WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced nuclear materials

  1. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  2. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  3. Evaluation and development of advanced nuclear materials: IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economical, environmental and non-proliferation issues associated with sustainable development of nuclear power bring about a need for optimization of fuel cycles and implementation of advanced nuclear systems. While a number of physical and design concepts are available for innovative reactors, the absence of reliable materials able to sustain new challenging irradiation conditions represents the real bottle-neck for practical implementation of these promising ideas. Materials performance and integrity are key issues for the safety and competitiveness of future nuclear installations being developed for sustainable nuclear energy production incorporating fuel recycling and waste transmutation systems. These systems will feature high thermal operational efficiency, improved utilization of resources (both fissile and fertile materials) and reduced production of nuclear waste. They will require development, qualification and deployment of new and advanced fuel and structural materials with improved mechanical and chemical properties combined with high radiation and corrosion resistance. The extensive, diverse, and expensive efforts toward the development of these materials can be more effectively organized within international collaborative programmes with wide participation of research, design and engineering communities. IAEA carries out a number of international projects supporting interested Member States with the use of available IAEA program implementation tools (Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings, Expert Reviews, etc). The presentation summarizes the activities targeting material developments for advanced nuclear systems, with particular emphasis on fast reactors, which are the focal topics of IAEA Coordinated Research Projects 'Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects' (on-going), 'Benchmarking of Structural Materials Pre-Selected for Advanced Nuclear Reactors', 'Examination of advanced fast reactor fuel and core

  4. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  5. Methodology of predicting materials failures in advanced nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences in the nuclear power plant operation and the fixing of unexpected component failures, originated mainly from corrosion damages, have led to a base methodology of predicting, correcting and preventing failures. Some analogies of the algorithm developed have been extended to the evolution of reliable materials, their testing and database construction in the development of advanced systems for next generation. An illustrative topic was chosen from the materials development and reliability testing carried out in the development of an advanced HTGR for process heat applications. Possibility and issues in making the similar approach in the case of nuclear fusion is also discussed

  6. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10−6 on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure

  7. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae, E-mail: ktkim@dongguk.ac.kr

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10{sup −6} on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure.

  8. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  9. Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator-driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems. This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview. (authors)

  10. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John

    2011-10-01

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  11. Advanced ceramic materials for next-generation nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is at the eye of a 'perfect storm' with fuel oil and natural gas prices near record highs, worldwide energy demands increasing at an alarming rate, and increased concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have caused many to look negatively at long-term use of fossil fuels. This convergence of factors has led to a growing interest in revitalization of the nuclear power industry within the United States and across the globe. Many are surprised to learn that nuclear power provides approximately 20% of the electrical power in the US and approximately 16% of the world-wide electric power. With the above factors in mind, world-wide over 130 new reactor projects are being considered with approximately 25 new permit applications in the US. Materials have long played a very important role in the nuclear industry with applications throughout the entire fuel cycle; from fuel fabrication to waste stabilization. As the international community begins to look at advanced reactor systems and fuel cycles that minimize waste and increase proliferation resistance, materials will play an even larger role. Many of the advanced reactor concepts being evaluated operate at high-temperature requiring the use of durable, heat-resistant materials. Advanced metallic and ceramic fuels are being investigated for a variety of Generation IV reactor concepts. These include the traditional TRISO-coated particles, advanced alloy fuels for 'deep-burn' applications, as well as advanced inert-matrix fuels. In order to minimize wastes and legacy materials, a number of fuel reprocessing operations are being investigated. Advanced materials continue to provide a vital contribution in 'closing the fuel cycle' by stabilization of associated low-level and high-level wastes in highly durable cements, ceramics, and glasses. Beyond this fission energy application, fusion energy will demand advanced materials capable of withstanding the extreme environments of high

  12. Material performance evaluation -Development of the advanced nuclear materials-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multifrequency ACPD system was assembled. A SSRT equipment for stress corrosion cracking test was installed. A 25-ton capacity fatigue test machine was purchased as a first step to assemble a corrosion fatigue test facility. A test loop was designed to simulate the primary water chemistry condition. An Ag/AgCl external reference electrode which can be used at a temperature as high as 280 deg C was fabricated. A high temperature pH electrode was designed for fabrication. A creep test machine was designed conceptually for testing creep behaviors of Zr alloys. Preliminary design requirements were made for the instrumented capsule and a plan was made for using the uninstrumented capsule, as parts of activities to complete an integrated plan of in-reactor materials irradiation test. CHEC computer code which helped improving maintenance program against erosion/corrosion of secondary pipings of nuclear power plants was purchased. Erosion/corrosion of feedwater heater drain line of Kori Unit One was analyzed using the CHEC code as a sample calculation. (Author)

  13. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  14. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of work performed from January 1, 1977 through March 31, 1977 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program are presented. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed

  15. ADVANCED CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-09-29

    , and proliferation), the worldwide community is working to develop and deploy new nuclear energy systems and advanced fuel cycles. These new nuclear systems address the key challenges and include: (1) extracting the full energy value of the nuclear fuel; (2) creating waste solutions with improved long term safety; (3) minimizing the potential for the misuse of the technology and materials for weapons; (4) continually improving the safety of nuclear energy systems; and (5) keeping the cost of energy affordable.

  16. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B4 C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials

  18. Cladding and Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, G S; Allen, T R; Ila, D; C,; Levi,; Morgan, D; Motta, A; Wang, L; Wirth, B

    2011-06-30

    The goal of this consortium is to address key materials issues in the most promising advanced reactor concepts that have yet to be resolved or that are beyond the existing experience base of dose or burnup. The research program consists of three major thrusts: 1) high-dose radiation stability of advanced fast reactor fuel cladding alloys, 2) irradiation creep at high temperature, and 3) innovative cladding concepts embodying functionally-graded barrier materials. This NERI-Consortium final report represents the collective efforts of a large number of individuals over a period of three and a half years and included 9 PIs, 4 scientists, 3 post-docs and 12 students from the seven participating institutions and 8 partners from 5 national laboratories and 3 industrial institutions (see table). University participants met semi-annually and participants and partners met annually for meetings lasting 2-3 days and designed to disseminate and discuss results, update partners, address outstanding issues and maintain focus and direction toward achieving the objectives of the program. The participants felt that this was a highly successful program to address broader issues that can only be done by the assembly of a range of talent and capabilities at a more substantial funding level than the traditional NERI or NEUP grant. As evidence of the success, this group, collectively, has published 20 articles in archival journals and made 57 presentations at international conferences on the results of this consortium.

  19. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  20. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  1. Development of the nuclear fuel materials for research reactor -Development of the advanced nuclear materials-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was carried out in order to localize the fuel production and to develop the atomized uranium silicide fuels. In the fabrication part, the fuel meat was successfully cladded with good contact between meat and clad through extrusion die modification and properly controlling of extrusion parameters. The electron beam welding parameters were established properly so that the strength of welding zone showed to be same as the clad strength. The fabricating and assembling technologies of the fuel assembly have been developed and applied to the fabrication of dummy fuels. The development of coating technology on the surface of graphite crucible reduced the carbon contamination in atomized powder. In fuel performance testing part, the thermal reaction swelling tests were carried out. The results showed that the atomized fuel meat swells 30 - 40 % lower than pulverized fuel meat. The corrosion test revealed that the thickness of oxide layer ranges within the criteria of fuel safe requirement. In the fuel design part, the design criteria have been established with evaluating KMRR fuel material characteristics with respect to KMRR operation. In the hydraulic testing part, the modification of test facility and the development of the measuring instrument and data aquisition system were performed. The preliminary testing results with dummy fuels fabricated by our research team showed that the developed system works normally and the results is almost same as AECL results. (Author)

  2. A Path Forward to Advanced Nuclear Fuels: Spectroscopic Calorimetry of Nuclear Fuel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is to relieve the shortage of thermodynamic and kinetic information concerning the stability of nuclear fuel alloys. Past studies of the ternary nuclear fuel UPuZr have demonstrated constituent redistribution when irradiated or with thermal treatment. Thermodynamic data is key to predicting the possibilities of effects such as constituent redistribution within the fuel rods and interaction with cladding materials

  3. Development of stainless steels for nuclear power plant - Advanced nuclear materials development -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the status of R and D and the material specifications of nuclear components in order to develop the stainless steels for nuclear applications, and the technology of computer-assisted alloy design is developed to establish the thermodynamic data of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Si-C-N system which is the basic stainless steel systems. High strength and corrosion resistant stainless steels, 316LN and super clean 347, are developed, and the manufacturing processes and heat treatment conditions are determined. In addition, a martensitic steel is produced as a model alloy for turbine blade, and characterized. The material properties showed a good performance for nuclear applications. (Author)

  4. Heavy Liquid Metal Corrosion of Structural Materials in Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M.; Woloshun, K.; Rubio, F.; Maloy, S. A.; Hosemann, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interest in advanced nuclear concepts using liquid metal coolant has increased in the past few years. Liquid metal coolants have been proposed for the next generation of small-sized nuclear reactors, which offer exceptional safety and reliability, sustainability, nonproliferation, and economic competitiveness. Heavy liquid metal coolants are investigated for advanced fast reactors that operate at high temperatures, reaching high efficiencies. Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolants are also proposed as coolants and targets of accelerator driven systems. High temperature, corrosive environment, high fast neutron flux, high fluence, and radiation damage, among other physical phenomena, challenge the integrity of materials in these advanced systems. Excellent compatibility with the liquid coolant is recognized as a key factor in the selection of structural materials for advanced concepts. In this article, we review materials requirements for heavy metal cooled systems with emphasis on lead and LBE materials corrosion properties. We describe experimental corrosion tests currently ongoing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Development of Lead Alloy Technical Applications (DELTA) loop. DELTA is a facility designed to study the long-term corrosive effects of LBE on structural materials under relevant conditions of chemistry, flow, and temperature. The research studies will provide data of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms in selected steel exposed to high velocity (above 2 m/s) in flowing LBE at 500°C. Fundamental research studies will help support conceptual design efforts and further the development of heavy liquid metals technology.

  5. Utilization technique for advanced nuclear materials database system Data-Free-Way'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four organizations the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Science and Technology Incorporation (JST), conducted the 2nd period joint research for the purpose of development of utilization techniques for advanced nuclear materials database system named 'Data-Free-Way' (DFW), to make more useful system to support research and development of the nuclear materials, from FY 1995 to FY 1999. NRIM intended to fill a data system on diffusion and nuclear data by developing utilization technique on diffusion informations of steels and aluminum and nuclear data for materials for its independent system together with participating in fulfil of the DFW. And, NRIM has entered to a project on wide area band circuit application agreed at the G7 by using technologies cultivated by NRIM, to investigate network application technology with the Michigan State University over the sea under cooperation assistant business of JST, to make results on CCT diagram for welding and forecasting of welding heat history accumulated at NRIM for a long term, to perform development of a simulator assisting optimum condition decision of welding. (G.K.)

  6. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  7. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington.

  8. Advanced international training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report incorporates all lectures and presentations at the Advanced International Training Course on State Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material held April 27 through May 12, 1981 at Santa Fe and Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Richland, Washington, USA. Authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, the course was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a state system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both national and international safeguards. Major emphasis for the 1981 course was placed on safeguards methods used at bulk-handling facilities, particularly low-enriched uranium conversion and fuel fabrication plants. The course was conducted by the University of California's Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc. Tours and demonstrations were arranged at both the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Exxon Nuclear fuel fabrication plant, Richland, Washington

  9. Development of 'Data-Free-Way' distributed database system for advanced nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distributed database system named 'Data-Free-Way (DFW)' is under development by a cooperation among three Japanese national research organizations to support the creation of advanced nuclear materials. The development of DFW started in 1990 as a five-year program with a support from Science and Technology Agency of Japan. Before starting the program, a preliminary survey of both domestic and foreign databases of nuclear materials had been made for two years. Then, subjects for the construction of DFW were extracted. To meet the subjects, the development and construction programs were established. The DFW is constructed on the computer network which connects engineering work-stations in the separate organizations. A relational database management system is used, a distributed material database is equipped on the hardware with specially designed common data structure. Data storage has been carried out continuously in each organization. The equipment of useful user-interface systems, such as retrieval, data entry and process supporting and image data handling systems, have also been constructed to make it friendly for users. The collection of nuclear material data from three research organizations and its mutual usage have become possible by the construction of DFW. (author)

  10. Creep-fatigue effects in structural materials used in advanced nuclear power generating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of time-dependent fatigue behavior of a number of structural alloys in use or planned for use in advanced nuclear power generating systems are reviewed. Materials included are types 304 and 316 stainless steel, Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and alloy 800H. Examples of environmental effects, including both chemical and physical interaction, are presented for a number of environments. The environments discussed are high-purity liquid sodium, high vacuum, air, impure helium, and irradiation damage, including internal helium bubble generation.

  11. Materials Issues in Advanced Nuclear Systems: Executive Summary of DOE Basic Research Needs Workshop, 'Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  12. Review of methodological analysis for the nuclear material accounting and control in the advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials accounting and verification in radiochemical processing facilities is essential, because it is the first possible time in the nuclear fuel cycle that plutonium can be measured. In these facilities, effective nuclear materials accounting systems and international safeguards inspections rely heavily upon nondestructive assay measurements. Therefore, it is important to know whether the radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process are applicable or not. As a result of reviewing the existing NDA techniques for nuclear material accounting, it was revealed that γ-ray spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence/ densitometry and calorimetry techniques are not applicable to the advanced spent fuel management process because of the size of the measuring devices installed in a hot cell and the samples including some fission products. Therefore, the neutron technique is only applicable to this processing facility. The results reviewed in this study can be used to design a hot cell for the advanced spent fuel management process

  13. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, 39 inspections of nuclear materials were performed, 22 of them performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. The main content of common inspections with IAEA was the inspection of both fresh and spent fuel in Bohunice NPPs and Mochovce NPPs. During 1996 there were 420 spent fuel assemblies transported from the V-1 and V-2 NPPs units to the interim spent fuel storage and 396 spent fuel assemblies were transported to the Dukovany NPP. Current state of stored spent fuel in the interim spent fuel storage is 4656 fuel assemblies, 4050 of them are Bohunice NPPs assemblies and 606 of them are fuel assemblies which belong to Dukovany NPP. There are 128 spent fuel assemblies stored in A-1 NPP, which are placed in cases of the long-term storage. Inspections of fresh fuel storage in the V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs were performed, as well as spent fuel inspections in the A-1 NPP and in the interim spent fuel storage in Bohunice. From the outcomes of inspections resulted, that the limits and conditions, operating procedures and conditions of nuclear safety were not violated in any ease. There was no extraordinary event at above mentioned equipment during the 1996 and the equipment was reliably operated. NRA SR performed during 1996 eight inspections focused on safety protection of nuclear equipment and nuclear materials, and no significant deficiencies, which could resulted in extraordinary events or violation of nuclear safety were found out. Safety of transportation of fresh fuel, spent fuels, and other materials is discussed. NRA SR performed inspection focused on checking transportation readiness each transportation of the spent nuclear fuel. Serious deficiencies were not found out. Suggested system for treatment of radioactive materials caught at illegal trade is described. An attempt to export 3 radioactive sources in consignment of iron scrap to Italy came about in 1996. The NRA SR continued in co-operation with IAEA on updating IAEA database to illegal

  14. Advanced materials for nuclear reactor systems: Alloys by design to overcome past limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced materials have the potential to improve reactor performance via increased safety margins, design flexibility, and fast reactor economics and overcome traditional limitations. Increased strength and creep resistance can give greater design margins leading to improved safety margins, longer lifetimes, and higher operating temperatures, thus enabling greater flexibility. Improved mechanical performance may also help reduce the plant capital cost for new reactors both by reducing the required commodities (with concomitant reductions in welding, quality assurance and fabrication costs) and through design simplifications. However, successful implementation requires considerable development and licensing effort. Modern materials science tools such as computational thermodynamics and multiscale radiation damage computational models in conjunction with rapid science-guided experimental validation may offer the potential for a dramatic reduction in the time period to develop and qualify structural materials. There are many requirements for all nuclear reactor structural materials, regardless of the exact design or purpose. All requirements for a materials use in an advanced fast reactor system must be considered and carefully weighed. These factors may include material availability and cost, ease of fabrication and joining, long-term stability, mechanical performance, thermal properties, neutronics, corrosion and compatibility performance, radiation tolerance, and code qualification status. Only through careful evaluation of all factors and a thorough trade analysis will the most promising candidate materials be chosen for further development. It is important to note that there is no ideal material that is best for each of the considerations listed. Indeed, all candidate materials have advantages and limitations. The most promising alloys, which allow the best performance, are also the least technically mature and will require the most substantial effort. These

  15. Development of metallic fuel materials -Development of the advanced nuclear materials-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Il; Kim, Chang Kyu; Joo, Jea Oh; Lee, Chang Tak; Park, Hee Dea; Kim, Ki Hwan; Hwang, Sung Chan; Kim, Jung Do; Ann, Hyun Suk; Chang, Sae Jung; Joo, Keun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The melting and casting parameters has been investigated for obtaining the proper U-Zr alloy. So a sound alloy ingot was sucessfully prepared. The Zr yield with the respected to the charged raw material is about 85%. The Zr content variation along the ingot is {+-} 0.2 wt%. At that time the melt was hold for three minutes at 1600 deg C. The microstructure of U-Zr ingot has been found to consist of {alpha} U as a matrix and {delta}-UZr{sub 2} as a coarse dispersion in the matrix. Additionally the U-Zr melt was rapidly solidified into powder by utilizing centrifugal atomizer. This powder tends to form fine and homogeneous microstructure. (Author).

