mathematical spreadsheets for designing air traffic events. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that ATC-lab(Advanced) is a flexible tool for applied and basic research.

  1. Advancing Traffic Flow Theory Using Empirical Microscopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As reviewed in Section 1.1, much of traffic flow theory depends a fundamental relationship (FR) between flow, density, and space mean speed; either explicitly, e.g., hydrodynamic models such as LWR (Lighthill and Whitham, 1955, and Richards, 1956) or...

  2. Road Artery Traffic Light Optimization with Use of the Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Marsetič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle of optimal traffic control is the appropriate real-time response to dynamic traffic flow changes. Signal plan efficiency depends on a large number of input parameters. An actuated signal system can adjust very well to traffic conditions, but cannot fully adjust to stochastic traffic volume oscillation. Due to the complexity of the problem analytical methods are not applicable for use in real time, therefore the purpose of this paper is to introduce heuristic method suitable for traffic light optimization in real time. With the evolution of artificial intelligence new possibilities for solving complex problems have been introduced. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the use of the Q learning algorithm for traffic lights optimization is suitable. The Q learning algorithm was verified on a road artery with three intersections. For estimation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm comparison with an actuated signal plan was carried out. The results (average delay per vehicle and the number of vehicles that left road network show that Q learning algorithm outperforms the actuated signal controllers. The proposed algorithm converges to the minimal delay per vehicle regardless of the stochastic nature of traffic. In this research the impact of the model parameters (learning rate, exploration rate, influence of communication between agents and reward type on algorithm effectiveness were analysed as well.

  3. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover of t...... throughput is generally higher, reaching values of 36% and 18% for the medium- and high-load conditions....

  4. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green-wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  5. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaggio, Mark J.; Ottino-Löffler, Bertand J.; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2013-09-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this “green-wave” scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counterintuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive density increases.

  6. Optimized Structure of the Traffic Flow Forecasting Model With a Deep Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Fan; Dillon, Tharam S; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2017-10-01

    Forecasting accuracy is an important issue for successful intelligent traffic management, especially in the domain of traffic efficiency and congestion reduction. The dawning of the big data era brings opportunities to greatly improve prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel model, stacked autoencoder Levenberg-Marquardt model, which is a type of deep architecture of neural network approach aiming to improve forecasting accuracy. The proposed model is designed using the Taguchi method to develop an optimized structure and to learn traffic flow features through layer-by-layer feature granulation with a greedy layerwise unsupervised learning algorithm. It is applied to real-world data collected from the M6 freeway in the U.K. and is compared with three existing traffic predictors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an optimized structure of the traffic flow forecasting model with a deep learning approach is presented. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed model with an optimized structure has superior performance in traffic flow forecasting.

  7. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  8. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Optimizing aspects of pedestrian traffic in building designs

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Yinghua Zhang,; Gans, Nicholas; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate aspects of building design that can be optimized. Architectural features that we explore include pillar placement in simple corridors, doorway placement in buildings, and agent placement for information dispersement in an evacuation. The metrics utilized are tuned to the specific scenarios we study, which include continuous flow pedestrian movement and building evacuation. We use Multidimensional Direct Search (MDS) optimization with an extreme barrier criteria to find optimal placements while enforcing building constraints. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. A Harmony Search Algorithm approach for optimizing traffic signal timings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dell'Orco

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bi-level formulation is presented for solving the Equilibrium Network Design Problem (ENDP. The optimisation of the signal timing has been carried out at the upper-level using the Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA, whilst the traffic assignment has been carried out through the Path Flow Estimator (PFE at the lower level. The results of HSA have been first compared with those obtained using the Genetic Algorithm, and the Hill Climbing on a two-junction network for a fixed set of link flows. Secondly, the HSA with PFE has been applied to the medium-sized network to show the applicability of the proposed algorithm in solving the ENDP. Additionally, in order to test the sensitivity of perceived travel time error, we have used the HSA with PFE with various level of perceived travel time. The results showed that the proposed method is quite simple and efficient in solving the ENDP.

  11. THE METHODS OF TRAFFIC ENGINEERING’S OPTIMIZATION IN CASE OF DATA TRANSFER BY TWO ROUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Petrovna Khoborova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To prevent congestion in certain sections of multi-service networks, data flow management, which leads to a more proportional distribution of resources and improved network functioning, is implemented. The task of selecting routes for individual data streams (traffic class, taking into account requirements of QoS, is solved by the methods of traffic engineering. With the help of these methods, it is strived to load all the network resources maximally and balanced, so that the network, with a given level of service quality, has high total capacity as much as possible. However, at the present time, there are no rigorous well-founded solutions for the problem of distributing data flows between the selected routes, taking into account the possibility of additional control over their capacity. The article proposes a method for optimizing the distribution of data flows and the bandwidth of the channels (routes used in each separate information direction, with different coordination of control actions at adjacent levels of the network architecture. We consider scientific and technical proposals for the implementation of the developed method as part of the mechanisms that implement the traffic engineering in modern multiservice networks. Purpose: increasing the efficiency of the multiservice network by optimizing the traffic engineering. Methodology in article analytical methods for solving optimization problems with a non-linear objective function and linear constraints are used. Results: analytical expressions were obtained for the optimal distribution of data flows and bandwidth of the used channels, which provides the minimum values of delay indicators, and the use of these expressions in calculations in the mechanisms of traffic engineering was suggested. Practical implications: the obtained results should be used in modern multiservice networks, which are implemented data flow management through the traffic engineering in order to improve the

  12. Evaluating Application-Layer Traffic Optimization Cost Metrics for P2P Multimedia Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    To help users of P2P communication systems perform better-than-random selection of communication peers, Internet Engineering Task Force standardized the Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) protocol. The ALTO provided data-routing cost metric, can be used to rank peers in P2P communicati...

  13. Optimal and Robust Switching Control Strategies : Theory, and Applications in Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajiahmadi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic modeling, predictive and robust control and route guidance for large-scale freeway and urban traffic networks are the main focus of this thesis. In order to increase the efficiency of our control strategies, we propose several mathematical and optimization techniques. Moreover, in the

  14. Study on network traffic forecast model of SVR optimized by GAFSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, RuiXue

    2016-01-01

    There are some problems, such as low precision, on existing network traffic forecast model. In accordance with these problems, this paper proposed the network traffic forecast model of support vector regression (SVR) algorithm optimized by global artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA). GAFSA constitutes an improvement of artificial fish swarm algorithm, which is a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm with a significant effect of optimization. The optimum training parameters used for SVR could be calculated by optimizing chosen parameters, which would make the forecast more accurate. With the optimum training parameters searched by GAFSA algorithm, a model of network traffic forecast, which greatly solved problems of great errors in SVR improved by others intelligent algorithms, could be built with the forecast result approaching stability and the increased forecast precision. The simulation shows that, compared with other models (e.g. GA-SVR, CPSO-SVR), the forecast results of GAFSA-SVR network traffic forecast model is more stable with the precision improved to more than 89%, which plays an important role on instructing network control behavior and analyzing security situation.

  15. Advanced Models and Algorithms for Self-Similar IP Network Traffic Simulation and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radev, Dimitar; Lokshina, Izabella

    2010-11-01

    The paper examines self-similar (or fractal) properties of real communication network traffic data over a wide range of time scales. These self-similar properties are very different from the properties of traditional models based on Poisson and Markov-modulated Poisson processes. Advanced fractal models of sequentional generators and fixed-length sequence generators, and efficient algorithms that are used to simulate self-similar behavior of IP network traffic data are developed and applied. Numerical examples are provided; and simulation results are obtained and analyzed.

  16. Hazardous Traffic Event Detection Using Markov Blanket and Sequential Minimal Optimization (MB-SMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify hazardous traffic events is already considered as one of the most effective solutions for reducing the occurrence of crashes. Only certain particular hazardous traffic events have been studied in previous studies, which were mainly based on dedicated video stream data and GPS data. The objective of this study is twofold: (1 the Markov blanket (MB algorithm is employed to extract the main factors associated with hazardous traffic events; (2 a model is developed to identify hazardous traffic event using driving characteristics, vehicle trajectory, and vehicle position data. Twenty-two licensed drivers were recruited to carry out a natural driving experiment in Wuhan, China, and multi-sensor information data were collected for different types of traffic events. The results indicated that a vehicle’s speed, the standard deviation of speed, the standard deviation of skin conductance, the standard deviation of brake pressure, turn signal, the acceleration of steering, the standard deviation of acceleration, and the acceleration in Z (G have significant influences on hazardous traffic events. The sequential minimal optimization (SMO algorithm was adopted to build the identification model, and the accuracy of prediction was higher than 86%. Moreover, compared with other detection algorithms, the MB-SMO algorithm was ranked best in terms of the prediction accuracy. The conclusions can provide reference evidence for the development of dangerous situation warning products and the design of intelligent vehicles.

  17. Real-time traffic signal optimization model based on average delay time per person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic signal control is very important for relieving urban traffic congestion. Many existing traffic control models were formulated using optimization approach, with the objective functions of minimizing vehicle delay time. To improve people’s trip efficiency, this article aims to minimize delay time per person. Based on the time-varying traffic flow data at intersections, the article first fits curves of accumulative arrival and departure vehicles, as well as the corresponding functions. Moreover, this article transfers vehicle delay time to personal delay time using average passenger load of cars and buses, employs such time as the objective function, and proposes a signal timing optimization model for intersections to achieve real-time signal parameters, including cycle length and green time. This research further implements a case study based on practical data collected at an intersection in Beijing, China. The average delay time per person and queue length are employed as evaluation indices to show the performances of the model. The results show that the proposed methodology is capable of improving traffic efficiency and is very effective for real-world applications.

  18. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines RJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  19. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  20. CANDU-6 fuel optimization for advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Aubin, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.st-aubin@polymtl.ca; Marleau, Guy, E-mail: guy.marleau@polymtl.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • New fuel selection process proposed for advanced CANDU cycles. • Full core time-average CANDU modeling with independent refueling and burnup zones. • New time-average fuel optimization method used for discrete on-power refueling. • Performance metrics evaluated for thorium-uranium and thorium-DUPIC cycles. - Abstract: We implement a selection process based on DRAGON and DONJON simulations to identify interesting thorium fuel cycles driven by low-enriched uranium or DUPIC dioxide fuels for CANDU-6 reactors. We also develop a fuel management optimization method based on the physics of discrete on-power refueling and the time-average approach to maximize the economical advantages of the candidates that have been pre-selected using a corrected infinite lattice model. Credible instantaneous states are also defined using a channel age model and simulated to quantify the hot spots amplitude and the departure from criticality with fixed reactivity devices. For the most promising fuels identified using coarse models, optimized 2D cell and 3D reactivity device supercell DRAGON models are then used to generate accurate reactor databases at low computational cost. The application of the selection process to different cycles demonstrates the efficiency of our procedure in identifying the most interesting fuel compositions and refueling options for a CANDU reactor. The results show that using our optimization method one can obtain fuels that achieve a high average exit burnup while respecting the reference cycle safety limits.

  1. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  2. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can

  3. Multi-objective optimization approach for air traffic flow management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Rabie

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making stage was then performed with the aid of data clustering techniques to reduce the sizeof the Pareto-optimal set and obtain a smaller representation of the multi-objective design space, there by making it easier for the decision-maker to find satisfactory and meaningful trade-offs, and to select a preferred final design solution.

  4. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  5. Gis-Based Route Finding Using ANT Colony Optimization and Urban Traffic Data from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, M.; Mesgari, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD), Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR), Floating Car Data (FCD), VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network) is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-01-01

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  7. Optimal Airport Surface Traffic Planning Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Roling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an ongoing research effort pertaining to the development of a surface traffic automation system that will help controllers to better coordinate surface traffic movements related to arrival and departure traffic. More specifically, we describe the concept for a taxi-planning support tool that aims to optimize the routing and scheduling of airport surface traffic in such a way as to deconflict the taxi plans while optimizing delay, total taxi-time, or some other airport efficiency metric. Certain input parameters related to resource demand, such as the expected landing times and the expected pushback times, are rather difficult to predict accurately. Due to uncertainty in the input data driving the taxi-planning process, the taxi-planning tool is designed such that it produces solutions that are robust to uncertainty. The taxi-planning concept presented herein, which is based on mixed-integer linear programming, is designed such that it is able to adapt to perturbations in these input conditions, as well as to account for failure in the actual execution of surface trajectories. The capabilities of the tool are illustrated in a simple hypothetical airport.

  8. Strategic Air Traffic Planning Using Eulerian Route Based Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombelli, Alessandro

    Due to a soaring air travel growth in the last decades, air traffic management has become increasingly challenging. As a consequence, planning tools are being devised to help human decision-makers achieve a better management of air traffic. Planning tools are divided into two categories, strategic and tactical. Strategic planning generally addresses a larger planning domain and is performed days to hours in advance. Tactical planning is more localized and is performed hours to minutes in advance. An aggregate route model for strategic air traffic flow management is presented. It is an Eulerian model, describing the flow between cells of unidirectional point-to-point routes. Aggregate routes are created from flight trajectory data based on similarity measures. Spatial similarity is determined using the Frechet distance. The aggregate routes approximate actual well-traveled traffic patterns. By specifying the model resolution, an appropriate balance between model accuracy and model dimension can be achieved. For a particular planning horizon, during which weather is expected to restrict the flow, a procedure for designing airborne reroutes and augmenting the traffic flow model is developed. The dynamics of the traffic flow on the resulting network take the form of a discrete-time, linear time-invariant system. The traffic flow controls are ground holding, pre-departure rerouting and airborne rerouting. Strategic planning--determining how the controls should be used to modify the future traffic flow when local capacity violations are anticipated--is posed as an integer programming problem of minimizing a weighted sum of flight delays subject to control and capacity constraints. Several tests indicate the effectiveness of the modeling and strategic planning approach. In the final, most challenging, test, strategic planning is demonstrated for the six western-most Centers of the 22-Center national airspace. The planning time horizon is four hours long, and there is

  9. Vehicular Traffic Optimization in VANETs: a Proposal for Nodes Re-routing and Congestion Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tropea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vehicular networking has grown up in terms of interest and transmission capability, due to the possibility of exploiting the distributed communication paradigm in a mobile scenario, where moving nodes are represented by vehicles. In this paper, we focus our attention on the optimization of traffic flowing in a vehicular environment with vehicle-roadside capability. As shown in the next sections, the proposed idea exploits the information that is gathered by road-side units with the main aim of redirecting traffic flows (in terms of vehicles to less congested roads, with an overall system optimization, also in terms of Carbon Dioxide emissions reduction. A deep campaign of simulations has been carried out to give more effectiveness to our proposal.

  10. Concept for a Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System : Volume 4. Operational Description and Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    The volume presents a description of how the Satellite-Based Advanced Air Traffic Management System (SAATMS) operates and a qualitative assessment of the system. The operational description includes the services, functions, and tasks performed by the...

  11. Use of agents to optimize traffic over wireless mobile connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Mikko; Jarvinen, Jari; Kalliokorpi, Janne; Kolehmainen, Jari; Narikka, Jorma

    2002-08-01

    Wireless mobile connections have some well known disadvantages, like slow data rate, high and variable error-rate. In addition to that there are possible (and probable) inefficiencies when connecting different types of protocols stacks, like running TCP over GPRS. On the other hand mobile and portable devices have some limitations, which are based on their size and cannot therefore be removed totally. Potential users are so-called common people and they would like to have very simple-to-use applications solving their daily problems, not causing new ones. One approach to make this situation better is to use agents. They could operate on many different levels, like connecting different physical servers to produce the service needed, connecting different services together, optimizing for different types of user devices, connecting different message types (like audio, animation etc.) to produce the service, making transformations (like reading e-mails as voice mail etc.). This paper will discuss these various aspects of agent technology in the context of mobile services provided to consumers. Discussion and conclusions are partly based on the ZanderMail project. Although it is a mail agent project its results can easily be extended to various message types and various other services, like those based on the location of mobile device. The paper will cover widely these different ideas and ZanderMail is just used as an example and a tool for testing various issues. The idea is to utilize agents many ways to fade away at least partly those known problems mentioned in the beginning. An agent could operate in the network quite near the mobile device to overcome the problem caused by different protocol stacks. It could make logical decisions based on location and other local information, like weather, and it could handle priority issues on various levels of application(s).

  12. Human-system safety methods for development of advanced air traffic management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, William R.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems (author) (ml)

  13. Optimal Inventory Control with Advance Supply Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jaksic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown in numerous situations that sharing information between the companies leads to improved performance of the supply chain. We study a positive lead time periodic-review inventory system of a retailer facing stochastic demand from his customer and stochastic limited supply capacity of the manufacturer supplying the products to him. The consequence of stochastic supply capacity is that the orders might not be delivered in full, and the exact size of the replenishment might not be known to the retailer. The manufacturer is willing to share the so-called advance supply information (ASI about the actual replenishment of the retailer's pipeline order with the retailer. ASI is provided at a certain time after the orders have been placed and the retailer can now use this information to decrease the uncertainty of the supply, and thus improve its inventory policy. For this model, we develop a dynamic programming formulation, and characterize the optimal ordering policy as a state-dependent base-stock policy. In addition, we show some properties of the base-stock level. While the optimal policy is highly complex, we obtain some additional insights by comparing it to the state-dependent myopic inventory policy. We conduct the numerical analysis to estimate the in uence of the system parameters on the value of ASI. While we show that the interaction between the parameters is relatively complex, the general insight is that due to increasing marginal returns, the majority of the benets are gained only in the case of full, or close to full, ASI visibility.

  14. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  15. Optimized Virtual Machine Placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing in Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization has been an efficient method to fully utilize computing resources such as servers. The way of placing virtual machines (VMs among a large pool of servers greatly affects the performance of data center networks (DCNs. As network resources have become a main bottleneck of the performance of DCNs, we concentrate on VM placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing to evenly utilize the links in DCNs. In this paper, we first proposed a Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (VMPPTB and then proved it to be NP-hard and designed a Longest Processing Time Based Placement algorithm (LPTBP algorithm to solve it. To take advantage of the communication locality, we proposed Locality-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (LVMPPTB, which is a multiobjective optimization problem of simultaneously minimizing the maximum number of VM partitions of requests and minimizing the maximum bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of Top of Rack (ToR switches. We also proved it to be NP-hard and designed a heuristic algorithm (Least-Load First Based Placement algorithm, LLBP algorithm to solve it. Through extensive simulations, the proposed heuristic algorithm is proven to significantly balance the bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of ToR switches, while keeping the number of VM partitions of each request small enough.

  16. Advances in stochastic and deterministic global optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhigljavsky, Anatoly; Žilinskas, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Current research results in stochastic and deterministic global optimization including single and multiple objectives are explored and presented in this book by leading specialists from various fields. Contributions include applications to multidimensional data visualization, regression, survey calibration, inventory management, timetabling, chemical engineering, energy systems, and competitive facility location. Graduate students, researchers, and scientists in computer science, numerical analysis, optimization, and applied mathematics will be fascinated by the theoretical, computational, and application-oriented aspects of stochastic and deterministic global optimization explored in this book. This volume is dedicated to the 70th birthday of Antanas Žilinskas who is a leading world expert in global optimization. Professor Žilinskas's research has concentrated on studying models for the objective function, the development and implementation of efficient algorithms for global optimization with single and mu...

  17. Driver's Behavior and Decision-Making Optimization Model in Mixed Traffic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Driving process is an information treating procedure going on unceasingly. It is very important for the research of traffic flow theory, to study on drivers' information processing pattern in mixed traffic environment. In this paper, bicycle is regarded as a kind of information source to vehicle drivers; the “conflict point method” is brought forward to analyze the influence of bicycles on driving behavior. The “conflict” is studied to be translated into a special kind of car-following or lane-changing process. Furthermore, the computer clocked scan step length is dropped to 0.1 s, in order to scan and analyze the dynamic (static information which influences driving behavior in a more exact way. The driver's decision-making process is described through information fusion based on duality contrast and fuzzy optimization theory. The model test and verification show that the simulation results with the “conflict point method” and the field data are consistent basically. It is feasible to imitate driving behavior and the driver information fusion process with the proposed methods. Decision-making optimized process can be described more accurately through computer precision clocked scan strategy. The study in this paper can provide the foundation for further research of multiresource information fusion process of driving behavior.

  18. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  19. Advanced Topology Optimization Methods for Conceptual Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Amir, Oded; Clausen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a series of new, advanced topology optimization methods, developed specifically for conceptual architectural design of structures. The proposed computational procedures are implemented as components in the framework of a Grasshopper plugin, providing novel capacities...

  20. Volatile decision dynamics: experiments, stochastic description, intermittency control and traffic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Schönhof, Martin; Kern, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    The coordinated and efficient distribution of limited resources by individual decisions is a fundamental, unsolved problem. When individuals compete for road capacities, time, space, money, goods, etc, they normally make decisions based on aggregate rather than complete information, such as TV news or stock market indices. In related experiments, we have observed a volatile decision dynamics and far-from-optimal payoff distributions. We have also identified methods of information presentation that can considerably improve the overall performance of the system. In order to determine optimal strategies of decision guidance by means of user-specific recommendations, a stochastic behavioural description is developed. These strategies manage to increase the adaptibility to changing conditions and to reduce the deviation from the time-dependent user equilibrium, thereby enhancing the average and individual payoffs. Hence, our guidance strategies can increase the performance of all users by reducing overreaction and stabilizing the decision dynamics. These results are highly significant for predicting decision behaviour, for reaching optimal behavioural distributions by decision support systems and for information service providers. One of the promising fields of application is traffic optimization.

  1. LTE-Advanced Radio and Network Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velez, Fernando J.; Sousa, Sofia; Flores, Jessica Acevedo

    2015-01-01

    In cellular optimization, the UL and DL the values from carrier-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (CNIR) from/at the mobile station are very important parameters. From a detailed analysis of its variation with the coverage and reuse distances for different values of the Channel Quality Indicator (...

  2. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  3. Defending against the Advanced Persistent Threat: An Optimal Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengdeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The new cyberattack pattern of advanced persistent threat (APT has posed a serious threat to modern society. This paper addresses the APT defense problem, that is, the problem of how to effectively defend against an APT campaign. Based on a novel APT attack-defense model, the effectiveness of an APT defense strategy is quantified. Thereby, the APT defense problem is modeled as an optimal control problem, in which an optimal control stands for a most effective APT defense strategy. The existence of an optimal control is proved, and an optimality system is derived. Consequently, an optimal control can be figured out by solving the optimality system. Some examples of the optimal control are given. Finally, the influence of some factors on the effectiveness of an optimal control is examined through computer experiments. These findings help organizations to work out policies of defending against APTs.

  4. Overcoming Barriers To IVHS -- Lessons From Other Technologies, Final Task F Report, Model Advanced Traffic Management System Franchise Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-25

    VIABLE ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WILL BE CENTRAL TO THE : DEVELOPMENT OF ITS TECHNOLOGIES, AND CRITICAL TO THE DELIVERY OF MANY PRIVATE SECTOR ITS SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC. BY ITS VERY NATURE, HOWEVER, ATMS RELIES HEAVILY ON ACCESS TO THE PUB...

  5. Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

  6. Ant colony optimization algorithm for signal coordination of oversaturated traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Traffic congestion is a daily and growing problem of the modern era in mostly all major cities in the world. : Increasing traffic demand strains the existing transportation system, leading to oversaturated network : conditions, especially at peak hou...

  7. Optimal Airport Surface Traffic Planning Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, P.C.; Visser, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an ongoing research effort pertaining to the development of a surface traffic automation system that will help controllers to better coordinate surface traffic movements related to arrival and departure traffic. More specifically, we describe the concept for a taxi-planning support tool

  8. Advanced metaheuristic algorithms for laser optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, H.

    2010-01-01

    A laser is one of the most important experimental tools. In synchrotron radiation field, lasers are widely used for experiments with Pump-Probe techniques. Especially for Xray-FELs, a laser has important roles as a seed light source or photo-cathode-illuminating light source to generate a high brightness electron bunch. The controls of laser pulse characteristics are required for many kinds of experiments. However, the laser should be tuned and customized for each requirement by laser experts. The automatic tuning of laser is required to realize with some sophisticated algorithms. The metaheuristic algorithm is one of the useful candidates to find one of the best solutions as acceptable as possible. The metaheuristic laser tuning system is expected to save our human resources and time for the laser preparations. I have shown successful results on a metaheuristic algorithm based on a genetic algorithm to optimize spatial (transverse) laser profiles and a hill climbing method extended with a fuzzy set theory to choose one of the best laser alignments automatically for each experimental requirement. (author)

  9. Developing an Onboard Traffic-Aware Flight Optimization Capability for Near-Term Low-Cost Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Vivona, Robert A.; Henderson, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) IN and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of Air Traffic Control (ATC) approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR is designed as a near-term application to improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting ATC. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for each TASAR-equipped aircraft. This paper will discuss the approach to minimizing TASAR's cost for implementation and accelerating readiness for near-term implementation.

  10. Advanced Process Control Application and Optimization in Industrial Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes application of the new method and tool for system identification and PID tuning/advanced process control (APC optimization using the new 3G (geometric, gradient, gravity optimization method. It helps to design and implement control schemes directly inside the distributed control system (DCS or programmable logic controller (PLC. Also, the algorithm helps to identify process dynamics in closed-loop mode, optimizes controller parameters, and helps to develop adaptive control and model-based control (MBC. Application of the new 3G algorithm for designing and implementing APC schemes is presented. Optimization of primary and advanced control schemes stabilizes the process and allows the plant to run closer to process, equipment and economic constraints. This increases production rates, minimizes operating costs and improves product quality.

  11. Supervised learning from human performance at the computationally hard problem of optimal traffic signal control on a network of junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Optimal switching of traffic lights on a network of junctions is a computationally intractable problem. In this research, road traffic networks containing signallized junctions are simulated. A computer game interface is used to enable a human 'player' to control the traffic light settings on the junctions within the simulation. A supervised learning approach, based on simple neural network classifiers can be used to capture human player's strategies in the game and thus develop a human-trained machine control (HuTMaC) system that approaches human levels of performance. Experiments conducted within the simulation compare the performance of HuTMaC to two well-established traffic-responsive control systems that are widely deployed in the developed world and also to a temporal difference learning-based control method. In all experiments, HuTMaC outperforms the other control methods in terms of average delay and variance over delay. The conclusion is that these results add weight to the suggestion that HuTMaC may be a viable alternative, or supplemental method, to approximate optimization for some practical engineering control problems where the optimal strategy is computationally intractable.

  12. Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This three-part document contains a collection of technical papers presented at the Second NASA/Air Force Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, held September 28-30, 1988 in Hampton, Virginia. The topics covered include: aircraft design, aeroelastic tailoring, control of aeroelastic structures, dynamics and control of flexible structures, structural design, design of large engineering systems, application of artificial intelligence, shape optimization, software development and implementation, and sensitivity analysis.

  13. Optimization of traffic distribution control in software-configurable infrastructure of virtual data center based on a simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bolodurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the proportion of use of cloud computing technology in today's business processes of companies is growing steadily. Despite the fact that it allows you to reduce the cost of ownership and operation of IT infrastructure, there are a number of problems related to the control of data centers. One such problem is the efficiency of the use of available companies compute and network resources. One of the directions of optimization is the process of traffic control of cloud applications and services in data centers. Given the multi-tier architecture of modern data center, this problem does not quite trivial. The advantage of modern virtual infrastructure is the ability to use software-configurable networks and software-configurable data storages. However, existing solutions with algorithmic optimization does not take into account a number of features forming network traffic with multiple classes of applications. Within the framework of the exploration solved the problem of optimizing the distribution of traffic cloud applications and services for the software-controlled virtual data center infrastructure. A simulation model describing the traffic in data center and software-configurable network segments involved in the processing of user requests for applications and services located network environment that includes a heterogeneous cloud platform and software-configurable data storages. The developed model has allowed to implement cloud applications traffic management algorithm and optimize access to the storage system through the effective use of the channel for data transmission. In experimental studies found that the application of the developed algorithm can reduce the response time of cloud applications and services, and as a result improve the performance of processing user requests and to reduce the number of failures.

  14. Effects of the amount of feedback information on urban traffic with advanced traveler information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ming; Jiang, Rui; Hu, Mao-Bin

    2017-09-01

    In a real traffic system, information feedback has already been proven to be a good way to alleviate traffic jams. However, due to the massive traffic information of real system, the procedure is often difficult in practice. In this paper, we study the effects of the amount of feedback information based on a cellular automaton model of urban traffic. What we found most interesting is that when providing the traffic information of a part of a road to travelers, the performance of the system will be better than that providing the road's full traffic information. From this basis, we can provide more effective routing strategy with less information. We demonstrate that only providing the traffic information of about first half road from upstream to downstream can maximize the traffic capacity of the system. We also give an explanation for these phenomena by studying the distribution pattern of vehicles and the detailed turning environment at the intersections. The effects of the traffic light period are also provided.

  15. Factors correlated with traffic accidents as a basis for evaluating Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubach, Maria

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to identify factors which influence and cause errors in traffic accidents and to use these as a basis for information to guide the application and design of driver assistance systems. A total of 474 accidents were examined in depth for this study by means of a psychological survey, data from accident reports, and technical reconstruction information. An error analysis was subsequently carried out, taking into account the driver, environment, and vehicle sub-systems. Results showed that all accidents were influenced by errors as a consequence of distraction and reduced activity. For crossroad accidents, there were further errors resulting from sight obstruction, masked stimuli, focus errors, and law infringements. Lane departure crashes were additionally caused by errors as a result of masked stimuli, law infringements, expectation errors as well as objective and action slips, while same direction accidents occurred additionally because of focus errors, expectation errors, and objective and action slips. Most accidents were influenced by multiple factors. There is a safety potential for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which support the driver in information assimilation and help to avoid distraction and reduced activity. The design of the ADAS is dependent on the specific influencing factors of the accident type.

  16. Cost estimates for near-term depolyment of advanced traffic management systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.S.; Chin, S.M.

    1993-02-15

    The objective of this study is to provide cost est engineering, design, installation, operation and maintenance of Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) in the largest 75 metropolitan areas in the United States. This report gives estimates for deployment costs for ATMS in the next five years, subject to the qualifications and caveats set out in following paragraphs. The report considers infrastructure components required to realize fully a functional ATMS over each of two highway networks (as discussed in the Section describing our general assumptions) under each of the four architectures identified in the MITRE Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems (IVHS) Architecture studies. The architectures are summarized in this report in Table 2. Estimates are given for eight combinations of highway networks and architectures. We estimate that it will cost between $8.5 Billion (minimal network) and $26 Billion (augmented network) to proceed immediately with deployment of ATMS in the largest 75 metropolitan areas. Costs are given in 1992 dollars, and are not adjusted for future inflation. Our estimates are based partially on completed project costs, which have been adjusted to 1992 dollars. We assume that a particular architecture will be chosen; projected costs are broken by architecture.

  17. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  18. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of advanced coagulation process to optimize the removal of natural organic matter in water (Case study: drinking water of Mashhad's ... and in addition to giving taste, color and odor to the water, they can intervene in the oxidization and removal of heavy metals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.

  20. An optimal general type-2 fuzzy controller for Urban Traffic Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Liaghat, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Urban traffic network model is illustrated by state-charts and object-diagram. However, they have limitations to show the behavioral perspective of the Traffic Information flow. Consequently, a state space model is used to calculate the half-value waiting time of vehicles. In this study......, a combination of the general type-2 fuzzy logic sets and the Modified Backtracking Search Algorithm (MBSA) techniques are used in order to control the traffic signal scheduling and phase succession so as to guarantee a smooth flow of traffic with the least wait times and average queue length. The parameters...

  1. Over-the-Horizon Awareness for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: the TrafficFilter and microSlotted 1-Persistence Flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eenennaam, Martijn; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios; van Arem, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communications (V2V) is a promising technique for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems to increase traffic safety and efficiency. A proposed system is the Congestion Assistant, which supports drivers when approaching and driving in traffic congestion. Studies have shown great

  2. A Critical Survey of Optimization Models for Tactical and Strategic Aspects of Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a critical review of the principal existing optimization models that have been applied to Air Traffic Flow Management (TFM). Emphasis will be placed on two problems, the Generalized Tactical Flow Management Problem (GTFMP) and the Ground Holding Problem (GHP), as well as on some of their variations. To perform this task, we have carried out an extensive literature review that has covered more than 40 references, most of them very recent. Based on the review of this emerging field our objectives were to: (i) identify the best available models; (ii) describe typical contexts for applications of the models; (iii) provide illustrative model formulations; and (iv) identify the methodologies that can be used to solve the models. We shall begin our presentation below by providing a brief context for the models that we are reviewing. In Section 3 we shall offer a taxonomy and identify four classes of models for review. In Sections 4, 5, and 6 we shall then review, respectively, models for the Single-Airport Ground Holding Problem, the Generalized Tactical FM P and the Multi-Airport Ground Holding Problem (for the definition of these problems see Section 3 below). In each section, we identify the best available models and discuss briefly their computational performance and applications, if any, to date. Section 7 summarizes our conclusions about the state of the art.