  16. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  17. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -Development of metallic fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the electrolysis rate and mechanism between uranium and impurities in molten salts including uranium and other impurities were carried out to separate impurities from the molten salts. Uranium chloride preparation process that is developing as a alternative to uranium fluoride process was reviewed and experimental parameters for chlorination process development were determined based on theoretical review. Also, some elementary experiments were carried out to investigate optimum reaction condition for uranium chloride preparation. U-10wt%Zr alloy which has been used as driver fuel or blanket materials was prepared by vacuum induction melting and investigated into the characteristics of fabrication process and alloy properties. In order to develop uranium alloy of high burn-up fuel, ternary X element was prepared. And the effect of ternary alloying elements with high melting point on the alloy phases and ternary alloying elements with high melting point on the alloy phases and microstructures was investigated. On the other hand rapidly solidified powder of U-10wt%Zr alloy was fabricated and characterized. 17 tabs., 52 figs., 39 refs. (Author)

  18. Development of the advanced nuclear materials -Development of metallic fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Ho; Yang, Young Seok; Hwang, Sung Chan; Ju, Keun Sik; Kim, Ki Whan; Ahn, Hyun Seok; Chang, Se Jeong; Kim, Jeong Do [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    In this report, the electrolysis rate and mechanism between uranium and impurities in molten salts including uranium and other impurities were carried out to separate impurities from the molten salts. Uranium chloride preparation process that is developing as a alternative to uranium fluoride process was reviewed and experimental parameters for chlorination process development were determined based on theoretical review. Also, some elementary experiments were carried out to investigate optimum reaction condition for uranium chloride preparation. U-10wt%Zr alloy which has been used as driver fuel or blanket materials was prepared by vacuum induction melting and investigated into the characteristics of fabrication process and alloy properties. In order to develop uranium alloy of high burn-up fuel, ternary X element was prepared. And the effect of ternary alloying elements with high melting point on the alloy phases and ternary alloying elements with high melting point on the alloy phases and microstructures was investigated. On the other hand rapidly solidified powder of U-10wt%Zr alloy was fabricated and characterized. 17 tabs., 52 figs., 39 refs. (Author).

  19. Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 7–10 July 2014. The conference was organized in cooperation with the Nuclear Forensics International Technical Working Group (ITWG), the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT). The conference was attended by 285 participants and observers from 76 Member States and 8 organizations. The objective of the conference was: to convene the first of its kind international conference solely dedicated to nuclear forensics: to review the role of nuclear forensics as an essential element of a nuclear security infrastructure; to present scientific achievements and to exchange experience and lessons learned on the implementation of nuclear forensics in support of law enforcement investigations and nuclear security vulnerability assessments; to review current practices in nuclear forensics and to identify advances in analytical tools; to discuss ways of strengthening nuclear forensic capabilities and capacity building in nuclear forensics to ensure sustainability; and to explore mechanisms to enhance international and regional cooperation in nuclear forensics as well as to best position the IAEA to provide assistance to States, upon request, in nuclear forensics. This publication provides the President’s summary and findings of the conference as well as summaries of all the sessions. The accompanying CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of participants and the papers

  20. Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSM Handbook is a multi-volume document being compiled on a continuing basis to meet the broad materials data requirements of those involved in the development of advanced nuclear energy systems. The present focus of the Handbook is upon nuclear systems that have not yet achieved commercial status, with near-term emphasis on the nation's Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Actual use of the Handbook extends to other advanced nuclear concepts sharing the same needs, and to many nonnuclear engineering activities as well

  1. Nuclear radiation effects on the ablation performance of advanced composite heatshield materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from experiments to define the influence of simulated nuclear radiation damage on the ablation response of carbon-phenolic materials. Tests were conducted in a 50 MW arc jet facility. Several damaging methods were used and the effects of material properties were studied. The data were used to refine theoretical models of the ablation response. Effects of nonisothermal thermocouple measurements and material expansion due to outgassing and delamination are included. Results show that the ablation response is critically dependent upon the char layer expansion characteristics and material properties are shown to have a significant influence. The effect of the simulated nuclear damage on the ablation performance of these materials is negligible

  2. Further assessments of the attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles from a safeguards perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the results of an extension to an earlier study [1] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the Purex, Urex+ and COEX reprocessing schemes. This study focuses on the materials associated with the Urex, COEX, Thorex and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study also examines what is required to render plutonium as 'unattractive.' Furthermore, combining the results of this study with those from the earlier study permits a comparison of the uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles on the basis of the attractiveness of the SNM associated with each fuel cycle. Both studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [2]. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed. (authors)

  3. Recent advances in nuclear forensic science - The identification of unknown nuclear materials and co-operation with the legal authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Forensic Science is a new branch of forensic science, which has arisen out of necessity following the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and East Block countries. One result of this break up was the emergence of a new form of smuggling nuclear materials, radioactive sources and scrap metal contaminated with radioactive substances. Since 1994 the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission Joint Research Centre has played a major role in combating the illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and contaminated scrap metals. The Institute has the advantages of extensive experience in handling these materials, which require sophisticated instruments mounted in glove boxes. Some twenty-five cases of illicit trafficking have been examined so far. Some of the latest cases will be described and the methods developed at the Institute for isotopic and microstructural fingerprinting of nuclear materials will be illustrated. The microstructural fingerprint is a new technique developed here, which complements the isotopic analysis of the samples, and is highly characteristic of the production process and subsequent history of the materials involved. Furthermore, the microstructural fingerprint cannot be disguised by, for example, the addition of other substances or isotopes to the sample. An extensive database on commercial nuclear materials is maintained by the Institute, and this is being enlarged to include microstructural information such as porosity, grain size, precipitation, dislocation structures, pellet surface roughness, etc. The database can be used for comparison when samples of unknown provenance are seized. The Institute places emphasis on developing close co-operation with the legal authorities to optimize the side-by-side working of law enforcement officers and nuclear scientists, and the effective preservation of conventional forensic information (such as fingerprints, for example,) on seized radioactive samples. Examples will be

  4. Filling the gaps in SCWR materials research: advanced nuclear corrosion research facilities in Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research efforts on materials selection and development in support of the design of supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) have produced a considerable amount of data on corrosion, creep and other related properties. Summaries of the data on corrosion [1] and stress corrosion cracking [2] have recently been produced. As research on the SCWR advances, gaps and limitations in the published data are being identified. In terms of corrosion properties, these gaps can be seen in several areas, including: 1) the test environment, 2) the physical and chemical severity of the tests conducted as compared with likely reactor service/operating conditions, and 3) the test methods used. While some of these gaps can be filled readily using existing facilities, others require the availability of advanced test facilities for specific tests and assessments. In this paper, highlights of the new materials research facilities jointly established in Hamilton by CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory and McMaster University are presented. (author)

  5. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-25

    Results are presented of work performed on the Advanced Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Included are the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described, including screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C.

  6. Securing special nuclear material: Recent advances in neutron detection and their role in nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, R. C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear nonproliferation objectives, such as safeguarding material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional missions. Large multinational programs targeting interdiction and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. In parallel with these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development has been directed toward the creation of next-generation assets. Neutron-detection technology plays a prominent role because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique fission signatures neutrons possess. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of H3e, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nuclear nonproliferation.

  7. Establishing and Advancing Electronic Nuclear Material Accounting Capabilities: A Canadian Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under safeguards agreements that the Government of Canada has with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and nuclear cooperation agreements with other states, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is required to track the inventory and movement of all safeguarded material. As safeguards programmes evolve, including the implementation of Integrated Safeguards, the scope of the reporting requirements for facilities within Canada has also increased. At the same time, ensuring the secure transmission of the associated data continues to be an overarching factor. The changes that are occurring in the nuclear material accounting (NMA) landscape have necessitated a modernization of Canada's accounting and reporting system, with the objective of creating a more effective and efficient system, while at the same time maintaining the security of prescribed information. After a review of the environment, the CNSC embarked on a project that would encourage facilities to transition away from traditional modes of NMA reporting and adopt an electronic approach. This paper will discuss how the changes to Canada's NMA infrastructure were identified and implemented internally to allow for optimized electronic reporting. Improvements included the development of the regulatory and guidance documents, the overhaul of the reporting forms, the upgrade of the CNSC's NMA database, and the development of an electronic reporting platform that leveraged existing technologies. The paper will also discuss the logistics of engaging stakeholders throughout the process, launching the system and soliciting feedback for future system improvements. Special consideration will be given to the benefits realized by both the CNSC and facilities who have voluntarily embraced electronic reporting. The final objective of this paper will be to identify the challenges that were faced by the CNSC and the nuclear industry as the system changes were implemented and to highlight how

  8. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, September 23, 1976--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of work performed from September 23, 1976 through December 31, 1976 on the Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the affect of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure Helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes progress to date on alloy selection for VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for DCHT applications. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and on designs for the testing and analysis facilities and equipment is discussed.

  9. A role for distributed processing in advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Networking and distributed processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and account-ability (MCandA) systems, both from safeguards and process operations perspectives while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminals and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. The structuring and development of a limited distributed MCandA prototype system, including human engineering concepts, are described. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts to the distributed system design are discussed

  10. Advanced nuclear propulsion concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, S.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary analysis has been carried out for two potential advanced nuclear propulsion systems: a contained pulsed nuclear propulsion engine and an antiproton initiated ICF system. The results of these studies indicate that both concepts have a high potential to help enable manned planetary exploration but require substantial development.

  11. Advanced sample environments for in situ neutron diffraction studies of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiche, Helmut Matthias

    Generation IV nuclear reactor concepts, such as the supercritical-water-cooled nuclear reactor (SCWR), are actively researched internationally. Operating conditions above the critical point of water (374°C, 22.1 MPa) and fuel core temperature that potentially exceed 1850°C put a high demand on the surrounding materials. For their safe application, it is essential to characterize and understand the material properties on an atomic scale such as crystal structure and grain orientation (texture) changes as a function of temperature and stress. This permits the refinement of models predicting the macroscopic behavior of the material. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool in characterizing such crystallographic properties due to their deep penetration depth into condensed matter. This leads to the ability to study bulk material properties, as opposed to surface effects, and allows for complex sample environments to study e.g. the individual contributions of thermo-mechanical processing steps during manufacturing, operating or accident scenarios. I present three sample environments for in situ neutron diffraction studies that provide such crystallographic information and have been successfully commissioned and integrated into the user program of the High Pressure -- Preferred Orientation (HIPPO) diffractometer at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) user facility. I adapted a sample changer for reliable and fast automated texture measurements of multiple specimens. I built a creep furnace combining a 2700 N load frame with a resistive vanadium furnace, capable of temperatures up to 1000°C, and manipulated by a pair of synchronized rotation stages. This combination allows following deformation and temperature dependent texture and strain evolutions in situ. Utilizing the presented sample changer and creep furnace we studied pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5wt%Nb currently employed in CANDURTM nuclear reactors and proposed for future SCWRs, acting as the primary

  12. Materials Science and Technology - Nuclear Materials, Advanced Course - Kon-67.5100 Postgraduate Seminar on Engineering Materials - Seminar papers 8 October, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Hannu; Kiesi, Timo (editor); Lindqvist, Sebastian; Leskelä, Esa; Lindroos, Vesa; POHJA Rami; Rantanen, Ville; Salenius, Elina; Sarikka, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The Engineering materials research group of Department of Engineering Design and Production of Aalto University arranged a postgraduate course on nuclear materials. The course consisted of three day long lecture session given in April 20-22, 2015. Lectures were given by professionals from nuclear power related research institutes (Aalto and VTT), nuclear industry and authority. The course also included a seminar session held October 8, 2015. The seminar session was targeted to postgraduate st...

  13. Professional Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the scope of nuclear materials management for a typical power reactor in the United States of America. Since this power reactor is financed by private capital, one of the principal obligations of the reactor operator is to ensure that the investment is protected and will furnish an adequate financial return. Because of the high intrinsic value of nuclear materials, appropriate security and accountability must be continually exercised to minimize losses beyond security and accountability for the nuclear materials. Intelligent forethought and planning must be employed to ensure that additional capital is not lost as avoidable additional costs or loss of revenue in a number of areas. The nuclear materials manager must therefore provide in advance against the following contingencies and maintain constant control or liaison against deviations from planning during (a) pre-reactor acquisition of fuel and fuel elements, (b) in-reactor utilization of the fuel elements, and (c) post-reactor recovery of fuel values. During pre-reactor planning and operations, it is important that the fuel element be designed for economy in manufacture, handling, shipping, and replaceability. The time schedule for manufacturing operations must minimize losses of revenue from unproductive dead storage of high cost materials. For in-reactor operations, the maximum achievable burn-up of the fissionable material must be obtained by means of appropriate fuel rearrangement schemes. Concurrently the unproductive down-time of the reactor for fuel rearrangement, inspections, and the like must be minimized. In the post-reactor period, when the fuel has reached a predetermined depletion of fissionable material, the nuclear materials manager must provide for the most economical reprocessing and recovery of fissionable values and by-products. Nuclear materials management is consequently an essential factor in achieving competitive fuel cycle and unit energy costs with power reactors

  14. Advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This book reviews the results of recent research on new materials arising from progress in polymer, ceramic, sensor, and fuel cell technology, including advanced inorganic-organic-hybrid polymeric materials, high functional sensor, and microbial fuel cells.

  15. Advanced materials-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 10th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 3-7 September, 2007. From this symposium, material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The proceeding of ISAM includes 94 papers which have been divided into six different sections: i) Development in material processing ii) Surface Engineering iii) phase transformation iv) advances in magnetic materials v) Nanotechnology and vi) reliability and life assessment. ISAM provides the opportunity to exchange technical know-how amongst Scientists, Engineers and researchers. (A.B.)

  16. Nuclear materials in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The incident at Fukushima Daiichi brought materials in the nuclear industry into the spotlight. Nature Materials talks to Tatsuo Shikama, Director of the International Research Centre for Nuclear Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, about the current situation.

  17. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  18. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  19. Advanced Sample Environments for in situ Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) the author successfully developed and commissioned three sample environments and applied them to study scientific problems of nuclear materials; (2) sample changer - reliable, unattended operation, Reiche and Vogel, 2010; (3) creep furnace - 1000 C, 2.7 kN, texture, Reiche et al., 2012; (4) Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes - deconvolute the contributions of heating, phase transformation, deformation at temperature in the β-field, and phase transformation during cooling; (5) our data informs currently developed mechanical models predicting texture evolution during phase transformation and high temperature deformation (MST-8, LANL); (6) high-temperature furnace - >2200 C, texture, paper in progress; (7) UC - Bowman's NaCl-type structure correct for cubic UC2, recent reactor safetly calculations by Chevalier and Fischer (2001) and independent work by Freyss (2010) incorrect, as fluorite structure is assumed; and (8) UC - order-disorder transition starting at 1800 C discovered which will improve current models, as these do not predict this transition (e.g. Basak, 2007), or confirm the prediction (Wen et al., 2012, T-1, LANL).

  20. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  1. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  2. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.in

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium–plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium–thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript. - Highlights: • Advantages of TXRF characterization of nuclear materials are described. • The sample amount required/analytical radioactive

  3. Advances in Nuclear Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brent

    2006-03-01

    Homeland security requires low-cost, large-area detectors for locating and identifying weapons-usable nuclear materials and monitors for radiological isotopes that are more robust than current systems. Recent advances in electronics materials and nanotechnology, specifically organic semiconductors and inorganic quantum dots, offer potential improvements. We provide an overview of the physical processes involved in radiation detection using these new materials in the design of new device structures. Examples include recent efforts on quantum dots, as well as more traditional radiation-detecting materials such as CdZnTe and high-pressure xenon. Detector improvements demand not only new materials but also enhanced data-analysis tools that reduce false alarms and thus increase the quality of decisions. Additional computing power on hand-held platforms should enable the application of advanced algorithms to radiation-detection problems in the field, reducing the need to transmit data and thus delay analysis.

  4. Limits of detection for special nuclear materials with an advanced high-pressure xenon detector and robust fitting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limits of detection for a special nuclear material of particular concern, 239Pu, using an advanced high pressure xenon detector (HPXe) and robust fitting analysis (RFA) was experimentally determined for a set of spectra with two different source strengths relative to the background, and for collection times ranging from 8 minutes to 7.5 seconds. The analysis of this data provides complementary information to recent results in which the same source was attenuated with varying thicknesses of lead shielding ranging from zero to four millimeters. The objective of these studies is to better understand the advantages and limitations of using this combination of technologies in nuclear portal monitoring systems to directly detect illicit trafficking of sensitive nuclear materials. HPXe detectors of the type used in this experiment are attractive candidates for portal monitoring systems because of their relative insensitivity to temperature changes and rough treatment, their full-energy peak efficiency over a wide range of energies, and their excellent energy resolution without the need for cryo cooling. A disadvantage of HPXe detectors for field use has been their susceptibility to degraded resolution when subjected to acoustic influences, but significant progress recently has been made with HPXe vibrostability showing negligible degradation in resolution with acoustic noise up to 70 dB. In RFA analysis, the change in shape of the entire spectrum due to all the peaks of each isotope is fitted to the data as a single variable. RFA in this mode is a relatively new approach to nuclear spectral analysis, and is based on non-linear robust fitting techniques. Exceptional results with weak plutonium sources using RFA recently have been reported and with low-resolution CZT spectra, and significant increases in detection sensitivity with RFA have been reported in comparison with conventional peak-search data analysis methods

  5. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  6. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  7. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  8. Advanced materials-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 19-22 September, 2005. This popular biennial event is one of the prime international forums in South Asia where material scientists and engineers can keep abreast with recent technologies involving advanced structural and functional materials. The technical committee of ISAM received 213 papers, 49 from abroad 164 from within the country. These papers were submitted in response to five important topics; i) Processing, Production and Developments, ii) Surface Engineering, iii) Phase Transformation and Characterization, iv) Advances in Magnetic Materials and v) Reliability and Life Assessment. The proceedings of the 9. ISAM consists of 108 reviewed papers. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers, and researchers. (A.B.)

  9. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaderhobli, Ram M

    2011-07-01

    The use of materials to rehabilitate tooth structures is constantly changing. Over the past decade, newer material processing techniques and technologies have significantly improved the dependability and predictability of dental material for clinicians. The greatest obstacle, however, is in choosing the right combination for continued success. Finding predictable approaches for successful restorative procedures has been the goal of clinical and material scientists. This article provides a broad perspective on the advances made in various classes of dental restorative materials in terms of their functionality with respect to pit and fissure sealants, glass ionomers, and dental composites. PMID:21726695

  10. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  11. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  12. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  13. Selected advances in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several findings emanating from materials research that should have a beneficial impact on technological advancement in the future are described. The report deals with the GRAPHNOL, a new class of high-temperature brazing alloy for joining refractory components, gel-sphere-pac process for manufacture of nuclear fuel, and noble-metal fuel cladding for service in radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to provide auxiliary power aboard spacecraft for planetary exploration

  14. Advancing against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting a day before the summit, Bush and Putin announced a new Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism; a plan for multiple, multilateral guaranteed suppliers of nuclear fuel to States that forgo building their own enrichment plants; and a Civil Nuclear Agreement that will lift restrictions on cooperation between the two countries in developing peaceful nuclear power. Each of these initiatives provides a framework for dozens of specific actions that can measurably reduce the risk of terrorists acquiring a nuclear weapon. The significance of the Global Initiative against Nuclear Terrorism lies not only in its substance but in Russia's visible joint ownership of the Initiative. After years in which Washington lectured Moscow about this threat, Putin's joint leadership in securing nuclear material worldwide should give added impetus to this undertaking inside Russia as well. Globally, this initiative calls for work plans in five arenas: prevention, detection, disruption, mitigation of consequences after an attack, and strengthening domestic laws and export controls against future A.Q. Khans. The guaranteed nuclear fuel supply tightens the noose around Iran as it seeks to exploit a loophole in the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. By guaranteeing States that six separate international suppliers will provide backup guarantees against interruption of supply for any reason other that breech of commitments under the NPT, this proposal eliminates Iran's excuse for Natanz-the enrichment plant it is rushing to finish today. This system for supply will be subject to the supervision by the IAEA, which will also have nuclear fuel reserves that allow it to be a supplier of last resort. The Civil Nuclear Agreement will allow joint research on next-generation, proliferation-proof reactors, including technologies where Russian science is the best in the world. It will permit sale to Russia of US technologies that can improve the safety and efficiency of Russian nuclear

  15. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities -Advanced nuclear material development-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to design and construct the steady state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsules to be installed in KMRR. The principle contents of this project are to design, fabricate the steady-state fuel test loop and non-instrumented capsule to be installed in KMRR for nuclear technology development. This project will be completed in 1996, so preparation of design criteria for fuel test loop have been performed in 1993 as the first year of the first phase in implementing this project. Also design and pressure drop test of non-instrumented capsule have been performed in 1993

  16. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  17. Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook. [Materials requirements for nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchbanks, M.F; Moen, R.A.; Irvin, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The NSM Handbook is a multi-volume document being compiled on a continuing basis to meet the broad materials data requirements of those involved in the development of advanced nuclear energy systems. The present focus of the Handbook is upon nuclear systems that have not yet achieved commercial status, with near-term emphasis on the nation's Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Actual use of the Handbook extends to other advanced nuclear concepts sharing the same needs, and to many nonnuclear engineering activities as well.

  18. Development of Nanostructured Materials with Improved Radiation Tolerance for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinghang Zhang; K. Ted Hartwig

    2009-08-12

    This project will explore the fundamental mechanisms through which interfaces in nanolayered structures and grain boundaries of bulk nanomaterials are able to attract and rapidly eliminate point defects and unwanted foreign species. Candidate materials that will be studied include both nanostructured multilayer composites synthesized by magnetron sputtering and structural bulk nanomaterials produced by severed plastic deformation, equal channel angular extrusion.

  19. Advanced Modeling and Experimental Validation of Complex Nuclear Material Forms of Potential Transportation Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here computer modeling efforts to describe the time-dependent pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions inside sealed canisters containing actinide materials packaged with small (0.12 - 0.5 wt. %) amounts of water. The model is run using Chemkin software, and the chemical reaction mechanism includes gas generation due to radiolysis of adsorbed water, interfacial chemical reactions, and adsorption/desorption kinetics of water on PuO2 materials. The ultimate goal is to provide a verifiable computer model that can be used to predict problematic gas generation in storage forms and assure design criteria for short-term storage and transportation of less than well-characterized (with respect to gas generation) material classes. Our initial efforts are intended to assess pressurization and gas-phase mole fractions using well-defined 3013 container test cases. We have modeled gas generation on PuO2 with water loading up to 0.5 wt. %, at 300 and 525 K, for time frames of 3 years. Estimates of the initial H2 generation rates were determined using RadCalc and employed in the Chemkin model to assess time- and coverage-dependent system behavior. Results indicate that canister pressurization due to radiolysis is a relatively slow process, with pressure increases at 300 K of approximately 1.5 atm. for 5000 g of PuO2 packaged with 0.5 wt. % water. At higher temperatures (> 400 K), desorption of water into the gas phase largely dictates pressurization and the gas-phase mole fractions. These modeling efforts provide a predictive capability for potential gas generation behavior that when augmented and validated by surveillance information will provide a technical basis for safe storage and transportation

  20. Development of Hi-Tech ceramics fabrication technologies - Development of advanced nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to prepare the foundation of hi-tech ceramics fabrication technologies through developing important processes i.e., tape casting, sol-gel, single crystal growing, compacting and sintering, and grinding and machining processes. Tape casting process is essential to manufacture hard and functional thin plates and structural elements for some composite materials. For the fabrication of spherical mono-sized micropowders of oxides, sol-gel process has widely been used. Piezoelectric elements that are the core parts of the sensors of LPMS (loose part monitoring system) and ALMS (acoustic leakage monitoring system) are used in single crystal forms. Compacting and sintering processes are general methods for fabricating structural parts using powders. Grinding and machining processes are important to achieve the final dimensions and surface properties of the parts. (Author).

  1. Advanced superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting properties of various materials are reviewed in view of their use in high field magnets. The critical current densities above 12 T of conductors based on NbN or PbMo6S8 are compared to those of the most advanced practical conductors based on alloyed by Nb3Sn. Different aspects of the mechanical reinforcement of high field conductors, rendered necessary by the strong Lorentz forces (e.g. in fusion magnets), are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  5. Advanced materials-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 8-11 September, 2003. The proceeding of ISAM includes 87 papers which have been divided in to ten different sections. These include production and processing, coating and thin films, characterization, superconductors and semiconductors mechanical modeling, mechanical testing and life prediction composites, corrosion and oxidation, single crystals and related papers. Ten eminent researchers and scholars of international fame presented their keynote/invited lectures of 40 minutes each. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers, and researchers from all over Pakistan and 30 other countries of the world. (A.B.)

  6. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  7. Polarons in advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Alexandre Sergeevich

    2008-01-01

    Polarons in Advanced Materials will lead the reader from single-polaron problems to multi-polaron systems and finally to a description of many interesting phenomena in high-temperature superconductors, ferromagnetic oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires. The book divides naturally into four parts. Part I introduces a single polaron and describes recent achievements in analytical and numerical studies of polaron properties in different electron-phonon models. Part II and Part III describe multi-polaron physics, and Part IV describes many key physical properties of high-temperature superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance oxides, conducting polymers and molecular nanowires, which were understood with polarons and bipolarons. The book is written in the form of self-consistent reviews authored by well-established researchers actively working in the field and will benefit scientists and postgraduate students with a background in condensed matter physics and materials sciences.

  8. Limits of detection for special nuclear materials with an advanced high-pressure xenon detector and robust fitting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The limits of detection for a special nuclear material of particular concern, 239Pu, using an advanced high pressure xenon detector (HPXe) and robust fitting analysis (RFA) were experimentally determined for a set of spectra with two different source strengths relative to the background, and for collection times ranging from 8 minutes to 7.5 seconds. The analysis of this data provides complementary information to recent results in which the same source was attenuated with varying thicknesses of lead shielding ranging from zero to four millimeters. The objective of these studies is to better understand the advantages and limitations of using this combination of technologies in nuclear portal monitoring systems to directly detect illicit trafficking of sensitive nuclear materials. HPXe detectors of the type used in this experiment are attractive candidates for portal monitoring systems because of their relative insensitivity to temperature changes and rough treatment, their full-energy peak efficiency over a wide range of energies, and their excellent energy resolution (1.9% at 662 keV with 3.0% efficiency and 1.3% at 1332 keV with 0.7% efficiency) without the need for cryo cooling. A disadvantage of HPXe detectors for field use has been their susceptibility to degraded resolution when subjected to acoustic influences, but significant progress recently has been made with HPXe vibrostability showing negligible degradation in resolution with acoustic noise up to 70 dB. The cylindrical HPXe detector used in the experiment was modeled after the one described in, and differed only in that it had one, not three, rectangular cells. It contained 1.73 liters of xenon gas with 0.3% H2 at a density of 0.25 g/cm3. In summary, the combination of a single 1.73-liter HPXe detector unit and an automated RFA analysis procedure appears to provide a reasonably reliable means by which unshielded amounts of 239Pu on the order of 1 gram can be detected with good confidence at a reasonable

  9. Auditing nuclear materials statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A standard that may be used as a guide for persons making independent examinations of nuclear materials statements or reports regarding inventory quantities on hand, receipts, production, shipment, losses, etc. is presented. The objective of the examination of nuclear materials statements by the independent auditor is the expression of an opinion on the fairness with which the statements present the nuclear materials position of a nuclear materials facility and the movement of such inventory materials for the period under review. The opinion is based upon an examination made in accordance with auditing criteria, including an evaluation of internal control, a test of recorded transactions, and a review of measured discards and materials unaccounted for (MUF). The standard draws heavily upon financial auditing standards and procedures published by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

  10. Advanced control systems to improve nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency. Working material. Report of an advisory group meeting held in Vienna, 13-17 March, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Group Meeting as a consequence of the recommendations of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation to produce a practical guidance on the application of the advanced control systems available for nuclear power plant operation. The objective of the IAEA advisory group meeting were: To provide an international forum of exchange of ideas and views for the purpose of enhancement of nuclear power plant reliability and efficiency by adopting advanced control technologies; to develop a scope, table of content, and extended outlines for an IAEA technical document on the subject. The present volume contains summary report, materials prepared by the meeting, and reports presented by national delegates. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi; Shindo, Daisuke

    2006-01-01

    From high-capacity, inexpensive hard drives to mag-lev trains, recent achievements in magnetic materials research have made the dreams of a few decades ago reality. The objective of Handbook of Advanced Magnetic Materials is to provide a timely, comprehensive review of recent progress in magnetic materials research. This broad yet detailed reference consists of four volumes: 1.) Nanostructured advanced magnetic materials, 2.) Characterization and simulation of advanced magnetic materials, 3.) Processing of advanced magnetic materials, and 4.) Properties and applications of advanced magnetic materials The first volume documents and explains recent development of nanostructured magnetic materials, emphasizing size effects. The second volume provides a comprehensive review of both experimental methods and simulation techniques for the characterization of magnetic materials. The third volume comprehensively reviews recent developments in the processing and manufacturing of advanced magnetic materials. With the co...