  3. Optimizing traffic flow efficiency by controlling lane changes: collective, group and user optima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, S.; Knoop, V.L.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Lane changes can lead to disturbances in traffic flow, whilst the uneven distribution of traffic over different lanes as a result of lane changes can also lead to instabilities and congestion on one specific lane. Therefore, giving advice on lane change can be beneficial for both individual drivers

  4. Some Considerations on the Problem of Non-Steady State Traffic Flow Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Poor traffic signal timing accounts for an estimated 10 percent of all traffic delay about 300 million vehicle-hours on major roadways alone. Americans agree that this is a problem: one U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) survey found tha...

  5. Fuzzy portfolio optimization advances in hybrid multi-criteria methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pankaj; Inuiguchi, Masahiro; Chandra, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents a comprehensive study of portfolio optimization, an important area of quantitative finance. Considering that the information available in financial markets is incomplete and that the markets are affected by vagueness and ambiguity, the monograph deals with fuzzy portfolio optimization models. At first, the book makes the reader familiar with basic concepts, including the classical mean–variance portfolio analysis. Then, it introduces advanced optimization techniques and applies them for the development of various multi-criteria portfolio optimization models in an uncertain environment. The models are developed considering both the financial and non-financial criteria of investment decision making, and the inputs from the investment experts. The utility of these models in practice is then demonstrated using numerical illustrations based on real-world data, which were collected from one of the premier stock exchanges in India. The book addresses both academics and professionals pursuin...

  6. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Piris, Luis; Rivera, Diego; Fernandez, Susel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan

    2018-02-02

    One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS) Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic) in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  7. Optimized Sensor Network and Multi-Agent Decision Support for Smart Traffic Light Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cruz-Piris

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in modern societies is to solve vehicular traffic problems. Sensor networks in traffic environments have contributed to improving the decision-making process of Intelligent Transportation Systems. However, one of the limiting factors for the effectiveness of these systems is in the deployment of sensors to provide accurate information about the traffic. Our proposal is using the centrality measurement of a graph as a base to locate the best locations for sensor installation in a traffic network. After integrating these sensors in a simulation scenario, we define a Multi-Agent Systems composed of three types of agents: traffic light management agents, traffic jam detection agents, and agents that control the traffic lights at an intersection. The ultimate goal of these Multi-Agent Systems is to improve the trip duration for vehicles in the network. To validate our solution, we have developed the needed elements for modelling the sensors and agents in the simulation environment. We have carried out experiments using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO traffic simulator and the Travel and Activity PAtterns Simulation (TAPAS Cologne traffic scenario. The obtained results show that our proposal allows to reduce the sensor network while still obtaining relevant information to have a global view of the environment. Finally, regarding the Multi-Agent Systems, we have carried out experiments that show that our proposal is able to improve other existing solutions such as conventional traffic light management systems (static or dynamic in terms of reduction of vehicle trip duration and reduction of the message exchange overhead in the sensor network.

  8. Framework for multi-resolution analyses of advanced traffic management strategies [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Transportation planning relies extensively on software that can simulate and predict travel behavior in response to alternative transportation networks. However, different software packages view traffic at different scales. Some programs are based on...

  9. Signal optimization in urban transport: A totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with traffic lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Chikashi; Foulaadvand, M Ebrahim; Santen, Ludger

    2017-03-01

    We consider the exclusion process on a ring with time-dependent defective bonds at which the hopping rate periodically switches between zero and one. This system models main roads in city traffics, intersecting with perpendicular streets. We explore basic properties of the system, in particular dependence of the vehicular flow on the parameters of signalization as well as the system size and the car density. We investigate various types of the spatial distribution of the vehicular density, and show existence of a shock profile. We also measure waiting time behind traffic lights, and examine its relationship with the traffic flow.

  10. Extending the horizons advances in computing, optimization, and decision technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Anito; Mehrotra, Anuj; Trick, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Computer Science and Operations Research continue to have a synergistic relationship and this book represents the results of cross-fertilization between OR/MS and CS/AI. It is this interface of OR/CS that makes possible advances that could not have been achieved in isolation. Taken collectively, these articles are indicative of the state-of-the-art in the interface between OR/MS and CS/AI and of the high caliber of research being conducted by members of the INFORMS Computing Society. EXTENDING THE HORIZONS: Advances in Computing, Optimization, and Decision Technologies is a volume that presents the latest, leading research in the design and analysis of algorithms, computational optimization, heuristic search and learning, modeling languages, parallel and distributed computing, simulation, computational logic and visualization. This volume also emphasizes a variety of novel applications in the interface of CS, AI, and OR/MS.

  11. Optimal primary surgical treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elattar, Ahmed; Bryant, Andrew; Winter-Roach, Brett A; Hatem, Mohamed; Naik, Raj

    2011-08-10

    Ovarian cancer is the sixth most common cancer among women. In addition to diagnosis and staging, primary surgery is performed to achieve optimal cytoreduction (surgical efforts aimed at removing the bulk of the tumour) as the amount of residual tumour is one of the most important prognostic factors for survival of women with epithelial ovarian cancer. An optimal outcome of cytoreductive surgery remains a subject of controversy to many practising gynae-oncologists. The Gynaecologic Oncology group (GOG) currently defines 'optimal' as having residual tumour nodules each measuring 1 cm or less in maximum diameter, with complete cytoreduction (microscopic disease) being the ideal surgical outcome. Although the size of residual tumour masses after surgery has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for advanced ovarian cancer, it is unclear whether it is the surgical procedure that is directly responsible for the superior outcome that is associated with less residual disease. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of optimal primary cytoreductive surgery for women with surgically staged advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (stages III and IV).To assess the impact of various residual tumour sizes, over a range between zero and 2 cm, on overall survival. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3) and the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to August 2010). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Retrospective data on residual disease from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective and retrospective observational studies which included a multivariate analysis of 100 or more adult women with surgically staged advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant platinum

  12. Recent advances in evolutionary multi-objective optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Rituparna; Gupta, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the most recent advances in the field of evolutionary multiobjective optimization. With the aim of drawing the attention of up-andcoming scientists towards exciting prospects at the forefront of computational intelligence, the authors have made an effort to ensure that the ideas conveyed herein are accessible to the widest audience. The book begins with a summary of the basic concepts in multi-objective optimization. This is followed by brief discussions on various algorithms that have been proposed over the years for solving such problems, ranging from classical (mathematical) approaches to sophisticated evolutionary ones that are capable of seamlessly tackling practical challenges such as non-convexity, multi-modality, the presence of multiple constraints, etc. Thereafter, some of the key emerging aspects that are likely to shape future research directions in the field are presented. These include:< optimization in dynamic environments, multi-objective bilevel programming, handling high ...

  13. Optimal Re-Routes and Ground Delays Using a Route-Based Aggregate Air Traffic Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluis

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is very complex and with a high level of uncertainty. For this reason, developing an automated conflict resolution tool at NAS level is presented as a big challenge. One way to address the problem is by using aggregate models, which can significantly reduce its dimension and complexity. Significant effort has been made to develop an air traffic aggregate model capable to effectively state and solve the problem. In this study, a Route-Based Aggregate Model is developed and tested. It consists in a modification of several existing models and overcomes some issues identified in previous aggregate models. It allows the implementation of Traffic Flow Management conventional controls, such as ground delay and rerouting. These control strategies can be used to avoid congestion conflicts based on sectors and airports capacity as well as regions affected by convective weather. The optimization problem is posed as a Linear Programming routine, which guarantees an optimal solution that minimizes the total accumulated delay required to avoid such capacity conflicts. The solutions can be directly translated into specific instructions at aircraft level, via modification of the times of departure and flight plans. The model is integrated with Future Air Traffic Management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), a state of the art air traffic simulation tool, and uses its files as both input and output. This allows simulating in FACET the solution obtained from the aggregate domain. The approach is validated by applying it in three realistic scenarios at different scales. Results show that, for time horizons larger than 2 hours, the accuracy of the aggregate model is similar to other simulation tools. Also, the modified flight plans, the product of the disaggregated solution, reduce the number of capacity conflicts in the FACET simulation. Future research will study the robustness of these solutions and determine the most appropriate scenarios where to

  14. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  15. Effects of emotions on optimism bias and illusion of control in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesken, J. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Rothengatter, T.

    2005-01-01

    Anger is related to aggression in traffic, which in turn may lead to risky driving (e.g. Lajunen, Parker & Stradling, 1998; Deffenbacher, Huff, Lynch, Oetting & Salvatore, 2000; Parker, Lajunen & Summa!a, 2002; Deffenbacher, Lynch, Filetti, Dahlen & Oetting, 2003). Anger may also lead directly to

  16. Advanced chemistry management system to optimize BWR chemistry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, K.; Nagasawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    BWR plant chemistry control has close relationships among nuclear safety, component reliability, radiation field management and fuel integrity. Advanced technology is required to improve chemistry control [1,3,6,7,10,11]. Toshiba has developed TACMAN (Toshiba Advanced Chemistry Management system) to support BWR chemistry control. The TACMAN has been developed as response to utilities' years of requirements to keep plant operation safety, reliability and cost benefit. The advanced technology built into the TACMAN allows utilities to make efficient chemistry control and to keep cost benefit. TACMAN is currently being used in response to the needs for tools those plant chemists and engineers could use to optimize and identify plant chemistry conditions continuously. If an incipient condition or anomaly is detected at early stage, root causes evaluation and immediate countermeasures can be provided. Especially, the expert system brings numerous and competitive advantages not only to improve plant chemistry reliability but also to standardize and systematize know-how, empirical knowledge and technologies in BWR chemistry This paper shows detail functions of TACMAN and practical results to evaluate actual plant. (authors)

  17. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  18. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  19. Application of air traffic control competence reference models as a mean of air navigation services provider’s charge optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The issue of application of Air Traffic Control (ATC competence reference models as a mean of air navigation services provider’s charge optimization is described in the article, and this issue is interpretated as an optimization task. The data relating to the significant growth of aviation traffic, especially using the airspace of Ukraine, given by authors, and the statement of fact that Air Traffic Management (ATM system’s technical component reliability increasement takes place on the basis of practically invariable psychophysiological abilities of aviation controller, make the substantiation of ANSP provision with the most trained ATC controllers for the work on the working places of ATC Unit actual. The ‘mechanism’ of ATC controllers competence reference model creation is defined step-by step. There is an example of candidate’s for the working place competence quantitative individual model forming as a common criteria of competence, which, in its turn, is the compressed format of all parameters of its working activity, received at the stage of control. The approach, according to which the individual parameters of graduating student’s output model’s professional characteristics, which he received after the examination of his work as Tower controller (ATM Unit of aerodrome control service, approach controller or area control service controller, are compared with the predetermined specialist’s competence reference model, relating to the special working place in ATM system, is supposed here. Notably, the conception, relating to the correspondence of the graduating student’s competence output level to the defined reference model of ATC controller, relating to the special working place of ATM Unit, is realised.

  20. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  1. Optimal Traffic Allocation for Multi-Stream Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2015-01-01

    nature of radio access networks are considered as important factors for performance improvement by multi-stream aggregation. Therefore, in our model, the networks are represented by different queueing systems in order to indicate networks with opposite quality of service provisioning, capacity and delay...... variations. Furthermore, services with different traffic characteristics in terms of quality of service requirements are considered. The simulation results show the advantages of our scheme with respect to efficient increase in data rate and delay performance compared to traditional schemes....

  2. Framework for multi-resolution analyses of advanced traffic management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Demand forecasting models and simulation models have been developed, calibrated, and used in isolation of each other. However, the advancement of transportation system technologies and strategies, the increase in the availability of data, and the unc...

  3. Providing Advanced and Real-Time Travel/Traffic Information to Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) analyze and communicate information that can enhance travel efficiency, alleviate congestion, and increase safety. In Texas, tourists (i.e., tripmakers unacquainted with the state) constitute an important ...

  4. Advances in metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kaveh, A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents efficient metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures. Many of these algorithms are developed by the author and his colleagues, consisting of Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization, Charged System Search, Magnetic Charged System Search, Field of Forces Optimization, Dolphin Echolocation Optimization, Colliding Bodies Optimization, Ray Optimization. These are presented together with algorithms which were developed by other authors and have been successfully applied to various optimization problems. These consist of Particle Swarm Optimization, Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm, Cuckoo Search Optimization, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, and Chaos Embedded Metaheuristic Algorithms. Finally a multi-objective optimization method is presented to solve large-scale structural problems based on the Charged System Search algorithm. The concepts and algorithms presented in this book are not only applicable to optimization of skeletal structures and finite element models, but can equally ...

  5. Advances in metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kaveh, A

    2014-01-01

    This book presents efficient metaheuristic algorithms for optimal design of structures. Many of these algorithms are developed by the author and his colleagues, consisting of Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization, Charged System Search, Magnetic Charged System Search, Field of Forces Optimization, Dolphin Echolocation Optimization, Colliding Bodies Optimization, Ray Optimization. These are presented together with algorithms which were developed by other authors and have been successfully applied to various optimization problems. These consist of Particle Swarm Optimization, Big Bang-Big Crunch Algorithm, Cuckoo Search Optimization, Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, and Chaos Embedded Metaheuristic Algorithms. Finally a multi-objective optimization method is presented to solve large-scale structural problems based on the Charged System Search algorithm. The concepts and algorithms presented in this book are not only applicable to optimization of skeletal structures and finite element models, but can equally ...

  6. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  7. Advanced Variance Reduction Strategies for Optimizing Mesh Tallies in MAVRIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Blakeman, Edward D; Wagner, John C

    2007-01-01

    More often than in the past, Monte Carlo methods are being used to compute fluxes or doses over large areas using mesh tallies (a set of region tallies defined on a mesh that overlays the geometry). For problems that demand that the uncertainty in each mesh cell be less than some set maximum, computation time is controlled by the cell with the largest uncertainty. This issue becomes quite troublesome in deep-penetration problems, and advanced variance reduction techniques are required to obtain reasonable uncertainties over large areas. The CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology has been shown to very efficiently optimize the calculation of a response (flux or dose) for a single point or a small region using weight windows and a biased source based on the adjoint of that response. This has been incorporated into codes such as ADVANTG (based on MCNP) and the new sequence MAVRIC, which will be available in the next release of SCALE. In an effort to compute lower uncertainties everywhere in the problem, Larsen's group has also developed several methods to help distribute particles more evenly, based on forward estimates of flux. This paper focuses on the use of a forward estimate to weight the placement of the source in the adjoint calculation used by CADIS, which we refer to as a forward-weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS)

  8. Development of a graphical method for choosing the optimal mode of traffic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, A. N.; Katunin, A. A.; Novikov, I. A.; Kravchenko, A. A.; Shevtsova, A. G.

    2018-05-01

    Changing the transportation infrastructure for improving the main characteristics of the transportation flow is the key problem in transportation planning, therefore the main question lies in the ability to plan the change of the main indicators for the long term. In this investigation, an analysis of the city’s population has been performed and the most difficult transportation segment has been identified. During its identification, the main characteristics of the transportation flow have been established. For the evaluation of these characteristics until 2025, an analysis of the available methods of establishing changes in their values has been conducted. During the analysis of the above mentioned methods of evaluation of the change in intensity, based on the method of extrapolation, three scenarios of the development of the transportation system have been identified. It has been established that the most favorable method of controlling the transportation flow in the entrance to the city is the long term control of the traffic system. For the first time, with the help of the authors, based on the investigations of foreign scientists and the mathematical analysis of the changes in intensiveness on the main routes of the given road, the method of graphically choosing the required control plan has been put forward. The effectiveness of said organization scheme of the transportation system has been rated in the Transyt-14 program, with the analysis of changes in the main characteristics of the transportation flow.

  9. Use of advanced modeling techniques to optimize thermal packaging designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M; Potami, Raffaele; Ahmed, Iftekhar

    2010-01-01

    Through a detailed case study the authors demonstrate, for the first time, the capability of using advanced modeling techniques to correctly simulate the transient temperature response of a convective flow-based thermal shipper design. The objective of this case study was to demonstrate that simulation could be utilized to design a 2-inch-wall polyurethane (PUR) shipper to hold its product box temperature between 2 and 8 °C over the prescribed 96-h summer profile (product box is the portion of the shipper that is occupied by the payload). Results obtained from numerical simulation are in excellent agreement with empirical chamber data (within ±1 °C at all times), and geometrical locations of simulation maximum and minimum temperature match well with the corresponding chamber temperature measurements. Furthermore, a control simulation test case was run (results taken from identical product box locations) to compare the coupled conduction-convection model with a conduction-only model, which to date has been the state-of-the-art method. For the conduction-only simulation, all fluid elements were replaced with "solid" elements of identical size and assigned thermal properties of air. While results from the coupled thermal/fluid model closely correlated with the empirical data (±1 °C), the conduction-only model was unable to correctly capture the payload temperature trends, showing a sizeable error compared to empirical values (ΔT > 6 °C). A modeling technique capable of correctly capturing the thermal behavior of passively refrigerated shippers can be used to quickly evaluate and optimize new packaging designs. Such a capability provides a means to reduce the cost and required design time of shippers while simultaneously improving their performance. Another advantage comes from using thermal modeling (assuming a validated model is available) to predict the temperature distribution in a shipper that is exposed to ambient temperatures which were not bracketed

  10. Optimization of decision making to avoid stochastically predicted air traffic conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Васильєв

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The method of decision-making optimization on planning an aircraft trajectory to avoid potential conflict with restricted minimal level of separation standard is proposed. Evaluation and monitoring the conflict probability are made using the probabilistic composite method.

  11. Traffic theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gazis, Denos C

    2002-01-01

    ... of traffic signal settings The vehicle-actuated traffic signal 87 89 77 CHAPTER 3. TRAFFIC CONTROL 101 Objectives of Traffic Control 103 Single, Isolated Intersection 105 Synchronization Scheme...

  12. Optimizing transport logistics taking into account the state of roads and road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikul’skaya Ol’ga Mikhaylovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice and use of rational routes at strict observance of deliveries terms help to achieve not only minimization of operational expenses, but also to reduce commodity and production stocks in warehouses by 1,5...2 times. Therefore special relevance is gained by the works allowing precisely calculating the volumes of a cargo transportation, to count the quantity of transport units necessary for providing cargo flow, to define the rational routes of transportation, and also to reduce total costs of transportation. On the basis of the analysis of the known mathematical methods applied in transport logistics, the authors drew a conclusion that the route of freight delivery is estimated according to the distance passed by the vehicle. However the time of freight delivery depends not only on distance, but also on a set of other factors, such as vehicle type, road capacity, intensity of transport stream, weather conditions, season and others. For taking note of additional factors when optimizing a freight delivery route the method of analogy and similarity is used by the authors. The transportation parameters were estimated by analogy with an electric chain. For this purpose the authors entered the new concepts “fictitious distance” and “conductivity of the road”. The mathematical model allowing optimizing the organization of freight delivery taking into account not only distances, but also the probable speed of the vehicle movement depending on the road quality, intensity of transport stream and weather conditions is developed. Further development of the system of decision-making support while choosing the optimum route of cargo delivery is planned.

  13. Optimization of the Phase Advance Between RHIC Interaction Points

    CERN Document Server

    Tomas, Rogelio

    2005-01-01

    We consider the scenario of having two identical Interaction Points (IPs) in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The strengths of beam-beam resonances strongly depend on the phase advance between these two IPs and therefore certain phase advances could improve beam lifetime and luminosity. We compute the dynamic aperture as function of the phase advance between these IPs to find the optimum settings. The beam-beam interaction is treated in the weak-strong approximation and a complete non-linear model of the lattice is used. For the current RHIC proton working point (0.69,0.685) the design lattice is found to have the optimum phase advance. However this is not the case for other working points.

  14. Advanced Gradient Based Optimization Techniques Applied on Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endelt, Benny; Nielsen, Karl Brian

    2005-01-01

    The computational-costs for finite element simulations of general sheet metal forming processes are considerable, especially measured in time. In combination with optimization, the performance of the optimization algorithm is crucial for the overall performance of the system, i.e. the optimization algorithm should gain as much information about the system in each iteration as possible. Least-square formulation of the object function is widely applied for solution of inverse problems, due to the superior performance of this formulation.In this work focus will be on small problems which are defined as problems with less than 1000 design parameters; as the majority of real life optimization and inverse problems, represented in literature, can be characterized as small problems, typically with less than 20 design parameters.We will show that the least square formulation is well suited for two classes of inverse problems; identification of constitutive parameters and process optimization.The scalability and robustness of the approach are illustrated through a number of process optimizations and inverse material characterization problems; tube hydro forming, two step hydro forming, flexible aluminum tubes, inverse identification of material parameters

  15. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Recent Advances and Remaining Gaps in the Exposure Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khreis, Haneen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-03-17

    Background : Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research. Methods : We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published up until 8 September 2016 and available in Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and "Transport database". We included studies which examined the association between children's exposure to TRAP metrics and their risk of "asthma" incidence or lifetime prevalence, from birth to the age of 18 years old. Results : We found 42 studies which examined the associations between TRAP and subsequent childhood asthma incidence or lifetime prevalence, published since 1999. Land-use regression modelling was the most commonly used method and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) was the most commonly used pollutant in the exposure assessments. Most studies estimated TRAP exposure at the residential address and only a few considered the participants' mobility. TRAP exposure was mostly assessed at the birth year and only a few studies considered different and/or multiple exposure time windows. We recommend that further work is needed including e.g., the use of new exposure metrics such as the composition of particulate matter, oxidative potential and ultra-fine particles, improved modelling e.g., by combining different exposure assessment models, including mobility of the participants, and systematically investigating different exposure time windows. Conclusions : Although our previous meta-analysis found statistically significant associations for various TRAP exposures and

  16. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper proposes a matching difference-in-difference model to calculate the contribution rate of intelligent transportation system on traffic smoothness. Within the model, the main effect indicators of traffic smoothness are first identified, and then the evaluation index system is built, and finally the ideas of the matching pool are introduced. The proposed model is illustrated in Guangzhou, China (capital city of Guangdong province. The results show that introduction of ITS contributes 9.25% to the improvement of traffic smooth in Guangzhou. Also, the research explains the working mechanism of how ITS improves urban traffic smooth. Eventually, some strategy recommendations are put forward to improve urban traffic smooth.

  17. Value of Information for Optimal Adaptive Routing in Stochastic Time-Dependent Traffic Networks: Algorithms and Computational Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Real-time information is important for travelers' routing decisions in uncertain networks by enabling online adaptation to revealed traffic conditions. Usually there are spatial and/or temporal limitations in traveler information. In this research, a...

  18. European advanced driver training programs: Reasons for optimism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Washington

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the predominant features and empirical evidence surrounding post licensing advanced driver training programs focused on novice drivers. A clear articulation of differences between the renewed and current US advanced driver training programs is provided. While the individual quantitative evaluations range from marginally to significantly effective in reducing novice driver crash risk, they have been criticized for evaluation deficiencies ranging from small sample sizes to confounding variables to lack of exposure metrics. Collectively, however, the programs sited in the paper suggest at least a marginally positive effect that needs to be validated with further studies. If additional well controlled studies can validate these programs, a pilot program in the US should be considered.

  19. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajima, Ryoichi [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms.

  20. Advanced optimization of permanent magnet wigglers using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    In permanent magnet wigglers, magnetic imperfection of each magnet piece causes field error. This field error can be reduced or compensated by sorting magnet pieces in proper order. We showed a genetic algorithm has good property for this sorting scheme. In this paper, this optimization scheme is applied to the case of permanent magnets which have errors in the direction of field. The result shows the genetic algorithm is superior to other algorithms

  1. Optimism, social support, and mental health outcomes in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Allison J; Stein, Emma M; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Pessin, Hayley; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William

    2014-03-01

    Optimism and social support serve as protective factors against distress in medically ill patients. Very few studies have specifically explored the ways in which these variables interact to impact quality of life (QOL), particularly among patients with advanced cancer. The present study examined the role of optimism as a moderator of the relationship between social support and anxiety, depression, hopelessness, and QOL among patients with advanced cancer. Participants (N = 168) completed self-report assessments of psychosocial, spiritual, and physical well-being, including social support, optimism, hopelessness, depressive and anxious symptoms, and QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the extent to which social support and optimism were associated with depressive and anxious symptomatology, hopelessness and QOL, and the potential role of optimism as a moderator of the relationship between social support and these variables. Higher levels of optimism were significantly associated with fewer anxious and depressive symptoms, less hopelessness, and better QOL. Higher levels of perceived social support were also significantly associated with better QOL. Additionally, optimism moderated the relationship between social support and anxiety, such that there was a strong negative association between social support and anxiety for participants with low optimism. This study highlights the importance of optimism and social support in the QOL of patients with advanced cancer. As such, interventions that attend to patients' expectations for positive experiences and the expansion of social support should be the focus of future clinical and research endeavors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Traffic congestion forecasting model for the INFORM System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarm, A.; Mughabghab, S.; Stock, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a computerized traffic forecasting model, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for a portion of the Long Island INFORM Traffic Corridor. The model has gone through a testing phase, and currently is able to make accurate traffic predictions up to one hour forward in time. The model will eventually take on-line traffic data from the INFORM system roadway sensors and make projections as to future traffic patterns, thus allowing operators at the New York State Department of Transportation (D.O.T.) INFORM Traffic Management Center to more optimally manage traffic. It can also form the basis of a travel information system. The BNL computer model developed for this project is called ATOP for Advanced Traffic Occupancy Prediction. The various modules of the ATOP computer code are currently written in Fortran and run on PC computers (pentium machine) faster than real time for the section of the INFORM corridor under study. The following summarizes the various routines currently contained in the ATOP code: Statistical forecasting of traffic flow and occupancy using historical data for similar days and time (long term knowledge), and the recent information from the past hour (short term knowledge). Estimation of the empirical relationships between traffic flow and occupancy using long and short term information. Mechanistic interpolation using macroscopic traffic models and based on the traffic flow and occupancy forecasted (item-1), and the empirical relationships (item-2) for the specific highway configuration at the time of simulation (construction, lane closure, etc.). Statistical routine for detection and classification of anomalies and their impact on the highway capacity which are fed back to previous items.

  3. Advances in Optimizing Weather Driven Electric Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States (and global) energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The National Energy with Weather System Simulator (NEWS) is a mathematical optimization tool that allows the construction of weather-driven energy sources that will work in harmony with the needs of the system. For example, it will match the electric load, reduce variability, decrease costs, and abate carbon emissions. One important test run included existing US carbon-free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an increase in electric costs. The key requirement would be a 48 state network of HVDC transmission, creating a national market for electricity not possible in the current AC grid. These results were found without the need for storage. Further, we tested the effect of changing natural gas fuel prices on the optimal configuration of the national electric power system. Another test that was carried out was an extension to global regions. The extension study shows that the same properties found in the US study extend to the most populous regions of the planet. The extra test is a simplified version of the US study, and is where much more research can be carried out. We compare our results to other model results.

  4. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  5. Electric power systems advanced forecasting techniques and optimal generation scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2012-01-01

    Overview of Electric Power Generation SystemsCláudio MonteiroUncertainty and Risk in Generation SchedulingRabih A. JabrShort-Term Load ForecastingAlexandre P. Alves da Silva and Vitor H. FerreiraShort-Term Electricity Price ForecastingNima AmjadyShort-Term Wind Power ForecastingGregor Giebel and Michael DenhardPrice-Based Scheduling for GencosGovinda B. Shrestha and Songbo QiaoOptimal Self-Schedule of a Hydro Producer under UncertaintyF. Javier Díaz and Javie

  6. Optimization of wind turbine rotors - using advanced aerodynamic and aeroelastic models and numerical optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Mads

    of very large machines introduces new problems in the practical design, and optimization tools are necessary. These must combine the dynamic eects of both aerodynamics and structure in an integrated optimization environment. This is referred to as aeroelastic optimization. The Ris DTU optimization...... software HAWTOPT has been used in this project. The quasi-steady aerodynamic module have been improved with a corrected blade element momentum method. A structure module has also been developed which lays out the blade structural properties. This is done in a simplied way allowing fast conceptual design...... studies and with focus on the overall properties relevant for the aeroelastic properties. Aeroelastic simulations in the time domain were carried out using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. With these modules coupled to HAWTOPT, optimizations have been made. In parallel with the developments of the mentioned...

  7. Optimization of the Neutronics of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, Jitka; Talamo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    In these studies, we have investigated the neutronic and safety performance of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for plutonium and uranium fuels and we extended the analysis to five different coolants. The AHTR is a graphite-moderated and molten salt-cooled high temperature reactor, which takes advantage of the TRISO particles technology for the fuel utilization. The conceptual design of the core, proposed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, aims to provide an alternative to helium as coolant of high-temperature reactors for industrial applications like hydrogen production. We evaluated the influence of the radial reflector on the criticality of the core for the uranium and plutonium fuels and we focused on the void coefficient of 5 different molten salts; since the safety of the reactor is enhanced also by the large and negative coefficient of temperature, we completed our investigation by observing the keff changes when the graphite temperature varies from 300 to 1800 K. (authors)

  8. Optimization of wind turbine rotors - using advanced aerodynamic and aeroelastic models and numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doessing, M.

    2011-05-15

    During the last decades the annual energy produced by wind turbines has increased dramatically and wind turbines are now available in the 5MW range. Turbines in this range are constantly being developed and it is also being investigated whether turbines as large as 10-20MW are feasible. The design of very large machines introduces new problems in the practical design, and optimization tools are necessary. These must combine the dynamic effects of both aerodynamics and structure in an integrated optimization environment. This is referred to as aeroelastic optimization. The Risoe DTU optimization software HAWTOPT has been used in this project. The quasi-steady aerodynamic module have been improved with a corrected blade element momentum method. A structure module has also been developed which lays out the blade structural properties. This is done in a simplified way allowing fast conceptual design studies and with focus on the overall properties relevant for the aeroelastic properties. Aeroelastic simulations in the time domain were carried out using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. With these modules coupled to HAWTOPT, optimizations have been made. In parallel with the developments of the mentioned numerical modules, focus has been on analysis and a fundamental understanding of the key parameters in wind turbine design. This has resulted in insight and an effective design methodology is presented. Using the optimization environment a 5MW wind turbine rotor has been optimized for reduced fatigue loads due to apwise bending moments. Among other things this has indicated that airfoils for wind turbine blades should have a high lift coefficient. The design methodology proved to be stable and a help in the otherwise challenging task of numerical aeroelastic optimization. (Author)

  9. Optimal utilization of a breast care advanced practice clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katie W; Mone, Mary C; Serpico, Victoria J; Ward, Cori; Lynch, Joanna; Neumayer, Leigh A; Nelson, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Incorporation of "lean" business philosophy within health care has the goal of adding value by reducing cost and improving quality. Applying these principles to the role of Advance Practice Clinicians (APCs) is relevant because they have become essential members of the healthcare team. An independent surgical breast care clinic directed by an APC was created with measurements of success to include the following: time to obtain an appointment, financial viability, and patient/APC/MD satisfaction. During the study period, there was a trend toward a decreased median time to obtain an appointment. Monthly APC charges increased from $388 to $30,800. The mean provider satisfaction score by Press Ganey was 96% for the APC and 95.8% for the surgeon. Both clinicians expressed significant satisfaction with clinic development. Overall, initiation of an APC breast clinic met the proposed goals of success. The use of lean philosophy demonstrates that implementation of change can result in added value in patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor zoning, shielding, and radiological optimization guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbrook, J.L.; DeVore, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the design of major nuclear facilities, it is important to protect both humans and equipment excessive radiation dose. Past experience has shown that it is very effective to apply dose reduction principles early in the design of a nuclear facility both to specific design features and to the manner of operation of the facility, where they can aid in making the facility more efficient and cost-effective. Since the appropriate choice of radiological controls and practices varies according to the case, each area of the facility must be analyzed for its radiological impact, both by itself and in interactions with other areas. For the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project, a large relational database will be used to collect facility information by system and relate it to areas. The database will also hold the facility dose and shielding information as it is produced during the design process. This report details how the ANS zoning scheme was established and how the calculation of doses and shielding are to be done

  11. Optimization of advanced plants operation: The Escrime project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiche, C.; Papin, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Escrime program aims at defining the optimal share of tasks between humans and computers under normal or accidental plant operation. Basic principles we keep in mind are the following: human operators are likely to be necessary in the operation of future plants because we cannot demonstrate that plant design is error free, so unexpected situation can still happen; automation must not release the operators from their decisional role but only help them avoiding situations of cognitive overload which can lead to increase the risk of errors; the optimum share of tasks between human and automatic systems must be based on a critical analysis of the tasks and of the way they are handled. The last point appeared to be of major importance. The corresponding analysis of the French PWR's operating procedures enabled us to define a unified scheme for plant operation under the form of a hierarchy of goals and means. Beyond this analysis, development of a specific testing facility is under way to check the relevance of the proposed plant operation organization and to test the human-machine cooperation in different situations for various levels of automation. 7 refs, 4 figs

  12. Advanced Air Traffic Management Research (Human Factors and Automation): NASA Research Initiatives in Human-Centered Automation Design in Airspace Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    NASA has initiated a significant thrust of research and development focused on providing the flight crew and air traffic managers automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area operations through the use of flexible, more fuel-efficient routing, while improving the level of safety in commercial carrier operations. In that system development, definition of cognitive requirements for integrated multi-operator dynamic aiding systems is fundamental. The core processes of control and the distribution of decision making in that control are undergoing extensive analysis. From our perspective, the human operators and the procedures by which they interact are the fundamental determinants of the safe, efficient, and flexible operation of the system. In that perspective, we have begun to explore what our experience has taught will be the most challenging aspects of designing and integrating human-centered automation in the advanced system. We have performed a full mission simulation looking at the role shift to self-separation on board the aircraft with the rules of the air guiding behavior and the provision of a cockpit display of traffic information and an on-board traffic alert system that seamlessly integrates into the TCAS operations. We have performed and initial investigation of the operational impact of "Dynamic Density" metrics on controller relinquishing and reestablishing full separation authority. (We follow the assumption that responsibility at all times resides with the controller.) This presentation will describe those efforts as well as describe the process by which we will guide the development of error tolerant systems that are sensitive to shifts in operator work load levels and dynamic shifts in the operating point of air traffic management.