  12. Advanced materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced materials will require improved processing methods due to high melting points, low toughness or ductility values, high reactivity with air or ceramics and typically complex crystal structures with significant anisotropy in flow and/or fracture stress. Materials for structural applications at elevated temperature in critical systems will require processing with a high degree of control. This requires an improved understanding of the relationship between process variables and microstructure to enable control systems to achieve consistently high quality. One avenue to the required level of understanding is computer simulation. Past attempts to do process modeling have been hampered by incomplete data regarding thermophysical or mechanical material behavior. Some of the required data can be calculated. Due to the advances in software and hardware, accuracy and costs are in the realm of acquiring experimental data. Such calculations can, for example, be done at an atomic level to compute lattice energy, fault energies, density of states and charge densities. These can lead to fundamental information about the competition between slip and fracture, anisotropy of bond strength (and therefore cleavage strength), cohesive strength, adhesive strength, elastic modulus, thermal expansion and possibly other quantities which are difficult (and therefore expensive to measure). Some of these quantities can be fed into a process model. It is probable that temperature dependencies can be derived numerically as well. Examples are given of the beginnings of such an approach for Ni3Al and MoSi2. Solidification problems are examples of the state-of-the-art process modeling and adequately demonstrate the need for extensive input data. Such processes can be monitored in terms of interfacial position vs. time, cooling rate and thermal gradient

  13. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  14. Nuclear Material Management Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical and critical role of weapons testing to another critical role for the nation. This new role focuses on being a integral element in solving the multiple challenges facing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with nuclear material management. NTS is positioned to be a solution for other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to consolidate and modernize the production complex . With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through disposition and consolidation. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State of the art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that assigned activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS activities and challenges will be addressed

  15. Closing Remarks (International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control, Vienna (Austria), 7-10 July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As we have seen this week, nuclear forensics gathers a community of scientists, law enforcement officials, responders and policy makers who share a common commitment to nuclear forensics. This common commitment encompasses the capability for States to fulfil their nuclear security obligations to secure all nuclear material and other radioactive material that are used, produced or stored. Nuclear forensics requires international cooperation, since the threat of nuclear terrorism affects us all. Effective solutions to address this serious threat rely upon our confidence in nuclear forensics as an effective tool to prevent and respond to these threats. Let us also leave this international conference as a community. Let us take the common understanding we have gained this week, the lessons learned affecting nuclear forensic implementation, the advancements in the science, national efforts to build nuclear forensics into a national response plan and link policy requirements to strengthen national efforts in nuclear forensics going forward. Through common solutions, regular exchanges of information and consensus practices adopted after this conference, we have the greatest expectation that nuclear forensics will continue to flourish as a crucial nuclear security capability over the next ten years as much as it has in the past ten. With the results from the international conference this week, we are better positioned to continue our efforts

  16. Recent advances in nuclear cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, H.; Petersen, C. Leth; Kjaer, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is an essential part of functional, non-invasive, cardiac imaging. Significant advances have been made in nuclear cardiology since planar (201)thallium ((201)TI) scintigraphy was introduced for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) perfusion nearly 40 years ago. The use......-coronary cardiac diseases. The advances in nuclear cardiology are discussed under the four headlines of: 1) myocardial perfusion, 2) cardiac performance including LV and right ventricular (RV) function, 3) myocardial metabolism, and 4) experimental nuclear cardiology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  17. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  18. Nuclear material operations manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is intended to provide a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  19. Nuclear material operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion

  20. Material Nuclear Culture, Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele; Mabb, David; Craighead, Alison; Crowe, Nick; Schuppli, Susan; Takeuchi, Kota; Erika, Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Material Nuclear Culture is an exhibition of contemporary artists responses to the physical qualities and material traces of the aesthetics, traditions and legacy of nuclear powered submarines in the UK. Whilst the MOD is currently undertaking a public consultation process on how and where to dismantle and store Britain’s old subs the long term problems of storing radioactive waste remain unresolved. The exhibition will include new sculptural, film, sound and installation works by David ...

  1. Smuggling special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns (outlined in the author's introduction), chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups. The following issues are presented: significance of materials being smuggled; sources and smuggling routes; potential customers; international efforts to reduce nuclear smuggling; long-term disposition of fissile materials. (author)

  2. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-31

    The objectives of the program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the affect of simulated reactor primary coolant (Helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in the report includes the activities associated with the procurement of the materials for the screening test program, information from vendor certification for the materials receiver, and preliminary information from the materials characterization tests performed by General Electric. The construction status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment, and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment are discussed. The status of the data management system is also reviewed.

  3. Materials for advanced water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors recommended to organize a Technical Committee Meeting for the purpose of providing an international forum for technical specialists to review and discuss aspects regarding development trends in material application for advanced water cooled reactors. The experience gained from the operation of current water cooled reactors, and results from related research and development programmes, should be the basis for future improvements of material properties and applications. This meeting enabled specialists to exchange knowledge about structural materials application in the nuclear island for the next generation of nuclear power plants. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program's goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station

  5. Advanced nuclear precleaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R. [InnovaTech, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program`s goal is to develop a dynamic, self-cleaning air precleaner for high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems that would extend significantly the life of HEPA filter banks by reducing the particulate matter that causes filter fouling and increased pack pressure. HEPA filters are widely used in DOE, Department of Defense, and a variety of commercial facilities. InnovaTech, Inc. (Formerly Micro Composite materials Corporation) has developed a proprietary dynamic separation device using a concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT) to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams. When used as a prefilter in the HVAC systems or downstream of waste vitrifiers in nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and weapons decommissioning factories, the BLMT filter will dramatically extend the service life and increase the operation efficiency of existing HEPA filtration systems. The BLMT filter is self cleaning, so there will be no degraded flow or increased pressure drop. Because the BLMT filtration process is independent of temperature, it can be designed to work in ambient, medium, or high-temperature applications. During Phase II, the authors are continuing development of the computerized flow simulation model to include turbulence and incorporate expansion into a three-dimensional model that includes airflow behavior inside the filter housing before entering the active BLMT device. A full-scale (1000 ACFM) prototype filter is being designed to meet existing HEPA filter standards and will be fabricated for subsequent testing. Extensive in-house testing will be performed to determine a full range of performance characteristics. Final testing and evaluation of the prototype filter will be conducted at a DOE Quality Assurance Filter Test Station.

  6. Index of competences Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This index gathers the main french competences in advanced materials field (university laboratories, research and development organisms, technical centers, experts...). The concerned advanced materials are plastics and technical polymers, metals and alloys, composite materials, technical ceramics, glasses, paper, wood and textile. A PC computer version is also available. (A.B.)

  7. Final LDRD report : nanoscale mechanisms in advanced aging of materials during storage of spent %22high burnup%22 nuclear fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Blythe G.; Rajasekhara, Shreyas; Enos, David George; Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Weiner, Ruth F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of a three-year LDRD project focused on understanding microstructural evolution and related property changes in Zr-based nuclear cladding materials towards the development of high fidelity predictive simulations for long term dry storage. Experiments and modeling efforts have focused on the effects of hydride formation and accumulation of irradiation defects. Key results include: determination of the influence of composition and defect structures on hydride formation; measurement of the electrochemical property differences between hydride and parent material for understanding and predicting corrosion resistance; in situ environmental transmission electron microscope observation of hydride formation; development of a predictive simulation for mechanical property changes as a function of irradiation dose; novel test method development for microtensile testing of ionirradiated material to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on mechanical properties; and successful demonstration of an Idaho National Labs-based sample preparation and shipping method for subsequent Sandia-based analysis of post-reactor cladding.

  8. Nuclear material accounting handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handbook documents existing best practices and methods used to account for nuclear material and to prepare the required nuclear material accounting reports for submission to the IAEA. It provides a description of the processes and steps necessary for the establishment, implementation and maintenance of nuclear material accounting and control at the material balance area, facility and State levels, and defines the relevant terms. This handbook serves the needs of State personnel at various levels, including State authorities, facility operators and participants in training programmes. It can assist in developing and maintaining accounting systems which will support a State's ability to account for its nuclear material such that the IAEA can verify State declarations, and at the same time support the State's ability to ensure its nuclear security. In addition, the handbook is useful for IAEA staff, who is closely involved with nuclear material accounting. The handbook includes the steps and procedures a State needs to set up and maintain to provide assurance that it can account for its nuclear material and submit the prescribed nuclear material accounting reports defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4 in terms of the relevant agreement(s), thereby enabling the IAEA to discharge its verification function as defined in Section 1 and described in Sections 3 and 4. The contents of the handbook are based on the model safeguards agreement and, where applicable, there will also be reference to the model additional protocol. As a State using The handbook consists of five sections. In Section 1, definitions or descriptions of terms used are provided in relation to where the IAEA applies safeguards or, for that matter, accounting for and control of nuclear material in a State. The IAEA's approach in applying safeguards in a State is also defined and briefly described, with special emphasis on verification. In Section 2, the obligations of the State

  9. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  10. GE's advanced nuclear reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excess of US electrical generating capacity which has existed for the past 15 years is coming to an end as we enter the 1990s. Environmental and energy security issues associated with fossil fuels are kindling renewed interest in the nuclear option. The importance of these issues are underscored by the National Energy Strategy (NES) which calls for actions which open-quotes are designed to ensure that the nuclear power option is available to utilities.close quotes Utilities, utility associations, and nuclear suppliers, under the leadership of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (NPOC), have jointly developed a 14-point strategic plan aimed at establishing a predictable regulatory environment, standardized and pre-licensed Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) nuclear plants, resolving the long-term waste management issue, and other open-quotes enabling conditions.close quotes GE is participating in this national effort and GE's family of advanced nuclear power plants feature two reactor designs, developed on a common technology base, aimed at providing a new generation of nuclear plants to provide safe, clean, economical electricity to the world's utilities in the 1990s and beyond. Together, the large-size (1300 MWe) Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and the small-size (600 MWe) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) are innovative, near-term candidates for expanding electrical generating capacity in the US and worldwide. Both possess the features necessary to do so safety, reliably, and economically

  11. Annual report 1991. Institute for Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute executed in 1991 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the Joint Research Centre and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  12. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1977--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys of Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Process Heat and Direct Cycle helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effects of simulated reactor primary coolant (impure helium), high temperatures, and long time exposures on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in the report includes completion of alloy selection for the screening tests. The alloys selected for potential VHTR Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) applications and for potential DCHT applications are listed. The present status on the simulated reactor helium loop design and construction and the design and construction progress on the testing and analysis facilities and equipment are discussed.

  13. Computational Design of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savrasov, Sergey [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Kotliar, Gabriel [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Haule, Kristjan [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-06-03

    The objective of the project was to develop a method for theoretical understanding of nuclear fuel materials whose physical and thermophysical properties can be predicted from first principles using a novel dynamical mean field method for electronic structure calculations. We concentrated our study on uranium, plutonium, their oxides, nitrides, carbides, as well as some rare earth materials whose 4f eletrons provide a simplified framework for understanding complex behavior of the f electrons. We addressed the issues connected to the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon and magnon dynamics as well as thermal conductivity. This allowed us to evaluate characteristics of advanced nuclear fuel systems using computer based simulations and avoid costly experiments.

  14. International nuclear material safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History can be a very dull subject if it relates to events which have long since lost their relevance. The factors which led to the creation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), however, are as important and relevant today as they were when the Agency was first created. Without understanding these factors it is impossible to realise how important the Agency is in the present world or to understand some of the controversies surrounding its future. Central to these controversies is the question of how best to promote the international transfer of nuclear technology without contributing further to the problem of proliferating nuclear explosives or explosive capabilities. One effective means is to subject nuclear materials (see accompanying article in box), which forms the basic link between the manufacture of nuclear explosives and nuclear power generation, to international safeguards. This was realized very early in the development of nuclear power and was given greater emphasis following the deployment of the first two atomic bombs towards the end of World War II. (author)

  15. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  16. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colorgraphic displays and menu-driven tough screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  17. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of this program are to evaluate candidate alloys for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heat (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications, in terms of the effect of simulated reactor primary coolant (helium containing small amounts of various other gases), high temperatures, and long time exposures, on the mechanical properties and structural and surface stability of selected candidate alloys. A second objective is to select and recommend materials for future test facilities and more extensive qualification programs. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 750, 850, 950 and 10500C. Initiation of controlled purity helium creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. In addition, the results of 1000-hour exposures at 750 and 8500C on several experimental alloys are discussed

  18. Nuclear raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that in the next decades there will be a substantial and increasing demand for uranium to fuel nuclear power stations. In a developing country, the discovery and development of uranium resources can be of importance either for the development of national nuclear power or for the commercial export of uranium. As the time taken between the start of a uranium exploration program and the uranium production stage.may be of the order of 6 - 10 years, it is now opportune to start new exploration so that advantage of the increased demand in the mid-1970s may be achieved. Thorium will also be of interest, but in the more distant future when the thorium cycle for advanced converters and breeder reactors is fully developed

  19. Materials for advanced power engineering 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Contrepois, Quentin; Beck, Tilmann; Kuhn, Bernd (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The 9th Liege Conference on ''Materials for Advanced Power Engineering'' presents the results of the materials related COST Actions 536 ''Alloy Development for Critical Components of Environmentally Friendly Power Plants'' and 538 ''High Temperature Plant Lifetime Extension''. In addition, the broad field of current materials research perspectives for high efficiency, low- and zero- emission power plants and new energy technologies for the next decades are reported. The Conference proceedings are structured as follows: 1. Materials for advanced steam power plants; 2. Gas turbine materials; 3. Materials for nuclear fission and fusion; 4. Solid oxide fuel cells; 5. Corrosion, thermomechanical fatigue and modelling; 6. Zero emission power plants.

  20. Annual report 90. Institute for advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report 1990 of the Institute for Advanced Materials of the JRC highlights the Scientific Technical Achievements and presents in the Annex the Institute's Competence and Facilities available to industry for services and research under contract. The Institute executed in 1990 the R and D programme on advanced materials of the JRC and contributed to the programmes: reactor safety, radio-active waste management, fusion technology and safety, nuclear fuel and actinide research. The supplementary programme: Operation of the High Flux Reactor is presented in condensed form. A full report is published separately

  1. Better materials for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy /materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear systems comprising fuels, structural materials, moderators and coolants are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring - induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques, in-reactor degradation mechanisms, and in-service inspection. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. New challenges are thrown to material scientists for the development of materials suitable for high temperature reactors, which have a potential for providing primary heat for thermo chemical dissociation of water. Development of several ceramic materials, carbon based materials, dissimilar

  2. Recent Advances in Nuclear Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine. PMID:27540423

  3. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  4. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy's Transportation Management Division (TMD) is responsible for assuring that the Department's shipments of nuclear materials are made in a safe, secure, efficient and economic manner. While stringent regulatory standards for materials packaging, carrier training and shipment routing are designed and followed to ensure a high level of f = safety in transportation, concerns about the risks of such shipments are often significant within communities along a shipping route. To address these concerns, DOE/TMD is 1988 began a cooperative program with public safety, health and planning professionals from the large city and urban county membership of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives. With a focus on local issues, these practitioners defined a series of general concerns and assistance needs in areas of coordination, training, information and responder resources, marking and placarding, and costs and education

  5. Novel approaches to the analysis of nuclear and other radioactive materials - Improving detection capability through alpha-gamma coincidence, alpha-induced optical fluorescence and advanced spectrum analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ihantola, Sakari

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear and other radioactive materials pose a special concern in the proliferation of nuclear weapons, reactor accidents or through criminal acts. To prevent the adverse effects of the use of these materials, novel approaches for their detection and analysis are required. The objective of the research in this thesis was to improve the detection and characterisation of nuclear and other radioactive materials with radiometric methods. Radioactive sources can be detected and identified base...

  6. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  7. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. PMID:20217798

  8. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Nuclear Materials Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Quiter, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the measurement of nuclear resonance fluorescence gamma-rays as a technique to non-destructively determine isotopic compositions of target materials that are of interest for nuclear security applications. The physical processes that can result in non-resonant background to nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements are described and investigated using a radiation transport computer code that relies on the Monte Carlo technique, MCNPX. The phenomenon of nuclear reso...

  9. Experimental studies on interactions of molten LiF-NaF salt with some candidate structural materials for components of advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of molten 60 LiF - 40 NaF (% mol) salt with candidate structural materials for components of advanced nuclear reactors has been studied using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The corrosion of structural materials (stainless steel, Ni base alloy, nickel), which was induced by the molten salt melt, has been examined in dependence on the time of exposure at operating temperature of 680 deg C. The above choice of the two analytical techniques made it possible to assess on the whole the extent of corrosion. The corrosion phenomena in structural materials were investigated using EPMA. Corrosion-released elements dissolved in solidified molten salt were determined after salt dissolution by means of ICP-OES. The LiF-NaF melt produced corrosion, which proved as a surficial modification of a structural material and a trace contamination of the melt itself. The X-ray maps by EPMA with its 1-μm lateral resolution revealed compositional changes in structural materials, such as, e. g. regular depletion of Cr in alloy A686 to the depth of 10 - 25 μm. While the lateral resolution of LA-ICP-MS with the applied laser spot diameter of 25 μm was not exactly adequate to mapping of the corroded material section and, consequently, yielded less information in comparison with EPMA, this technique was quite sufficient for the mapping of elemental content changes in solidified salt profile. Finally, nickel was proved to be the most resistant material. It was concluded that: (i) EPMA study, involving semi-quantitative elemental mapping / content profiling and detailed spot quantitative analyses makes it possible to obtain quantitative assessment of the corrosion process; (ii) qualitative profiles are provided by LA-ICP-MS, which needs further development on quantification procedure based on matched calibration samples. (author)

  10. Intercomparison of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures. Part 1: Advanced test data and numerical methods. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the meeting was to review proposed contributions from CRP participating organizations to discuss in detail the experimental data on seismic isolators, to review the numerical methods for the analysis of the seismic isolators, and to perform a first comparison of the calculation results. The aim of the CRP was to validate the reliable numerical methods used for both detailed evaluation of dynamic behaviour of isolation devices and isolated nuclear structures of different nuclear power plant types. The full maturity of seismic isolation for nuclear applications was stressed, as well as the excellent behaviour of isolated structures during the recent earthquakes in Japan and the USA. Participants from Italy, USA, Japan, Russian federation, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, India and European Commission have presented overview papers on the present programs and their status of contribution to the CRP

  11. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  12. Structural materials challenges for advanced reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon, P.; Carré, F.

    2009-03-01

    Key technologies for advanced nuclear systems encompass high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistant core materials, and specific reactor and power conversion technologies (intermediate heat exchanger, turbo-machinery, high temperature electrolytic or thermo-chemical water splitting processes, etc.). The main requirements for the materials to be used in these reactor systems are dimensional stability under irradiation, whether under stress (irradiation creep or relaxation) or without stress (swelling, growth), an acceptable evolution under ageing of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, fracture toughness, resilience) and a good behavior in corrosive environments (reactor coolant or process fluid). Other criteria for the materials are their cost to fabricate and to assemble, and their composition could be optimized in order for instance to present low-activation (or rapid desactivation) features which facilitate maintenance and disposal. These requirements have to be met under normal operating conditions, as well as in incidental and accidental conditions. These challenging requirements imply that in most cases, the use of conventional nuclear materials is excluded, even after optimization and a new range of materials has to be developed and qualified for nuclear use. This paper gives a brief overview of various materials that are essential to establish advanced systems feasibility and performance for in pile and out of pile applications, such as ferritic/martensitic steels (9-12% Cr), nickel based alloys (Haynes 230, Inconel 617, etc.), oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels, and ceramics (SiC, TiC, etc.). This article gives also an insight into the various natures of R&D needed on advanced materials, including fundamental research to investigate basic physical and chemical phenomena occurring in normal and accidental operating conditions, lab-scale tests to characterize candidate materials

  13. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated

  14. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Selection of candidate alloys. Vol. 1. Advanced gas cooled reactor systems definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, M.D.

    1978-10-31

    Candidate alloys for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Nuclear Process Heal (NPH) and Direct Cycle Helium Turbine (DCHT) applications in terms of the effect of the primary coolant exposure and thermal exposure were evaluated. (FS)

  15. Equipment system for advanced nuclear fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the settlement of equipment system for nuclear Fuel Technology Development Facility(FTDF) is to build a seismic designed facility that can accommodate handling of nuclear materials including <20% enriched Uranium and produce HANARO fuel commercially, and also to establish the advanced common research equipment essential for the research on advanced fuel development. For this purpose, this research works were performed for the settlement of radiation protection system and facility special equipment for the FTDF, and the advanced common research equipment for the fuel fabrication and research. As a result, 11 kinds of radiation protection systems such as criticality detection and alarm system, 5 kinds of facility special equipment such as environmental pollution protection system and 5 kinds of common research equipment such as electron-beam welding machine were established. By the settlement of exclusive domestic facility for the research of advanced fuel, the fabrication and supply of HANARO fuel is possible and also can export KAERI-invented centrifugal dispersion fuel materials and its technology to the nations having research reactors in operation. For the future, the utilization of the facility will be expanded to universities, industries and other research institutes

  16. FTIR characterization of advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

  17. Advanced batteries materials science aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Storage and conversion are critical components of important energy-related technologies. This title employs materials science concepts and tools to describe the features that control the behavior of advanced electrochemical storage systems. It focuses on the basic phenomena that determine the properties of the components.

  18. Mechanics of advanced functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Mechanics of Advanced Functional Materials emphasizes the coupling effect between the electric and mechanical field in the piezoelectric, ferroelectric and other functional materials. It also discusses the size effect on the ferroelectric domain instability and phase transition behaviors using the continuum micro-structural evolution models. Functional materials usually have a very wide application in engineering due to their unique thermal, electric, magnetic, optoelectronic, etc., functions. Almost all the applications demand that the material should have reasonable stiffness, strength, fracture toughness and the other mechanical properties. Furthermore, usually the stress and strain fields on the functional materials and devices have some important coupling effect on the functionality of the materials. Much progress has been made concerning the coupling electric and mechanical behaviors such as the coupled electric and stress field distribution in piezoelectric solids, ferroelectric domain patterns in ferr...

  19. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  20. Study of nuclear environment and material strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a concern about the environmental hazard caused by radioactive materials coming with the expansion of nuclear power and even by renewable energies, which are used as countermeasures against global warming to construct a sustainable society. A concept to internalize the pollution caused by radioactive materials, which are directly or indirectly related to nuclear power, to economical activities by adopting externality is proposed. Energy and industrial productions are strongly related to the supply of material. Therefore material flow is also part of this internalization concept. The concept is named 'NEMS (Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy)'. Fission products and transuranic isotopes from nuclear power such as plutonium are considered in this concept. Thorium, which comes from the material flow of rare-earth production to support the elaboration of renewable energies including electric vehicles on the consumer side, is considered as an externality of the non-nuclear power field. Fission products contain some rare-earth materials. Thus, these rare-earth materials, which are extracted by the advanced ORIENT (Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle, are internalized as rare-earth supplier in economy. However, the supply quantity is limited. Therefore rare-earth production itself is still needed. The externality of rare-earth production is thorium and is internalized by using it as nuclear fuel. In this case, the demand of thorium is still small within these few decades compared to the production of thorium as byproduct of the rare-earth production. A thorium energy bank (The Bank) is advanced to regulate the storage of the excess amount of thorium inside of an international framework in order to prevent environmental hazard resulting from the illegal disposal of thorium. In this paper, the material flows of thorium and rare-earth are outlined. Their material balance are demonstrated based on the prediction of rare-earth mining and an

  1. 4. Accounting of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The questions are discussed of international policy significance of nuclear materials control and the ensuing position of IAEA. Attention is primarily paid to the Non-proliferation Treaty and to the international safeguards system based on agreements of safeguards among the individual countries and IAEA. In compliance with these agreements, around 600 nuclear installations are currently under control of IAEA. In the CSSR, a state system of nuclear materials record and management was established which fully meets the IAEA requirements while observing the internal regulations of the CSSR. CSKAE (Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission) was entrusted with the control of the state system and thus with the performance of state surveillance over the nuclear materials record and management. IAEA has been carrying out inspections of nuclear materials at Czechoslovak work places since 1972. No anomalies have been detected which would indicate possible misuse of nuclear materials. (Z.M.)

  2. Safeguards and nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards activities performed under INFCIRC/153 type of agreements are often characterized as traditional safeguards. This approach contains three elements: nuclear material accountancy; containment and surveillance measures; and on-site inspections. The nuclear material accountancy establishes the quantity of nuclear material present and changes in that over a period of time. Containment and surveillance measures take advantage of physical boundaries like walls, containers, cameras and seals to restrict, control or monitor the movement of or access to nuclear material. On-site inspection verifies the credibility of the first two verification elements. When we consider accounting of nuclear material we must have in our mind a Material Balance Area (MBA) separated by a physical boundary. There should be a close accounting period and also a nuclear material to account for. If there is some beginning inventory (BPI) in the MBA, it might receipt some material say R from other source. Then after processing some end product say S has been transferred to other MBA. During the process some part of the material can not be used further so it has to be discarded after measurement. Let it be MD. At the end of period some part of the material is still left over in the MBA, call it EPI. Since the nuclear materials are of high monitory and strategic value. The objective of their accounting and control is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities - to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and to deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection

  3. Evaluation of conceptual flowsheets for incorporating Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel materials in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study by a group of experts at ORNL has generated and evaluated a number of aqueous and non-aqueous flowsheets for recovering transuranium actinides from LWR fuel for use as fuel in an LMR and, at the same time, for transmutation of the wastes to less hazardous materials. The need for proliferation resistance was a consideration in the flowsheets. The current state of development of the flowsheets was evaluated and recommendations for additional study were made. 3 refs., 6 figs

  4. Evaluation of conceptual flowsheets for incorporating Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel materials in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.T.; Burch, W.D.; Collins, E.D.; Forsberg, C.W.; Prince, B.E.; Bond, W.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Delene, J.G.; Mailen, J.C.

    1990-08-01

    A preliminary study by a group of experts at ORNL has generated and evaluated a number of aqueous and non-aqueous flowsheets for recovering transuranium actinides from LWR fuel for use as fuel in an LMR and, at the same time, for transmutation of the wastes to less hazardous materials. The need for proliferation resistance was a consideration in the flowsheets. The current state of development of the flowsheets was evaluated and recommendations for additional study were made. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Addressing Attribution - Advances in Nuclear Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    LUETZENKIRCHEN Klaus; Mayer, Klaus; WALLENIUS Maria; Varga, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a discipline in science that exploits information which is inherent to nuclear material. As nuclear material is an industrial product, the respective production process will unavoidably leave a "fingerprint" in the material. In consequence, parameters related to process and source material are measured and conclusions about the history and origin of the nuclear material can be drawn. Chemical impurities, microstructure, molecular structure or isotopic composition are exam...

  6. Nuclear materials inventory plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any processing, manufacturing, or active storage facility it is impractical to assume that any physical security system can prevent the diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). It is, therefore, the responsibility of any DOE Contractor, Licensee, or other holder of SNM to provide assurance that loss or diversion of a significant quantity of SNM is detectable. This ability to detect must be accomplishable within a reasonable time interval and can be accomplished only by taking physical inventories. The information gained and decisions resulting from these inventories can be no better than the SNM accounting system and the quality of measurements performed for each receipt, removal and inventory. Inventories interrupt processing or production operations, increase personnel exposures, and can add significantly to the cost of any operation. Therefore, realistic goals for the inventory must be defined and the relationship of the inherent parameters used in its validation be determined. Purpose of this document is to provide a statement of goals and a plan of action to achieve them

  7. Advanced Material Rendering in Blender

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hatka, Martin; Haindl, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2012), s. 15-23. ISSN 1081-1451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0335; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; CESNET(CZ) 409/2011 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : realistic material rendering * bidirectional texture function * Blender Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/haindl-advanced material rendering in blender.pdf

  8. Recent advances on thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-cheng ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity through the thermoelectric power of solids without producing greenhouse gas emissions,thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenge.There has been a resurgence in the search for new materials for advanced thermoelectric energy conversion applications. In this paper,we will review recent efforts on improving thermoelectric efficiency. Particularly,several novel proof-of-principle approaches such as phonon disorder in phonon-glasselectron crystals,low dimensionality in nanostructured materials and charge-spin-orbital degeneracy in strongly correlated systems on thermoelectric performance will be discussed.

  9. Advanced gas cooled nuclear reactor materials evaluation and development program. Progress report, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-18

    This report presents the results of work performed from October 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply system, testing equipment and gas chemistry analysis instrumentation and equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described. This includes: screening creep results, weight gain and post-exposure mechanical properties for materials thermally exposed at 750/sup 0/ and 850/sup 0/C (1382/sup 0/ and 1562/sup 0/F). In addition, the status of the data management system is described.

  10. Advanced Gas Cooled Nuclear Reactor Materials Evaluation and Development Program. Progress report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work covered in this report includes the activities associated with the status of the simulated reactor helium supply systems and testing equipment. The progress in the screening test program is described; this includes: screening creep results and metallographic analysis for materials thermally exposed or tested at 7500, 8500, 9500, and 10500C (13820, 15620, 17420, and 19220F). The status of controlled purity helium and air creep-rupture testing in the intensive screening test program is discussed. The results of metallographic studies of screening alloys exposed in controlled purity helium for 3000 hours at 7500C and 6000 hours at 8500C and for weldments exposed in controlled purity helium for 6000 hours at 8500 and 9500C are presented and discussed

  11. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  12. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  13. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  14. President's Findings (International Conference on Advances in Nuclear Forensics: Countering the Evolving Threat of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control, Vienna (Austria), 7-10 July 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings included identifying the important role of nuclear forensics within a national response plan. The sessions highlighted the need to build trust among law enforcement, policy makers and nuclear forensic scientists in the conduct of an effective nuclear security investigation. Many States have embarked on national efforts to establish nuclear forensics as an effective tool to support an investigation of a nuclear security event involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. An outcome of the conference is that nuclear forensics is no longer emerging but is now a recognized tool to address nuclear security needs. Organizing a national nuclear forensics library or database, which may consist of an administrative association of existing databases, is viewed as an effective knowledge framework to help to determine whether or not seized material is consistent with a State’s material holdings. The conference also recognized that training, education and international cooperation are practical measures that can help to sustain nuclear forensic capabilities

  15. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  16. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  17. Nuclear materials management storage study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs` Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites.