  13. Nanotechnology inspired advanced engineering fundamentals for optimizing drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed Alaa

    2018-02-06

    Drug toxicity and inefficacy are commonly experienced problems with drug therapy failure. To face these problems, extensive research work took place aiming to design new dosage forms for drug delivery especially nanoparticulate systems. These systems are designed to increase the quantity of the therapeutic molecule delivered to the desired site concurrently with reduced side effects. In order to achieve this objective, nanocarriers must principally display suitable drug vehiculization abilities and a controlled biological destiny of drug molecules. Only the intelligent design of the nanomedicine will accomplish these fundamentals. The present review article is dedicated to the discussion of the important fundamentals to be considered in the fabrication of nanomedicines. These include the therapeutic agent, the nanocarrier and the functionalization moieties. Special consideration is devoted to the explanation and compilation of highly potential fabrication approaches assisting how to control the in vivo destiny of the nanomedicine. Finally, some nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, for the development of nanomedicine, are also discussed. The nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems showed remarkable outcomes based on passive and active targeting as well as improvement of the drug pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles. Multifunctional nanocarrier concept affords a revolutionary drug delivery approach for maximizing the efficacy, safety and monitoring the biological fate of the therapeutic molecule. Nanomedicines may enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and reduce their toxic effects. Meanwhile, further research works are required to rightly optimize (and define) the effectiveness, nanotoxicity, in vivo destiny and feasibility of these nanomedicines which, from a preclinical standpoint, are actually promising. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Optimal synthesis and operation of advanced energy supply systems for standard and domotic home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buoro, Dario; Casisi, Melchiorre; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of an optimization model for a home energy supply system. ► Optimization of the energy supply system for standard and domotic home. ► Strong improvement can be achieved adopting the optimal system in standard and domotic home. ► The improvements are consistent if supply side and demand side strategies are applied together. ► Solutions with internal combustion engines are less sensible to market price of electricity and gas. - Abstract: The paper deals with the optimization of an advanced energy supply systems for two dwellings: a standard home and an advanced domotic home, where some demand side energy saving strategies have been implemented. In both cases the optimal synthesis, design and operation of the whole energy supply system have been obtained and a sensitivity analysis has been performed, by introducing different economic constraints. The optimization model is based on a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and includes different kinds of small-scale cogenerators, geothermal heat pumps, boilers, heat storages, solar thermal and photovoltaic panels. In addition, absorption machines, supplied with cogenerated heat, can be used instead of conventional electrical chiller to face the cooling demand. The aim of the analysis is to address the question if advanced demand strategies and supply strategies have to be regarded as alternatives, or if they have to be simultaneously applied, in order to obtain the maximum energy and economic benefit.

  15. Calculating the Contribution Rate of Intelligent Transportation System in Improving Urban Traffic Smooth Based on Advanced DID Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-wei; Yun, Jun; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of intelligent transportation system around the world, which helps to relieve urban traffic congestion problems. For instance, many mega-cities in China have devoted a large amount of money and resources to the development of intelligent transportation system. This poses an intriguing and important issue: how to measure and quantify the contribution of intelligent transportation system to the urban city, which is still a puzzle. This paper pro...

  16. An advanced Lithium-ion battery optimal charging strategy based on a coupled thermoelectric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Yang, Zhile; Zhang, Cheng; Deng, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely adopted as the power supplies for electric vehicles. A key but challenging issue is to achieve optimal battery charging, while taking into account of various constraints for safe, efficient and reliable operation. In this paper, a triple-objective function is first formulated for battery charging based on a coupled thermoelectric model. An advanced optimal charging strategy is then proposed to develop the optimal constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) charge current profile, which gives the best trade-off among three conflicting but important objectives for battery management. To be specific, a coupled thermoelectric battery model is first presented. Then, a specific triple-objective function consisting of three objectives, namely charging time, energy loss, and temperature rise (both the interior and surface), is proposed. Heuristic methods such as Teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the triple-objective function, and their optimization performances are compared. The impacts of the weights for different terms in the objective function are then assessed. Experimental results show that the proposed optimal charging strategy is capable of offering desirable effective optimal charging current profiles and a proper trade-off among the conflicting objectives. Further, the proposed optimal charging strategy can be easily extended to other battery types.

  17. Heuristic algorithms for joint optimization of unicast and anycast traffic in elastic optical network–based large–scale computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elastic optical networks have been perceived as a prospective choice for future optical networks due to better adjustment and utilization of optical resources than is the case with traditional wavelength division multiplexing networks. In the paper we investigate the elastic architecture as the communication network for distributed data centers. We address the problems of optimization of routing and spectrum assignment for large-scale computing systems based on an elastic optical architecture; particularly, we concentrate on anycast user to data center traffic optimization. We assume that computational resources of data centers are limited. For this offline problems we formulate the integer linear programming model and propose a few heuristics, including a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a tabu search method. We report computational results, presenting the quality of approximate solutions and efficiency of the proposed heuristics, and we also analyze and compare some data center allocation scenarios.

  18. Topology Optimization and Robotic Fabrication of Advanced Timber Space-frame Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Amir, Oded; Eversmann, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for integrated topology optimization and fabrication of advanced timber space-frame structures. The method, developed in research collaboration between ETH Zürich, Aarhus School of Architecture and Israel Institute of Technology, entails the coupling of truss...... processes solving timber joint intersections, robotically controlling member prefabrication, and spatial robotic assembly of the optimized timber structures. The implication of this concept is studied through pilot fabrication and load-testing of a full scale prototype structure.......-based topology optimization with digital procedures for rationalization and robotic assembly of bespoke timber members, through a procedural, cross-application workflow. Through this, a direct chaining of optimization and robotic fabrication is established, in which optimization data is driving subsequent...

  19. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) - Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) prototype : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Final Report for the FRATIS Dallas-Fort Worth DFW prototype system. The FRATIS prototype in : DFW consisted of the following components: optimization algorithm, terminal wait time, route specific : navigation/traffic/weather, and advanced...

  20. Advanced technologies in biodiesel new advances in designed and optimized catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    The inadequacy of fossil fuel is the main driving force of the future sustainable energy around the world. Since heterogeneous catalysis is used in chemical industry for biodiesel production, achieving optimal catalytic performance is a significant issue for chemical engineers and chemists. Enormous attention has been placed in recent years on the selection of heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel industry, where the catalyst could be facilitated highly selective toward desired products, easily handled, separated from the reaction medium, and subsequently reused. This book stresses an overview on the contributions of tailored solid acid and base catalysts to catalytic biodiesel synthesis, and the in uences of heterogeneous catalyst properties on biodiesel yield in order to develop a better understanding of catalyst design for the green production process as well as practical applications in the biodiesel industry.

  1. Optimizing Team Dynamics: An Assessment of Physician Trainees and Advanced Practice Providers Collaborative Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cortney B; Simone, Shari; Bagdure, Dayanand; Garber, Nan A; Bhutta, Adnan

    2016-09-01

    The presence of advanced practice providers has become increasingly common in many ICUs. The ideal staffing model for units that contain both advanced practice providers and physician trainees has not been described. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ICU staffing models that include physician trainees and advanced practice providers and their effects on patient outcomes, resident and fellow education, and training experience. A second aim was to assess strategies to promote collaboration between team members. PubMed, CINAHL, OVID MEDLINE, and Cochrane Review from 2002 to 2015. Experimental study designs conducted in an ICU setting. Two reviewers screened articles for eligibility and independently abstracted data using the identified search terms. We found 21 articles describing ICU team structure and outcomes. Four articles were found describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident or fellow education. Two articles were found discussing strategies to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and critical care fellows or residents. Several articles were identified describing the utilization of advanced practice providers in the ICU and the impact of models of care on patient outcomes. Limited data exist describing the impact of advanced practice providers on resident and fellow education and training experience. In addition, there are minimal data describing methods to enhance collaboration between providers. Future research should focus on determining the optimal ICU team structure to improve patient outcomes, education of trainees, and job satisfaction of team members and methods to promote collaboration between advanced practice providers and physicians in training.

  2. Traffic light control by multiagent reinforcement learning systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.; Groen, F.C.A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  3. Traffic Light Control by Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic light control is one of the main means of controlling road traffic. Improving traffic control is important because it can lead to higher traffic throughput and reduced traffic congestion. This chapter describes multiagent reinforcement learning techniques for automatic optimization of

  4. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  5. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  6. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  7. The optimized advanced demonstrator for the SC CW heavy ion linac at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Malte; Basten, Markus; Busch, Marco; Dziuba, Florian; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Tiede, Rudolf [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gettmann, Viktor; Heilmann, Manuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Barth, Winfried; Mickat, Sascha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Miski-Oglu, Maksym [HIM, Helmholtzinstitut, Mainz (Germany); Aulenbacher, Kurt [KPH, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For future experiments with heavy ions at the coulomb barrier within the SHE research project a multi-stage R and D program of GSI, HIM and IAP is currently under progress. It aims at developing a superconducting (sc) continuous wave (cw) LINAC with multiple CH-cavities as key components. As intermediate step towards the whole LINAC, the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator is proposed. Consisting of short CH-cavities and cryostats, it could provide several advantages regarding velocity acceptance, higher tolerance with respect to frequency and field deviation, easier mounting, handling and maintenance as well as a more robust longitudinal beam dynamic. The beam dynamics concept is based on EQUUS (Equidistant Multigap Structure) constant-beta cavities. The corresponding simulations for the proposed next extension stage - the Optimized Advanced Demonstrator - will be presented.

  8. Optimization of advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel performance by a stochastic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    A brief description is presented of a model representing the in-core behaviour of a single advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel channel, developed specifically for optimization studies. The performances of the only suitable Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) library package and a Metropolis algorithm routine on this problem are discussed and contrasted. It is concluded that, for the problem in question, the stochastic Metropolis algorithm has distinct advantages over the deterministic NAG routine. (author)

  9. Design and optimization of components and processes for plasma sources in advanced material treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The research activities described in the present thesis have been oriented to the design and development of components and technological processes aimed at optimizing the performance of plasma sources in advanced in material treatments. Consumables components for high definition plasma arc cutting (PAC) torches were studied and developed. Experimental activities have in particular focussed on the modifications of the emissive insert with respect to the standard electrode configuration, whi...

  10. Optimizing meridional advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.-L.

    2015-05-01

    The most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Two distinct varieties of WRF exist. The one we are interested is the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we optimize a meridional (north-south direction) advection subroutine for Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Advection is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. It advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.2x.

  11. Optimizing zonal advection of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamics for Intel MIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is the most widely used community weather forecast and research model in the world. There are two distinct varieties of WRF. The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) is an experimental, advanced research version featuring very high resolution. The WRF Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) has been designed for forecasting operations. WRF consists of dynamics code and several physics modules. The WRF-ARW core is based on an Eulerian solver for the fully compressible nonhydrostatic equations. In the paper, we will use Intel Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture to substantially increase the performance of a zonal advection subroutine for optimization. It is of the most time consuming routines in the ARW dynamics core. Advection advances the explicit perturbation horizontal momentum equations by adding in the large-timestep tendency along with the small timestep pressure gradient tendency. We will describe the challenges we met during the development of a high-speed dynamics code subroutine for MIC architecture. Furthermore, lessons learned from the code optimization process will be discussed. The results show that the optimizations improved performance of the original code on Xeon Phi 5110P by a factor of 2.4x.

  12. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  13. 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Simulation-Driven Optimization and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She

    2016-01-01

    This edited volume is devoted to the now-ubiquitous use of computational models across most disciplines of engineering and science, led by a trio of world-renowned researchers in the field. Focused on recent advances of modeling and optimization techniques aimed at handling computationally-expensive engineering problems involving simulation models, this book will be an invaluable resource for specialists (engineers, researchers, graduate students) working in areas as diverse as electrical engineering, mechanical and structural engineering, civil engineering, industrial engineering, hydrodynamics, aerospace engineering, microwave and antenna engineering, ocean science and climate modeling, and the automotive industry, where design processes are heavily based on CPU-heavy computer simulations. Various techniques, such as knowledge-based optimization, adjoint sensitivity techniques, and fast replacement models (to name just a few) are explored in-depth along with an array of the latest techniques to optimize the...

  14. Fy00 Treasure Valley ITS Deployment Project : advanced traffic management system (ATMS) software procurement and implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-02

    In 2000, the Treasure Valley area of the State of Idaho received a federal earmark of $390,000 to develop an Advanced Transportation Management System (ATMS) for the Treasure Valley region of Idaho. The Ada County Highway District (ACHD), located in ...

  15. Synergism between profile and cross section shape optimization for negative central shear advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Taylor, T.S.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) concept is aimed at achieving high beta, high confinement, and a well aligned high bootstrap current fraction in a tokamak configuration consistent with steady state operation. The required improvements over the simple O-D scaling laws, normally used to predict standard, pulsed tokamak performance, axe obtained by taking into account the dependence of the stability and confinement on the 2-D equilibrium; the planned TPX experiment was designed to take full advantage of both advanced profiles and advanced cross-section shaping. Systematic stability studies of the promising Negative Central Shear (NCS) configuration have been performed for a wide variety of cross-section shapes and profile variations. The ideal MHD beta limit is found to be strongly dependent on both and, in fact, there is a clear synergistic relationship between the gains in beta from optimizing the profiles and optimizing the shape. Specifically, for a circular cross-section with highly peaked profiles, β is limited to normalized β values of β N = β/(I/aB) ∼ 2% (mT/MA). A small gain in beta can be achieved by broadening the pressure; however, the root-mean-square beta (β*) is slightly reduced. With peaked pressure profiles, a small increase in β N over that in a circular cross-section is also obtained by strong shaping. At fixed q, this translates to a much larger gain in β and β*. With both optimal profiles and strong shaping, however, the gain in all the relevant fusion performance parameters is dramatic; β and β* can be increased a factor 5 for example. Moreover, the bootstrap alignment is improved. For an optimized strongly shaped configuration, confinement, beta values, and bootstrap alignment adequate for a practical AT power plant appear to be realizable. Data from DIII-D supports these predictions and analysis of the DIII-D data will be presented

  16. Multicycle Optimization of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Loading Patterns Using Genetic Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziver, A. Kemal; Carter, Jonathan N.; Pain, Christopher C.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de; Goddard, Antony J. H.; Overton, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimizer (GAOPT) has been developed for in-core fuel management of advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) at HINKLEY B and HARTLEPOOL, which employ on-load and off-load refueling, respectively. The optimizer has been linked to the reactor analysis code PANTHER for the automated evaluation of loading patterns in a two-dimensional geometry, which is collapsed from the three-dimensional reactor model. GAOPT uses a directed stochastic (Monte Carlo) algorithm to generate initial population members, within predetermined constraints, for use in GAs, which apply the standard genetic operators: selection by tournament, crossover, and mutation. The GAOPT is able to generate and optimize loading patterns for successive reactor cycles (multicycle) within acceptable CPU times even on single-processor systems. The algorithm allows radial shuffling of fuel assemblies in a multicycle refueling optimization, which is constructed to aid long-term core management planning decisions. This paper presents the application of the GA-based optimization to two AGR stations, which apply different in-core management operational rules. Results obtained from the testing of GAOPT are discussed

  17. Novel Handover Optimization with a Coordinated Contiguous Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenario in LTE-Advanced Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Shayea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The carrier aggregation (CA technique and Handover Parameters Optimization (HPO function have been introduced in LTE-Advanced systems to enhance system performance in terms of throughput, coverage area, and connection stability and to reduce management complexity. Although LTE-Advanced has benefited from the CA technique, the low spectral efficiency and high ping-pong effect with high outage probabilities in conventional Carrier Aggregation Deployment Scenarios (CADSs have become major challenges for cell edge User Equipment (UE. Also, the existing HPO algorithms are not optimal for selecting the appropriate handover control parameters (HCPs. This paper proposes two solutions by deploying a Coordinated Contiguous-CADS (CC-CADS and a Novel Handover Parameters Optimization algorithm that is based on the Weight Performance Function (NHPO-WPF. The CC-CADS uses two contiguous component carriers (CCs that have two different beam directions. The NHPO-WPF automatically adjusts the HCPs based on the Weight Performance Function (WPF, which is evaluated as a function of the Signal-to-Interference Noise Ratio (SINR, cell load, and UE’s velocity. Simulation results show that the CC-CADS and the NHPO-WPF algorithm provide significant enhancements in system performance over that of conventional CADSs and HPO algorithms from the literature, respectively. The integration of both solutions achieves even better performance than scenarios in which each solution is considered independently.

  18. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant protection system optimization studies to mitigate consequences of large breaks in the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, M.I.; March-Leuba, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents some of the optimization studies performed to maximize the performance of the engineered safety features and scram systems to mitigate the consequences of large breaks in the primary cooling system of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor

  20. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  1. Optimization of time distribution for studying the course modules on advanced training of health care administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorovskaya A.l.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is rational (optimal time management in studying the course modules on Advanced Training of Health Care Administrators. Materials and methods. We conducted expert survey of 73 healthcare administrators from medical organizations of Saratov region. Branch-and-bound method was used for rescheduling the educational program. Results. Both direct and inverse problems have been solved. The direct one refers to time distribution for each module of the advanced Training of Healthcare Administrators course so that the total score is maximum and each module is marked not lower than "satisfactory". The inverse one resulted in achieving minimal time characteristics for varieties of average score. Conclusion. The offered approach allows to solve problems of managing time given for education.

  2. Issues and recent advances in optimal experimental design for site investigation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview over issues and recent advances in model-based experimental design for site exploration. The addressed issues and advances are (1) how to provide an adequate envelope to prior uncertainty, (2) how to define the information needs in a task-oriented manner, (3) how to measure the expected impact of a data set that it not yet available but only planned to be collected, and (4) how to perform best the optimization of the data collection plan. Among other shortcomings of the state-of-the-art, it is identified that there is a lack of demonstrator studies where exploration schemes based on expert judgment are compared to exploration schemes obtained by optimal experimental design. Such studies will be necessary do address the often voiced concern that experimental design is an academic exercise with little improvement potential over the well- trained gut feeling of field experts. When addressing this concern, a specific focus has to be given to uncertainty in model structure, parameterizations and parameter values, and to related surprises that data often bring about in field studies, but never in synthetic-data based studies. The background of this concern is that, initially, conceptual uncertainty may be so large that surprises are the rule rather than the exception. In such situations, field experts have a large body of experience in handling the surprises, and expert judgment may be good enough compared to meticulous optimization based on a model that is about to be falsified by the incoming data. In order to meet surprises accordingly and adapt to them, there needs to be a sufficient representation of conceptual uncertainty within the models used. Also, it is useless to optimize an entire design under this initial range of uncertainty. Thus, the goal setting of the optimization should include the objective to reduce conceptual uncertainty. A possible way out is to upgrade experimental design theory towards real-time interaction

  3. Integrated Circuit Conception: A Wire Optimization Technic Reducing Interconnection Delay in Advanced Technology Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Darmi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As we increasingly use advanced technology nodes to design integrated circuits (ICs, physical designers and electronic design automation (EDA providers are facing multiple challenges, firstly, to honor all physical constraints coming with cutting-edge technologies and, secondly, to achieve expected quality of results (QoR. An advanced technology should be able to bring better performances with minimum cost whatever the complexity. A high effort to develop out-of-the-box optimization techniques is more than needed. In this paper, we will introduce a new routing technique, with the objective to optimize timing, by only acting on routing topology, and without impacting the IC Area. In fact, the self-aligned double patterning (SADP technology offers an important difference on layer resistance between SADP and No-SADP layers; this property will be taken as an advantage to drive the global router to use No-SADP less resistive layers for critical nets. To prove the benefit on real test cases, we will use Mentor Graphics’ physical design EDA tool Nitro-SoC™ and several 7 nm technology node designs. The experiments show that worst negative slack (WNS and total negative slack (TNS improved up to 13% and 56%, respectively, compared to the baseline flow.

  4. Multiagent reinforcement learning for urban traffic control using coordination graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyer, L.; Whiteson, S.; Bakker, B.; Vlassis, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since traffic jams are ubiquitous in the modern world, optimizing the behavior of traffic lights for efficient traffic flow is a critically important goal. Though most current traffic lights use simple heuristic protocols, more efficient controllers can be discovered automatically via multiagent

  5. Dynamic modeling and optimal joint torque coordination of advanced robotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jun

    The development is documented of an efficient dynamic modeling algorithm and the subsequent optimal joint input load coordination of advanced robotic systems for industrial application. A closed-form dynamic modeling algorithm for the general closed-chain robotic linkage systems is presented. The algorithm is based on the transfer of system dependence from a set of open chain Lagrangian coordinates to any desired system generalized coordinate set of the closed-chain. Three different techniques for evaluation of the kinematic closed chain constraints allow the representation of the dynamic modeling parameters in terms of system generalized coordinates and have no restriction with regard to kinematic redundancy. The total computational requirement of the closed-chain system model is largely dependent on the computation required for the dynamic model of an open kinematic chain. In order to improve computational efficiency, modification of an existing open-chain KIC based dynamic formulation is made by the introduction of the generalized augmented body concept. This algorithm allows a 44 pct. computational saving over the current optimized one (O(N4), 5995 when N = 6). As means of resolving redundancies in advanced robotic systems, local joint torque optimization is applied for effectively using actuator power while avoiding joint torque limits. The stability problem in local joint torque optimization schemes is eliminated by using fictitious dissipating forces which act in the necessary null space. The performance index representing the global torque norm is shown to be satisfactory. In addition, the resulting joint motion trajectory becomes conservative, after a transient stage, for repetitive cyclic end-effector trajectories. The effectiveness of the null space damping method is shown. The modular robot, which is built of well defined structural modules from a finite-size inventory and is controlled by one general computer system, is another class of evolving

  6. Observation on optimal transition from conventional energy with resource constraints to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1983-01-01

    This is an extension of the Suzuki model (base model) on optimal transition from resource-limited energy (oil) to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource. The finite length of plant life, fuel cost, technological progress factor of advanced energy and the upper limit upon annual consumption rate of oil are taken into account for such an extension. The difference in optimal solutions obtained from extended and base models is shown by an application of the maximum principle. The implication of advanced energy R and D andenergy conservation effort is also discussed. (author)

  7. The impact of real-time and predictive traffic information on travelers' behavior on the I-4 corridor. Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Real time and predicted traffic information plays a key role in the successful implementation of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advance traffic management systems (ATMS). Traffic information is essentially valuable to both transport...

  8. Research on strategy and optimization method of PRT empty vehicles resource allocation based on traffic demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Tao, Cheng

    2018-05-01

    During the operation of the personal rapid transit system(PRT), the empty vehicle resources is distributed unevenly because of different passenger demand. In order to maintain the balance between supply and demand, and to meet the passenger needs of the ride, PRT empty vehicle resource allocation model is constructed based on the future demand forecasted by historical demand in this paper. The improved genetic algorithm is implied in distribution of the empty vehicle which can reduce the customers waiting time and improve the operation efficiency of the PRT system so that all passengers can take the PRT vehicles in the shortest time. The experimental result shows that the improved genetic algorithm can allocate the empty vehicle from the system level optimally, and realize the distribution of the empty vehicle resources reasonably in the system.

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  10. Plasma profile and shape optimization for the advanced tokamak power plant, ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Mau, T.K.; Jardin, S.C.; Najmabadi, F.

    2006-01-01

    An advanced tokamak plasma configuration is developed based on equilibrium, ideal MHD stability, bootstrap current analysis, vertical stability and control, and poloidal field coil analysis. The plasma boundaries used in the analysis are forced to coincide with the 99% flux surface from the free-boundary equilibrium. Using an accurate bootstrap current model and external current drive profiles from ray tracing calculations in combination with optimized pressure profiles, β N values above 7.0 have been obtained. The minimum current drive requirement is found to lie at a lower β N of 6.0. The external kink mode is stabilized by a tungsten shell located at 0.33 times the minor radius and a feedback system. Plasma shape optimization has led to an elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.9 at the separatrix. Vertical stability could be achieved by a combination of tungsten shells located at 0.33 times the minor radius and feedback control coils located behind the shield. The poloidal field coils were optimized in location and current, providing a maximum coil current of 8.6 MA. These developments have led to a simultaneous reduction in the power plant major radius and toroidal field from those found in a previous study [S.C. Jardin, C.E. Kessel, C.G. Bathke, D.A. Ehst, T.K. Mau, F. Najmabadi, T.W. Petrie, the ARIES Team, Physics basis for a reversed shear tokamak power plant, Fusion Eng. Design 38 (1997) 27

  11. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-09

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  12. Plasma Profile and Shape Optimization for the Advanced Tokamak Power Plant, ARIES-AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Mau, T.K.; Jardin, S.C.; Najmabadi, F.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced tokamak plasma configuration is developed based on equilibrium, ideal-MHD stability, bootstrap current analysis, vertical stability and control, and poloidal-field coil analysis. The plasma boundaries used in the analysis are forced to coincide with the 99% flux surface from the free-boundary equilibrium. Using an accurate bootstrap current model and external current-drive profiles from ray-tracing calculations in combination with optimized pressure profiles, beta(subscript N) values above 7.0 have been obtained. The minimum current drive requirement is found to lie at a lower beta(subscript N) of 5.4. The external kink mode is stabilized by a tungsten shell located at 0.33 times the minor radius and a feedback system. Plasma shape optimization has led to an elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.9 at the separatrix. Vertical stability could be achieved by a combination of tungsten shells located at 0.33 times the minor radius and feedback control coils located behind the shield. The poloidal-field coils were optimized in location and current, providing a maximum coil current of 8.6 MA. These developments have led to a simultaneous reduction in the power plant major radius and toroidal field

  13. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván G. Daza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  14. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  15. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  16. Advanced CANDU reactors fuel analysis through optimal fuel management at approach to refuelling equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingle, C.P.; Bonin, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of alternate CANDU fuels along with natural uranium-based fuel was carried out from the view point of optimal in-core fuel management at approach to refuelling equilibrium. The alternate fuels considered in the present work include thorium containing oxide mixtures (MOX), plutonium-based MOX, and Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel recycled in CANDU reactors (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU (DUPIC)); these are compared with the usual natural UO 2 fuel. The focus of the study is on the 'Approach to Refuelling Equilibrium' period which immediately follows the initial commissioning of the reactor. The in-core fuel management problem for this period is treated as an optimization problem in which the objective function is the refuelling frequency to be minimized by adjusting the following decision variables: the channel to be refuelled next, the time of the refuelling and the number of fresh fuel bundles to be inserted in the channel. Several constraints are also included in the optimisation problem which is solved using Perturbation Theory. Both the present 37-rod CANDU fuel bundle and the proposed CANFLEX bundle designs are part of this study. The results include the time to reach refuelling equilibrium from initial start-up of the reactor, the average discharge burnup, the average refuelling frequency and the average channel and bundle powers relative to natural UO 2 . The model was initially tested and the average discharge burnup for natural UO 2 came within 2% of the industry accepted 199 MWh/kgHE. For this type of fuel, the optimization exercise predicted the savings of 43 bundles per full power year. In addition to producing average discharge burnups and other parameters for the advanced fuels investigated, the optimisation model also evidenced some problem areas like high power densities for fuels such as the DUPIC. Perturbation Theory has proven itself to be an accurate and valuable optimization tool in predicting the time between

  17. Optimizing a three-element core design for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Source of neutrons in the proposed Advanced Neutron Source facility is a multipurpose research reactor providing 5-10 times the flux, for neutron beams, of the best existing facilities. Baseline design for the reactor core, based on the ''no new inventions'' rule, was an assembly of two annular fuel elements similar to those used in the Oak Ridge and Grenoble high flux reactors, containing highly enriched U silicide particles. DOE commissioned a study of the use of medium- or low-enriched U; a three-element core design was studied as a means to provide extra volume to accommodate the additional U compound required when the fissionable 235 U has to be diluted with 238 U to reduce the enrichment. This paper describes the design and optimization of that three-element core

  18. Optimized ex-ovo culturing of chick embryos to advanced stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, Kellie; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara Anne

    2015-01-24

    Research in anatomy, embryology, and developmental biology has largely relied on the use of model organisms. In order to study development in live embryos model organisms, such as the chicken, are often used. The chicken is an excellent model organism due to its low cost and minimal maintenance, however they present observational challenges because they are enclosed in an opaque eggshell. In order to properly view the embryo as it develops, the shell must be windowed or removed. Both windowing and ex ovo techniques have been developed to assist researchers in the study of embryonic development. However, each of the methods has limitations and challenges. Here, we present a simple, optimized ex ovo culture technique for chicken embryos that enables the observation of embryonic development from stage HH 19 into late stages of development (HH 40), when many organs have developed. This technique is easy to adopt in both undergraduate classes and more advanced research laboratories where embryo manipulations are conducted.

  19. Optimizing the regimes of the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector for multiple source types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, I. S.; Simakov, D. A.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Danilishin, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    We developed algorithms which allow us to find regimes of the signal-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer [for example, the Advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)], optimized concurrently for two (binary inspirals + bursts) and three (binary inspirals + bursts + millisecond pulsars) types of gravitational wave sources. We show that there exists a relatively large area in the interferometer parameters space where the detector sensitivity to the first two kinds of sources differs only by a few percent from the maximal ones for each kind of source. In particular, there exists a specific regime where this difference is ≅0.5% for both of them. Furthermore, we show that even more multipurpose regimes are also possible that provide significant sensitivity gain for millisecond pulsars with only minor sensitivity degradation for binary inspirals and bursts.

  20. Design optimization of JT-60SU for steady-state advanced operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, K.; Kurita, G.; Toyoshima, N.