  18. Materials of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the field of multiple and varied numerous and different materials (metals and their alloys, polymer, glasses, ceramics..) currently used (or which could be used) in the nuclear industries, e.g., for reactor vessels, for the storage of nuclear wastes, for steam generators or protection wall constructions etc.. It is divided into three main chapters dealing with: 1 - nuclear materials and irradiation (mechanisms, phenomena and properties; particle-matter interaction; effect on the phenomena that control the macroscopic behaviour; dose effects, dose rates and integrated dose; numerical modeling; reliability of polymer materials in nuclear environment); 2 - nuclear reactor materials: existing reactors (vessels, internal parts, cladding, prestressed concrete containment etc..); scientific problems (behaviour, mechanical damage, aging, corrosion, irradiation effects, development of new materials); materials of future reactors (controlled fusion reactors, incinerator reactors); 3 - materials of the back end of the fuel cycle: non-metal inorganic materials (silicated and non-silicated, ceramics, glasses, concrete, structure and microstructure); long-term behaviour of nuclear wastes during disposal and storage (irradiated fuels, concretes, others); nuclear ceramics: fuels, absorbent and inert matrices (fuel, rod, behaviour under irradiation, fission products, pellet-clad interaction, absorbent ceramics, behaviour of boron carbide..); nuclear glasses (confinement glasses, vitrification process); cement materials (cements, mortars and concretes; role of water, porosity; physical and chemical containment barrier; temperature, radiation and biological effects; performances); clays: geo-materials, behaviour of clays (stability, thermal-hydro-mechanical and hydrodynamical behaviour, ion exchange and trapping, chemo-mechanical coupling); dismantling of nuclear facilities (scenarios, technologies, wastes, French policy, waste management). (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu02 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  20. Advances in polypropylene based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polypropylene is an extremely versatile thermoplastic polymer known for its good performance/price ratio, excellent heat, moisture and chemical resistance, favorable processing characteristics and recyclability. Due to its universal properties, polypropylene is applied in numerous industrial fields such as electronic and electrical, automobile, textile, pipeline, etc. Furthermore, the progress in its synthesis and property modification in the last decade has contributed to the development of new polypropylene based materials with advanced performance. This review aims at reporting on some recent developments in polypropylene based materials, such as nano fibers, natural fiber reinforced composites, self-reinforced polypropylene and polypropylene/clay hybrids, that have replaced many types of engineering thermoplastics in high-performance applications. (Author)

  1. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  2. Options for treatment of legacy and advanced nuclear fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Christopher John

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of advanced nuclear fuels is relevant to the stabilisation of legacy spent fuels or nuclear materials and fuels from future nuclear reactors. Historically, spent fuel reprocessing has been driven to recover uranium and plutonium for reuse. Future fuel cycles may also recover the minor actinides neptunium, americium and perhaps curium. These actinides would be fabricated into new reactor fuel to produce energy and for transmutation of the minor actinides. This has the potential t...

  3. Global nuclear material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

  4. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  5. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  6. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Material Input (MI) of nuclear fuel, expressed in terms of the total amount of natural material needed for manufacturing a product, is examined. The suitability of the MI method for assessing the environmental impacts of fuels is also discussed. Material input is expressed as a Material Input Coefficient (MIC), equalling to the total mass of natural material divided by the mass of the completed product. The material input coefficient is, however, only an intermediate result, which should not be used as such for the comparison of different fuels, because the energy contents of nuclear fuel is about 100 000-fold compared to the energy contents of fossil fuels. As a final result, the material input is expressed in proportion to the amount of generated electricity, which is called MIPS (Material Input Per Service unit). Material input is a simplified and commensurable indicator for the use of natural material, but because it does not take into account the harmfulness of materials or the way how the residual material is processed, it does not alone express the amount of environmental impacts. The examination of the mere amount does not differentiate between for example coal, natural gas or waste rock containing usually just sand. Natural gas is, however, substantially more harmful for the ecosystem than sand. Therefore, other methods should also be used to consider the environmental load of a product. The material input coefficient of nuclear fuel is calculated using data from different types of mines. The calculations are made among other things by using the data of an open pit mine (Key Lake, Canada), an underground mine (McArthur River, Canada) and a by-product mine (Olympic Dam, Australia). Furthermore, the coefficient is calculated for nuclear fuel corresponding to the nuclear fuel supply of Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) company in 2001. Because there is some uncertainty in the initial data, the inaccuracy of the final results can be even 20-50 per cent. The value

  7. Advanced nuclear systems in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at a comparison of future reactor concepts, paying particular attention to aspects of safety, of the fuel cycle, the economics, the experience-base and the state of development. Representative examples of typical development lines, that could possibly be 'of interest' within a time horizon of 50 years were selected for comparison. This can be divided into three phases: - Phase I includes the next 10 years and will be characterised mainly by evolutionary developments of light water reactors (LWR) of large size; representative: EPR, - Phase II: i.e. the time between 2005 and 2020 approximately, encompasses the forecasted doubling of today's world-wide installed nuclear capacity; along with evolutionary reactors, innovative systems like AP600, PIUS, MHTGR, EFR will emerge, - Phase III covers the time between 2020 and 2050 and is characterised by the issue of sufficient fissile material resources; novel fast reactor systems including hybrid systems can, thus, become available; representatives: IFR, EA, ITER (the latter being). The evaluated concepts foresee partly different fuel cycles. Fission reactors can be operated in principle on the basis of either a Uranium-Plutonium-cycle or a Thorium-Uranium-cycle, while combinations of these cycles among them or with other reactor concepts than proposed are possible. With today's nuclear park (comprising mainly LWRs), the world-wide plutonium excess increases annually by about 100 t. Besides strategies based on reprocessing like: - recycling in thermal and fast reactors with mixed oxide fuels, - plutonium 'burning' in reactors with novel fuels without uranium or in 'hybrid' systems, allowing a reduction of this excess, direct disposal of spent fuel elements including their plutonium content ('one-through') is being considered. (author) figs., tabs., 32 refs

  8. Nuclear materials - fissile, fertile and dual-use structural materials involved in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents a brief account of nuclear materials, with special emphasis on fissile, fertile and some important dual-use structural materials generally involved in nuclear reactors. The dual-use structural materials utilized in nuclear reactors have got important applications in both nuclear and non-nuclear fields. In the hostile environment, the important phenomena such as interactions between fission products and the surrounding elemental species, radiation-induced effects, corrosion, generation of gases, swelling and so forth, become increasingly complex and the performance of a nuclear reactor system thus becomes very much dependent on the physicochemical stability and nuclear compatibility of the dual-use structural materials used in fuel sub-assembly towards the fuel elements. In this context, the dual-use structural materials like stainless steel, zirconium alloys, etc. as claddings; water, liquid sodium or gases, etc. as coolants and water, boron, etc. as moderators, having good reliability and appropriate nuclear compatibility with the fuels, are of prime importance in reactor technology. In advanced designed reactors, development of novel fuels coupled with efficient dual-use structural materials may mitigate the challenges involved in optimizing the efficiency of the power reactors under specific experimental conditions. (author)

  9. Nuclear technology and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and expected problems in the materials of nuclear technology are reviewed. In the fuel elements of LWRs, cladding waterside corrosion, secondary hydriding and pellet-cladding interaction may be significant impediments to extended burnup. In the fuel, fission gas release remains a key issue. Materials issues in the structural alloys of the primary system include stress-corrosion cracking of steel, corrosion of steam generator tubing and pressurized thermal shock of the reactor vessel. Prediction of core behavior in severe accidents requires basic data and models for fuel liquefaction, aerosol formation, fission product transport and core-concrete interaction. Materials questions in nuclear waste management and fusion technology are briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  11. Materials science for nuclear detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peurrung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detection materials.

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  13. Nuclear propulsion technology advanced fuels technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Walter A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced fuels technology are presented. Topics covered include: nuclear thermal propulsion reactor and fuel requirements; propulsion efficiency and temperature; uranium fuel compounds; melting point experiments; fabrication techniques; and sintered microspheres.

  14. Muon Tracking to Detect Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, D. [NSTec; Dreesen, W. [NSTec; Green, J. A. [NSTec; Tibbitts, A. [NSTec; Schotik, G. [NSTec; Borozdin, K. [LANL; Bacon, J. [LANL; Midera, H. [LANL; Milner, C. [LANL; Morris, C. [LANL; Perry, J. [LANL; Barrett, S. [UW; Perry, K. [UW; Scott, A. [UW; Wright, C. [UW; Aberle, D. [NSTec

    2013-03-18

    Previous experiments have proven that nuclear assemblies can be imaged and identified inside of shipping containers using vertical trajectory cosmic-ray muons with two-sided imaging. These experiments have further demonstrated that nuclear assemblies can be identified by detecting fission products in coincidence with tracked muons. By developing these technologies, advanced sensors can be designed for a variety of warhead monitoring and detection applications. The focus of this project is to develop tomographic-mode imaging using near-horizontal trajectory muons in conjunction with secondary particle detectors. This will allow imaging in-situ without the need to relocate the objects and will enable differentiation of special nuclear material (SNM) from other high-Z materials.

  15. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  16. LECI Department of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LECI is a 'hot' laboratory dedicated mostly to the characterization of irradiated materials. It has, however, limited activities on fuel, as a back up to the LECA STAR in Cadarache. The LECI belongs to the Section of Research on Irradiated Materials (Department of Nuclear Materials). The Department for Nuclear Materials (DMN) has for its missions: - to contribute, through theoretical and experimental investigations, to the development of knowledge in materials science in order to be able to predict the evolution of the material physical and mechanical properties under service conditions (irradiation, thermomechanical solicitations, influence of the environment,..); - to characterize the properties of the materials used in the nuclear industry in order to determine their performance and to be able to predict their life expectancy, in particular via modelling. These materials can be irradiated or not, and originate from surveillance programs, experimental neutron irradiations or simulated irradiations with charged particles; - to establish, maintain and make use of the databases generated by these data; - to propose new or optimized materials, satisfying future service conditions and extend the life or the competitiveness of the associated systems; - to establish constitutive laws and models for the materials in service, incidental, accidental and storage conditions, and contribute to the development of the associated design codes in order to support the safety argumentation of utilities and vendors; - to provide expertise on industrial components, in particular to investigate strain or rupture mechanisms and to offer leads for improvement. This document presents, first, the purpose of the LECI (Historical data, Strategy, I and K shielded cell lines (building 605), M shielded cell line (building 625), Authorized materials). Then, it presents the microscopy and irradiation damage studies laboratory of the Saclay centre (Building 605) Which belongs to the Nuclear

  17. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 1 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear power stations, graft polymerization, diffusion in uranium alloys, and conventional power plants.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the three stages of the operation of a power plant, either nuclear or conventionally fueled. This text then examines the major problems that face the successful development of commercial nuclear power plants. Other chapters consider

  18. MSFC Nuclear Propulsion Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. R.; Cook, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion systems for spacecraft applications present numerous technical challenges for propulsion systems. They have been the focus of a recent NRA. Challenges inclue: a nuclear reactor subsystem to produce thermal energy; a power conversion subsystem to convert the thermal energy into electrical energy; a propulsion subsystem that utilizes Hall effect thrusters; thruster technologies and high temperature materials to support subsystems. The MSFC Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Facility provides an ideal platform for the study of high temperature and reactive materials. An overview of the facility and its capabilities will be presented.

  19. Recent advances in nuclear ADC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronics Division of BARC has done leading research work in nuclear ADC's. Number of new methods have been developed. The most important of these methods are: (1) the vernier Approximation Technique, (2) the method based on new DAC correction technique, and (3) the Interpolation Technique. These are briefly described. High resolution (8K and 4K) nuclear ADC's constructed based on new methods of A/D conversion give low DNL ( < ± 1 per cent) and low conversion time (< 10 μsec). These ADC's give much lower conversion time as compared to the conversion time obtained using Wilkinson technique. Thus 100 MHz Wilkinson type of ADC with 8K resolution has conversion time of 81 micro seconds which is very high as compared to conversion time of 6.5 micro secs. of the 8K nuclear ADC made at Electronics Division, BARC. All these nuclear ADC's utilize commercially available monolithic ADC's and monolithic DAC's. The recent improvements in speed size and cost of these ADC's and DAC's are thus directly utilized to improve corresponding factors in nuclear ADC's. Thus conversion time of 4K nuclear ADC can be reduced from 12 μsec to nearly 4 μsec just with replacement of ADC-84 by its high speed version. This is a distinct advantage of these nuclear ADC's over Wilkinson type of ADC's, where improvement of performance requires major changes in circuit design. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  20. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's role in relation to physical protection. The Safeguards applied by the Agency pursuant to the agreements to which it is a party have as their objective the detection of diversion of nuclear material to purposes prohibited by the State's undertaking. Also of importance is the question of theft of nuclear material or sabotage of installations by individuals or non-governmental groups, for purposes ranging from personal economic gain to political blackmail. The protection of nuclear material and facilities against illegal acts is an essential supplement to any safeguards system based on accountancy. There is a general recognition of the need for any State to have a system for the physical protection of nuclear material but the obligation to establish such a system does not arise from the safeguards agreement; the Agency cannot oblige a State to do so. It is, however, in a unique position to render advice on the subject, serve as a clearing house of information and co-ordinate the various approaches towards concerted action in this field. From 1971 onward the IAEA has been preparing itself to provide, upon request, technical advice to States setting up systems for the physical protection of nuclear material. In June 1971 it convened a Working Group Meeting on the subject; in November of that year consultants met in Vienna and in March 1972 a Panel meeting was held. These three meetings resulted in the publication, in June 1972, of 'Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material'. From 3-7 February 1975 the IAEA arranged a Consultants Meeting to consider the up-dating and extension of these recommendations. The consultants made a thorough study of the developments since the previous recommendations were drawn up and prepared a working paper for consideration by an Advisory Group meeting planned for 14-18 April 1975. ft is widely recognized that since the previous meetings took place the need for the adequate physical protection of nuclear

  1. Safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety protection is discussed of nuclear facilities and of nuclear materials, which is a specific element of guaranteeing nuclear safety. Its task is to maximally restrict the risk of misuse of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials for endangering human lives and health and the environment. Concrete requirements for the barriers and technical means and for security of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials are based on this approach. In the CSSR, a legal norm is being prepared that will enact the said requirements for safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials. (Z.M.)