    2001-01-01

    Design optimization of JT-60SU has been done for a steady-state advanced operation. A transport code simulation indicates that a fully non-inductive reversed shear plasmas with fractions of 70% of the bootstrap current and 30% of beam driven current can be sustained for more than 1,000s without any additional control. Investigations have been progressed on MHD stability, vertical positional stability and dynamics of the vertical displacement events. Significant progress has been achieved in the R and D of Nb 3 Al superconducting wires, low induced activation material (Fe-Cr-Mn steel). A design improvement has been made in TF coils to reduce a local stress on radial disk. Dynamic behaviors of the tokamak machine have been analyzed at emergency events such as an earthquake. (author)

  1. Advanced fuel for fast breeder reactors: Fabrication and properties and their optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The present design for FBR fuel rods includes usually MOX fuel pellets cladded into stainless steel tubes, together with UO 2 axial blanket and stainless steel hexagonal wrappers. Mixed carbide, nitride and metallic fuels have been tested as alternative fuels in test reactors. Among others, the objectives to develop these alternative fuels are to gain a high breeding ratio, short doubling time and high linear ratings. Fuel rod and assembly designers are now concentrating on finding the combination of optimized fuel, cladding and wrapper materials which could result in improvement of fuel operational reliability under high burnups and load-follow mode of operation. The purpose of the meeting was to review the experience of advanced FBR fuel fabrication technology, its properties before, under and after irradiation, peculiarities of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to outline future trends. As a result of the panel discussion, the recommendations on future Agency activities in the area of advanced FBR fuels were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 10 presentations of this meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  3. Advanced and flexible genetic algorithms for BWR fuel loading pattern optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia; Palomera-Perez, Miguel-Angel; Francois, Juan-Luis

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes advances in the implementation of a flexible genetic algorithm (GA) for fuel loading pattern optimization for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). In order to avoid specific implementations of genetic operators and to obtain a more flexible treatment, a binary representation of the solution was implemented; this representation had to take into account that a little change in the genotype must correspond to a little change in the phenotype. An identifier number is assigned to each assembly by means of a Gray Code of 7 bits and the solution (the loading pattern) is represented by a binary chain of 777 bits of length. Another important contribution is the use of a Fitness Function which includes a Heuristic Function and an Objective Function. The Heuristic Function which is defined to give flexibility on the application of a set of positioning rules based on knowledge, and the Objective Function that contains all the parameters which qualify the neutronic and thermal hydraulic performances of each loading pattern. Experimental results illustrating the effectiveness and flexibility of this optimization algorithm are presented and discussed.

  4. Technology-design-manufacturing co-optimization for advanced mobile SoCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Gan, Chock; Chidambaram, P. R.; Nallapadi, Giri; Zhu, John; Song, S. C.; Xu, Jeff; Yeap, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    How to maintain the Moore's Law scaling beyond the 193 immersion resolution limit is the key question semiconductor industry needs to answer in the near future. Process complexity will undoubtfully increase for 14nm node and beyond, which brings both challenges and opportunities for technology development. A vertically integrated design-technologymanufacturing co-optimization flow is desired to better address the complicated issues new process changes bring. In recent years smart mobile wireless devices have been the fastest growing consumer electronics market. Advanced mobile devices such as smartphones are complex systems with the overriding objective of providing the best userexperience value by harnessing all the technology innovations. Most critical system drivers are better system performance/power efficiency, cost effectiveness, and smaller form factors, which, in turns, drive the need of system design and solution with More-than-Moore innovations. Mobile system-on-chips (SoCs) has become the leading driver for semiconductor technology definition and manufacturing. Here we highlight how the co-optimization strategy influenced architecture, device/circuit, process technology and package, in the face of growing process cost/complexity and variability as well as design rule restrictions.

  5. Advanced Harmony Search with Ant Colony Optimization for Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yoeng Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on the methods of advanced Harmony Search and Ant Colony Optimization (AHS-ACO to effectively solve the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The TSP, in general, is well known as an NP-complete problem, whose computational complexity increases exponentially by increasing the number of cities. In our algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is used to search the local optimum in the solution space, followed by the use of the Harmony Search to escape the local optimum determined by the ACO and to move towards a global optimum. Experiments were performed to validate the efficiency of our algorithm through a comparison with other algorithms and the optimum solutions presented in the TSPLIB. The results indicate that our algorithm is capable of generating the optimum solution for most instances in the TSPLIB; moreover, our algorithm found better solutions in two cases (kroB100 and pr144 when compared with the optimum solution presented in the TSPLIB.

  6. A Method for Consensus Reaching in Product Kansei Evaluation Using Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Pu

    2017-01-01

    Consumers' opinions toward product design alternatives are often subjective and perceptual, which reflect their perception about a product and can be described using Kansei adjectives. Therefore, Kansei evaluation is often employed to determine consumers' preference. However, how to identify and improve the reliability of consumers' Kansei evaluation opinions toward design alternatives has an important role in adding additional insurance and reducing uncertainty to successful product design. To solve this problem, this study employs a consensus model to measure consistence among consumers' opinions, and an advanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm combined with Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight (LDW) method is proposed for consensus reaching by minimizing adjustment of consumers' opinions. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented and the details are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter design evaluation. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for reaching a consensus through searching optimal solutions by PSO and improving the reliability of consumers' evaluation opinions toward design alternatives according to Kansei indexes.

  7. Traffic Management System on Airport Manoeuvring Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the number of flights at the busiestairports in the world has doubled, which, in the meantime hasled to a situation in which runways and taxi ways (manoeuvringareas cannot follow such substantial increase. As the result,many airports could not use their capacities in the full range interms of handling passengers and cargo. As a consequence,there were delays and traffic congestion, fuel was unnecessarilywasted, all of which caused negative impact on the environment.Traffic capacity increase on the ground cannot be consideredwithout the development and implementation of thesystem infrastructure that would optimize traffic flows and itsdistribution on the airport itself In these terms, and for positivesolution of these problems, a new system for surveillance andcontrol of aircraft on the airport manoeuvring areas is necessary,one which could be implemented fairly quickly, would becomplementary with the existing international standards andwould be upgraded to the existing and available technology andinfrastructure. With the implementation of the Advanced SurfaceMonitoring and Control System (A-SMGCS the aircrafttaxiing time could be significantly shortened and could be determinedmore accurately, which would have positive impacton the flight schedule. The unnecessary aircraft braking actionscould be also avoided, and this would reduce the fuel consumption,as well as noise and environmental pollution.

  8. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ju Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance.

  9. Traffic Perturbation

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM

  10. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  11. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  12. Observation on optimal transition from conventional energy with resource constraints to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1980-01-01

    The paper is aimed at making a theoretical analysis on optimal shift from finite energy resources like presently used oil toward advanced energy sources like nuclear and solar. First, the value of conventional energy as a finite resource is derived based on the variational principle. Second, a simplified model on macroeconomy is used to obtain and optimal relationship between energy production and consumption and thereby the optimality on energy price is provided. Third, the meaning of research and development of advanced energy is shown by taking into account resource constraints and technological progress. Finally, an optimal timing of the shift from conventional to advanced energies is determined by making use of the maximum principle. The methematical model employed there is much simplified but can be used to conclude that in order to make an optimal shift some policy-oriented decision must be made prior to when an economically competitive condition comes and that, even with that decision made, some recession of energy demand is inevitable during the transitional phase. (author)

  13. Optimal design of advanced distillation configuration for enhanced energy efficiency of waste solvent recovery process in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniago, Yus Donald; Minh, Le Quang; Khan, Mohd Shariq; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Bahadori, Alireza; Lee, Moonyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermally coupled distillation process is proposed for waste solvent recovery. • A systematic optimization procedure is used to optimize distillation columns. • Response surface methodology is applied to optimal design of distillation column. • Proposed advanced distillation allows energy efficient waste solvent recovery. - Abstract: The semiconductor industry is one of the largest industries in the world. On the other hand, the huge amount of solvent used in the industry results in high production cost and potential environmental damage because most of the valuable chemicals discharged from the process are incinerated at high temperatures. A distillation process is used to recover waste solvent, reduce the production-related costs and protect the environment from the semiconductor industrial waste. Therefore, in this study, a distillation process was used to recover the valuable chemicals from semiconductor industry discharge, which otherwise would have been lost to the environment. The conventional sequence of distillation columns, which was optimized using the Box and sequential quadratic programming method for minimum energy objectives, was used. The energy demands of a distillation problem may have a substantial influence on the profitability of a process. A thermally coupled distillation and heat pump-assisted distillation sequence was implemented to further improve the distillation performance. Finally, a comparison was made between the conventional and advanced distillation sequences, and the optimal conditions for enhancing recovery were determined. The proposed advanced distillation configuration achieved a significant energy saving of 40.5% compared to the conventional column sequence

  14. Ten years of "Optimal Therapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer. Update" meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, A

    2008-01-01

    The International Symposium on Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Optimal Therapy was founded by Dr. Andrés Poveda and Prof. Jan B. Vermorken, and each edition has been directed by them. The 6th edition was held on March 2, 2007. This symposium is organized every other year by GEICO (Grupo Español de Investigación de Cáncer de Ovario/Spanish Ovarian Cancer Research Group), under the auspices of the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM), the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG), and the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Educational Committee for its Medical Oncology Recertification Approval (ESMO/MORA) Program. One hundred and fifty people attended the symposium's 1st edition, held in 1996. Since then, the interest in this meeting has increased. Last year, almost three hundred people coming not only from Spain but also from Europe, North and Latin America, Asia, and Australia were present in the symposium. This is a great challenge for us. Some important international cooperative groups from Europe, America, and Australia collaborate with this symposium, such as GOG, NCIC, EORTC, AGO, Scottish Group, ICON, GINECO, NSGO, ANZGOG, and others.

  15. Optimization of programming parameters in children with the advanced bionics cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudhuin, Jacquelyn; Cadieux, Jamie; Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Maxson, Jerrica L

    2012-05-01

    Cochlear implants provide access to soft intensity sounds and therefore improved audibility for children with severe-to-profound hearing loss. Speech processor programming parameters, such as threshold (or T-level), input dynamic range (IDR), and microphone sensitivity, contribute to the recipient's program and influence audibility. When soundfield thresholds obtained through the speech processor are elevated, programming parameters can be modified to improve soft sound detection. Adult recipients show improved detection for low-level sounds when T-levels are set at raised levels and show better speech understanding in quiet when wider IDRs are used. Little is known about the effects of parameter settings on detection and speech recognition in children using today's cochlear implant technology. The overall study aim was to assess optimal T-level, IDR, and sensitivity settings in pediatric recipients of the Advanced Bionics cochlear implant. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 examined the effects of two T-level settings on soundfield thresholds and detection of the Ling 6 sounds. One program set T-levels at 10% of most comfortable levels (M-levels) and another at 10 current units (CUs) below the level judged as "soft." Experiment 2 examined the effects of IDR and sensitivity settings on speech recognition in quiet and noise. Participants were 11 children 7-17 yr of age (mean 11.3) implanted with the Advanced Bionics High Resolution 90K or CII cochlear implant system who had speech recognition scores of 20% or greater on a monosyllabic word test. Two T-level programs were compared for detection of the Ling sounds and frequency modulated (FM) tones. Differing IDR/sensitivity programs (50/0, 50/10, 70/0, 70/10) were compared using Ling and FM tone detection thresholds, CNC (consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant) words at 50 dB SPL, and Hearing in Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) sentences at 65 dB SPL in the presence of four-talker babble (+8 signal

  16. Evolutionary optimization and game strategies for advanced multi-disciplinary design applications to aeronautics and UAV design

    CERN Document Server

    Periaux, Jacques; Lee, Dong Seop Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many complex aeronautical design problems can be formulated with efficient multi-objective evolutionary optimization methods and game strategies. This book describes the role of advanced innovative evolution tools in the solution, or the set of solutions of single or multi disciplinary optimization. These tools use the concept of multi-population, asynchronous parallelization and hierarchical topology which allows different models including precise, intermediate and approximate models with each node belonging to the different hierarchical layer handled by a different Evolutionary Algorithm. The efficiency of evolutionary algorithms for both single and multi-objective optimization problems are significantly improved by the coupling of EAs with games and in particular by a new dynamic methodology named “Hybridized Nash-Pareto games”. Multi objective Optimization techniques and robust design problems taking into account uncertainties are introduced and explained in detail. Several applications dealing with c...

  17. Case study: technology initiative led to advanced lead optimization screening processes at Bristol-Myers Squibb, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Lippy, Jonathan; Myslik, James; Brenner, Stephen L; Binnie, Alastair; Houston, John G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we review the key solutions that enabled evolution of the lead optimization screening support process at Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) between 2004 and 2009. During this time, technology infrastructure investment and scientific expertise integration laid the foundations to build and tailor lead optimization screening support models across all therapeutic groups at BMS. Together, harnessing advanced screening technology platforms and expanding panel screening strategy led to a paradigm shift at BMS in supporting lead optimization screening capability. Parallel SAR and structure liability relationship (SLR) screening approaches were first and broadly introduced to empower more-rapid and -informed decisions about chemical synthesis strategy and to broaden options for identifying high-quality drug candidates during lead optimization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics of positive-interaction parenting style among primiparous teenage, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Rotondi, Michael; Tamim, Hala

    2018-01-08

    Positive-interaction parenting early in childhood is encouraged due to its association with behavioural development later in life. The objective of this study was to examine if the level of positive-interaction parenting style differs among teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada, and to identify the characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting style separately for each age group. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. First-time mothers with children 0-23 months were grouped into: teen (15-19 years, N = 53,409), optimal age (20-34 years, N = 790,960), and advanced age (35 years and older, N = 106,536). The outcome was positive-interaction parenting style (Parenting Practices Scale); maternal socio-demographics, health, social, and child characteristics were considered for backward stepwise multiple linear regression modeling, stratified for each of the age groups. Teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers reported similar levels of positive- interaction parenting style. Covariates differed across the three age groups. Among optimal age mothers, being an ever-landed immigrant, childcare use, and being devoted to religion were found to decrease positive-interaction parenting style, whereas, higher education was found to increase positive-interaction parenting style. Teen mothers were not found to have any characteristics uniquely associated with positive-interaction parenting. Among advanced age mothers, social support was uniquely associated with an increase in positive-interaction parenting. Very good/excellent health was found to be positively associated with parenting in teens but negatively associated with parenting in advanced age mothers. Characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting varied among the three age groups. Findings may have public health implications through information dissemination to first-time mothers, clinicians

  19. On traffic modelling in GPRS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2005-01-01

    Optimal design and dimensioning of wireless data networks, such as GPRS, requires the knowledge of traffic characteristics of different data services. This paper presents an in-detail analysis of an IP-level traffic measurements taken in an operational GPRS network. The data measurements reported...... here are done at the Gi interface. The aim of this paper is to reveal some key statistics of GPRS data applications and to validate if the existing traffic models can adequately describe traffic volume and inter-arrival time distribution for different services. Additionally, we present a method of user...

  20. Selection of the optimal radiotherapy technique for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik-Jae; Seong, Jinsil; Koom, Woong-Sub; Kim, Yong-Bae; Jeon, Byeong-Chul; Kim, Joo-Ho; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques are available for radiotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma, including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal radiotherapy technique for hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 2006 and 2007, 12 patients underwent helical tomotherapy for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Helical tomotherapy computerized radiotherapy planning was compared with the best computerized radiotherapy planning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the delivery of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Tumor coverage was assessed by conformity index, radical dose homogeneity index and moderated dose homogeneity index. Computerized radiotherapy planning was also compared according to the tumor location. Tumor coverage was shown to be significantly superior with helical tomotherapy as assessed by conformity index and moderated dose homogeneity index (P=0.002 and 0.03, respectively). Helical tomotherapy showed significantly lower irradiated liver volume at 40, 50 and 60 Gy (V40, V50 and V60, P=0.04, 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). On the contrary, the dose-volume of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at V20 was significantly smaller than those of linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy and helical tomotherapy in the remaining liver (P=0.03). Linac-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed better sparing of the stomach compared with helical tomotherapy in the case of separated lesions in both lobes (12.3 vs. 24.6 Gy). Helical tomotherapy showed the high dose-volume exposure to the left kidney due to helical delivery in the right lobe lesion. Helical tomotherapy achieved the best tumor coverage of the remaining normal liver. However, helical tomotherapy showed much exposure to the remaining liver at the lower dose region and left kidney. (author)

  1. Concepts and algorithms for terminal-area traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Chapel, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nation's air-traffic-control system is the subject of an extensive modernization program, including the planned introduction of advanced automation techniques. This paper gives an overview of a concept for automating terminal-area traffic management. Four-dimensional (4D) guidance techniques, which play an essential role in the automated system, are reviewed. One technique, intended for on-board computer implementation, is based on application of optimal control theory. The second technique is a simplified approach to 4D guidance intended for ground computer implementation. It generates advisory messages to help the controller maintain scheduled landing times of aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. An operational system for the second technique, recently evaluated in a simulation, is also described.

  2. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  3. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon

    2011-01-01

    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  4. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  5. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  6. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  7. Traffic signal synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2003-05-01

    The benefits of traffic signal synchronization are examined within the cellular automata approach. The microsimulations of traffic flow are obtained with different settings of signal period T and time delay delta. Both numerical results and analytical approximations are presented. For undersaturated traffic, the green-light wave solutions can be realized. For saturated traffic, the correlation among the traffic signals has no effect on the throughput. For oversaturated traffic, the benefits of synchronization are manifest only when stochastic noise is suppressed.

  8. Characteristics of positive-interaction parenting style among primiparous teenage, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Theresa H. M.; Connolly, Jennifer A.; Rotondi, Michael; Tamim, Hala

    2018-01-01

    Background Positive-interaction parenting early in childhood is encouraged due to its association with behavioural development later in life. The objective of this study was to examine if the level of positive-interaction parenting style differs among teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada, and to identify the characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting style separately for each age group. Methods This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the National ...

  9. Multi-center evaluation of post-operative morbidity and mortality after optimal cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Rafii

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: While optimal cytoreduction is the standard of care for advanced ovarian cancer, the related post-operative morbidity has not been clearly documented outside pioneering centers. Indeed most of the studies are monocentric with inclusions over several years inducing heterogeneity in techniques and goals of surgery. We assessed the morbidity of optimal cytoreduction surgery for advanced ovarian cancer within a short inclusion period in 6 referral centers dedicated to achieve complete cytoreduction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 30 last optimal debulking surgeries of 6 cancer centers were included. Inclusion criteria included: stage IIIc- IV ovarian cancer and optimal surgery performed at the site of inclusion. All post-operative complications within 30 days of surgery were recorded and graded using the Memorial secondary events grading system. Student-t, Chi2 and non-parametric statistical tests were performed. RESULTS: 180 patients were included. There was no demographic differences between the centers. 63 patients underwent surgery including intestinal resections (58 recto-sigmoid resection, 24 diaphragmatic resections, 17 splenectomies. 61 patients presented complications; One patient died post-operatively. Major (grade 3-5 complications requiring subsequent surgeries occurred in 21 patients (11.5%. 76% of patients with a major complication had undergone an ultraradical surgery (P = 0.004. CONCLUSION: While ultraradical surgery may result in complete resection of peritoneal disease in advanced ovarian cancer, the associated complication rate is not negligible. Patients should be carefully evaluated and the timing of their surgery optimized in order to avoid major complications.

  10. TRAFFIC SIMULATION FOR MIXED TRAFFIC SYSTEMS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EGETE

    2012-05-04

    May 4, 2012 ... Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are ..... The traffic light control system presented by its location on ... multi-destination dynamic routing and real-time.

  11. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  12. Application of the advanced engineering environment for optimization energy consumption in designed vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Z.; Sękala, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays a key issue is to reduce the energy consumption of road vehicles. In particular solution one could find different strategies of energy optimization. The most popular but not sophisticated is so called eco-driving. In this strategy emphasized is particular behavior of drivers. In more sophisticated solution behavior of drivers is supported by control system measuring driving parameters and suggesting proper operation of the driver. The other strategy is concerned with application of different engineering solutions that aid optimization the process of energy consumption. Such systems take into consideration different parameters measured in real time and next take proper action according to procedures loaded to the control computer of a vehicle. The third strategy bases on optimization of the designed vehicle taking into account especially main sub-systems of a technical mean. In this approach the optimal level of energy consumption by a vehicle is obtained by synergetic results of individual optimization of particular constructional sub-systems of a vehicle. It is possible to distinguish three main sub-systems: the structural one the drive one and the control one. In the case of the structural sub-system optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the optimization or the weight parameter and optimization the aerodynamic parameter. The result is optimized body of a vehicle. Regarding the drive sub-system the optimization of the energy consumption level is related with the fuel or power consumption using the previously elaborated physical models. Finally the optimization of the control sub-system consists in determining optimal control parameters.

  13. Search Engine Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2006-01-01

    SEO--short for Search Engine Optimization--is the art, craft, and science of driving web traffic to web sites. Web traffic is food, drink, and oxygen--in short, life itself--to any web-based business. Whether your web site depends on broad, general traffic, or high-quality, targeted traffic, this PDF has the tools and information you need to draw more traffic to your site. You'll learn how to effectively use PageRank (and Google itself); how to get listed, get links, and get syndicated; and much more. The field of SEO is expanding into all the possible ways of promoting web traffic. This

  14. Application of Advanced Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques to Wind-thermal Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob; Yadagiri, J.

    2009-01-01

    wind-thermal coordination algorithm is necessary to determine the optimal proportion of wind and thermal generator capacity that can be integrated into the system. In this paper, four versions of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) techniques are proposed for solving wind-thermal coordination problem...

  15. Optimization of externalities using DTM measures: a Pareto optimal multi objective optimization using the evolutionary algorithm SPEA2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; van Berkum, Eric C.; Bliemer, Michiel; Allkim, T.P.; van Arem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Multi objective optimization of externalities of traffic is performed solving a network design problem in which Dynamic Traffic Management measures are used. The resulting Pareto optimal set is determined by employing the SPEA2+ evolutionary algorithm.

  16. Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Tool Advance Speed via Monte-Carlo Simulation of the Friction Stir Welding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kirk A; St-Georges, Lyne; Kiss, Laszlo I

    2014-04-30

    Recognition of the friction stir welding process is growing in the aeronautical and aero-space industries. To make the process more available to the structural fabrication industry (buildings and bridges), being able to model the process to determine the highest speed of advance possible that will not cause unwanted welding defects is desirable. A numerical solution to the transient two-dimensional heat diffusion equation for the friction stir welding process is presented. A non-linear heat generation term based on an arbitrary piecewise linear model of friction as a function of temperature is used. The solution is used to solve for the temperature distribution in the Al 6061-T6 work pieces. The finite difference solution of the non-linear problem is used to perform a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS). A polynomial response surface (maximum welding temperature as a function of advancing and rotational speed) is constructed from the MCS results. The response surface is used to determine the optimum tool speed of advance and rotational speed. The exterior penalty method is used to find the highest speed of advance and the associated rotational speed of the tool for the FSW process considered. We show that good agreement with experimental optimization work is possible with this simplified model. Using our approach an optimal weld pitch of 0.52 mm/rev is obtained for 3.18 mm thick AA6061-T6 plate. Our method provides an estimate of the optimal welding parameters in less than 30 min of calculation time.

  17. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  18. Design and Optimization of a Composite Canard Control Surface of an Advanced Fighter Aircraft under Static Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimization of weight and maximization of payload is an ever challenging design procedure for air vehicles. The present study has been carried out with an objective to redesign control surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft. In this study, the structure made up of high strength aluminum, titanium and ferrous alloys has been attempted to replace by carbon fiber composite (CFC skin, ribs and stiffeners. This study presents an approach towards development of a methodology for optimization of first-ply failure index (FI in unidirectional fibrous laminates using Genetic-Algorithms (GA under quasi-static loading. The GAs, by the application of its operators like reproduction, cross-over, mutation and elitist strategy, optimize the ply-orientations in laminates so as to have minimum FI of Tsai-Wu first-ply failure criterion. The GA optimization procedure has been implemented in MATLAB and interfaced with commercial software ABAQUS using python scripting. FI calculations have been carried out in ABAQUS with user material subroutine (UMAT. The GA's application gave reasonably well-optimized ply-orientations combination at a faster convergence rate. However, the final optimized sequence of ply-orientations is obtained by tweaking the sequences given by GA's based on industrial practices and experience, whenever needed. The present study of conversion of an all metallic structure to partial CFC structure has led to 12% of weight reduction. Therefore, the approach proposed here motivates designer to use CFC with a confidence.

  19. A Sarsa(λ)-based control model for real-time traffic light coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoke; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Quan; Fu, Yuchen; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ)-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ)-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  20. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  1. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  2. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  3. Genetic algorithm based optimization of advanced solar cell designs modeled in Silvaco AtlasTM

    OpenAIRE

    Utsler, James

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm was used to optimize the power output of multi-junction solar cells. Solar cell operation was modeled using the Silvaco ATLASTM software. The output of the ATLASTM simulation runs served as the input to the genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm was run as a diffusing computation on a network of eighteen dual processor nodes. Results showed that the genetic algorithm produced better power output optimizations when compared with the results obtained using the hill cli...

  4. Topology optimization and digital assembly of advanced space-frame structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Amir, Oded; Michael, Knauss

    2014-01-01

    this paper presents a novel method for integrated design, optimization and fabrication of optimized space-frame structures in an autonomous, digital process. Comparative numerical studies are presented, demonstrating achievable mass reduction by application of the method by comparison to equivalent...... to normative space truss designs and dimensions. As such, a principal digital fabrication and assembly scheme is developed, where an architectural design methodology relative to the described process is established, and the proposed process demonstrated through scaled digital fabrication experiments....

  5. Optimal debulking targets in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer: a retrospective study of immediate versus interval debulking surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Alon D; Nelson, Gregg; Chu, Pamela; Nation, Jill; Ghatage, Prafull

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine both overall and disease-free survival of patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer after immediate or interval debulking surgery based on residual disease. We performed a retrospective chart review at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre in Calgary, Alberta of patients with pathologically confirmed stage III or IV ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, or primary peritoneal cancer between 2003 and 2007. We collected data on the dates of diagnosis, recurrence, and death; cancer stage and grade, patients' age, surgery performed, and residual disease. One hundred ninety-two patients were included in the final analysis. The optimal debulking rate with immediate surgery was 64.8%, and with interval surgery it was 85.9%. There were improved overall and disease-free survival rates for optimally debulked disease (advanced stage ovarian cancer, the goal of surgery should be resection of disease to microscopic residual at the initial procedure. This results in improved overall survival than lesser degrees of resection. Further studies are required to determine optimal surgical management.

  6. Minimal-delay traffic grooming for WDM star networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Garg, Nikhil; Choi, Hyeong-Ah

    2003-10-01

    All-optical networks face the challenge of reducing slower opto-electronic conversions by managing assignment of traffic streams to wavelengths in an intelligent manner, while at the same time utilizing bandwidth resources to the maximum. This challenge becomes harder in networks closer to the end users that have insufficient data to saturate single wavelengths as well as traffic streams outnumbering the usable wavelengths, resulting in traffic grooming which requires costly traffic analysis at access nodes. We study the problem of traffic grooming that reduces the need to analyze traffic, for a class of network architecture most used by Metropolitan Area Networks; the star network. The problem being NP-complete, we provide an efficient twice-optimal-bound greedy heuristic for the same, that can be used to intelligently groom traffic at the LANs to reduce latency at the access nodes. Simulation results show that our greedy heuristic achieves a near-optimal solution.

  7. Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao

    2017-10-01

    Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.

  8. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  9. Optimizing Human Input in Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    7] T. L. Lai and H. Robbins, “Asymptotically efficient adaptive allocation rules,” Advances in applied mathematics , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 4–22, 1985. [8...W. Whitt, “Heavy traffic limit theorems for queues: a survey,” in Mathematical Methods in Queueing Theory. Springer, 1974, pp. 307–350. [9] H...Regret lower bounds and optimal algorithms,” in Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGMETRICS International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer

  10. Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system

  11. Orbit Transfer Vehicle Engine Study. Phase A, extension 1: Advanced expander cycle engine optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The performance optimization of expander cycle engines at vacuum thrust levels of 10K, 15K, and 20K lb is discussed. The optimization is conducted for a maximum engine length with an extendible nozzle in the retracted position of 60 inches and an engine mixture ratio of 6.0:1. The thrust chamber geometry and cycle analyses are documented. In addition, the sensitivity of a recommended baseline expander cycle to component performance variations is determined and chilldown/start propellant consumptions are estimated.

  12. Optimization of advanced liquid natural gas-fuelled machineries for a high-speed ferry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveitaskog, Kari Anne; Haglind, Fredrik

    -based optimization routine are used. The top cycle is modeled as the aero-derivative gas turbine LM2500, while the following five options for bottoming cycles are modeled: ∙ Single pressure steam cycle ∙ Dual-pressure steam cycle ∙ ORC using Toluene as the working fluid with an intermediate oil loop ∙ ABC with inter......This report is aimed at designing and optimizing combined cycles in order to define the most suitable machinery system for the future high-speed Incat ferry operated by Mols-Linien. For this purpose, an in-house numerical simulation tool called DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis) and a genetic algorithm...

  13. Advanced tools for modeling, design and optimization of wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.

    2005-01-01

    As wind turbine technology and control has advanced over the last decade, this has led to a high penetration of wind turbines into the power system. Whether it be for a large wind turbine or an offshore wind farm with hundreds of MW power capacity, the electrical system has become more and more i...

  14. Advanced sorting technologies for optimal wood products and woody biomass utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Forest materials represent great potential for advancing our goals in the 21st century for sustainable building, energy independence, and carbon sequestration. A critical component of an improved system for producing bioproducts and bioenergr from forest materials is the ability to sort trees, stems, and logs into end-product categories that represent their highest...

  15. Artificial neural network to support thermohydraulic design optimization for an advanced nuclear heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Linda, Ondrej; Manic, Milos

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading a number of initiatives, including one known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. One of the NGNP nuclear system concepts is the Very High Temperature (gas-cooled) Reactor (VHTR) that may be coupled to a hydrogen generating plant to support the anticipated hydrogen economy. For the NGNP, an efficient power conversion system using an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) is key to electricity and/or process heat generation (hydrogen production). Ideally, it's desirable for the IHX to be compact and thermally efficient. However, traditional heat exchanger design practices do not assure that the design parameters are optimized. As part of NGNP heat exchanger design and optimization project, this research paper thus proposes developing a recurrent-type Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Hopfield Network (HN) model, in which the activation function is modified, as a design optimization approach to support a NGNP thermal system candidate, the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Four quadratic functions, available in literature, were used to test the presented methodology. The results computed by an artificially intelligent approach were compared to another approach, the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the HN results are close to GA in optimization of multi-variable second-order equations. (author)

  16. Hydrocarbon production and reservoir management: recent advances in closed-loop optimization technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, O.A.; Hanea, R.G.; Nennie, E.D.; Peters, R.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum production is a relatively inefficient process. For oil production, it is, generally, less than 60 % effective on a macro scale and less than 60 % effective on a micro scale. This results, commonly, in an actual oil recovery of less than 35 %. Optimization of the production process will,

  17. Dynamic statistical optimization of GNSS radio occultation bending angles: advanced algorithm and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Kirchengast, G.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Norman, R.; Yuan, Y. B.; Fritzer, J.; Schwaerz, M.; Zhang, K.

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new dynamic statistical optimization algorithm to initialize ionosphere-corrected bending angles of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-based radio occultation (RO) measurements. The new algorithm estimates background and observation error covariance matrices with geographically varying uncertainty profiles and realistic global-mean correlation matrices. The error covariance matrices estimated by the new approach are more accurate and realistic than in simplified existing approaches and can therefore be used in statistical optimization to provide optimal bending angle profiles for high-altitude initialization of the subsequent Abel transform retrieval of refractivity. The new algorithm is evaluated against the existing Wegener Center Occultation Processing System version 5.6 (OPSv5.6) algorithm, using simulated data on two test days from January and July 2008 and real observed CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) measurements from the complete months of January and July 2008. The following is achieved for the new method's performance compared to OPSv5.6: (1) significant reduction of random errors (standard deviations) of optimized bending angles down to about half of their size or more; (2) reduction of the systematic differences in optimized bending angles for simulated MetOp data; (3) improved retrieval of refractivity and temperature profiles; and (4) realistically estimated global-mean correlation matrices and realistic uncertainty fields for the background and observations. Overall the results indicate high suitability for employing the new dynamic approach in the processing of long-term RO data into a reference climate record, leading to well-characterized and high-quality atmospheric profiles over the entire stratosphere.

  18. Consideration of a design optimization method for advanced nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Manic, Milos; Patterson, Michael; Danchus, William

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the global energy demand and also mitigate climate change, we anticipate a significant resurgence of nuclear power in the next 50 years. Globally, Generation III plants (ABWR) have been built; Gen' III+ plants (EPR, AP1000 others) are anticipated in the near term. The U.S. DOE and Japan are respectively pursuing the NGNP and MSFR. There is renewed interest in closing the fuel cycle and gradually introducing the fast reactor into the LWR-dominated global fleet. In order to meet Generation IV criteria, i.e. thermal efficiency, inherent safety, proliferation resistance and economic competitiveness, plant and energy conversion system engineering design have to increasingly meet strict design criteria with reduced margin for reliable safety and uncertainties. Here, we considered a design optimization approach using an anticipated NGNP thermal system component as a Case Study. A systematic, efficient methodology is needed to reduce time consuming trial-and-error and computationally-intensive analyses. We thus developed a design optimization method linking three elements; that is, benchmarked CFD used as a 'design tool', artificial neural networks (ANN) to accommodate non-linear system behavior and enhancement of the 'design space', and finally, response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the design solution with targeted constraints. The paper presents the methodology including guiding principles, an integration of CFD into design theory and practice, consideration of system non-linearities (such as fluctuating operating conditions) and systematic enhancement of the design space via application of ANN, and a stochastic optimization approach (RSM) with targeted constraints. Results from a Case Study optimizing the printed circuit heat exchanger for the NGNP energy conversion system will be presented. (author)

  19. Optimizing the wind power generation in low wind speed areas using an advanced hybrid RBF neural network coupled with the HGA-GSA optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assareh, Ehsanolah; Poultangari, Iman [Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tandis, Emad [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jundi Shapor, Dezful (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedael, Mojtaba [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Graduate School of the Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Enhancing the energy production from wind power in low-wind areas has always been a fundamental subject of research in the field of wind energy industry. In the first phase of this research, an initial investigation was performed to evaluate the potential of wind in south west of Iran. The initial results indicate that the wind potential in the studied location is not sufficient enough and therefore the investigated region is identified as a low wind speed area. In the second part of this study, an advanced optimization model was presented to regulate the torque in the wind generators. For this primary purpose, the torque of wind turbine is adjusted using a Proportional and integral (PI) control system so that at lower speeds of the wind, the power generated by generator is enhanced significantly. The proposed model uses the RBF neural network to adjust the net obtained gains of the PI controller for the purpose of acquiring the utmost electricity which is produced through the generator. Furthermore, in order to edify and instruct the neural network, the optimal data set is obtained by a Hybrid genetic algorithm along with a gravitational search algorithm (HGA-GSA). The proposed method is evaluated by using a 5MW wind turbine manufactured by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Final results of this study are indicative of the satisfactory and successful performance of the proposed investigated model.

  20. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  1. Launch Vehicle Design and Optimization Methods and Priority for the Advanced Engineering Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Korte, John J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Engineering Environment (AEE) is a research and development program that will improve collaboration among design engineers for launch vehicle conceptual design and provide the infrastructure (methods and framework) necessary to enable that environment. In this paper, three major technical challenges facing the AEE program are identified, and three specific design problems are selected to demonstrate how advanced methods can improve current design activities. References are made to studies that demonstrate these design problems and methods, and these studies will provide the detailed information and check cases to support incorporation of these methods into the AEE. This paper provides background and terminology for discussing the launch vehicle conceptual design problem so that the diverse AEE user community can participate in prioritizing the AEE development effort.

  2. Performance analysis and optimization of an advanced pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant through a visual basic software tool (PWWT.VB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Thakura, Ritwik; Chakrabortty, Sankha

    2016-05-01

    A user-friendly, menu-driven simulation software tool has been developed for the first time to optimize and analyze the system performance of an advanced continuous membrane-integrated pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant. The software allows pre-analysis and manipulation of input data which helps in optimization and shows the software performance visually on a graphical platform. Moreover, the software helps the user to "visualize" the effects of the operating parameters through its model-predicted output profiles. The software is based on a dynamic mathematical model, developed for a systematically integrated forward osmosis-nanofiltration process for removal of toxic organic compounds from pharmaceutical wastewater. The model-predicted values have been observed to corroborate well with the extensive experimental investigations which were found to be consistent under varying operating conditions like operating pressure, operating flow rate, and draw solute concentration. Low values of the relative error (RE = 0.09) and high values of Willmott-d-index (d will = 0.981) reflected a high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. This software is likely to be a very efficient tool for system design or simulation of an advanced membrane-integrated treatment plant for hazardous wastewater.

  3. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  4. Optimism, Symptom Distress, Illness Appraisal, and Coping in Patients With Advanced-Stage Cancer Diagnoses Undergoing Chemotherapy Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpio, Catherine; Jeon, Sangchoon; Northouse, Laurel L; Knobf, M Tish

    2017-05-01

    To explore the relationships between optimism, self-efficacy, symptom distress, treatment complexity, illness appraisal, coping, and mood disturbance in patients with advanced-stage cancer.
. Cross-sectional study.
. Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven in Connecticut, an outpatient comprehensive cancer center.
. A convenience sample of 121 adult patients with stages III-IV cancer undergoing active chemotherapy.
. Participants completed common self-report questionnaires to measure variables. Treatment hours and visits were calculated from data retrieved from medical record review. Mediation and path analysis were conducted to identify direct and indirect pathways from the significant antecedent variables to mood disturbance.
. Dispositional optimism, self-efficacy, social support, treatment complexity, symptom distress, illness appraisal, coping, and mood disturbance.
. Greater optimism and self-efficacy were associated with less negative illness appraisal, less avoidant coping, and decreased mood disturbance. Conversely, greater symptom distress was associated with greater negative illness appraisal, greater avoidant coping, and greater mood disturbance. In the final model, optimism and symptom distress had direct and indirect effects on mood disturbance. Indirect effects were partially mediated by illness appraisal.
. Mood disturbance resulted from an interaction of disease stressors, personal resources, and cognitive appraisal of illness. Avoidant coping was associated with greater disturbed mood, but neither avoidant nor active coping had a significant effect on mood in the multivariate model. 
. Illness appraisal, coping style, and symptom distress are important targets for intervention. Optimism is a beneficial trait and should be included, along with coping style, in comprehensive nursing assessments of patients with cancer.

  5. An optimization study of peak thermal neutron flux in moderators of advanced repetitive pulse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Takumi; Watanabe, N.

    1976-01-01

    In achieving a high peak thermal neutron flux in hydrogenous moderators installed in repetitive pulse reactors, the core-moderator arrangement can play as much an important role as the moderator design itself. However, the effect of the former has not been adequately emphasized to date, while a rather extensive study has been made on the latter. The present study concerns with a core-moderator system parameter optimization for a repetitive accelerator pulsed fast reactor. The results have shown that small differences in the arrangement resulting from the optimizations of various parameters are significant and the effects can be summed up to give an increase in the peak thermal flux by a factor of about two. (auth.)

  6. Adaptable structural synthesis using advanced analysis and optimization coupled by a computer operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element program is linked with a general purpose optimization program in a 'programing system' which includes user supplied codes that contain problem dependent formulations of the design variables, objective function and constraints. The result is a system adaptable to a wide spectrum of structural optimization problems. In a sample of numerical examples, the design variables are the cross-sectional dimensions and the parameters of overall shape geometry, constraints are applied to stresses, displacements, buckling and vibration characteristics, and structural mass is the objective function. Thin-walled, built-up structures and frameworks are included in the sample. Details of the system organization and characteristics of the component programs are given.

  7. Advances of radioisotope for design, intensification and optimization of processes and operations in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In chemical industries different processes and operations involve a variety of multiphase contacting schemes for optimal production schedule in terms of ease of handling, time and money. A number of parameters will have to be optimized for this purpose. Further more, during the operation of a process plant, a number of problems such as reduction in process efficiency, deterioration in product quality etc. are encountered due to malfunctioning of one or more components. The successful operation of an industry depends on the early detection of the problems for appropriate remedial action. These are conveniently carried out by the application of radioisotopes either directly or in sealed condition depending upon the problem to be addressed. In this talk both types of radiotracer applications are discussed by taking specific examples

  8. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of finding reactor deployment profiles that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to refine the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-offs that exist between these different objectives.

  9. Sensitivity analysis and multidisciplinary optimization for aircraft design: Recent advances and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1988-01-01

    Optimization by decomposition, complex system sensitivity analysis, and a rapid growth of disciplinary sensitivity analysis are some of the recent developments that hold promise of a quantum jump in the support engineers receive from computers in the quantitative aspects of design. Review of the salient points of these techniques is given and illustrated by examples from aircraft design as a process that combines the best of human intellect and computer power to manipulate data.

  10. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  11. Advanced methods for the analysis, design, and optimization of SMA-based aerostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, D J; Lagoudas, D C; Calkins, F T

    2011-01-01

    Engineers continue to apply shape memory alloys to aerospace actuation applications due to their high energy density, robust solid-state actuation, and silent and shock-free operation. Past design and development of such actuators relied on experimental trial and error and empirically derived graphical methods. Over the last two decades, however, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that existing SMA constitutive models can capture stabilized SMA transformation behaviors with sufficient accuracy. This work builds upon past successes and suggests a general framework by which predictive tools can be used to assess the responses of many possible design configurations in an automated fashion. By applying methods of design optimization, it is shown that the integrated implementation of appropriate analysis tools can guide engineers and designers to the best design configurations. A general design optimization framework is proposed for the consideration of any SMA component or assembly of such components that applies when the set of design variables includes many members. This is accomplished by relying on commercially available software and utilizing tools already well established in the design optimization community. Such tools are combined with finite element analysis (FEA) packages that consider a multitude of structural effects. The foundation of this work is a three-dimensional thermomechanical constitutive model for SMAs applicable for arbitrarily shaped bodies. A reduced-order implementation also allows computationally efficient analysis of structural components such as wires, rods, beams and shells. The use of multiple optimization schemes, the consideration of assembled components, and the accuracy of the implemented constitutive model in full and reduced-order forms are all demonstrated

  12. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  13. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. LAI; A. CHE SOH; H. MD. SARKAN; R. Z. ABDUL RAHMAN; M. K. HASSAN

    2015-01-01

    Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala L...

  14. Development of a mobile application for manual traffic counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in performing traffic counts has become widely used by many transportation agencies and private sectors. Different technologies have been employed to perform such counts, such as inductive loops, image processing, Bluetooth technologies, and laser and infrared technologies. However, the use of these advanced technologies come with extra cost to develop, install, and maintain. While the use of advanced technologies provide reliable traffic counts and vehicle classifications data, the use of manual traffic is an inevitable task. Manual traffic counts can serve different purposes, such as performing quality control or conducting short-term traffic survey. Manual traffic counts are usually conducted with the use of the traditional paper-and-pencil approach or the use of hand-held devices that are specifically developed to assess performing manual traffic counts. In this paper, the development of a mobile app that can be used to assist those who need to perform manual traffic counts. The app can be used by many public agencies, private sectors, and college students to collect their traffic data. It also provides users with the capabilities of sharing their traffic counts instantly, where traffic counts can be extracted and processed quickly by other parties.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting October 2002 through December 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments included the following: (1) Smith International participated in the DOE Mud Hammer program through full scale benchmarking testing during the week of 4 November 2003. (2) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to add to the benchmarking testing program. (3) Following the benchmark testing of the Smith International hammer, representatives from DOE/NETL, TerraTek, Smith International and PDVSA met at TerraTek in Salt Lake City to review observations, performance and views on the optimization step for 2003. (4) The December 2002 issue of Journal of Petroleum Technology (Society of Petroleum Engineers) highlighted the DOE fluid hammer testing program and reviewed last years paper on the benchmark performance of the SDS Digger and Novatek hammers. (5) TerraTek's Sid Green presented a technical review for DOE/NETL personnel in Morgantown on ''Impact Rock Breakage'' and its importance on improving fluid hammer performance. Much discussion has taken place on the issues surrounding mud hammer performance at depth conditions.

  16. Estimation and Control of Networked Distributed Parameter Systems: Application to Traffic Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.

  17. Traffic management simulation development : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, Florida traffic is monitored electronically by components of the Intelligent Traffic System (ITS), which send data to regional traffic management centers and assist management of traffic flows and incident response using software called...

  18. Traffic planning for non-homogeneous traffic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vehicles based on similar traffic operating characteristics are grouped into ... of distances to the video monitor involved using a measuring wheel to mark ... Secondly, the observers reviewed the videotape to sample traffic entity ...... makes a strong case for including service lanes for slow moving vehicles for improving the.

  19. Virtual network topology reconfiguration based on big data analytics for traffic prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Alcaide, Fernando; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo

    2016-01-01

    Big data analytics is applied for IP traffic prediction. When the virtual topology needs to be reconfigured, predicted and current traffic matrices are used to find the optimal topology. Exhaustive simulation results reveal large benefits. Peer Reviewed

  20. Radio resource management for mobile traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuan; Huang, Jianwei; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers two concrete design examples for traffic offloading. The first is an optimal resource allocation for small-cell based traffic offloading that aims at minimizing mobile users’ data cost. The second is an optimal resource allocation for device-to-device assisted traffic offloading that also minimizes the total energy consumption and cellular link usage (while providing an overview of the challenging issues). Both examples illustrate the importance of proper resource allocation to the success of traffic offloading, show the consequent performance advantages of executing optimal resource allocation, and present the methodologies to achieve the corresponding optimal offloading solution for traffic offloading in heterogeneous cellular networks. The authors also include an overview of heterogeneous cellular networks and explain different traffic offloading paradigms ranging from uplink traffic offloading through small cells to downlink traffic offloading via mobile device-to-device cooper...

  1. State Traffic Safety Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  2. Traffic management simulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    Microscopic simulation can provide significant support to traffic management center (TMC) operations. However, traffic simulation applications require data that are expensive and time-consuming to collect. Data collected by TMCs can be used as a prim...

  3. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schönberger, Jörn

    2005-01-01

    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  4. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H_2O_2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD_5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD_5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H_2O_2 concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  5. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liqun, E-mail: 691127317@qq.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Yang, Qi, E-mail: yangqi@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Dongbo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiaoming, E-mail: xmli121x@hotmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Fe-C microelectrolysis-Fenton process is proposed to pretreat landfill leachate. • Operating variables are optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). • 3D-EEMs and MW distribution explain the mechanism of enhanced biodegradability. • Fixed-bed column experiments are performed at different flow rates. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD{sub 5}/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72 g/L, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration 12.32 mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate.

  6. Improved VMAT planning for head and neck tumors with an advanced optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klippel, Norbert; Schmuecking, Michael; Terribilini, Dario; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Manser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the ''Progressive Resolution Optimizer PRO3'' (Varian Medical Systems) is compared to the previous version PRO2'' with respect to its potential to improve dose sparing to the organs at risk (OAR) and dose coverage of the PTV for head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods For eight head and neck cancer patients, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans were generated in this study. All cases have 2-3 phases and the total prescribed dose (PD) was 60-72 Gy in the PTV. The study is mainly focused on the phase 1 plans, which all have an identical PD of 54 Gy, and complex PTV structures with an overlap to the parotids. Optimization was performed based on planning objectives for the PTV according to ICRU83, and with minimal dose to spinal cord, and parotids outside PTV. In order to assess the quality of the optimization algorithms, an identical set of constraints was used for both, PRO2 and PRO3. The resulting treatment plans were investigated with respect to dose distribution based on the analysis of the dose volume histograms. Results For the phase 1 plans (PD = 54 Gy) the near maximum dose D 2% of the spinal cord, could be minimized to 22±5 Gy with PRO3, as compared to 32±12 Gy with PRO2, averaged for all patients. The mean dose to the parotids was also lower in PRO3 plans compared to PRO2, but the differences were less pronounced. A PTV coverage of V 95% = 97±1% could be reached with PRO3, as compared to 86±5% with PRO2. In clinical routine, these PRO2 plans would require modifications to obtain better PTV coverage at the cost of higher OAR doses. Conclusion A comparison between PRO3 and PRO2 optimization algorithms was performed for eight head and neck cancer patients. In general, the quality of VMAT plans for head and neck patients are improved with PRO3 as compared to PRO2. The dose to OARs can be reduced significantly, especially for the spinal cord. These reductions are achieved with better

  7. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Cancer: Combining Modalities to Optimize Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric T; Toms, Steven A; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2015-11-01

    The anticancer treatment modality tumor treating fields (TTFields; Optune, Novocure) use the lower frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum to destroy tumor cells during mitosis. This treatment has been evaluated in several trials of patients with glioblastoma. In these patients, TTFields are delivered through 4 transducer arrays applied to the scalp. In a phase 3 clinical trial of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, TTFields were as effective as chemotherapy, and were associated with fewer and milder systemic toxicities. Data from a phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma suggested that the addition of TTFields to postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy represents an important advance in the management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of TTFields in other tumor types, including pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, and non–small cell lung cancer. Other recent advances in the management of cancer have been seen with immunomodulatory therapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further study will be necessary to evaluate whether TTFields will enhance or impair other established and newly emerging therapies.

  8. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing Greenhouse Lighting for Advanced Agriculture Based on Real Time Electricity Market Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mahdavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s growing demand for food can be met by agricultural technology. Use of artificial light to supplement natural sunlight in greenhouse cultivation is one of the most common techniques to increase greenhouse production of food crops. However, artificial light requires significant electrical energy, which increases the cost of greenhouse production and can reduce profit. This paper models the increments to greenhouse productivity as well as the increases in cost from supplemental electric lighting, in a situation where the greenhouse is one of the elements of a smart grid, a system where the electric energy market is dynamic and prices vary over time. We used our models to calculate the optimum values for supplemental light and the required electrical energy for HPS lamps in the greenhouse environment, using cherry tomato cultivation as a case study crop. We considered two optimization techniques: iterative search (IS and genetic algorithm (GA. The two approaches produced similar results, although the GA method was much faster. Both approaches verify the advantages of using optimal supplemental light in terms of increasing production and hence profit.

  10. Decomposition with thermoeconomic isolation applied to the optimal synthesis/design and operation of an advanced tactical aircraft system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancruel, Diego F.; Spakovsky, Michael R. von

    2006-01-01

    A decomposition methodology based on the concept of 'thermoeconomic isolation' and applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of an advanced tactical fighter aircraft is the focus of this paper. The total system is composed of six sub-systems of which five participate with degrees of freedom (493) in the optimization. They are the propulsion sub-system (PS), the environmental control sub-system (ECS), the fuel loop subsystem (FLS), the vapor compression and Polyalphaolefin (PAO) loops sub-system (VC/PAOS), and the airframe sub-system (AFS). The sixth subsystem comprises the expendable and permanent payloads as well as the equipment group. For each of the first five, detailed thermodynamic, geometric, physical, and aerodynamic models at both design and off-design were formulated and implemented. The most promising set of aircraft sub-system and system configurations were then determined based on both an energy integration and aerodynamic performance analysis at each stage of the mission (including the transient ones). Conceptual, time, and physical decomposition were subsequently applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of these aircraft configurations as well as to the highly dynamic process of heat generation and dissipation internal to the subsystems. The physical decomposition strategy used (i.e. Iterative Local-Global Optimization-ILGO) is the first to successfully closely approach the theoretical condition of 'thermoeconomic isolation' when applied to highly complex, highly dynamic non-linear systems. Developed at our Center for Energy Systems research, it has been effectively applied to a number of complex stationary and transportation applications

  11. Decomposition with thermoeconomic isolation applied to the optimal synthesis/design and operation of an advanced tactical aircraft system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancruel, Diego F. [Center for Energy Systems Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Spakovsky, Michael R. von [Center for Energy Systems Research, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)]. E-mail: vonspako@vt.edu

    2006-12-15

    A decomposition methodology based on the concept of 'thermoeconomic isolation' and applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of an advanced tactical fighter aircraft is the focus of this paper. The total system is composed of six sub-systems of which five participate with degrees of freedom (493) in the optimization. They are the propulsion sub-system (PS), the environmental control sub-system (ECS), the fuel loop subsystem (FLS), the vapor compression and Polyalphaolefin (PAO) loops sub-system (VC/PAOS), and the airframe sub-system (AFS). The sixth subsystem comprises the expendable and permanent payloads as well as the equipment group. For each of the first five, detailed thermodynamic, geometric, physical, and aerodynamic models at both design and off-design were formulated and implemented. The most promising set of aircraft sub-system and system configurations were then determined based on both an energy integration and aerodynamic performance analysis at each stage of the mission (including the transient ones). Conceptual, time, and physical decomposition were subsequently applied to the synthesis/design and operational optimization of these aircraft configurations as well as to the highly dynamic process of heat generation and dissipation internal to the subsystems. The physical decomposition strategy used (i.e. Iterative Local-Global Optimization-ILGO) is the first to successfully closely approach the theoretical condition of 'thermoeconomic isolation' when applied to highly complex, highly dynamic non-linear systems. Developed at our Center for Energy Systems research, it has been effectively applied to a number of complex stationary and transportation applications.

  12. Traffic flow dynamics. Data, models and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiber, Martin [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Verkehr; Kesting, Arne [TomTom Development Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    First comprehensive textbook of this fascinating interdisciplinary topic which explains advances in a way that it is easily accessible to engineering, physics and math students. Presents practical applications of traffic theory such as driving behavior, stability analysis, stop-and-go waves, and travel time estimation. Presents the topic in a novel and systematic way by addressing both microscopic and macroscopic models with a focus on traffic instabilities. Revised and extended edition of the German textbook ''Verkehrsdynamik und -simulation''. This textbook provides a comprehensive and instructive coverage of vehicular traffic flow dynamics and modeling. It makes this fascinating interdisciplinary topic, which to date was only documented in parts by specialized monographs, accessible to a broad readership. Numerous figures and problems with solutions help the reader to quickly understand and practice the presented concepts. This book is targeted at students of physics and traffic engineering and, more generally, also at students and professionals in computer science, mathematics, and interdisciplinary topics. It also offers material for project work in programming and simulation at college and university level. The main part, after presenting different categories of traffic data, is devoted to a mathematical description of the dynamics of traffic flow, covering macroscopic models which describe traffic in terms of density, as well as microscopic many-particle models in which each particle corresponds to a vehicle and its driver. Focus chapters on traffic instabilities and model calibration/validation present these topics in a novel and systematic way. Finally, the theoretical framework is shown at work in selected applications such as traffic-state and travel-time estimation, intelligent transportation systems, traffic operations management, and a detailed physics-based model for fuel consumption and emissions.

  13. Optimal Dimensioning of FiWi Networks over Advanced Metering Infrastructure for the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inga, Esteban; Peralta-Sevilla, Arturo; Hincapié, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we propose a hybrid wireless mesh network infrastructure which connects the smart meters of each consumer with the data aggregation points (DAP). We suppose a set of smart meters that need to send information, and receive information from a central office on electrical enterprises...... through of the meter data management system (MDMS), and so forming the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) stage of smart grids. We consider a multi-hop system, where information is routed through several nodes which act as DAP. Wireless mesh networks are known to extend coverage and increase...... deployment efficiency, so they could be an alternative for the connection between Home Area Network (HAN) and the Neighborhood Area Network (NAN). However, the NAN data must be send through wider area cabled networks to Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), and based on the WDM-PON architecture. We consider...

  14. Development of an advanced noise propagation model for noise optimization in wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand in renewable energy has resulted in large wind energy deployment. Even though wind turbines are among the most environmentally friendly way of generating electricity, the noise emitted by them is one of the main obstacles for further installation. Wind farm developers rely...... wind directions or time of the day). The latter causes turbines to be located at less resourceful sites in advance. Both of these scenarios increase the cost of energy. Hence there is a need for more accurate noise mapping tools. The thesis addresses this issue via development of a new tool based...... field sound pressure levels are addressed both in steady and unsteady manner. Enhanced far fields amplitude modulation is observed and associated with the wake dynamics and the rotating blades. Lastly, the developed tool is used for an onshore wind farm noise prediction taking the terrain and the flow...

  15. Methodology for the Integration of Safety in the Optimization of the Advanced Reactors Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinblat, P.; Schlamp, M.; Brasnarof, D.; Gimenez, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a new methodology has been developed and implemented for taking into account the safety levels of the reactor in a design optimization process, by using Design Maps.They represent a new technique for comparing critical variables in case an accidental sequenced happened, with limit values set by the design criteria.So a good balance is achieved, without allowing the economic performance search to cause a too risky reactor, and guaranteeing the competitiveness of it in spite of the safety costs.Up to the moment, there is no design tool able to accomplish this task in an integrated way.A computational tool based on this methodology has been implemented.These tool specially programmed routines allow carrying out the mentioned tasks

  16. Application of an optimized winglet configuration to an advanced commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design is presented of an aircraft which employs an integrated wing and winglet lift system. Comparison was made with a conventional baseline configuration employing a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. An optimized wing-winglet combination was selected from four proposed configurations for which aerodynamic, structural, and weight characteristics were evaluated. Each candidate wing-winglet configuration was constrained to the same induced drag coefficient as the baseline aircraft. The selected wing-winglet configuration was resized for a specific medium-range mission requirement, and operating costs were estimated for a typical mission. Study results indicated that the wing-winglet aircraft was lighter and could complete the specified mission at less cost than the conventional wing aircraft. These indications were sensitive to the impact of flutter characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to the performance of the high-lift system. Further study in these areas is recommended to reduce uncertainty in future development.

  17. Advanced experimental method for self-optimizing control system to a new energy converce plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The progress in the development and studying of new methods of producing electric energy, based on direct conversion of heat, light, fuel or chemical energy into electric energy, raises the problem of more effective use of their power characteristics. In this paper, disclosure is made of a self-optimizing control system for an abject with a unimodal quality function. The system comprises an object, a divider, a band-pass filter, an averaging filter, a multiplier, a final control element, and adder and further includes a search signal generator. The fashion and the system are presented in the USSR No. 684510, in the USA No. 4179730, in France No. 2386854, in Germany No. 2814963, in Japan No. 1369882

  18. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  19. Optimal timing of early versus delayed adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Gu, Xiangmei; Nguyen, Paul L; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P; Hu, Jim C

    2014-04-01

    Although post-radical prostatectomy (RP) adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) benefits disease that is staged as pT3 or higher, the optimal ART timing remains unknown. Our objective is to characterize the outcomes and optimal timing of early vs. delayed ART. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data from 1995 to 2007, we identified 963 men with pT3N0 disease receiving early (statistic approach to determine at what time post-RP ART had the most significant effect on outcomes of interest in men with pT3N0 disease. When compared with delayed ART in men with pT3 disease, early ART was associated with improved PCSM (0.47 vs. 1.02 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.038) and less salvage hormonal therapy (2.88 vs. 4.59 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.001). Delaying ART beyond 5 months is associated with worse PCSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3; P = 0.020), beyond 3 months is associated with more BRE (HR 1.6; P = 0.025), and beyond 4 months is associated higher rates of salvage hormonal therapy (HR 1.6; P = 0.002). ART performed after 9 months was associated with fewer urethral strictures (HR 0.6; P = 0.042). Initiating ART less than 5 months after RP for pT3 is associated with improved PCSM. Early ART is also associated with fewer BRE and less use of salvage hormonal therapy if administered earlier than 3 and 4 months after RP, respectively. However, ART administered later than 9 months after RP is associated with fewer urethral strictures. Our population-based findings complement randomized trials designed with fixed ART timing. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  1. Plant protection system optimization studies to mitigate consequences of large breaks in the advanced neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, M.I.; March-Leuba, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents some of the optimization studies performed to maximize the performance of the engineered safety features and scram systems to mitigate the consequences of large breaks in the primary cooling system of the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor. The ANS is a new basic and applied research facility based on a powerful steady-state research reactor that provides beams of neutrons for measurements and experiments in the field of material science and engineering, biology, chemistry, material analysis, and nuclear science. To achieve the high neutron fluxes for these state-of-the-art experiments, the ANS design has a very high power density core (330 MW fission with an active volume of 67.6 ell) surrounded by a large heavy-water reflector, where most neutrons are moderated. This design maximizes the number of neutrons available for experiments but results in a low heat capacity core that creates unique challenges to the design of the plant protection system

  2. Preprint WebVRGIS Based Traffic Analysis and Visualization System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoming; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Weixi; Zhang, Baoyun; Hu, Jinxing; Yin, Ling; Feng, Shengzhong

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on Advances in Engineering Software. With several characteristics, such as large scale, diverse predictability and timeliness, the city traffic data falls in the range of definition of Big Data. A Virtual Reality GIS based traffic analysis and visualization system is proposed as a promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop traffic big data. In addition to the basic GIS interaction functions, the proposed system also includes some intellige...

  3. Optimization of stabilized leachate treatment using ozone/persulfate in the advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Amr, Salem S.; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ozone and persulfate reagent (O 3 /S 2 O 8 2- ) was used to treat stabilized leachate. ► Central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. ► Operating variables including ozone and persulfate dosage, pH variance, and reaction time. ► Optimum removal of COD, color, and NH 3 –N was 72%, 96%, and 76%, respectively. ► A good value of ozone consumption (OC) obtained with 0.60 (kg O 3 /kg COD). - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing persulfate reagent in the advanced oxidation of ozone to treat stabilized landfill leachate in an ozone reactor. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as ozone and persulfate dosages, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following four responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities ( 3 –N, and ozone consumption (OC). The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 210 min, 30 g/m 3 ozone, 1 g/1 g COD 0 /S 2 O 8 2- ratio, and pH 10. The experimental results were corresponded well with predicted models (COD, color, and NH 3 –N removal rates of 72%, 96%, and 76%, respectively, and 0.60 (kg O 3 /kg COD OC). The results obtained in the stabilized leachate treatment were compared with those from other treatment processes, such as ozone only and persulfate S 2 O 8 2- only, to evaluate its effectiveness. The combined method (i.e., O 3 /S 2 O 8 2- ) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD, color, and NH 3 –N compared with other studied applications. Furthermore, the new method is more efficient than ozone/Fenton in advanced oxidation process in the treatment of the same studied leachate

  4. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  5. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  6. Self-Organized Criticality and $1/f$ Noise in Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Paczuski, Maya; Nagel, Kai

    1996-01-01

    Phantom traffic jams may emerge ``out of nowhere'' from small fluctuations rather than being triggered by large, exceptional events. We show how phantom jams arise in a model of single lane highway traffic, which mimics human driving behavior. Surprisingly, the optimal state of highest efficiency, with the largest throughput, is a critical state with traffic jams of all sizes. We demonstrate that open systems self-organize to the most efficient state. In the model we study, this critical stat...

  7. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  8. Optimizing the electrical excitation of an atmospheric pressure plasma advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, P; Li, J F; Liu, D X; Walsh, J L

    2014-08-30

    The impact of pulse-modulated generation of atmospheric pressure plasma on the efficiency of organic dye degradation has been investigated. Aqueous samples of methyl orange were exposed to low temperature air plasma and the degradation efficiency was determined by absorbance spectroscopy. The plasma was driven at a constant frequency of 35kHz with a duty cycle of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Relative concentrations of dissolved nitrogen oxides, pH, conductivity and the time evolution of gas phase ozone were measured to identify key parameters responsible for the changes observed in degradation efficiency. The results indicate that pulse modulation significantly improved dye degradation efficiency, with a plasma pulsed at 25% duty showing a two-fold enhancement. Additionally, pulse modulation led to a reduction in the amount of nitrate contamination added to the solution by the plasma. The results clearly demonstrate that optimization of the electrical excitation of the plasma can enhance both degradation efficiency and the final water quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-Layer Energy Optimization for IoT Environments: Technical Advances and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshna Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a significant characteristic of battery-run devices such as sensors, RFID and mobile phones. In the present scenario, this is the most prominent requirement that must be served while introducing a communication protocol for an IoT environment. IoT network success and performance enhancement depend heavily on optimization of energy consumption that enhance the lifetime of IoT nodes and the network. In this context, this paper presents a comprehensive review on energy efficiency techniques used in IoT environments. The techniques proposed by researchers have been categorized based on five different layers of the energy architecture of IoT. These five layers are named as sensing, local processing and storage, network/communication, cloud processing and storage, and application. Specifically, the significance of energy efficiency in IoT environments is highlighted. A taxonomy is presented for the classification of related literature on energy efficient techniques in IoT environments. Following the taxonomy, a critical review of literature is performed focusing on major functional models, strengths and weaknesses. Open research challenges related to energy efficiency in IoT are identified as future research directions in the area. The survey should benefit IoT industry practitioners and researchers, in terms of augmenting the understanding of energy efficiency and its IoT-related trends and issues.

  10. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  11. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Duffey, R.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700 TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 TM ) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.

  13. Optimization of a Gas Switching Combustion process through advanced heat management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, Schalk; Zaabout, Abdelghafour; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo; Lozza, Giovanni; Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, Martin van; Amini, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GSC is a promising new reactor concept for power production with cost effective CO 2 capture. • The standalone fluidized bed reactors employed will allow for easy process scale-up. • The GSC simple configuration achieves higher efficiencies than conventional solutions. • Further increases in efficiency can be achieved via advanced heat management. • The 41.9% maximum efficiency is in line with other CLC–IGCC configurations. - Abstract: Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) is a promising new process concept for energy efficient power production with integrated CO 2 capture. In comparison to conventional Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) carried out in interconnected fluidized beds, the GSC concept will be substantially easier to design and scale up, especially for pressurized conditions. One potential drawback of the GSC concept is the gradual temperature variation over the transient process cycle, which leads to a drop in electric efficiency of the plant. This article investigates heat management strategies to mitigate this issue both through simulations and experiments. Simulation studies of the GSC concept integrated into an IGCC power plant show that heat management using a nitrogen recycle stream can increase plant efficiency by 3 percentage points to 41.6% while maintaining CO 2 capture ratios close to 90%. Reactive multiphase flow simulations of the GSC reactor also showed that heat management can eliminate fuel slip problems. In addition, the GSC concept offers the potential to remove the need for a nitrogen recycle stream by implementing a concentrated air injection that extracts heat while only a small percentage of oxygen reacts. Experiments have shown that, similar to nitrogen recycle, this strategy reduces transient temperature variations across the cycle and therefore merits further investigation.