  2. Nuclear data information system for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li2O/H2O(SUS), 9Cr-2W/Li2O/H2O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li2ZrO3/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V< SiC< RAF< SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  3. Nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam techniques were very helpful to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of waste matrices, both glasses and ceramics, under conditions of aqueous corrosion (leaching) and radiation damage. Due to the ease of varying dose, dose rate, energy and type of damaging ions, and due to the powerful nature of ion beam techniques for nondestructive analyses of complex surface layers, ion beams were frequently and successfully applied to matrices for safe long-time storage of radioactive waste. Rutherford-backscattering, elastic recoil detection and reactions with high energy N-beams helped to better understand the chemistry of leaching, to detect enrichment and depletion of glass components and waste at the leached surfaces and to follow synergistic effects in leaching in the near-field of the final repository, hence in the presence of e.g. rock salt and container materials. Radiation effects were simulated with ion beams and interesting results were obtained, in particular on mechanical behaviour of damaged glasses and ceramics, their fracture behaviour etc

  4. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 5 presents the underlying principles and theory, as well as the practical applications of the advances in the nuclear field. This book reviews the specialized applications to such fields as space propulsion.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the design and objective of the Fast Flux Test Facility to provide fast flux irradiation testing facilities. This text then examines the problem in the design of nuclear reactors, which is the analysis of the spatial and temporal behavior of the neutron and temperature dist

  5. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 3 provides an authoritative, complete, coherent, and critical review of the nuclear industry. This book presents the advances in the atomic energy field.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the use of pulsed neutron sources for the determination of the thermalization and diffusion properties of moderating as well as multiplying media. This text then examines the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic circuitry and its components. Other chapters consider radiation effects in various inorganic solids, with empha

  6. 11 International Symposium on Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM) was held from 08-12 August, 2009 at Islamabad, Pakistan. The main theme of the proceedings encompasses technological advances of recent years. The significance of advanced materials and technological advancements made in this respect have been incorporated in this proceeding. The scientists, researchers and engineers doing their research in different areas of material sciences would benefit from this proceedings. The proceeding of ISAM includes 61 papers which reflects on various aspects of materials and alloys and their properties. (A.B.)

  7. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  8. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as

  9. Nuclear Material (Offences) Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this Act is to enable the United Kingdom to ratify the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material which opened for signature at Vienne and New York on 3 March 1980. The Act extends throughout the United Kingdom. (NEA)

  10. Materials applications of nuclear microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a review of the use of nuclear microprobes in support of a wide variety of ''materials'' sciences. Applications areas covered include metallurgy, solid-state physics, fusion research and HT superconductors; some examples are described. The list of references concentrates on the substantial range of publications subsequent to reviews published in 1987. (orig.)

  11. Responsible stewardship of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to tap the massive energy potential of nuclear fission was first developed as a weapon to end a terrible world war. Nuclear fission is also a virtually inexhaustible energy resource, and is the only energy supply in certain areas in Russia, Kazakhstan and elsewhere. The potential link between civilian and military applications has been and continues to be a source of concern. With the end of the Cold War, this issue has taken a dramatic turn. The U.S. and Russia have agreed to reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles by as much as two-thirds. This will make some 100 tonnes of separated plutonium and 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium available, in a form that is obviously directly usable for weapons. The total world inventory of plutonium is now around 1000 tonnes and is increasing at 60-70 tonnes per year. There is even more highly enriched uranium. Fortunately the correct answer to what to do with excess weapons material is also the most attractive. It should be used and reused as fuel for fast reactors. Material in use (particularly nuclear material) is very easy to monitor and control, and is quite unattractive for diversion. Active management of fissile materials not only makes a major contribution to economic stability and well-being, but also simplifies accountability, inspection and other safeguards processes; provides a revenue stream to pay for the necessary safeguards; and, most importantly, limits the prospective world inventory of plutonium to only that which is used and useful

  12. Nuclear and hazardous material perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reemerging nuclear enterprise in the 21. century empowering the power industry and nuclear technology is still viewed with fear and concern by many of the public and many political leaders. Nuclear phobia is also exhibited by many nuclear professionals. The fears and concerns of these groups are complex and varied, but focus primarily on (1) management and disposal of radioactive waste [especially spent nuclear fuel and low level radioactive waste], (2) radiation exposures at any level, and (3) the threat nuclear terrorism. The root cause of all these concerns is the exaggerated risk perceived to human health from radiation exposure. These risks from radiation exposure are compounded by the universal threat of nuclear weapons and the disastrous consequences if these weapons or materials become available to terrorists or rogue nations. This paper addresses the bases and rationality for these fears and considers methods and options for mitigating these fears. Scientific evidence and actual data are provided. Radiation risks are compared to similar risks from common chemicals and familiar human activities that are routinely accepted. (authors)

  13. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  14. Addressing Attribution - Advances in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear forensic investigations the information is typically used to find out the origin of the material including its production place and process. As nuclear material is an industrial product, the respective production process will unavoidably leave a 'fingerprint' in the material. In consequence, parameters related to process and source material are measured and conclusions about the history and origin of the nuclear material can be drawn. Chemical impurities, microstructure, molecular structure or isotopic composition are examples of such parameters, which compose a characteristic 'signature'. The rare-earth elemental (REE) pattern has been found to be an important signature to determine the type of ore used as source material for the production of uranium ore concentrate, since the REE pattern is invariable in most hydrometallurgical processes. Generally, Decrypting the information for nuclear forensic investigations requires sophisticated methodology, subject matter expertise and reference data. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  15. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 6 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including nuclear steam generator, oscillations, fast reactor fuel, gas centrifuge, thermal transport system, and fuel cycle.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the high standards of technical safety for Europe's first nuclear-propelled merchant ship. This text then examines the state of knowledge concerning qualitative results on the behavior of the solutions of the nonlinear poin

  16. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1976-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 9 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the possible consequences of a large-scale release of radioactivity from a nuclear reactor in the event of a serious accident. This text then discusses the extension of conventional perturbation techniques to multidimensional systems and to high-order approximations of the Boltzmann equation.

  17. Nuclear, chemical, and physical characterization of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Materials Signatures Program has implemented a graded 'conduct of operations' type analysis flow path approach for determining the key nuclear, chemical, and physical signatures needed to identify the manufacturing process, intended use, and origin of interdicted nuclear material. This analysis flow path includes both destructive and non-destructive characterization techniques and has been exercized against different nuclear materials from LANL's special nuclear materials archive. Results obtained from the case study will be presented to highlight analytical techniques that offer the critical attribution information. (author)

  18. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items

  19. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical Committee met 21-25 June 1993 to consider changes to INFCIRC/225/Rev.2. The revised document, INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, reflects the Technical Committee recommendations for changes to the text as well as other modifications determined necessary to advance the consistency of the Categorization Table in INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 with the categorization table contained in The Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and to reflect additional improvements presented by the experts. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  20. Hot extrusion of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot extrusion is known as significant bulk deformation step in manufacturing of seamless tube production. Elevated temperature deformation carried out above the recrystallization temperature would enable imposition of large strains in single step. This deformation causes a significant change in the microstructure of the material and depends on extrusion process parameters such as temperature and strain rate (Ram speed). Basic microstructure developed at this deformation stage has significant bearing on the final properties of the material fabricated with subsequent cold working steps. Zirconium alloys and special nuclear grade austenitic stainless steels are two important groups of materials used as structural and core components in thermal and fast reactors worldwide respectively. The properties of former alloy are very sensitive to the thermo mechanical fabrication steps initiated with hot extrusion due to their anisotropic deformation behavior. However, nuclear grade austenitic stainless steels have many variants from their commercial grades in terms of micro and macro alloy chemistry. Factors such as these significantly affect the workability of the materials and require proper selection of extrusion parameters especially working temperature and extrusion speed plays a key role in the quality of the product. Modern developments in processing technology envisage the application of processing maps based on dynamic material model for selection of hot extrusion parameters. The present paper is aimed at bringing out significance of the map in selection of working domain with respect to the industrial process conditions for both groups of nuclear materials mentioned earlier. Developed process maps of certain alloys suggest use of extremely slow strain rate and low temperature extrusion which cannot be achieved during bulk processing due to design of equipment and heat transfer constraints in industrial scale production. Attempts are made to highlight the role of

  1. Advanced nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) is the largest power company among the six subsidiaries that separated from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in 2001, accounting for approximately 25% of electricity producing facilities, hydro and nuclear combined. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power plants in Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin and Wolsong site and several hydroelectric power generation facilities, providing approximately 36% of the national power supply. As a major source of electricity generation in Korea, nuclear energy contributes greatly to the stability of national electricity supply and energy security. KHNP's commercial nuclear power plant operation, which started with Kori Unit 1 in 1978, has achieved an average capacity factor more than 90% since 2000 and a high record of 93.4% in 2008. Following the introduction of nuclear power plants in the 1970's, Korea accumulated its nuclear technology in the 1980's, developed OPR 1000(Optimized Power Reactor) and demonstrated advanced level of its nuclear technology capabilities in the 2000's by developing an advanced type reactor, APR 1400(Advanced Power Reactor) which is being constructed at Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4 for the first time. By 2022, KHNP will construct additional 12 nuclear power plants in order to ensure a stable power supply according to the Government Plan of Long-Term Electricity supply and Demand. 4 units of OPR 1000 reactor model will be commissioned by 2013 and 8 units of APR 1400 are under construction and planned. At the end of 2022, the nuclear capacity will reach 33% share of total generation capacity in Korea and account for 48% of national power generation. (author)

  2. Advanced nuclear reactor systems - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilisation as its mainstay for its sustainable growth. The current levels of deployment of nuclear energy in India need to be multiplied nearly hundred fold to reach levels of electricity generation that would facilitate the country to achieve energy independence as well as a developed status. The Indian thorium based nuclear energy systems are being developed to achieve sustainability in respect of fuel resource along with enhanced safety and reduced waste generation. Advanced Heavy Water Reactor and its variants have been designed to meet these objectives. The Indian High Temperature Reactor programme also envisages use of thorium-based fuel with advanced levels of passive safety features. (author)

  3. Joining and surfacing of advanced materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Kolasa; Wladyslaw Wlosinski

    2004-01-01

    The application of advanced materials, i.e. advanced ceramics, glasses, intermetallic phases and various type of composites, not only depends on their manufacture processes including a great input of know-how, but also on their abilities for processing, among which the joining processes play an important role. The uses of advanced materials are changing rapidly, with a major emphasis on technical applications, especially the components of machines, apparatus and technical devices expected to withstand very heavy exploitation conditions. Furthermore,these materials are becoming more complex, in terms of being strengthened and toughened by transformation processes as well as by the addition of other ceramic or metallic materials including nanomaterials. The successful use of advanced materials requires the development of equally advanced joining materials, processes and technology. Some selected examples of results of joining advanced materials with the use of various procedures as well as surface modification of structural components with the use of advanced materials obtained in the Welding Engineering Department of Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, are presented.

  4. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  5. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second panel on the Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials was organized for two purposes: first, to advise the Seibersdorf Laboratory of the Agency on its future programme, and second, to review the results of the Second International Comparison of routine analysis of trace impurities in uranium and also the action taken as a result of the recommendations of the first panel in 1962. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. IMPULSE - advanced nuclear thermal propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Wett, J.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The IMPULSE nuclear thermal rocket concept provides an evolutionary step toward high thrust-to-weight and specific impulse over a wide operating range. Most of the components and features of the concept are based on demonstrated or proven technology from the NER VA/Rover program. The performance increase is due to the use of a new solid nuclear fuel shape. The new fuel shape provides a large flow area while maintaining flow control and eliminating hot spots due to fuel-to-fuel contact. The control and eliminating hot spots due to fuel-to-fuel contact. The IMPULSE reactor utilizes a multi-pass, series flow configuration to provide excess turbine power while improving the thermal efficiency of the overall system. This configuration also provides a large area for moderator. The IMPULSE concept can provide a specific impulse of up to 1000 seconds and trust to weight ratios approaching 40. The improved performance will reduce the Initial Mass In Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) and provide a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems.

  7. Glycopolymeric Materials for Advanced Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, glycopolymers have particularly revolutionized the world of macromolecular chemistry and materials in general. Nevertheless, it has been in this century when scientists realize that these materials present great versatility in biosensing, biorecognition, and biomedicine among other areas. This article highlights most relevant glycopolymeric materials, considering that they are only a small example of the research done in this emerging field. The examples described here are selected on the base of novelty, innovation and implementation of glycopolymeric materials. In addition, the future perspectives of this topic will be commented on.

  8. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  9. Nuclear fuel materials research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research has been to produce information and develop our own testing resources related to new fuel designs, behaviour of present fuel designs, fuel inspection methods and control rod materials. At the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) the nuclear fuel materials programme has produced data which have been utilized in procurement, behavioural analysis and surveillance of the fuel used in the Finnish nuclear power stations. In addition to our own experience, data on fuel behaviour have been received by participating in the international cooperation projects, such as OECD/Halden, Studsvik-Ramp-programmes, IAEA/BEFAST and VVER-fuel research projects. The volume of the research work financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the years 1984-1986 has been about 9 man years. The report is the summary report of the research work conducted in the KTM-financed nuclear fuel materials programme in the years 1984-1986

  10. Advanced safeguards for the nuclear renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy provides not only the benefit of carbon-neutral electricity, but also the potential for proliferation concern as well. Nuclear safeguards implemented at the state level (domestic) and at the international level by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are essential for ensuring that nuclear materials are not misused and are thereby a critical component of the increased usage of nuclear energy. In the same way that the 1950's Atoms for Peace initiative provided the foundation for a robust research and development program in nuclear safeguards, the expansion of nuclear energy that is underway today provides the impetus to enter a new era of technical development in the safeguards community. In this paper, we will review the history of nuclear safeguards research and development as well future directions.

  11. US DOE Advanced Nuclear Fuel Development Programme Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has been given the responsibility to develop advanced nuclear fuel technologies for the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program using a science based approach, focusing on developing a microstructural understanding of nuclear fuels and materials. The science based approach combines theory, experiment and multiscale modelling and simulation to develop a fundamental understanding of the fuel fabrication processes and fuel and cladding performance under irradiation. The objective is to use a predictive approach to design fuels and cladding to achieve the desired performance (in contrast to more empirical observation based approaches traditionally used in fuel development). The AFC programme conducts research and development of innovative, enhanced, accident tolerant, next generation LWRs and transmutation fuel systems for sustainable fuel cycles. The major areas of research include enhancing the accident tolerance of fuels and materials, improving the fuel system’s ability to achieve significantly higher fuel and plant performance, and developing innovations that provide for major increases in burnup and performance. The AFC programme is interested in advanced nuclear fuels and materials technologies that are robust, have high performance capability, and are more tolerant to accident conditions than traditional fuel systems. The scope of the AFC includes evaluation and development of multiple fuel forms to support the objectives described in the DOE Strategic Plan and the DOE’s Office of Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. The word ‘fuel’ is used generically to include fuels, targets and their associated cladding materials. (author)

  12. Nuclear materials transport: liability and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations concerning civil and contractual liability for nuclear materials transport are reviewed, and damage repairs are provided by the insurance. Organization, guarantees for nuclear transport and operation of the nuclear insurance market are examined

  13. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1973-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 7 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of nuclear science and technology. This book discusses the safe and beneficial development of land-based nuclear power plants.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of irradiation-induced void swelling in austenitic stainless steels. This text then examines the importance of various transport processes for fission product redistribution, which depends on the diffusion data, the vaporization properties, and the solubility in the fuel matrix. Other chapters co

  14. Advanced materials and technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, V.K.; Alander, T.K.R. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1995-12-31

    The contents of the proceedings consist of three chapters, of which, the first discusses common megatrends, both nationally and globally, in different fields of materials technology. The second chapter is dealing with novel production and processing of base metals and, finally, the third chapter is related with current achievements and future goals of electronic, magnetic, optical and coating materials and their processing

  15. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of advanced reactor concepts. This book discusses the advances in various areas of general applicability, including modern perturbation theory, optimal control theory, and industrial application of ionizing radiations.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the technology of sodium-cooled fast breeder power reactors and gas-cooled power reactors. This text then examines the key role of reactor safety in the development of fast breeder reactors. Other chapt

  16. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  17. Control of nuclear material specified equipment and specified material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal and application field of NE 2.02 regulatory guide of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear), are described. This regulatory guide is about nuclear material management, specified equipment and specified material. (E.G.)