  14. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products: a novel tailored model for optimizing performance and estimating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Römhild, Andy; Kaiser, Daniel; Beier, Carola; Bauer, Gerhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reinke, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) have gained considerable attention in academia due to their therapeutic potential. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles ensure the quality and sterility of manufacturing these products. We developed a model for estimating the manufacturing costs of cell therapy products and optimizing the performance of academic GMP-facilities. The "Clean-Room Technology Assessment Technique" (CTAT) was tested prospectively in the GMP facility of BCRT, Berlin, Germany, then retrospectively in the GMP facility of the University of California-Davis, California, USA. CTAT is a two-level model: level one identifies operational (core) processes and measures their fixed costs; level two identifies production (supporting) processes and measures their variable costs. The model comprises several tools to measure and optimize performance of these processes. Manufacturing costs were itemized using adjusted micro-costing system. CTAT identified GMP activities with strong correlation to the manufacturing process of cell-based products. Building best practice standards allowed for performance improvement and elimination of human errors. The model also demonstrated the unidirectional dependencies that may exist among the core GMP activities. When compared to traditional business models, the CTAT assessment resulted in a more accurate allocation of annual expenses. The estimated expenses were used to set a fee structure for both GMP facilities. A mathematical equation was also developed to provide the final product cost. CTAT can be a useful tool in estimating accurate costs for the ATMPs manufactured in an optimized GMP process. These estimates are useful when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these novel interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  16. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    The objective of this study was to develop an unique methodology and a practical tool for designing burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given PWR core. Two techniques were studied in developing this tool. First, the deterministic technique called Modified Power Shape Forced Diffusion (MPSFD) method followed by a fine tuning algorithm, based on some heuristic rules, was developed to achieve this goal. Second, an efficient and a practical genetic algorithm (GA) tool was developed and applied successfully to Burnable Poisons (BPs) placement optimization problem for a reference Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) core. This thesis presents the step by step progress in developing such a tool. The developed deterministic method appeared to perform as expected. The GA technique produced excellent BP designs. It was discovered that the Beginning of Cycle (BOC) Kinf of a BP fuel assembly (FA) design is a good filter to eliminate invalid BP designs created during the optimization process. By eliminating all BP designs having BOC Kinf above a set limit, the computational time was greatly reduced since the evaluation process with reactor physics calculations for an invalid solution is canceled. Moreover, the GA was applied to develop the BP loading pattern to minimize the total Gadolinium (Gd) amount in the core together with the residual binding at End-of-Cycle (EOC) and to keep the maximum peak pin power during core depletion and Soluble boron concentration at BOC both less than their limit values. The number of UO2/Gd2O3 pins and Gd 2O3 concentrations for each fresh fuel location in the core are the decision variables and the total amount of the Gd in the core and maximum peak pin power during core depletion are in the fitness functions. The use of different fitness function definition and forcing the solution movement towards to desired region in the solution space accelerated the GA runs. Special emphasize is given to minimizing the residual binding to increase core lifetime as

  17. Optimal time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Won Sik; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chang, Heung Moon; Ryu, Min Hee; Jang, Se Jin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Capecitabine and its metabolites reach peak plasma concentrations 1 to 2 hours after a single oral administration, and concentrations rapidly decrease thereafter. We performed a retrospective analysis to find the optimal time interval between capecitabine administration and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy was measured in patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine for rectal cancer. Patients were classified into the following groups. Group A1 included patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy, and Group B1 included all other patients. Group B1 was then subdivided into Group A2 (patients who took capecitabine 2 hours before radiotherapy) and Group B2. Group B2 was further divided into Group A3 and Group B3 with the same method. Total mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and the pathologic response was evaluated. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. Pathologic examination showed that Group A1 had higher rates of complete regression of primary tumors in the rectum (23.5% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01), good response (44.7% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.006), and lower T stages (p = 0.021) compared with Group B1; however, Groups A2 and A3 did not show any improvement compared with Groups B2 and B3. Multivariate analysis showed that increases in primary tumors in the rectum and good response were only significant when capecitabine was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy. Conclusion: In preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, the pathologic response could be improved by administering capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy

  18. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated solu...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well......This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...

  19. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the "contextual interference effect." While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  20. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  1. Optimizing music learning: Exploring how blocked and interleaved practice schedules affect advanced performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Carter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the contextual interference effect. While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (twelve minutes per piece and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (three minutes per piece, alternating until a total of twelve minutes of practice were completed on each piece. Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated

  2. Advanced Start of Combustion Sensor Phases I and II-A: Feasibility Demonstration, Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Smutzer

    2010-01-31

    Homogeneous Compressed Charge Ignition (HCCI) has elevated the need for Start of Combustion (SOC) sensors. HCCI engines have been the exciting focus of engine research recently, primarily because HCCI offers higher thermal efficiency than the conventional Spark Ignition (SI) engines and significantly lower NOx and soot emissions than conventional Compression Ignition (CI) engines, and could be fuel neutral. HCCI has the potential to unify all the internal combustion engine technology to achieve the high-efficiency, low-emission goal. However, these advantages do not come easy. It is well known that the problems encountered with HCCI combustion center on the difficulty of controlling the Start of Combustion. TIAX has an SOC sensor under development which has shown promise. In previous work, including a DOE-sponsored SBIR project, TIAX has developed an accelerometer-based method which was able to determine SOC within a few degrees crank angle for a range of operating conditions. A signal processing protocol allows reconstruction of the combustion pressure event signal imbedded in the background engine vibration recorded by the accelerometer. From this reconstructed pressure trace, an algorithm locates the SOC. This SOC sensor approach is nonintrusive, rugged, and is particularly robust when the pressure event is strong relative to background engine vibration (at medium to high engine load). Phase I of this project refined the previously developed technology with an engine-generic and robust algorithm. The objective of the Phase I research was to answer two fundamental questions: Can the accelerometer-based SOC sensor provide adequate SOC event capture to control an HCCI engine in a feedback loop? And, will the sensor system meet cost, durability, and software efficiency (speed) targets? Based upon the results, the answer to both questions was 'YES'. The objective of Phase II-A was to complete the parameter optimization of the SOC sensor prototype in order

  3. Development of an uninterrupted solar powered traffic light from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in transport technology have brought benefits, but growing vehicular traffic and increased fossil fuel use have created problems. In view of these, the need to address the shortage of important infrastructures such as traffic light systems in most cities of Nigeria is imperative. This paper aims at designing, ...

  4. NASA and FAA Programs in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will present an overview of NASA and joint NASA/FAA R&D programs related to Air Traffic Management. In addition it will address the plans for the new Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program, which will investigate methods for achieving the airline industries needs for increased flexibility in the nation's air traffic management system.

  5. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  6. Ecological Interface Design : Sensor Failure Diagnosis in Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, V.A.; Borst, C.; Mulder, M.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Future air traffic control will have to rely on more advanced automation in order to support controllers in their job of safely controlling increased traffic volumes. A prerequisite for the success of such automation is that the underlying data driving it is reliable. Current technology, however,

  7. Anomaly detection in VoIP traffic with trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, F.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present methodological advances in anomaly detection, which, among other purposes, can be used to discover abnormal traffic patterns under the presence of deterministic trends in data, given that specific assumptions about the traffic type and nature are met. A performance study of

  8. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    optimizing the laser beacons used to bring AO correction to parts of the sky that lack a naturally bright light source for measuring atmospheric distortion. Long pulse length laser guide stars (LGS) that use fluorescence from the D 2 transition in mesospheric sodium are valuable both due to their high altitude, and because they permit Rayleigh blanking and fratricide avoidance in multiple LGS systems. Bloch equation simulations of sodium-light interactions in Mathematica show that certain spectral formats and pulse lengths (on the order of 30 μs), with high duty cycles (20-50%), should be able to achieve photon returns within 10% of what is seen from continuous wave (CW) excitation. Utilizing this recently developed code (called LGSBloch), I investigated the time dependent characteristics of sodium fluorescence. I then identified the optimal format for the new LGS that will be part of the upgrade to the AO system on the Shane 3 meter telescope at the Lick Observatory. I discuss these results, along with their general applicability to other LGS systems, and provide a brief description of the potential benefits of uplink correction. Predictions from the LGSBloch simulation package are compared to data from currently operating LGS systems. For a CW LGS, the return flux measurements and theory show reasonable agreement, but for short pulse lasers, such as those at the Lick and Keck Observatories, the code seems to be overestimating the data by a factor of 2--3. Several tactics to explicate this discrepancy are explored, such as verifying parameters involved in the measurements and including greater detail in the modeling. Although these efforts were unsuccessful at removing the discrepancy, they illuminated other facets of the problem that deserve further consideration. Use of the sophisticated LGSBloch model has allowed detailed study of the evolution of the energy level populations and other physical effects (e.g. Larmor precession, atomic recoil, and collisions). This has

  9. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  10. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  11. Modeling Road Traffic Using Service Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARAGOS, I.-M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport systems have an essential role in modern society because they facilitate access to natural resources and they stimulate trade. Current studies aimed at improving transport networks by developing new methods for optimization. Because of the increase in the global number of cars, one of the most common problems facing the transport network is congestion. By creating traffic models and simulate them, we can avoid this problem and find appropriate solutions. In this paper we propose a new method for modeling traffic. This method considers road intersections as being service centers. A service center represents a set consisting of a queue followed by one or multiple servers. This model was used to simulate real situations in an urban traffic area. Based on this simulation, we have successfully determined the optimal functioning and we have computed the performance measures.

  12. FAST DRAWING OF TRAFFIC SIGN USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare

  13. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  14. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...... injury was €1406 (2009 price level) in the first year, and €8950 over a 10-year period. Per 100 000 population, the 10-year cost was €6 565 668. A severe traffic injury costs €4969 per person in the first year, and €4 006 685 per 100 000 population over a 10-year period. Victims of traffic injuries...

  15. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors: incorporating clinical decisions in the optimization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, Christina; Eisbruch, Avraham; McShan, Daniel; Kessler, Marc; Marsh, Robin C.; Fraass, Benedick

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans require decisions about priorities and tradeoffs among competing goals. This study evaluates the incorporation of various clinical decisions into the optimization system, using locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors as a model. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with locally advanced paranasal sinus tumors were retrospectively replanned using inverse planning. Two clinical decisions were assumed: (1) Spare both optic pathways (OP), or (2) Spare only the contralateral OP. In each case, adequate tumor coverage (treated to 70 Gy in 35 fractions) was required. Two beamlet IMRT plans were thus developed for each patient using a class solution cost function. By altering one key variable at a time, different levels of risk of OP toxicity and planning target volume (PTV) compromise were compared in a systematic manner. The resulting clinical tradeoffs were analyzed using dosimetric criteria, tumor control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and normal tissue complication probability. Results: Plan comparisons representing the two clinical decisions (sparing both OP and sparing only the contralateral OP), with respect to minimum dose, TCP, V 95 , and EUD, demonstrated small, yet statistically significant, differences. However, when individual cases were analyzed further, significant PTV underdosage (>5%) was present in most cases for plans sparing both OP. In 6/13 cases (46%), PTV underdosage was between 5% and 15%, and in 3 cases (23%) was greater than 15%. By comparison, adequate PTV coverage was present in 8/13 cases (62%) for plans sparing only the contralateral OP. Mean target EUD comparisons between the two plans (including 9 cases where a clinical tradeoff between PTV coverage and OP sparing was required) were similar: 68.6 Gy and 69.1 Gy, respectively (p=0.02). Mean TCP values for those 9 cases were 56.5 vs. 61.7, respectively (p=0.006). Conclusions: In IMRT plans for paranasal sinus tumors

  16. Multicriteria Optimization in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Locally Advanced Cancer of the Pancreatic Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Theodore S.; Craft, David L.; Carlsson, Fredrik; Bortfeld, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) affords the potential to decrease radiation therapy-associated toxicity by creating highly conformal dose distributions. However, the inverse planning process can create a suboptimal plan despite meeting all constraints. Multicriteria optimization (MCO) may reduce the time-consuming iteration loop necessary to develop a satisfactory plan while providing information regarding trade-offs between different treatment planning goals. In this exploratory study, we examine the feasibility and utility of MCO in physician plan selection in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods and Materials: The first 10 consecutive patients with LAPC treated with IMRT were evaluated. A database of plans (Pareto surface) was created that met the inverse planning goals. The physician then navigated to an 'optimal' plan from the point on the Pareto surface at which kidney dose was minimized. Results: Pareto surfaces were created for all 10 patients. A physician was able to select a plan from the Pareto surface within 10 minutes for all cases. Compared with the original (treated) IMRT plans, the plan selected from the Pareto surface had a lower stomach mean dose in 9 of 10 patients, although often at the expense of higher kidney dose than with the treated plan. Conclusion: The MCO is feasible in patients with LAPC and allows the physician to choose a satisfactory plan quickly. Generally, when given the opportunity, the physician will choose a plan with a lower stomach dose. The MCO enables a physician to provide greater active clinical input into the IMRT planning process

  17. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  18. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Corresponding author, tel: +234 – 806 – 435 – 0200 ... construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the ...... Research Part A: Policy and Practice 29(4), 273-281. 1995. ... relationships: Quality and Theory of Traffic Flow.

  19. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION ... The SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) signal control system implements an adaptive ... An electronic traffic signal controller is basically a sequential machine whose operation can be modeled using finite ...

  20. Traffic Speed Data Imputation Method Based on Tensor Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS; however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS. In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC, an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  1. Traffic speed data imputation method based on tensor completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Bin; Tan, Huachun; Feng, Jianshuai; Liu, Ying; Wang, Wuhong

    2015-01-01

    Traffic speed data plays a key role in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS); however, missing traffic data would affect the performance of ITS as well as Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). In this paper, we handle this issue by a novel tensor-based imputation approach. Specifically, tensor pattern is adopted for modeling traffic speed data and then High accurate Low Rank Tensor Completion (HaLRTC), an efficient tensor completion method, is employed to estimate the missing traffic speed data. This proposed method is able to recover missing entries from given entries, which may be noisy, considering severe fluctuation of traffic speed data compared with traffic volume. The proposed method is evaluated on Performance Measurement System (PeMS) database, and the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art baseline approaches.

  2. A method for efficient evaluation of measures for climate optimization of air traffic; Eine Methode zur effizienten Bewertung vo Massnahmen zur Klimaoptimierung des Luftverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmann, Katrin

    2012-11-01

    For calculating the climate impact of aviation it is important to consider the effect of so-called non-CO{sub 2} emissions beside the climate effect of carbon dioxide emissions. As the impact of these non-CO{sub 2} emissions strongly depends on the location of the emission, the climate impact is no longer proportional to the total amount of emissions. Therefore it is necessary to use an efficient model which considers the impact of different climate agents as well as their geographically variable impact for calculating the climate impact of aviation emissions. Such a model (AirClim) was expanded to consider primary mode ozone and contrail-cirrus as well as uncertainties in the evaluation of different measures by using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Afterward the mitigation gain of changing flight altitude and speed of nowadays aircrafts was evaluated. This shows that it would be possible to reduce the climate impact by more than 60% by optimizing the flight altitude and speed, leading to an increase in direct operating costs by 32%. A one percentage increase in direct operating cost can results in a 12% reduction in climate impact. (orig.)

  3. Local and nonlocal information in a traffic network: how important is the horizon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in distributed sensor network technology have changed the landscape of traffic optimization in which small, mobile devices are able to sense local information and communicate in real time with one another. Naive optimization algorithms that operate solely on the local or global level are inherently flawed, as global optimization requires every local sensor to communicate with a centralized base-station, creating prohibitive bandwidth, robustness, and security concerns, while local optimization methods are limited by a near information horizon as they are unable to propagate or react to information beyond their immediate vicinity. This paper investigates an intermediate approach where individual sensors are able to propagate congestion information over a variable distance that is determined in real-time. This strategy consistently out-performs a naive strategy where every car simply takes the shortest path to its destination, but does worse than a simpler optimization algorithm that only incorporates local information. This is most likely because the intermediate solution directs cars along the same alternate path when attempting to free a congested area, thus creating new congestion along the detour. The results suggest that local information might set an upper bound on performance in models of cascading in- formation. Further work is required to confirm this observation and develop an algorithm able to join both local and global information to effectively diffuse traffic around congestion. (author)

  4. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  5. Advances in LWD pressure measurements: smart, time optimized pretests and on demand real-time transmission applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafim, Robson; Ferraris, Paolo [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The StethoScope Logging While Drilling (LWD) Pressure Measurement, introduced in Brazil in 2005, has been extensively used in deep water environment to provide reservoir pressure and mobility in real-time. In the last three years the StethoScope service was further enhanced to allow better real time monitoring using a larger transmission rate, higher RT data resolution and remote visualization. In order to guarantee stable formation pressures with a limited test duration under a wide range of conditions, Time Optimized Pretests (TOP) were developed. These tests adjust automatically drawdown and buildup parameters as a function of formation characteristics (pressure/mobility) without requiring any input from the operator. On-demand frame (ODF), an advanced telemetry triggered automatically during the pressure tests, allowed to increase equivalent transmission rate and resolution and to include quality indices computed downhole. This paper is focused on the TOP and ODF Field Test results in Brazil, which proved to be useful and reliable options for better real-time decisions together with remote monitoring visualization implemented by the RTMonitor program. (author)

  6. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Air Force Research Laboratory. It is a video-camera-based, wide-area, traffic surveillance and detection system that provides real-time traffic information to traffic management center operators...

  7. Pedestrian Friendly Traffic Signal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This project continues research aimed at real-time detection and use of pedestrian : traffic flow information to enhance adaptive traffic signal control in urban areas : where pedestrian traffic is substantial and must be given appropriate attention ...

  8. Fronthaul dimensioning in C-RAN with web traffic for coordinated multipoint joint transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2015-01-01

    The use of centralized signal processing for dense urban mobile networks is gaining interest both in research and in industry. Gathering most of the base station functionalities in a processing pool would enable capacity sharing and the implementation of advanced techniques such as coordinated....... We model the full protocol stack for the network end-to-end in order to use realistic application-layer traffic and user behavior models. Our results show that the fronthaul latency should be kept below 0.6 ms in order to ensure optimal performances for the application...

  9. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  10. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  12. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  13. Traffic safety strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sadauskas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of the number of vehicles is closely related not only to large benefit for the public but also to certain undesirable social and economic consequences. Firstly - large numbers of injured and killed people are involved into the accidents. The target to improve traffic safety situation in Lithuania can be reached only after the detailed evaluation of transport system, environment, traffic participants, road and vehicle. Taking into consideration the accident situation in Lithuania and its causes the followings priority trends are suggested: The improvement of the coordination of road traffic safety system, the training and education of road users, the explanation of the importance of traffic safety and its propagation, the improvement of traffic conditions. Recommendations and proposals for differentiated criterion of maximum speed limit selection taking into account different factors are provided in the work.

  14. Effects of node buffer and capacity on network traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Xiang; Ding Jian-Xun; Hu Mao-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the optimization of network traffic by considering the effects of node buffer ability and capacity. Two node buffer settings are considered. The node capacity is considered to be proportional to its buffer ability. The node effects on network traffic systems are studied with the shortest path protocol and an extension of the optimal routing [Phys. Rev. E 74 046106 (2006)]. In the diagrams of flux—density relationships, it is shown that a nodes buffer ability and capacity have profound effects on the network traffic

  15. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  16. A study of optical design and optimization applied to lens module of laser beam shaping of advanced modern optical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chen, Zhen Hsiang

    2011-10-01

    This study used the aspheric lens to realize the laser flat-top optimization, and applied the genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimal results. Using the characteristics of aspheric lens to obtain the optimized high quality Nd: YAG 355 waveband laser flat-top optical system, this study employed the Light tools LDS (least damped square) and the GA of artificial intelligence optimization method to determine the optimal aspheric coefficient and obtain the optimal solution. This study applied the aspheric lens with GA for the flattening of laser beams using two aspheric lenses in the aspheric surface optical system to complete 80% spot narrowing under standard deviation of 0.6142.

  17. Uppaal Stratego for Intelligent Traffic Lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Andreas Berre; Huang, Chao; Kildebogaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    not profit from this additional information. Using this information could minimize waiting times and energy waste. Uppaal Stratego is a tool that combines machine learning and model checking techniques to synthesize near optimal control strategies. The tool has been applied successfully to several case......Modern traffic lights use information from induction loops and to some extend radar information. Recent developments in radar technology has made it possible to obtain more detailed information relevant to the control mechanism of the traffic light. Unfortunately much of the current controllers do...

  18. Recent Advances in Fractional Laser Resurfacing: New Paradigm in Optimal Parameters and Post-Treatment Wound Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Francis C.; Bock, Gerald N.; Eisen, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Laser plays an increasingly prominent role in skin rejuvenation. The advent of fractional photothermolysis revolutionizes its application. Microcolumns of skin are focally injured, leaving intervening normal skin to facilitate rapid wound healing and orderly tissue remodeling. The Problem Even with the popularity of fractional laser devices, we still have limited knowledge about the ideal treatment parameters and postlaser wound care. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Many clinicians believe that higher microbream energy in fractional laser devices results in better clinical outcome. Two recent studies argue against this assumption. One article demonstrates that lower fluence can induce comparable molecular changes with fewer side effects. Another study corroborates this by showing that lower-density settings produce similar clinical outcome in scar remodeling as higher-density ones, but with fewer side effects. To shed light on the optimal post-treatment wound care regimen from fractional ablative resurfacing, another paper shows that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can reduce transepidermal water loss and skin color changes within 1 month after treatment. Clinical Care Relevance For fractional nonablative resurfacing, lower settings in fluence or density may produce similar dermal remodeling as higher settings and with a better side-effect profile. Moreover, autologous PRP appears to expedite wound healing after fractional ablative resurfacing. Conclusion Lower microbeam energy in fractional laser resurfacing produces similar molecular changes and clinical outcome with fewer side effects. The findings might portend a shift in the paradigm of treatment parameters. Autologous PRP can facilitate better wound healing, albeit modestly. Long-term follow-ups and larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24527307

  19. Development of optimized advanced austenitic steels (II). Evaluation of out-of-pile testing results of the test fuel claddings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-03-01

    14Cr-25Ni optimized advanced austenitic steels have been developed to improve the swelling resistance of 15Cr-20Ni austenitic stainless steels used for FBR fuel cladding. In this improvement, Ti, Nb, V and P were dissolved into 14Cr-25Ni matrix by means of the high-temperature solution treatment to make finely distributed and stabilized precipitates in the operation. Furthermore, at the final stage of cold-working, cold-working level increased and residual stress was reduced. In this study, as fabricated microstructure observation, solubility of alloying elements and grain size test in the manufacturing process were evaluated. Following results were obtained. (1) Spherical precipitates were observed in the grain. Most of them were identified as complexed carbide-nitride [Ti,Nb(C,N)] by EDX analysis. (2) The dissolved percentages of Ti and Ni in the matrix were about 70% and 30% respectively. Undissolved Ti and Nb may react with undissolved carbon and precipitate as MC carbides. (3) High-temperature solution treatment is effective for the sufficient solubility of alloying elements, but it is likely to induce very large grains, which is the cause of defective signal in the ultrasonic alloy testing. The results of the grain size test showed that the large grain size is reduced in low Nb (0.1wt%) alloy compared with the standard alloy (0.2wt% Nb), and the effectiveness for the grain size control by reducing the Nb content was confirmed. Also, it was suggested that the intermediate heat treatment and cold work conditions would possibly avoid the occurrence of the large grain at the final heat treatment. (author)

  20. Detecting epileptic seizure with different feature extracting strategies using robust machine learning classification techniques by applying advance parameter optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Lal

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features. A deeper study was undertaken using novel machine learning classifiers by considering multiple factors. The support vector machine kernels are evaluated based on multiclass kernel and box constraint level. Likewise, for K-nearest neighbors (KNN), we computed the different distance metrics, Neighbor weights and Neighbors. Similarly, the decision trees we tuned the paramours based on maximum splits and split criteria and ensemble classifiers are evaluated based on different ensemble methods and learning rate. For training/testing tenfold Cross validation was employed and performance was evaluated in form of TPR, NPR, PPV, accuracy and AUC. In this research, a deeper analysis approach was performed using diverse features extracting strategies using robust machine learning classifiers with more advanced optimal options. Support Vector Machine linear kernel and KNN with City block distance metric give the overall highest accuracy of 99.5% which was higher than using the default parameters for these classifiers. Moreover, highest separation (AUC = 0.9991, 0.9990) were obtained at different kernel scales using SVM. Additionally, the K-nearest neighbors with inverse squared distance weight give higher performance at different Neighbors. Moreover, to distinguish the postictal heart rate oscillations from epileptic ictal subjects, and highest performance of 100% was obtained using different machine learning classifiers.

  1. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  2. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  3. VBR video traffic models

    CERN Document Server

    Tanwir, Savera

    2014-01-01

    There has been a phenomenal growth in video applications over the past few years. An accurate traffic model of Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video is necessary for performance evaluation of a network design and for generating synthetic traffic that can be used for benchmarking a network. A large number of models for VBR video traffic have been proposed in the literature for different types of video in the past 20 years. Here, the authors have classified and surveyed these models and have also evaluated the models for H.264 AVC and MVC encoded video and discussed their findings.

  4. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  5. Android-based E-Traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono

    2018-03-01

    The urban advancement is always overpowered by the increasing number of vehicles as the need for movement of people and goods. This can lead to traffic problems if there is no effort on the implementation of traffic management and engineering, and traffic law enforcement. In this case, the Government of Surakarta City has implemented various policies and regulations related to traffic management and engineering in order to run traffic in an orderly, safe and comfortable manner according to the applicable law. However, conditions in the field shows that traffic violations still occurred frequently due to the weakness of traffic law enforcement in terms of human resources and the system. In this connection, a tool is needed to support traffic law enforcement, especially in relation to the reporting system of traffic violations. This study aims to develop an Android-based traffic violations reporting application (E-Traffic Law Enforcement) as part of the traffic law enforcement system in Surakarta City. The Android-apps records the location and time of the traffic violations incident along with the visual evidence of the infringement. This information will be connected to the database system to detect offenders and to do the traffic law enforcement process.

  6. An advanced control system for the optimal operation and management of medium size power systems with a large penetration from renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogaret, E.; Stavrakakis, G.; Kariniotakis, G. [Ecole de Mines de Paris, Centre d`Energetique, Sophia-Antipolis (France)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    An advanced control system for the optimal operation and management of autonomous wind-diesel systems is presented. This system minimises the production costs through an on-line optimal scheduling of the power units, which takes into account the technical constraints of the diesel units, as well as short-term forecasts of the load and renewable resources. The power system security is maximised through on-line security assessment modules, which enable the power system to withstand sudden changes in the production of the renewable sources. The control system was evaluated using data from the island of Lemnos, where it has been installed and operated since January 1995. (Author)

  7. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  8. Penalties in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic offenders are penalized in various ways: fines, (temporary) driving licence suspensions, confiscation of their vehicles, penalty points, mandatory participation in rehabilitation programmes, prison sentences or community service. The aim of penalties is to punish offenders, to protect

  9. Non-Traffic Citations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Non-traffic citations (NTCs, also known as "summary offenses") document low-level criminal offenses where a law enforcement officer or other authorized official...

  10. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  11. Traffic Signal Cycle Lengths

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Traffic signal location list for the town of Chapel Hill. This data set includes light cycle information as well as as intersection information.The Town of Chapel...

  12. Air traffic management evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil S. (Inventor); Chatterji, Gano Broto (Inventor); Bilimoria, Karl D. (Inventor); Grabbe, Shon (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Methods for evaluating and implementing air traffic management tools and approaches for managing and avoiding an air traffic incident before the incident occurs. A first system receives parameters for flight plan configurations (e.g., initial fuel carried, flight route, flight route segments followed, flight altitude for a given flight route segment, aircraft velocity for each flight route segment, flight route ascent rate, flight route descent route, flight departure site, flight departure time, flight arrival time, flight destination site and/or alternate flight destination site), flight plan schedule, expected weather along each flight route segment, aircraft specifics, airspace (altitude) bounds for each flight route segment, navigational aids available. The invention provides flight plan routing and direct routing or wind optimal routing, using great circle navigation and spherical Earth geometry. The invention provides for aircraft dynamics effects, such as wind effects at each altitude, altitude changes, airspeed changes and aircraft turns to provide predictions of aircraft trajectory (and, optionally, aircraft fuel use). A second system provides several aviation applications using the first system. Several classes of potential incidents are analyzed and averted, by appropriate change en route of one or more parameters in the flight plan configuration, as provided by a conflict detection and resolution module and/or traffic flow management modules. These applications include conflict detection and resolution, miles-in trail or minutes-in-trail aircraft separation, flight arrival management, flight re-routing, weather prediction and analysis and interpolation of weather variables based upon sparse measurements. The invention combines these features to provide an aircraft monitoring system and an aircraft user system that interact and negotiate changes with each other.

  13. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  14. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  15. Control of Networked Traffic Flow Distribution - A Stochastic Distribution System Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Aziz, H M Abdul [ORNL; Young, Stan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Patil, Sagar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2017-10-01

    Networked traffic flow is a common scenario for urban transportation, where the distribution of vehicle queues either at controlled intersections or highway segments reflect the smoothness of the traffic flow in the network. At signalized intersections, the traffic queues are controlled by traffic signal control settings and effective traffic lights control would realize both smooth traffic flow and minimize fuel consumption. Funded by the Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program of the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy, we performed a preliminary investigation on the modelling and control framework in context of urban network of signalized intersections. In specific, we developed a recursive input-output traffic queueing models. The queue formation can be modeled as a stochastic process where the number of vehicles entering each intersection is a random number. Further, we proposed a preliminary B-Spline stochastic model for a one-way single-lane corridor traffic system based on theory of stochastic distribution control.. It has been shown that the developed stochastic model would provide the optimal probability density function (PDF) of the traffic queueing length as a dynamic function of the traffic signal setting parameters. Based upon such a stochastic distribution model, we have proposed a preliminary closed loop framework on stochastic distribution control for the traffic queueing system to make the traffic queueing length PDF follow a target PDF that potentially realizes the smooth traffic flow distribution in a concerned corridor.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-01-01

    Progress during current reporting year 2002 by quarter--Progress during Q1 2002: (1) In accordance to Task 7.0 (D. No.2 Technical Publications) TerraTek, NETL, and the Industry Contributors successfully presented a paper detailing Phase 1 testing results at the February 2002 IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, a prestigious venue for presenting DOE and private sector drilling technology advances. The full reference is as follows: IADC/SPE 74540 ''World's First Benchmarking of Drilling Mud Hammer Performance at Depth Conditions'' authored by Gordon A. Tibbitts, TerraTek; Roy C. Long, US Department of Energy, Brian E. Miller, BP America, Inc.; Arnis Judzis, TerraTek; and Alan D. Black, TerraTek. Gordon Tibbitts, TerraTek, will presented the well-attended paper in February of 2002. The full text of the Mud Hammer paper was included in the last quarterly report. (2) The Phase 2 project planning meeting (Task 6) was held at ExxonMobil's Houston Greenspoint offices on February 22, 2002. In attendance were representatives from TerraTek, DOE, BP, ExxonMobil, PDVSA, Novatek, and SDS Digger Tools. (3) PDVSA has joined the advisory board to this DOE mud hammer project. PDVSA's commitment of cash and in-kind contributions were reported during the last quarter. (4) Strong Industry support remains for the DOE project. Both Andergauge and Smith Tools have expressed an interest in participating in the ''optimization'' phase of the program. The potential for increased testing with additional Industry cash support was discussed at the planning meeting in February 2002. Progress during Q2 2002: (1) Presentation material was provided to the DOE/NETL project manager (Dr. John Rogers) for the DOE exhibit at the 2002 Offshore Technology Conference. (2) Two meeting at Smith International and one at Andergauge in Houston were held to investigate their interest in joining the Mud Hammer Performance study. (3) SDS Digger Tools (Task 3

  17. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Analyses of Lattice Traffic Flow Model on a Gradient Highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta Arvind Kumar; Redhu Poonam; Sharma Sapna

    2014-01-01

    The optimal current difference lattice hydrodynamic model is extended to investigate the traffic flow dynamics on a unidirectional single lane gradient highway. The effect of slope on uphill/downhill highway is examined through linear stability analysis and shown that the slope significantly affects the stability region on the phase diagram. Using nonlinear stability analysis, the Burgers, Korteweg-deVries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equations are derived in stable, metastable and unstable region, respectively. The effect of reaction coefficient is examined and concluded that it plays an important role in suppressing the traffic jams on a gradient highway. The theoretical findings have been verified through numerical simulation which confirm that the slope on a gradient highway significantly influence the traffic dynamics and traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the optimal current difference effect in the new lattice model. (nuclear physics)

  19. Experiments simulation and design to set traffic lights operation rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Garcia, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper it is used the experimental design to minimize the travel time of motor vehicles, in one of the most important avenues of Celaya City in Guanajuato, Mexico, by means of optimal synchronization of existing traffic lights. In the optimization process three factors are considered: the traffic lights’ cycle times, the synchrony defined as stepped, parallel and actual, and speed limit, each one with 3 evaluation levels. The response variables to consider are: motor vehicles’ travel time, fuel consumption and greenhouse effect gas (CO2) emissions. The different experiments are performed using the simulation model developed in the PTV-VISSIM software, which represents the vehicle traffic system. The obtained results for the different proposed scenarios allow to find proper levels at which the vehicle traffic system must be operated in order to improve mobility, to reduce contamination rates and decrease the fuel consumption for the different motor vehicles that use the avenue. (Author)

  20. Suppressing traffic-driven epidemic spreading by adaptive routing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The design of routing strategies for traffic-driven epidemic spreading has received increasing attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose an adaptive routing strategy that incorporates topological distance with local epidemic information through a tunable parameter h. In the case where the traffic is free of congestion, there exists an optimal value of routing parameter h, leading to the maximal epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be more effectively controlled by adaptive routing, compared to that of the static shortest path routing scheme. Besides, we find that the optimal value of h can greatly relieve the traffic congestion in the case of finite node-delivering capacity. We expect our work to provide new insights into the effects of dynamic routings on traffic-driven epidemic spreading.

  1. Reverse Stackelberg Games : Theory and Applications in Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.B.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in optimization-based control of large-scale intelligent infrastructural networks such as traffic networks is to find efficient multilevel optimization schemes through which decisions can be made by agents or controllers of different interacting layers. The hierarchical

  2. Traffic sign recognition with deep convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karamatić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The problem of detection and recognition of traffic signs is becoming an important problem when it comes to the development of self driving cars and advanced driver assistance systems. In this thesis we will develop a system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. For the problem of detection we will use aggregate channel features and for the problem of recognition we will use a deep convolutional neural network. We will describe how convolutional neural networks work, how they are co...

  3. Estimating of aquifer parameters from the single-well water-level measurements in response to advancing longwall mine by using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, Ersin; Karaman, Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    We estimated transmissivity and storage coefficient values from the single well water-level measurements positioned ahead of the mining face by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. The water-level response to the advancing mining face contains an semi-analytical function that is not suitable for conventional inversion shemes because the partial derivative is difficult to calculate . Morever, the logaritmic behaviour of the model create difficulty for obtaining an initial model that may lead to a stable convergence. The PSO appears to obtain a reliable solution that produce a reasonable fit between water-level data and model function response. Optimization methods have been used to find optimum conditions consisting either minimum or maximum of a given objective function with regard to some criteria. Unlike PSO, traditional non-linear optimization methods have been used for many hydrogeologic and geophysical engineering problems. These methods indicate some difficulties such as dependencies to initial model, evolution of the partial derivatives that is required while linearizing the model and trapping at local optimum. Recently, Particle swarm optimization (PSO) became the focus of modern global optimization method that is inspired from the social behaviour of birds of swarms, and appears to be a reliable and powerful algorithms for complex engineering applications. PSO that is not dependent on an initial model, and non-derivative stochastic process appears to be capable of searching all possible solutions in the model space either around local or global optimum points.

  4. Behavioral Profiling of Scada Network Traffic Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Acquisition ( SCADA ) System Overview SCADA systems control and monitor processes for water distribution, oil and natural gas pipelines , electrical...the desire for remote control and monitoring of industrial processes. The ability to identify SCADA devices on a mixed traffic network with zero...optimal attribute subset, while maintaining the desired TPR of .99 for SCADA network traffic. The attributes and ML algorithms chosen for

  5. Laparoscopy and computed tomography imaging in advanced ovarian tumors: A roadmap for prediction of optimal cytoreductive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Samy El-Agwany

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Comprehensive staging laparotomy and cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an alternative in inoperable advanced cases. To select patients amenable for successful cytoreduction, major determinants including CT imaging and laparoscopy could be of value. There is no general accepted model for selection and reproducibility of techniques are a major challenge due to different clinical prac...

  6. Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1: Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants; Affaldsforbraendingsmodeller til driftsoptimering. Fase 1: Avanceret maeleudstyr til forbedret drift af affaldsfyrede anlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    This report describes results from the PSO projects ELTRA-5294 and ELTRA-5348: Waste incineration models for operation optimization. Phase 1, and Advanced measurement equipment for improved operation of waste fired plants. Phase 1. The two projects form the first step in a project course build on a long-term vision of a fully automatic system using a wide range of advanced measurement data, advanced dynamic models for prediction of operation and advanced regulation methods for optimization of the operation of waste incinerator plants. (BA)

  7. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  8. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  9. Criterion for traffic phases in single vehicle data and empirical test of a microscopic three-phase traffic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hiller, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical and numerical microscopic analyses, the physical nature of a qualitatively different behaviour of the wide moving jam phase in comparison with the synchronized flow phase-microscopic traffic flow interruption within the wide moving jam phase-is found. A microscopic criterion for distinguishing the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in single vehicle data measured at a single freeway location is presented. Based on this criterion, empirical microscopic classification of different local congested traffic states is performed. Simulations made show that the microscopic criterion and macroscopic spatiotemporal objective criteria lead to the same identification of the synchronized flow and wide moving jam phases in congested traffic. Microscopic models in the context of three-phase traffic theory have been tested based on the microscopic criterion for the phases in congested traffic. It is found that microscopic three-phase traffic models can explain both microscopic and macroscopic empirical congested pattern features. It is obtained that microscopic frequency distributions for vehicle speed difference as well as fundamental diagrams and speed correlation functions can depend on the spatial co-ordinate considerably. It turns out that microscopic optimal velocity (OV) functions and time headway distributions are not necessarily qualitatively different, even if local congested traffic states are qualitatively different. The reason for this is that important spatiotemporal features of congested traffic patterns are lost in these as well as in many other macroscopic and microscopic traffic characteristics, which are widely used as the empirical basis for a test of traffic flow models, specifically, cellular automata traffic flow models

  10. Traffic Light Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Mark Philip; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Møgelmose, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any intelligent vehicle, which must function in the existing infrastructure. Pedestrian and sign detection have recently seen great improvements due to the introduction of learning based detectors using integral channel features. A similar push...... database is collected based on footage from US roads. The database consists of both test and training data, totaling 46,418 frames and 112,971 annotated traffic lights, captured in continuous sequences under a varying light and weather conditions. The learning based detector achieves an AUC of 0.4 and 0...

  11. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  12. Nonlinear analysis and simulation of soliton in the traffic flow; Kotsu jutai soliton no hassei kiko nikansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, M. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nagatani, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-07-25

    Traffic jams are investigated numerically and analystically in the optimal velocity model on a single-line highway. The condition is found whether or not traffic jams occur when a car stops instantly. It is shown that traffic soliton appears at the threshold of occurrence of traffic jams. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived from the optimal velocity model by the use of the nonlinear analysis. It is found that the traffic soliton appears only near the neutral stability point. The soliton obtained from the nonlinear analysis is consistent with that of the numerical simulation. (author)

  13. Ergodicity of Traffic Flow with Constant Penetration Rate for Traffic Monitoring via Floating Vehicle Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Abbas, Bahtiar S.; Atmadja, Wiedjaja; Yoseph Chandra, Fajar; Agung, Alexander AS; Kusnandar, Erwin

    2014-03-01

    Traffic congestion in Asian megacities has become extremely worse, and any means to lessen the congestion level is urgently needed. Building an efficient mass transportation system is clearly necessary. However, implementing Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have also been demonstrated effective in various advanced countries. Recently, the floating vehicle technique (FVT), an ITS implementation, has become cost effective to provide real-time traffic information with proliferation of the smartphones. Although many publications have discussed various issues related to the technique, none of them elaborates the discrepancy of a single floating car data (FCD) and the associated fleet data. This work addresses the issue based on an analysis of Sugiyama et al's experimental data. The results indicate that there is an optimum averaging time interval such that the estimated velocity by the FVT reasonably representing the traffic velocity.

  14. National guidelines for traffic calming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schermers, G

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available and provides a policy framework on traffic calming. It also describes the administrative and management procedures required to meet policy objectives in the implementation and monitoring of traffic calming in urban areas. Related legal requirements, liability...

  15. Texas traffic thermostat marketing package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  16. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsroom SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and ...

  17. Texas traffic thermostat software tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The traffic thermostat decision tool is built to help guide the user through a logical, step-wise, process of examining potential changes to their Manage Lane/toll facility. : **NOTE: Project Title: Application of the Traffic Thermostat Framework. Ap...

  18. [Implantable sensors for outpatient assessment of ventricular filling pressure in advanced heart failure : Which telemonitoring design is optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, E; Fichtlscherer, S; Hohnloser, S H; Zeiher, A M; Aßmus, B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with advanced heart failure suffer from frequent hospitalizations. Non-invasive hemodynamic telemonitoring for assessment of ventricular filling pressure has been shown to reduce hospitalizations. We report on the right ventricular (RVP), the pulmonary artery (PAP) and the left atrial pressure (LAP) sensor for non-invasive assessment of the ventricular filling pressure. A literature search concerning the available implantable pressure sensors for noninvasive haemodynamic telemonitoring in patients with advanced heart failure was performed. Until now, only implantation of the PAP-sensor was able to reduce hospitalizations for cardiac decompensation and to improve quality of life. The right ventricular pressure sensor missed the primary endpoint of a significant reduction of hospitalizations, clinical data using the left atrial pressure sensor are still pending. The implantation of a pressure sensor for assessment of pulmonary artery filling pressure is suitable for reducing hospitalizations for heart failure and for improving quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure.

  19. Refractive outcomes of an advanced aspherically optimized profile for myopia corrections by LASIK: a retrospective comparison with the standard aspherically optimized profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bertram Meyer,1 Georg Sluyterman van Langeweyde,2 Matthias Wottke2 1Augencentrum Köln, Cologne, Germany; 2Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany Purpose: A retrospective comparison of refractive outcomes of a new, aspherically optimized profile with an enhanced energy correction feature (Triple-A and the conventionally used aspherically optimized profile (ASA, or aberration smart ablation for correction of low-to-high myopia.Setting: Augen-OP-Centrum, Cologne, GermanyDesign: Retrospective nonrandomized comparative studyMethods: A central database at the Augen-OP-Centrum was used to gather retrospective data for low-to-high myopia (up to -10 D. One hundred and seven eyes (56 patients were treated with the ASA profile, and 79 eyes (46 patients were treated with the Triple-A profile. Postoperative outcomes were evaluated at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow-up time points.Results: The Triple-A profile showed better predictability indicated by a significantly lower standard deviation of residuals (0.32–0.34 vs 0.36–0.44, Triple-A vs ASA in the 6-month to 1-year period. The Triple-A group had better stability across all time intervals and achieved better postoperative astigmatism improvements with significantly lower scatter. This group achieved better safety at 1 year, with 100% of eyes showing no change or gain in Snellen lines, compared with 97% in the ASA group. A better safety index was observed for the Triple-A group at later time points. The Triple-A group had a better efficacy index and a higher percentage of eyes with an uncorrected Snellen visual acuity of 20/20 or greater at all investigated follow-up time points.Conclusion: The new aspherically optimized Triple-A profile can safely and effectively correct low-to-high myopia. It has demonstrated superiority over the ASA profile in most refractive outcomes. Keywords: Triple-A, wavefront measurements, corneal aberrations, corneal asphericity, ablation profile

  20. An intelligent vehicular traffic signal control system with state flow chart design and fpga prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, U.S.; Memon, T.D.; Noonari, A.S.; Ansari, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language) code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III. (author)

  1. An Intelligent Vehicular Traffic Signal Control System with State Flow Chart Design and FPGA Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMAIR SAEEDSOLANGI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is a persistent constraint in the socio-economic development of Pakistan. This paper presents design and implementation of an intelligent traffic controller based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array to provide an efficient traffic management by optimizing functioning of traffic lights which will result in minimizing traffic congestion at intersections. The existent Traffic Signal system in Pakistan is fixed-time based and offers only Open Loop method for Traffic Control. The Intelligent Traffic Controller presented here uses feedback sensors to read the Traffic density present at a four way intersection to provide an efficient alternative for better supervisory Control of Traffic flow. The traffic density based control logic has been developed in a State Flow Chart for improved visualization of State Machine based operation, and implemented as a Subsystem in Simulink and transferred into VHDL (Hardware Description Language code using HDL Coder for reducing development time and time to market, which are essential to capitalize Embedded Systems Market. The VHDL code is synthesized with Altera QUARTUS, simulated timing waveform is obtained to verify correctness of the algorithm for different Traffic Scenarios. For implementation purpose estimations were obtained for Cyclone-III and Stratix-III.

  2. Framework for Traffic Congestion Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaki, J.F.W.; Ali-Eldin, A.M.T.; Hussein, S.E.; Saraya, S.F.; Areed, F.F.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic Congestion is a complex dilemma facing most major cities. It has undergone a lot of research since the early 80s in an attempt to predict traffic in the short-term. Recently, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) became an integral part of traffic research which helped in modeling and

  3. Dynamic control of traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Wal, van der Jan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic lights are put in place to dynamically change priority between traffic participants. Commonly, the duration of green intervals and the grouping, and ordering in which traffic flows are served are pre-fixed. In this chapter, the problem of minimizing vehicle delay at isolated intersections is

  4. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  5. ITSA: Internet Traffic Statistics Archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Motivated by the fact that comprehensive and long term Internet traffic measurements can be hard to obtain, we have proposed and developed the Internet Traffic Statistics Archive (ITSA). Since 2013, ITSA concentrates reports on high-level statistics of Internet traffic worldwide. Examples of

  6. Highway traffic noise prediction based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianghua; Qin, Qiming

    2014-05-01

    Before building a new road, we need to predict the traffic noise generated by vehicles. Traditional traffic noise prediction methods are based on certain locations and they are not only time-consuming, high cost, but also cannot be visualized. Geographical Information System (GIS) can not only solve the problem of manual data processing, but also can get noise values at any point. The paper selected a road segment from Wenxi to Heyang. According to the geographical overview of the study area and the comparison between several models, we combine the JTG B03-2006 model and the HJ2.4-2009 model to predict the traffic noise depending on the circumstances. Finally, we interpolate the noise values at each prediction point and then generate contours of noise. By overlaying the village data on the noise contour layer, we can get the thematic maps. The use of GIS for road traffic noise prediction greatly facilitates the decision-makers because of GIS spatial analysis function and visualization capabilities. We can clearly see the districts where noise are excessive, and thus it becomes convenient to optimize the road line and take noise reduction measures such as installing sound barriers and relocating villages and so on.

  7. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or reading and typing text messages (texting). Distraction has negative effects on

  8. TRAFFIC - Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    growing in Eastern and Southern Africa in response to increased human populations and poverty. fuel-trees etc. Conversely, extreme poverty of others means they regard wildlife as a means to meet their short worldwide. You can also find us online in: mainland China, India, Japan, Taiwan TRAFFIC is a strategic

  9. Decline traffic information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  10. Visualization of vessel traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Moving objects are captured in multivariate trajectories, often large data with multiple attributes. We focus on vessel traffic as a source of such data. Patterns appearing from visually analyzing attributes are used to explain why certain movements have occurred. In this research, we have developed

  11. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  12. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  13. Association between frequent cardiac resynchronization therapy optimization and long-term clinical response: a post hoc analysis of the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization (CLEAR) pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnoy, Peter Paul; Ritter, Philippe; Naegele, Herbert; Orazi, Serafino; Szwed, Hanna; Zupan, Igor; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Anselme, Frederic; Martino, Maria; Padeletti, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Aims The long-term clinical value of the optimization of atrioventricular (AVD) and interventricular (VVD) delays in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains controversial. We studied retrospectively the association between the frequency of AVD and VVD optimization and 1-year clinical outcomes in the 199 CRT patients who completed the Clinical Evaluation on Advanced Resynchronization study. Methods and results From the 199 patients assigned to CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) (New York Heart Association, NYHA, class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction failure-related hospitalization, NYHA functional class, and Quality of Life score, at 1 year. Systematic CRT optimization was associated with a higher percentage of improved patients based on the composite endpoint (85% in Group 1 vs. 61% in Group 2, P < 0.001), with fewer deaths (3% in Group 1 vs. 14% in Group 2, P = 0.014) and fewer hospitalizations (8% in Group 1 vs. 23% in Group 2, P = 0.007), at 1 year. Conclusion These results further suggest that AVD and VVD frequent optimization (at implant, at 3 and 6 months) is associated with improved long-term clinical response in CRT-P patients. PMID:23493410

  14. Measuring the influence of a mental health training module on the therapeutic optimism of advanced nurse practitioner students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Rogers, Melanie; Elsom, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of a mental health training module on the therapeutic optimism of advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) students in primary care (family practice). Three cohorts of ANPs who undertook a Mental Health Problems in Primary Care Module as part of their MSc ANP (primary care) run by the University of Huddersfield completed the Elsom Therapeutic Optimism Scale (ETOS), in a pre- and postformat. The ETOS is a 10-item, self-administered scale, which has been used to evaluate therapeutic optimism previously in mental health professionals. All three cohorts who completed the scale showed an improvement in their therapeutic optimism scores. With stigma having such a detrimental effect for people diagnosed with a mental health problem, ANPs who are more mental health literate facilitated by education and training in turn facilitates them to have the skills and confidence to engage and inspire hope for the person diagnosed with mental health problems. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  16. Traffic Management as a Service: The Traffic Flow Pattern Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos T. Calafate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation System (ITS technologies can be implemented to reduce both fuel consumption and the associated emission of greenhouse gases. However, such systems require intelligent and effective route planning solutions to reduce travel time and promote stable traveling speeds. To achieve such goal these systems should account for both estimated and real-time traffic congestion states, but obtaining reliable traffic congestion estimations for all the streets/avenues in a city for the different times of the day, for every day in a year, is a complex task. Modeling such a tremendous amount of data can be time-consuming and, additionally, centralized computation of optimal routes based on such time-dependencies has very high data processing requirements. In this paper we approach this problem through a heuristic to considerably reduce the modeling effort while maintaining the benefits of time-dependent traffic congestion modeling. In particular, we propose grouping streets by taking into account real traces describing the daily traffic pattern. The effectiveness of this heuristic is assessed for the city of Valencia, Spain, and the results obtained show that it is possible to reduce the required number of daily traffic flow patterns by a factor of 4210 while maintaining the essence of time-dependent modeling requirements.

  17. Optimizing patient treatment decisions in an era of rapid technological advances: the case of hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Brandeau, Margaret L; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2017-03-01

    How long should a patient with a treatable chronic disease wait for more effective treatments before accepting the best available treatment? We develop a framework to guide optimal treatment decisions for a deteriorating chronic disease when treatment technologies are improving over time. We formulate an optimal stopping problem using a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov decision process. The goal is to maximize a patient's quality-adjusted life expectancy. We derive structural properties of the model and analytically solve a three-period treatment decision problem. We illustrate the model with the example of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic HCV affects 3-4 million Americans and has been historically difficult to treat, but increasingly effective treatments have been commercialized in the past few years. We show that the optimal treatment decision is more likely to be to accept currently available treatment-despite expectations for future treatment improvement-for patients who have high-risk history, who are older, or who have more comorbidities. Insights from this study can guide HCV treatment decisions for individual patients. More broadly, our model can guide treatment decisions for curable chronic diseases by finding the optimal treatment policy for individual patients in a heterogeneous population.

  18. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  19. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  20. The impact of short term traffic forecasting on the effectiveness of vehicles routes planning in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubek, D.

    2016-07-01

    An impossibility to foresee in advance the accurate traffic parameters in face of dynamism phenomena in complex transportation system is a one of the major source of uncertainty. The paper presents an approach to robust optimization of logistics vehicle routes in urban areas on the basis of estimated short-term traffic time forecasts in a selected area of the urban road network. The forecast values of optimization parameters have been determined using the spectral analysis model, taking into account the forecast uncertainty degree. The robust counterparts approach of uncertain bi-criteria shortest path problem formulation is used to determining the robust routes for logistics vehicles in the urban network. The uncertainty set is created on the basis of forecast travel times in chosen sections, estimated by means of spectral analysis. The advantages and the characteristics are exemplified in the actual Krakow road network. The obtained data have been compared with classic approach wherein it is assumed that the optimization parameters are certain and accurate. The results obtained in the simulation example indicate that use of forecasting techniques with robust optimization models has a positive impact on the quality of final solutions. (Author)

  1. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web...

  2. Modelling the effects of road traffic safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng

    2006-05-01

    A model is presented for assessing the effects of traffic safety measures, based on a breakdown of the process in underlying components of traffic safety (risk and consequence), and five (speed and conflict related) variables that influence these components, and are influenced by traffic safety measures. The relationships between measures, variables and components are modelled as coefficients. The focus is on probabilities rather than historical statistics, although in practice statistics may be needed to find values for the coefficients. The model may in general contribute to improve insight in the mechanisms between traffic safety measures and their safety effects. More specifically it allows comparative analysis of different types of measures by defining an effectiveness index, based on the coefficients. This index can be used to estimate absolute effects of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) related measures from absolute effects of substitutional (in terms of safety effects) infrastructure measures.

  3. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  4. From Traffic Flow to Economic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, M.

    The optimal velocity model which is applied to traffic flow phenomena explains a spontaneous formation of traffic congestion. We discuss why the model works well in describing both free-flow and congested flow states in a unified way. The essential ingredient is that our model takes account of a sort of time delay in reacting to a given stimulus. This causes instability of many-body system, and yields a kind of phase transition above a certain critical density. Especially there appears a limit cycle on the phase space along which individual vehicle moves, and they show cyclic behavior. Once that we recognize the mechanism the same idea can be applied to a variety of phenomena which show cyclic behavior observed in many-body systems. As an example of such applications, we investigate business cycles commonly observed in economic system. We further discuss a possible origin of a kind of cyclic behavior observed in climate change.

  5. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  6. Inaccuracy in traffic forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Holm, Mette K. Skamris; Buhl, Søren Ladegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first statistically significant study of traffic forecasts in transportation infrastructure projects. The sample used is the largest of its kind, covering 210 projects in 14 nations worth US$58 billion. The study shows with very high statistical significance...... that forecasters generally do a poor job of estimating the demand for transportation infrastructure projects. The result is substantial downside financial and economic risk. Forecasts have not become more accurate over the 30-year period studied. If techniques and skills for arriving at accurate demand forecasts...... forecasting. Highly inaccurate traffic forecasts combined with large standard deviations translate into large financial and economic risks. But such risks are typically ignored or downplayed by planners and decision-makers, to the detriment of social and economic welfare. The paper presents the data...

  7. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  8. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-pu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.

  9. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah

    2016-01-01

    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  10. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjian Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I. This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes.

  11. Dynamic route guidance strategy in a two-route pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mianfang; Xiong, Shengwu; Li, Bixiang

    2016-05-01

    With the rapid development of transportation, traffic questions have become the major issue for social, economic and environmental aspects. Especially, during serious emergencies, it is very important to alleviate road traffic congestion and improve the efficiency of evacuation to reduce casualties, and addressing these problems has been a major task for the agencies responsible in recent decades. Advanced road guidance strategies have been developed for homogeneous traffic flows, or to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the road capacity in a symmetric two-route scenario. However, feedback strategies have rarely been considered for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows with variable velocities and sizes in an asymmetric multi-route traffic system, which is a common phenomenon in many developing countries. In this study, we propose a weighted road occupancy feedback strategy (WROFS) for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flows, which considers the system equilibrium to ease traffic congestion. In order to more realistic simulating the behavior of mixed traffic objects, the paper adopted a refined and dynamic cellular automaton model (RDPV_CA model) as the update mechanism for pedestrian-vehicle mixed traffic flow. Moreover, a bounded rational threshold control was introduced into the feedback strategy to avoid some negative effect of delayed information and reduce. Based on comparisons with the two previously proposed strategies, the simulation results obtained in a pedestrian-vehicle traffic flow scenario demonstrated that the proposed strategy with a bounded rational threshold was more effective and system equilibrium, system stability were reached.

  12. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  13. CONTROLLING TRAFFIC FLOW IN MULTILANE-ISOLATED INTERSECTION USING ANFIS APPROACH TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.

  14. Ecological interface design : supporting fault diagnosis of automated advice in a supervisory air traffic control task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, C.; Bijsterbosch, V.A.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Future air traffic control will have to rely on more advanced automation to support human controllers in their job of safely handling increased traffic volumes. A prerequisite for the success of such automation is that the data driving it are reliable. Current technology, however, still warrants

  15. Advanced MR imaging for the optimal micro neurosurgical planning in patients with the congential spinal meningeal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvina, J.; Jansone, A.; Krumina, G.; Dzelzite, S.; Platkajis, A.; Ozolins, H.; Dzelzitis, J.

    2001-01-01

    The extramedullar meningeal cysts are congential anomalies of the spinal canal. The neurological manifestation - the syndromes of radicular pain and the dysfunctions of the pelvic organs are indicators for the neurosurgical treatment. The most complete classification of distinguish the different types of these anomalies is the Nabor's classification. The congential anomalies (malformations) are conventionally diagnosed by TC or conventional MR imaging techniques. These methods can't give a precise answer to the Nabor's classification. The new MR sequences offer the possibility to diagnose these anomalies more precisely. Purpose: to create a new MR protocol for a precise topical diagnostic of the meningeal cysts according to the contemporary embriogenetical, neurological and neurosurgical classification. Conclusions: For the optimal topographical visualisation of the congential spinal meningeal cysts MR in 3 orthogonal planes must be performed. The thin slice techniques with the specific parameters for better visualisation of the nerve roots are necessary. The thin slice, fat suppressed MR sequences are very important for the differential diagnosis of the extradural meningeal cysts from the dermoids, para- and infraspinal fat collections. They are very useful in choosing the optimal microneurosurgical way of the surgical treatment. (authors)

  16. The development of advanced robotics for the nuclear industry -The development of optimal design technology in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Seok; Jeong, Seung Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Seung Ho

    1996-07-01

    The materials used in fabrication of the nozzle dam were carbon fabric reinfored plastic(CFRP), honeycomb, aluminum plate and glass fiber. CFRP was used as the main structural material because of its relatively high specific modulus and high specific strength. Honeycomb was used to increase bending stiffness and shear stiffness, aluminum plate to release the stress around bolt hoes, and glass fiber to absorb the impact on nozzle dam. The stiffness-to-weight ratios of the nozzle damII were much improved to 9.15x10 3 and 11.56x10 3 (Nm 2 /kg) for x-radiation and y-direction, respectively than those of KORI nozzle dam, 0.37x10 3 and 18.25x10 3 (Nm 2 /kg). The structural integrity of KAERI nozzle dam II was verified through the stress analysis using ANSYS program. Design and manufacturing of nozzle dam diaphragm seal assembly which consists of inflatable seals(a wet and a dry seal) and a mechanical seal have been completed. From the leak test, it has been proved that there was no leakage under the testing pressure(1.25 operating pressure). Optimal design of the gripper mechanism were carried out. As a performance index of the optimization, the driving force-to-gripping force ratio was proposed. The smaller index stands for the better performance of the gripper

  17. Mutation detection for inventories of traffic signs from street-level panoramic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelhoff, L.; Creusen, I.M.; With, de P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    Road safety is positively influenced by both adequate placement and optimal visibility of traffic signs. As their visibility degrades over time due to e.g. aging, vandalism, accidents and vegetation coverage, up-to-date inven­tories of traffic signs are highly attractive for preserving a high road

  18. Weighted Traffic Equilibrium Problem in Non Pivot Hilbert Spaces with Long Term Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffre, Sofia; Pia, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we consider a weighted traffic equilibrium problem in a non-pivot Hilbert space and prove the equivalence between a weighted Wardrop condition and a variational inequality with long term memory. As an application we show, using recent results of the Senseable Laboratory at MIT, how wireless devices can be used to optimize the traffic equilibrium problem.

  19. Energy efficient traffic management and control: the eCoMove approach and expected benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Mahmod, Mohammed; van Arem, Bart; Abadi, A.; Bauer e.a., D.

    2010-01-01

    Transportation is an important contributor to environmental problems like declining air quality. Current traffic measures seek to optimize travel times, but fall short on the ideal of an ecologically friendly traffic system. The European research project eCoMove aims to reduce the overall fuel

  20. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of natural organic matter degradation by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Reza; Maleki, Afshin; Jafari, Ali; Mazloomi, Sajad; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Mahvi, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the removal of natural organic matter from aqueous solutions using advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2) was evaluated. Therefore, the response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design matrix were employed to design the experiments and to determine the optimal conditions. The effects of various parameters such as initial concentration of H2O2 (100-180 mg/L), pH (3-11), time (10-30 min) and initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration (4-10 mg/L) were studied. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), revealed a good agreement between experimental data and proposed quadratic polynomial model (R(2) = 0.98). Experimental results showed that with increasing H2O2 concentration, time and decreasing in initial TOC concentration, TOC removal efficiency was increased. Neutral and nearly acidic pH values also improved the TOC removal. Accordingly, the TOC removal efficiency of 78.02% in terms of the independent variables including H2O2 concentration (100 mg/L), pH (6.12), time (22.42 min) and initial TOC concentration (4 mg/L) were optimized. Further confirmation tests under optimal conditions showed a 76.50% of TOC removal and confirmed that the model is accordance with the experiments. In addition TOC removal for natural water based on response surface methodology optimum condition was 62.15%. This study showed that response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken method is a useful tool for optimizing the operating parameters for TOC removal using UV/H2O2 process.

  1. [The optimization of restoration approaches of advanced hand activity using the sensorial glove and the mCIMT method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozheiko, E Yu; Prokopenko, S V; Alekseevich, G V

    To reason the choice of methods of restoration of advanced hand activity depending on severity of motor disturbance in the top extremity. Eighty-eight patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1) the mCIMT group, 2) the 'touch glove' group, 3) the control group. For assessment of physical activity of the top extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Motor Assessment Scale were used. Assessment of non-use phenomenon was carried out with the Motor Activity Log scale. At a stage of severe motor dysfunction, there was a restoration of proximal departments of a hand in all groups, neither method was superior to the other. In case of moderate severity of motor deficiency of the upper extremity the most effective was the method based on the principle of biological feedback - 'a touch glove'. In the group with mild severity of motor dysfunction, the best recovery was achieved in the mCIMT group.

  2. Traffic forecasts ignoring induced demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Nicolaisen, Morten Skou; Strand, Arvid

    2012-01-01

    the model calculations included only a part of the induced traffic, the difference in cost-benefit results compared to the model excluding all induced traffic was substantial. The results show lower travel time savings, more adverse environmental impacts and a considerably lower benefitcost ratio when...... induced traffic is partly accounted for than when it is ignored. By exaggerating the economic benefits of road capacity increase and underestimating its negative effects, omission of induced traffic can result in over-allocation of public money on road construction and correspondingly less focus on other...... performance of a proposed road project in Copenhagen with and without short-term induced traffic included in the transport model. The available transport model was not able to include long-term induced traffic resulting from changes in land use and in the level of service of public transport. Even though...

  3. Volumetric response analysis during chemoradiation as predictive tool for optimizing treatment strategy in locally advanced unresectable NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bral, Samuel; Duchateau, Michael; De Ridder, Mark; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Schallier, Denis; Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of measuring volumetric changes in the primary tumor on megavoltage-computed tomography (MVCT) during chemoradiation and to examine the correlation with local response. Patients and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with stage III, inoperable, locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were treated in a prospective dose escalation study protocol of concurrent chemoradiation. They were monitored for acute toxicity and evaluated with daily MVCT imaging. The volumetric changes were fitted to a negative exponential resulting in a regression coefficient (RC). Local response evaluation was done with positron emission tomography using the radio-labeled glucose analogue F18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Results: The mean volume decrease (±standard deviation) was 73% (±18%). With a mean treatment time of 42 days this treatment schedule resulted in a mean decrease of 1.74%/day. Of the 13 evaluable patients seven developed a metabolic complete remission (MCR). The mean RC of the patients with MCR is 0.050 versus a mean RC of 0.023 in non-responders (p = 0.0074). Using a proposed cut-off value for the RC of 0.03 80% of the non-responders will be detected correctly while misclassifying 16.4% of patients who will eventually achieve an MCR. The total cumulative percentage of esophageal grade 3 or more toxicity was 46.7%. Conclusion: The RC derived from volumetric analysis of daily MVCT is prognostic and predictive for local response in patients treated with chemoradiation for a locally advanced NSCLC. Because this treatment schedule is toxic in nearly half of the patient population, MVCT is a tool in the implementation of patient-individualized treatment strategies.

  4. Process Parameter Evaluation and Optimization for Advanced Material Development Final Report CRADA No. TC-1234-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McGann, T. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This project was established as a three-year collaboration to produce and characterize · silica aerogels prepared by a Rapid Supercritical Extraction (RSCE) process to meet . BNA, Inc. application requirements. The objectives of this project were to study the parameters necessary to produce optimized aerogel parts with narrowly specified properties and establish the range and limits of the process for producing such aerogels. The project also included development of new aerogel materials useful for high temperature applications. The results of the project were expected to set the conditions necessary to produce quantities of aerogels having particular specifications such as size, shape, density, and mechanical strength. BNA, Inc. terminated the project on April 7, 1999, 10-months prior to the anticipated completion date, due to termination of corporate funding for the project. The technical accomplishments achieved are outlined in Paragraph C below.

  5. Optimized spherical manganese oxide-ferroferric oxide-tin oxide ternary composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2015-09-01

    Inexpensive MnO2 is a promising material for supercapacitors (SCs), but its application is limited by poor electrical conductivity and low specific surface area. We design and fabricate hierarchical MnO2-based ternary composite nanostructures showing superior electrochemical performance via doping with electrochemically active Fe3O4 in the interior and electrically conductive SnO2 nanoparticles in the surface layer. Optimization composition results in a MnO2-Fe3O4-SnO2 composite electrode material with 5.9 wt.% Fe3O4 and 5.3 wt.% SnO2, leading to a high specific areal capacitance of 1.12 F cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. This is two to three times the values for MnO2-based binary nanostructures at the same scan rate. The low amount of SnO2 almost doubles the capacitance of porous MnO2-Fe3O4 (before SnO2 addition), which is attributed to an improved conductivity and remaining porosity. In addition, the optimal ternary composite has a good rate capability and an excellent cycling performance with stable capacitance retention of ˜90% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at 7.5 mA cm-2. All-solid-state SCs are assembled with such electrodes using polyvinyl alcohol/Na2SO4 electrolyte. An integrated device made by connecting two identical SCs in series can power a light-emitting diode indicator for more than 10 min.

  6. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  7. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  8. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  9. Advances in Opto Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Advances in Opto Electronics. Optoelectronics is where electronics was 15 years back. All Optical Amplifiers and Semiconductor Amplifiers. Fastest Semiconductor (InP) switch is at 170GHz- where is terrabit ? MEMS based switches that route traffic at wavelength level ...

  10. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber- sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website. Kata kunci : Optimasi, Bandwith, Traffic Shapping, MikroTik. 

  11. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  12. Data mining tools for the support of traffic signal timing plan development in arterial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) include large numbers of traffic sensors that collect enormous quantities of data. The data provided by ITS is necessary for advanced forms of control; however, basic forms of control, primarily time-of-day (T...

  13. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations: An Impediment to National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahon, Steven G

    2008-01-01

    The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is putting United States (U.S.) advanced technology and weapons companies at a competitive disadvantage, particularly in the fields of satellite manufacturing and technology...

  14. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  15. Correlation Analysis of Freeway Traffic Status and Crashes with Nevada Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-11

    This project is to study the correlation between freeway traffic status and crash risks with the historical freeway ITS data and related crash data in Nevada. With the comprehensive review of previous research results, the Center for Advanced Transpo...

  16. SNAPS : semantic network traffic analysis through projection and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Harrison, L.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Best, D.; Goodall, J.

    2015-01-01

    Most network traffic analysis applications are designed to discover malicious activity by only relying on high-level flow-based message properties. However, to detect security breaches that are specifically designed to target one network (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats), deep packet inspection

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Dosimetry Studies for Optimization of Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in CEA-Expressing Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eBodet-Milin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. A phase I pretargeted radioimmunotherapy trial (EudractCT 200800603096 was designed in patients with metastatic lung cancer expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA to optimize bispecific antibody and labelled peptide doses, as well as the delay between their injections.Methods. Three cohorts of 3 patients received the anti-CEA x anti-histamine-succinyl-glycine (HSG humanized trivalent bispecific antibody (TF2 and the IMP288 bivalent HSG-peptide. Patients underwent a pre-therapeutic imaging session S1 (44 or 88 nmol/m2 of TF2 followed by 4.4 nmol/m2, 185 MBq, of 111In-labelled IMP288, and, 1-2 weeks later, a therapy session S2 (240 or 480 nmol/m2 of TF2 followed by 24 nmol/m2, 1.1 GBq/m2, 177Lu-labeled IMP288. The pretargeting delay was 24 or 48 hours. The dose schedule was defined based on pre-clinical TF2 pharmacokinetic studies, on our previous clinical data using the previous anti-CEA pretargeting system and on clinical results observed in the first patients injected using the same system in the Netherlands.Results. TF2 pharmacokinetics (PK was represented by a two-compartment model in which the central compartment volume was linearly dependent on the patient's surface area. PK were remarkably similar, with a clearance of 0.33 +/- 0.03 L/h per m2. 111In- and 177Lu-IMP288 PK were also well represented by a two-compartment model. IMP288 PK were faster (clearance 1.4 to 3.3 l/h. The central compartment volume was proportional to body surface area and IMP288clearance depended on the molar ratio of injected IMP288 to circulating TF2 at the time of IMP288 injection. Modelling of image quantification confirmed the dependence of IMP288 kinetics on circulating TF2, but tumour activity PK were variable. Organ absorbed doses were not significantly different in the 3 cohorts, but the tumour dose was significantly higher with the higher molar doses of TF2 (p < 0.002. S1 imaging predicted absorbed doses calculated in S2. Conclusion. The best

  18. Development of Road Traffic Assignment and Assessment Sub-Model Applied in the Traffic Study ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The described sub-model is just one small segment of theTraffic Study of the City of Zagreb, in the development of whichnumerous foreign and national experts and institutions tookpart. After comprehensive collection and processing of inputdata, the traffic experts, using the software package "MVATRIPS" for the analysis and search for optimal solutions to theproblem of traffic system, provided the models of public urbantransit for the future.This paper describes the analysis and assessment of sub-models in road traffic assignment for the morning peak, afternoonpeak and average off-peak hours. The principles of assignmentprocedure have been described as well as the convergencetests. The following has been specified: the users categories,the public transit pre-load, and the passenger car unit(PC U. The key guideline in selecting the route is a generalisedformulation of costs presented in the paper. The procedures ofcalibration and the assessment of the finite model have alsobeen defined according to the screenline flows, link flows, andtravelling times. In the end, the summary is given of the basiccharacteristics of the finite travelling matrices.

  19. Statistical modelling of traffic safety development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    there were 6861 injury trafficc accidents reported by the police, resulting in 4519 minor injuries, 3946 serious injuries, and 431 fatalities. The general purpose of the research was to improve the insight into aggregated road safety methodology in Denmark. The aim was to analyse advanced statistical methods......, that were designed to study developments over time, including effects of interventions. This aim has been achieved by investigating variations in aggregated Danish traffic accident series and by applying state of the art methodologies to specific case studies. The thesis comprises an introduction...

  20. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, F.; Makino, K.; Berz, M.; Johnstone, C.

    2010-01-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  1. Advanced Simulation and Optimization Tools for Dynamic Aperture of Non-scaling FFAGs and Accelerators including Modern User Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, F.; Makino, Kyoko; Berz, Martin; Johnstone, C.

    2010-09-01

    With the U.S. experimental effort in HEP largely located at laboratories supporting the operations of large, highly specialized accelerators, colliding beam facilities, and detector facilities, the understanding and prediction of high energy particle accelerators becomes critical to the success, overall, of the DOE HEP program. One area in which small businesses can contribute to the ongoing success of the U.S. program in HEP is through innovations in computer techniques and sophistication in the modeling of high-energy accelerators. Accelerator modeling at these facilities is performed by experts with the product generally highly specific and representative only of in-house accelerators or special-interest accelerator problems. Development of new types of accelerators like FFAGs with their wide choices of parameter modifications, complicated fields, and the simultaneous need to efficiently handle very large emittance beams requires the availability of new simulation environments to assure predictability in operation. In this, ease of use and interfaces are critical to realizing a successful model, or optimization of a new design or working parameters of machines. In Phase I, various core modules for the design and analysis of FFAGs were developed and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) have been investigated instead of the more general yet less easily manageable console-type output COSY provides.

  2. Optimal Level of Woody Biomass Co-Firing with Coal Power Plant Considering Advanced Feedstock Logistics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangpil Ko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-firing from woody biomass feedstock is one of the alternatives toward increased use of renewable feedstock in existing coal power plants. However, the economic level of co-firing at a particular power plant depends on several site-specific factors. Torrefaction has been identified recently as a promising biomass pretreatment option to lead to reduction of the feedstock delivered cost, and thus facilitate an increase in the co-firing ratio. In this study, a mixed integer linear program (MILP is developed to integrate supply chain of co-firing and torrefaction process and find the optimal level of biomass co-firing in terms of minimized transportation and logistics costs, with or without tax credits. A case study of 26 existing coal power plants in three Great Lakes States of the US is used to test the model. The results reveal that torrefaction process can lead to higher levels of co-firing, but without the tax credit, the effect is limited to the low capacity of power plants. The sensitivity analysis shows that co-firing ratio has higher sensitivity to variation in capital and operation costs of torrefaction than to the variation in the transportation and feedstock purchase costs.

  3. Recent advances in PC-Linux systems for electronic structure computations by optimized compilers and numerical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jen-Shiang K; Yu, Chin-Hui

    2002-01-01

    One of the most frequently used packages for electronic structure research, GAUSSIAN 98, is compiled on Linux systems with various hardware configurations, including AMD Athlon (with the "Thunderbird" core), AthlonMP, and AthlonXP (with the "Palomino" core) systems as well as the Intel Pentium 4 (with the "Willamette" core) machines. The default PGI FORTRAN compiler (pgf77) and the Intel FORTRAN compiler (ifc) are respectively employed with different architectural optimization options to compile GAUSSIAN 98 and test the performance improvement. In addition to the BLAS library included in revision A.11 of this package, the Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS) library is linked against the binary executables to improve the performance. Various Hartree-Fock, density-functional theories, and the MP2 calculations are done for benchmarking purposes. It is found that the combination of ifc with ATLAS library gives the best performance for GAUSSIAN 98 on all of these PC-Linux computers, including AMD and Intel CPUs. Even on AMD systems, the Intel FORTRAN compiler invariably produces binaries with better performance than pgf77. The enhancement provided by the ATLAS library is more significant for post-Hartree-Fock calculations. The performance on one single CPU is potentially as good as that on an Alpha 21264A workstation or an SGI supercomputer. The floating-point marks by SpecFP2000 have similar trends to the results of GAUSSIAN 98 package.

  4. Traffic simulation for mixed traffic systems | Mbam | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic problem is classified into single and mixed, especially in most developing countries, where motorbikes are used as the most popular transportation system. The aim of this paper is to introduce the motorbike symbol into the traffic light control system to separate cars/lorries indicator from that of motorbike. This is likely ...

  5. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  6. Assistance System for Traffic Signs Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zídek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We can see arising trend in the automotive industry in last years – autonomous cars that are driven just by on-board computers. The traffic signs tracking system must deal with real conditions with data that are frequently obtained in poor light conditions, fog, heavy rain or are otherwise disturbed. Completely same problem is solved by mapping companies that are producing geospatial data for different information systems, navigations, etc. They are frequently using cars equipped with a wide range of measuring instruments including panoramic cameras. These measurements are frequently done during early morning hours when the traffic conditions are acceptable. However, in this time, the sun position is usually not optimal for the photography. Most of the traffic signs and other street objects are heavily underexposed. Hence, it is difficult to find an automatic approach that can identify them reliably. In this article, we focus on methods designed to deal with the described conditions. An overview of the state-of-the-art methods is outlined. Further, where it is possible, we outline an implementation of the described methods using well-known Open Computer Vision library. Finally, emphasis is placed on the methods that can deal with low light conditions, fog or other situations that complicate the detection process.

  7. Traffic dynamics on coupled spatial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Chen, Zhen; Cai, Kai-Quan; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern traffic, various means of transportation systems make it more convenient and diversified for passengers to travel out. In this paper, we establish a two-layered spatial network model where the low-speed lower layer is a regular lattice and the high-speed upper layer is a scale-free network embedded in the lattice. Passengers will travel along the path with the minimal travel time, and they can transfer from one layer to the other, which will induce extra transfer cost. We extensively investigate the traffic process on these coupled spatial networks and focus on the effect of the parameter α, the speed ratio between two networks. It is found that, as α grows, the network capacity of the coupled networks increases in the early stage and then decreases, indicating that cooperation between the coupled networks will induce the highest network capacity at an optimal α. We then provide an explanation for this non-monotonous dependence from a micro-scope point of view. The travel time reliability is also examined. Both in free-flow state and congestion state, the travel time is linearly related to the Euclidean distance. However, the variance of travel time in the congestion state is remarkably larger than that in the free-flow state, namely, people have to set aside more redundant time in an unreliable traffic system

  8. A mathematical model of functioning of channels of distribution of freight traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical model of functioning of channels of distribution of freight traffics is developed at international transportations which allows to optimize technological parameters of separate parts and to minimize expenses along the logistical chain.

  9. Traffic Congestion Detection and Avoidance using Vehicular Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Narendrabhai Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a serious problem in big cities. With the number of vehicles increasing rapidly, especially in cities whose economy is booming, the situation is getting even worse. Drivers, unaware of congestion ahead eventually join it and increase the severity of it. The ability of a driver to know the traffic conditions on the roads ahead enables him/her to seek alternate routes through which time and fuel can be saved. Due to recent advancements in vehicular technologies, vehicular communication has emerged. The objective of this work is to check feasibility of using infrastructure based vehicular communication for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. In this paper we propose a Signal Agent (SA and Car Agent(CAbased approach for detecting and avoiding traffic congestion. We analyze performance of the proposed approach for two different road network scenarios using simulations: structured grid network (like Gandhinagar City of Gujarat, India and apart of typical city road network ( Tiwan city. With the proposed approach we get reduction of 10.05% in trip duration of vehicles, reduction of 10.08% in number of vehicles in entire traffic road network and 9.82% in heavy traffic area. In an accident scenario, about 72.63% vehicles changed their route due to awareness of congestion. Error in trip time estimation and vehicle count estimation is observed to be less than 1%.

  10. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  11. Variable speed limit strategies analysis with mesoscopic traffic flow model based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bin; Cao, Dan-Ni; Dang, Wen-Xiu; Zhang, Lin

    As a new cross-discipline, the complexity science has penetrated into every field of economy and society. With the arrival of big data, the research of the complexity science has reached its summit again. In recent years, it offers a new perspective for traffic control by using complex networks theory. The interaction course of various kinds of information in traffic system forms a huge complex system. A new mesoscopic traffic flow model is improved with variable speed limit (VSL), and the simulation process is designed, which is based on the complex networks theory combined with the proposed model. This paper studies effect of VSL on the dynamic traffic flow, and then analyzes the optimal control strategy of VSL in different network topologies. The conclusion of this research is meaningful to put forward some reasonable transportation plan and develop effective traffic management and control measures to help the department of traffic management.

  12. Continuous traffic flow modeling of driver support systems in multiclass traffic with intervehicle communication and drivers in the loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tampere, C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; van Arem, Bart

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous traffic-flow model for the explorative analysis of advanced driver-assistance systems (ADASs). Such systems use technology (sensors and intervehicle communication) to support the task of the driver, who retains full control over the vehicle. Based on a review of

  13. SU-F-T-377: Monte Carlo Re-Evaluation of Volumetric-Modulated Arc Plans of Advanced Stage Nasopharygeal Cancers Optimized with Convolution-Superposition Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K; Leung, R; Law, G; Wong, M; Lee, V; Tung, S; Cheung, S; Chan, M [Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Background: Commercial treatment planning system Pinnacle3 (Philips, Fitchburg, WI, USA) employs a convolution-superposition algorithm for volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) optimization and dose calculation. Study of Monte Carlo (MC) dose recalculation of VMAT plans for advanced-stage nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC) is currently limited. Methods: Twenty-nine VMAT prescribed 70Gy, 60Gy, and 54Gy to the planning target volumes (PTVs) were included. These clinical plans achieved with a CS dose engine on Pinnacle3 v9.0 were recalculated by the Monaco TPS v5.0 (Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO, USA) with a XVMC-based MC dose engine. The MC virtual source model was built using the same measurement beam dataset as for the Pinnacle beam model. All MC recalculation were based on absorbed dose to medium in medium (Dm,m). Differences in dose constraint parameters per our institution protocol (Supplementary Table 1) were analyzed. Results: Only differences in maximum dose to left brachial plexus, left temporal lobe and PTV54Gy were found to be statistically insignificant (p> 0.05). Dosimetric differences of other tumor targets and normal organs are found in supplementary Table 1. Generally, doses outside the PTV in the normal organs are lower with MC than with CS. This is also true in the PTV54-70Gy doses but higher dose in the nasal cavity near the bone interfaces is consistently predicted by MC, possibly due to the increased backscattering of short-range scattered photons and the secondary electrons that is not properly modeled by the CS. The straight shoulders of the PTV dose volume histograms (DVH) initially resulted from the CS optimization are merely preserved after MC recalculation. Conclusion: Significant dosimetric differences in VMAT NPC plans were observed between CS and MC calculations. Adjustments of the planning dose constraints to incorporate the physics differences from conventional CS algorithm should be made when VMAT optimization is carried out directly

  14. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  16. Simulating and evaluating an adaptive and integrated traffic lights control system for smart city application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuana, E.; Rahardjo, K.; Gozali, F.; Tan, S.; Rambung, R.; Adrian, D.

    2018-01-01

    A city could be categorized as a smart city when the information technology has been developed to the point that the administration could sense, understand, and control every resource to serve its people and sustain the development of the city. One of the smart city aspects is transportation and traffic management. This paper presents a research project to design an adaptive traffic lights control system as a part of the smart system for optimizing road utilization and reducing congestion. Research problems presented include: (1) Congestion in one direction toward an intersection due to dynamic traffic condition from time to time during the day, while the timing cycles in traffic lights system are mostly static; (2) No timing synchronization among traffic lights in adjacent intersections that is causing unsteady flows; (3) Difficulties in traffic condition monitoring on the intersection and the lack of facility for remotely controlling traffic lights. In this research, a simulator has been built to model the adaptivity and integration among different traffic lights controllers in adjacent intersections, and a case study consisting of three sets of intersections along Jalan K. H. Hasyim Ashari has been simulated. It can be concluded that timing slots synchronization among traffic lights is crucial for maintaining a steady traffic flow.

  17. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2009-01-01

    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  18. Reports on internet traffic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger, Martijn; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Internet traffic statistics can provide valuable information to network analysts and researchers about the way nowadays networks are used. In the past, such information was provided by Internet2 in a public website called Internet2 NetFlow: Weekly Reports. The website reported traffic statistics

  19. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupuzs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-01-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given

  20. Area-wide traffic calming for preventing traffic related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number

  1. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  2. Model for traffic emissions estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A.; Assimacopoulos, D.; Mitsoulis, E.

    A model is developed for the spatial and temporal evaluation of traffic emissions in metropolitan areas based on sparse measurements. All traffic data available are fully employed and the pollutant emissions are determined with the highest precision possible. The main roads are regarded as line sources of constant traffic parameters in the time interval considered. The method is flexible and allows for the estimation of distributed small traffic sources (non-line/area sources). The emissions from the latter are assumed to be proportional to the local population density as well as to the traffic density leading to local main arteries. The contribution of moving vehicles to air pollution in the Greater Athens Area for the period 1986-1988 is analyzed using the proposed model. Emissions and other related parameters are evaluated. Emissions from area sources were found to have a noticeable share of the overall air pollution.

  3. The NASA Air Traffic Management Ontology (atmonto)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA ATM (Air Traffic Management) Ontology describes classes, properties, and relationships relevant to the domain of air traffic management, and represents...

  4. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  5. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users

  6. A Two-Stage Fuzzy Logic Control Method of Traffic Signal Based on Traffic Urgency Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Ge

    2014-01-01

    City intersection traffic signal control is an important method to improve the efficiency of road network and alleviate traffic congestion. This paper researches traffic signal fuzzy control method on a single intersection. A two-stage traffic signal control method based on traffic urgency degree is proposed according to two-stage fuzzy inference on single intersection. At the first stage, calculate traffic urgency degree for all red phases using traffic urgency evaluation module and select t...

  7. A hierarchical framework for air traffic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik

    Air travel in recent years has been plagued by record delays, with over $8 billion in direct operating costs being attributed to 100 million flight delay minutes in 2007. Major contributing factors to delay include weather, congestion, and aging infrastructure; the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) aims to alleviate these delays through an upgrade of the air traffic control system. Changes to large-scale networked systems such as air traffic control are complicated by the need for coordinated solutions over disparate temporal and spatial scales. Individual air traffic controllers must ensure aircraft maintain safe separation locally with a time horizon of seconds to minutes, whereas regional plans are formulated to efficiently route flows of aircraft around weather and congestion on the order of every hour. More efficient control algorithms that provide a coordinated solution are required to safely handle a larger number of aircraft in a fixed amount of airspace. Improved estimation algorithms are also needed to provide accurate aircraft state information and situational awareness for human controllers. A hierarchical framework is developed to simultaneously solve the sometimes conflicting goals of regional efficiency and local safety. Careful attention is given in defining the interactions between the layers of this hierarchy. In this way, solutions to individual air traffic problems can be targeted and implemented as needed. First, the regional traffic flow management problem is posed as an optimization problem and shown to be NP-Hard. Approximation methods based on aggregate flow models are developed to enable real-time implementation of algorithms that reduce the impact of congestion and adverse weather. Second, the local trajectory design problem is solved using a novel slot-based sector model. This model is used to analyze sector capacity under varying traffic patterns, providing a more comprehensive understanding of how increased automation

  8. Framework for Traffic Congestion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic Congestion is one of many serious global problems in all great cities resulted from rapid urbanization which always exert negative externalities upon society. The solution of traffic congestion is highly geocentric and due to its heterogeneous nature, curbing congestion is one of the hard tasks for transport planners. It is not possible to suggest unique traffic congestion management framework which could be absolutely applied for every great cities. Conversely, it is quite feasible to develop a framework which could be used with or without minor adjustment to deal with congestion problem. So, the main aim of this paper is to prepare a traffic congestion mitigation framework which will be useful for urban planners, transport planners, civil engineers, transport policy makers, congestion management researchers who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the task of traffic congestion management. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In this paper, firstly, traffic congestion is defined on the theoretical point of view and then the causes of traffic congestion are briefly described. After describing the causes, common management measures, using world- wide, are described and framework for supply side and demand side congestion management measures are prepared.

  9. Development and validation of automatic tools for interactive recurrence analysis in radiation therapy: optimization of treatment algorithms for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kerstin A; Habermehl, Daniel; Jäger, Andreas; Floca, Ralf O; Zhang, Lanlan; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2013-06-07

    In radiation oncology recurrence analysis is an important part in the evaluation process and clinical quality assurance of treatment concepts. With the example of 9 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer we developed and validated interactive analysis tools to support the evaluation workflow. After an automatic registration of the radiation planning CTs with the follow-up images, the recurrence volumes are segmented manually. Based on these volumes the DVH (dose volume histogram) statistic is calculated, followed by the determination of the dose applied to the region of recurrence and the distance between the boost and recurrence volume. We calculated the percentage of the recurrence volume within the 80%-isodose volume and compared it to the location of the recurrence within the boost volume, boost + 1 cm, boost + 1.5 cm and boost + 2 cm volumes. Recurrence analysis of 9 patients demonstrated that all recurrences except one occurred within the defined GTV/boost volume; one recurrence developed beyond the field border/outfield. With the defined distance volumes in relation to the recurrences, we could show that 7 recurrent lesions were within the 2 cm radius of the primary tumor. Two large recurrences extended beyond the 2 cm, however, this might be due to very rapid growth and/or late detection of the tumor progression. The main goal of using automatic analysis tools is to reduce time and effort conducting clinical analyses. We showed a first approach and use of a semi-automated workflow for recurrence analysis, which will be continuously optimized. In conclusion, despite the limitations of the automatic calculations we contributed to in-house optimization of subsequent study concepts based on an improved and validated target volume definition.

  10. Air traffic surveillance and control using hybrid estimation and protocol-based conflict resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inseok

    The continued growth of air travel and recent advances in new technologies for navigation, surveillance, and communication have led to proposals by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide reliable and efficient tools to aid Air Traffic Control (ATC) in performing their tasks. In this dissertation, we address four problems frequently encountered in air traffic surveillance and control; multiple target tracking and identity management, conflict detection, conflict resolution, and safety verification. We develop a set of algorithms and tools to aid ATC; These algorithms have the provable properties of safety, computational efficiency, and convergence. Firstly, we develop a multiple-maneuvering-target tracking and identity management algorithm which can keep track of maneuvering aircraft in noisy environments and of their identities. Secondly, we propose a hybrid probabilistic conflict detection algorithm between multiple aircraft which uses flight mode estimates as well as aircraft current state estimates. Our algorithm is based on hybrid models of aircraft, which incorporate both continuous dynamics and discrete mode switching. Thirdly, we develop an algorithm for multiple (greater than two) aircraft conflict avoidance that is based on a closed-form analytic solution and thus provides guarantees of safety. Finally, we consider the problem of safety verification of control laws for safety critical systems, with application to air traffic control systems. We approach safety verification through reachability analysis, which is a computationally expensive problem. We develop an over-approximate method for reachable set computation using polytopic approximation methods and dynamic optimization. These algorithms may be used either in a fully autonomous way, or as supporting tools to increase controllers' situational awareness and to reduce their work load.

  11. OPTIMASI BANDWITH MENGGUNAKAN TRAFFIC SHAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Riadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan layanan komunikasi telah berkembang sangat pesat. Salah satunya adalah pemanfaatan penggunaan bandwith untuk mengakases jaringan Internet. Traffic shapping bandwidth dapat memberikan efesiensi dalam hal pemanfaatan bandwidth pada instansi yang melakukan manajemen dalam lalulintas jaringannya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode literatur yaitu metode pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan sumber-sumber data yang terkait dan metode eksperimen yaitu melakukan penelitian dengan mengkonfigurasi Mikrotik RouterOS untuk melakukan traffic shapping bandwidth. Hasil penelitian ini adalah router yang dapat melakukan traffic shapping sehingga kualitas koneksi menjadi lebih baik untuk mengakses dan mengambil data dari sebuah website.

  12. Traffic Light Detection at Night

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bornø; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Bahnsen, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Traffic light recognition (TLR) is an integral part of any in- telligent vehicle, it must function both at day and at night. However, the majority of TLR research is focused on day-time scenarios. In this paper we will focus on detection of traffic lights at night and evalu- ate the performance...... of three detectors based on heuristic models and one learning-based detector. Evaluation is done on night-time data from the public LISA Traffic Light Dataset. The learning-based detector out- performs the model-based detectors in both precision and recall. The learning-based detector achieves an average...

  13. Assessment of Traffic Noise Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe Husted; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2004-01-01

    A steady growth in traffic intensities in most urban areas throughout the world has forced planners and politicians to seriously consider the resulting environmental impact, such as traffic noise, accidents and air pollution. The assessment of such negative factors is needed in order to reveal...... the true social benefit of infrastructure plans. The paper presents a noise assessment model for the Copenhagen region, which brings together GIS technology and non-linear hedonic regression models to reveal the implicit costs of traffic noise measured as the marginal percentage loss in property values...

  14. A paradox for traffic dynamics in complex networks with ATIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jianfeng; Gao Ziyou

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we study the statistical properties of traffic (e.g., vehicles) dynamics in complex networks, by introducing advanced transportation information systems (ATIS). The ATIS can provide the information of traffic flow pattern throughout the network and have an obvious effect on path routing strategy for such vehicles equipped with ATIS. The ATIS can be described by the understanding of link cost functions. Different indices such as efficiency and system total cost are discussed in depth. It is found that, for random networks (scale-free networks), the efficiency is effectively improved (decreased) if ATIS is properly equipped; however the system total cost is largely increased (decreased). It indicates that there exists a paradox between the efficiency and system total cost in complex networks. Furthermore, we report the simulation results by considering different kinds of link cost functions, and the paradox is recovered. Finally, we extend our traffic model, and also find the existence of the paradox

  15. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiafu; Liu, Jianqi; Shao, Zehui; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Imran, Muhammad; Zhou, Keliang

    2016-01-11

    The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  16. Mobile Crowd Sensing for Traffic Prediction in Internet of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in wireless communication techniques, mobile cloud computing, automotive and intelligent terminal technology are driving the evolution of vehicle ad hoc networks into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV paradigm. This leads to a change in the vehicle routing problem from a calculation based on static data towards real-time traffic prediction. In this paper, we first address the taxonomy of cloud-assisted IoV from the viewpoint of the service relationship between cloud computing and IoV. Then, we review the traditional traffic prediction approached used by both Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I and Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V communications. On this basis, we propose a mobile crowd sensing technology to support the creation of dynamic route choices for drivers wishing to avoid congestion. Experiments were carried out to verify the proposed approaches. Finally, we discuss the outlook of reliable traffic prediction.

  17. Intelligent Testing of Traffic Light Programs: Validation in Smart Mobility Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ferrer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In smart cities, the use of intelligent automatic techniques to find efficient cycle programs of traffic lights is becoming an innovative front for traffic flow management. However, this automatic programming of traffic lights requires a validation process of the generated solutions, since they can affect the mobility (and security of millions of citizens. In this paper, we propose a validation strategy based on genetic algorithms and feature models for the automatic generation of different traffic scenarios checking the robustness of traffic light cycle programs. We have concentrated on an extensive urban area in the city of Malaga (in Spain, in which we validate a set of candidate cycle programs generated by means of four optimization algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimization for Traffic Lights, Differential Evolution for Traffic Lights, random search, and Sumo Cycle Program Generator. We can test the cycles of traffic lights considering the different states of the city, weather, congestion, driver expertise, vehicle’s features, and so forth, but prioritizing the most relevant scenarios among a large and varied set of them. The improvement achieved in solution quality is remarkable, especially for CO2 emissions, in which we have obtained a reduction of 126.99% compared with the experts’ solutions.

  18. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  19. Piezoelectric materials involved in road traffic applications test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, M.; Jimenez Martinez, F.; Frutos, J. de

    2011-01-01

    The test bench system described in this paper performs experiments on piezoelectric materials used in road traffic applications, covering a range between 14 and 170 km/h, which is considered enough for testing under standard traffic conditions. A software has been developed to control the three phase induction motor driver and to acquire all the measurement data of the piezoelectric materials. The mass over each systems axis can be selected, with a limit of 60 kg over each wheel. The test bench is used to simulate the real behaviour of buried piezoelectric cables in road traffic applications for both light and heavy vehicles. This new test bed system is a powerful research tool and can be applied to determine the optimal installation and configuration of the piezoelectric cable sensors and opens a new field of research: the study of energy harvesting techniques based on piezoelectric materials. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Applying Graph Theory to Problems in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrahi, Amir H.; Goldberg, Alan T.; Bagasol, Leonard N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2017-01-01

    Graph theory is used to investigate three different problems arising in air traffic management. First, using a polynomial reduction from a graph partitioning problem, it isshown that both the airspace sectorization problem and its incremental counterpart, the sector combination problem are NP-hard, in general, under several simple workload models. Second, using a polynomial time reduction from maximum independent set in graphs, it is shown that for any fixed e, the problem of finding a solution to the minimum delay scheduling problem in traffic flow management that is guaranteed to be within n1-e of the optimal, where n is the number of aircraft in the problem instance, is NP-hard. Finally, a problem arising in precision arrival scheduling is formulated and solved using graph reachability. These results demonstrate that graph theory provides a powerful framework for modeling, reasoning about, and devising algorithmic solutions to diverse problems arising in air traffic management.