  18. Approaches to strengthen China nuclear material control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    effectiveness of nuclear material accounting, control and physical protection measures at facilities. 4. Measures to strengthen China Nuclear Material Control System. With the development of nuclear energy, Measures to strengthen China nuclear material control system have been developing. - The regulations is to be revised to meet the new requirement. Some new guidances will be development. More attention is paid to the effectiveness of nuclear material control system. - Advanced assay techniques for nuclear material accounting have been developed. Methodologies of threat analysis and vulnerability assessment are under developing. - International cooperation is needed for improving the effectiveness of national nuclear material control system. Two pilot workshop on nuclear material accounting and control at facilities have been held in Beijing, China in May 2004 and May 2006 respectively. In August,2006, a regional training course on physical protection will be held in Beijing, China. In October 2005, an joint US-China integrated nuclear material management technology demonstration was held in Beijing, China. 5. Summary. China has attached great importance to nuclear material control and has established an effective national system to ensure the safety in lawful use of nuclear material, to prevent theft, sabotage, loss, diversion and use of nuclear material without lawful authority. (author)

  19. Fibres : future materials for advanced emerging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Rana, S

    2012-01-01

    Fibrous materials are finding widespread applications in diversified areas, starting from clothing sector to medical fields, various structural and infrastructural applications of civil engineering, aerospace industries and even for energy harvesting and storage applications. In this paper, the results of various research activities conducted by the Fibrous Materials Research Group (FMRG), University of Minho to explore fibrous materials in several advanced and emerging applicatio...

  20. Analytical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have witnessed an enormous development in chemical analysis. The rapid progress of nuclear energy, of solid-state physics and of other fields of modern industry has extended the concept of purity to limits previously unthought of, and to reach the new dimensions of these extreme demands, entirely new techniques have been invented and applied and old ones have been refined. Recognizing these facts, the International Atomic Energy Agency convened a Panel on Analytical Chemistry of Nuclear Materials to discuss the general problems facing the analytical chemist engaged in nuclear energy development, particularly in newly developing centre and countries, to analyse the represent situation and to advise as to the directions in which research and development appear to be most necessary. The Panel also discussed the analytical programme of the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf, where the Agency has already started a programme of international comparison of analytical methods which may lead to the establishment of international standards for many materials of interest. Refs and tabs

  1. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. PMID:27400217

  2. Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, David; Nuclear Threats and Security Challenges

    2015-01-01

    With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered.  In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outli...

  3. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redding, J.R. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  4. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  5. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  6. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  7. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  8. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen W.M.; Bennett, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-12-01

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems.

  9. Statistical methods for nuclear material management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is intended as a reference manual of statistical methodology for nuclear material management practitioners. It describes statistical methods currently or potentially important in nuclear material management, explains the choice of methods for specific applications, and provides examples of practical applications to nuclear material management problems. Together with the accompanying training manual, which contains fully worked out problems keyed to each chapter, this book can also be used as a textbook for courses in statistical methods for nuclear material management. It should provide increased understanding and guidance to help improve the application of statistical methods to nuclear material management problems

  10. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special...

  11. Communicating about advanced nuclear energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of advanced nuclear energy plants, as with any new product, will not depend on design alone. Success will require public support and good communications to achieve that support. In the past, communication weaknesses - including mixed and confusing messages - have sometimes created barriers between the technical community and the public. Several lessons learned from a decade of social science research in the United States of America have implications for communicating effectively about advanced design nuclear energy plants: (1) Most audiences are open-minded and receptive to communications on this topic. They view nuclear energy as a fuel of the future and want to be comfortable about the future. Most people in the USA (82%) expect future nuclear energy plants to be safer, so the improvements being made are simply consistent with public expectations. (2) Few people pay close attention to energy issues. (3) Communications must be simple and free of jargon. Because people do not pay close attention to the issues, their knowledge is limited. Some terms used by the industry to describe advanced design plants are misinterpreted. (4) Good communications focus on consumer wants and values, not industry needs or problems. People care about generational responsibility, planning for the future, environmental protection and security. (5) Benefits and safeguards should be shown instead of risk comparisons. Generic benefits of nuclear energy, such as clean air, are important to consumers. (6) Pictures and hand-on demonstrations help in communicating about nuclear energy plants, because many of the discussion concepts are abstract. (7) Trust is crucial and is established now for tomorrow through word and deed. (author)

  12. Advanced integral reactor (SMART) for nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, severe fresh water shortages are occurring in some regional areas of the Republic of Korea and the problem is expected to spread throughout the country within a decade unless appropriate and timely countermeasures are taken. Of these, nuclear sea water desalination is receiving much attention because the Republic of Korea has a firmly established nuclear environment and abundant sea water resources. In addition, nuclear plants provide cleaner energy than fossil plants, which is another important beneficial factor for countries as crowded as ours. With a view to applying nuclear desalination, development of SMART (system integrated modular advanced reactor) was initiated and is currently in progress. SMART is being developed as a 330 MW(th) integral reactor with passive safety features. The design of SMART is aimed at combining the firmly established commercial reactor design with new advanced technologies. This has led to the use of industry proven Korea optimized fuel assembly (KOFA) based fuels, while radically new technologies such as a self-pressurizing pressurizer, helical once-through steam generators and a new control concept are being developed. The current development status of SMART and its application to nuclear desalination are presented. (author)

  13. Local AREA networks in advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses Local Area Network Communications with a view to their application in advanced nuclear reactor control and protection systems. Attention is focussed on commercially available techniques and systems for achieving the high reliability and availability required. A basis for evaluating network characteristics in terms of broadband or baseband type, medium, topology, node structure and access method is established. The reliability and availability of networks is then discussed. Several commercial networks are briefly assessed and a distinction made between general purpose networks and those suitable for process control. The communications requirements of nuclear reactor control and protection systems are compared with the facilities provided by current technology

  14. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, Ernest J

    1975-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 8 discusses the development of nuclear power in several countries throughout the world. This book discusses the world's largest program of land-based electricity production in the United States.Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the phenomenon of quasi-exponential behavior by examining two mathematical models of the neutron field. This text then discusses the finite element method, which is a method for obtaining approximate solutions to integral or differential equations. Other chapters consider the status of

  15. Failure and damage analysis of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The papers in this volume present basic concepts and new developments in failure and damage analysis with focus on advanced materials such as composites, laminates, sandwiches and foams, and also new metallic materials. Starting from some mathematical foundations (limit surfaces, symmetry considerations, invariants) new experimental results and their analysis are shown. Finally, new concepts for failure prediction and analysis will be introduced and discussed as well as new methods of failure and damage prediction for advanced metallic and non-metallic materials. Based on experimental results the traditional methods will be revised.

  16. Methane storage in advanced porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makal, Trevor A; Li, Jian-Rong; Lu, Weigang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative fuels is greater now than ever before. With considerable sources available and low pollution factor, methane is a natural choice as petroleum replacement in cars and other mobile applications. However, efficient storage methods are still lacking to implement the application of methane in the automotive industry. Advanced porous materials, metal-organic frameworks and porous organic polymers, have received considerable attention in sorptive storage applications owing to their exceptionally high surface areas and chemically-tunable structures. In this critical review we provide an overview of the current status of the application of these two types of advanced porous materials in the storage of methane. Examples of materials exhibiting high methane storage capacities are analyzed and methods for increasing the applicability of these advanced porous materials in methane storage technologies described. PMID:22990753

  17. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (ORNL)

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP

  18. Materials for Advanced Power Engineering 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The 10th Liege Conference on Materials for Advanced Power Engineering presents theachievements of international materials related research for high eciency, low-emissionpower plants. Furthermore the new demands of the transition of electricity supply towardsmore and more regenerative power sources are reported.Resource preservation and maximization of economic success by improved plant e-ciency were the driving forces in past materials and power plant technology development.Fossil fuels will ...

  19. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  20. Emerging materials by advanced processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains 36 contributions with following subjects (selection): Densification of highly reactive aluminium titanate powders; influence of precursor history on carbon fiber characteristics; influence of water removal rate during calcination on the crystallization of ZrO2 from amorphous hydrous precipitates; tape casting of AlN; influence of processing on the properties of beta-SiC powders; corrosion of SiSiC by gases and basic slag at high temperature; influence of sintering and thermomechanical treatment on microstructure and properties of W-Ni-Fe alloys; mechanical alloying for development of sintered steels with high hard phase content (NbC); early stages of mechanical alloying in Ni-Ti and Ni-Al powder mixtures; growth and microstructural development of melt-oxidation derived Al2O3/Al-base composites; fabrication of RSBN composites; synthesis of high density coridierite bodies; comparative studies on post-HIP and sinter-HIP treatments on transformation thoughened ceramics; sinter HIP of SiC; precipitation mixing of Si3N4 with bimetallic oxides; temperature dependence of the interfacial energies in Al2O3-liquid metal systems; synthesis and microstructural examination of Synroc B; solid state investigation of ceramic-metal bonding; thermophysical properties of MgAl2O4; preparation, sintering and thermal expansion of MgAl2O4; microstructural studies on alumina-zirconia and metallized alumina ceramics; electrodeposition of metals (e.g. Ti, Mo, In) and metal oxides from molten salts; electrochemical deposition of Ti from nonaqueous media (DMSO, DMF); lithium as anode material in power sources (passivation); reduction of chromium(VI) when solar selective black chromium is deposited; thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams (computer calculations); optimization of Na-Tl phase diagram; phase relations in the Y-Si-Al-O-N system: Controlled manufacturing of alpha/beta-SIALON composites. (MM)

  1. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  2. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions

  3. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  4. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  5. Nuclear material measurement system in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description of the activities developed at the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is done. The methods and techniques used for measuring and evaluating nuclear materials and facilities are presented. (E.G.)

  6. Nuclear material management: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The articles in this dossier were derived from the papers of the yearly S.F.E.N. convention, which took place in Paris, 12-13 March 2008. They deal with the new challenges and prospects in the field of nuclear material management, throughout the nuclear whole fuel cycle, namely: the institutional frame of nuclear materials management, the recycling, the uranium market, the enrichment market, the different scenarios for the management of civil nuclear materials, the technical possibilities of spent fuels utilization, the option of thorium, the convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials and installations, the characterisation of nuclear materials by nondestructive nuclear measurements, the proliferation from civil installations, the use of plutonium ( from military origin) and the international agreements. (N.C.)

  7. Nuclear techniques in the development of advanced ceramic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of research, development and application of advanced materials is well understood by all developed and most developing countries. Amongst advanced materials, ceramics play a prominent role due to their specific chemical and physical properties. According to performance and importance, advanced ceramics can be classified as structural ceramics (mechanical function) and the so-called functional ceramics. In the latter class of materials, special electrical, chemical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties are of interest. The most valuable materials are multifunctional, for example, when structural ceramics combine beneficial mechanical properties with thermal and chemical sensitivity. Multifunctionality is characteristic of many composite materials (organic/inorganic composite). Additionally, properties of material can be changed by reducing its dimension (thin films, nanocrystalline ceramics). Nuclear techniques, found important applications in research and development of advanced ceramics. The use of neutron techniques has increased dramatically in recent years due to the development of advanced neutron sources, instrumentation and improved data analysis. Typical neutron techniques are neutron diffraction, neutron radiography, small angle neutron scattering and very small angle neutron scattering. Neutrons can penetrate deeply into most materials thus sampling their bulk properties. In determination of the crystal structure of HTSC, YBa2 Cu2O7, XRD located the heavy metal atoms, but failed in finding many of the oxygen atoms, while the neutron diffraction located all atoms equally well in the crystal structure. Neutron diffraction is also unique for the determination of the magnetic structure of materials since the neutrons themselves have a magnetic moment. Application of small angle neutron scattering for the determination of the size of hydrocarbon aggregates within the zeolite channels is illustrated. (author)

  8. Techniques and methods in nuclear materials traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonproliferation community is currently addressing concerns that the access to special nuclear materials may increase the illicit trafficking in weapons-usable materials from civil and/or weapons material stores and/or fuel cycles systems. Illicit nuclear traffic usually involves reduced quantities of nuclear materials perhaps as samplings of a potential protracted diversionary flow from sources to users. To counter illicit nuclear transactions requires the development of techniques and methods in nuclear material traceability as an important phase of a broad forensic analysis capability. This report discusses how isotopic signatures and correlation methods were applied to determine the origins of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and Plutonium samples reported as illicit trafficking in nuclear materials

  9. Advanced Materials for Redox Flow Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two advanced materials electrochemically in order to see if they can be applied to improve energy- and power-density of Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs). First, multi-walled carbon nanotubes are analyzed as electrode material for the All-Vanadium RFB. We discovered that an enhanced activity assigned by previous studies was a misinterpretation caused by an apparent catalytic effect. Second, large inorganic molecules, polyoxometalates (POMs), were investigated as nano-sized el...

  10. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumburg, Kjeld

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of molecular engineering is the `property directed' synthesis of large molecules and molecular assemblies. Synthetic expertise has advanced to a state which allows the assembly of supramolecules containing thousands of atoms using a `construction kit' of molecular building blocks. Expansion in the field is driven by the appearance of new building blocks and by an improved understanding of the rules for joining them in the design of nanometer-sized devices. Another aspect is the transition from supramolecules to materials. At present no single molecule (however large) has been demonstrated to function as a device, but this appears to be only a matter of time. In all of this research, which has a strongly multidisciplinary character, both existing and yet to be developed analytical techniques are and will remain indispensable. All this and more is discussed in Molecular Engineering for Advanced Materials, which provides a masterly and up to date summary of one of the most challenging researc...

  11. Fuzzy controllers in nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzzy controllers are applied to predicting and modeling a time series, with particular emphasis on anomaly detection in nuclear material inventory differences. As compared to neural networks, the fuzzy controllers can operate in real time; their learning process does not require many iterations to converge. For this reason fuzzy controllers are potentially useful in time series forecasting, where the authors want to detect and identify trends in real time. They describe an object-oriented implementation of the algorithm advanced by Wang and Mendel. Numerical results are presented both for inventory data and time series corresponding to chaotic situations, such as encountered in the context of strange attractors. In the latter case, the effects of noise on the predictive power of the fuzzy controller are explored

  12. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...

  13. Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...

  14. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E3) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk

  15. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long- term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E3) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The results reported examine departures from a ''basis scenario'' and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: a) definition and parametric variations the basis scenario; b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk. (author)

  16. An introduction to nuclear materials fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Linga Murty, K

    2013-01-01

    Covering both fundamental and advanced aspects in an accessible way, this textbook begins with an overview of nuclear reactor systems, helping readers to familiarize themselves with the varied designs. Then the readers are introduced to different possibilities for materials applications in the various sections of nuclear energy systems. Materials selection and life prediction methodologies for nuclear reactors are also presented in relation to creep, corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. An appendix compiles useful property data relevant for nuclear reactor applications. Throughout the book, there is a thorough coverage of various materials science principles, such as physical and mechanical metallurgy, defects and diffusion and radiation effects on materials, with serious efforts made to establish structure-property correlations wherever possible. With its emphasis on the latest developments and outstanding problems in the field, this is both a valuable introduction and a ready reference for beginners...

  17. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  18. Redefining disease through advances in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear Imaging has progressed significantly in the last decade. The disease is being explored at receptor antigenic and biochemical level. The Molecular Imaging with tracers such as the 18-Fluro-Deoxy-Glucose (FDG), 11C-thymidine, 18-Fluro-Estradiol have enabled us to look into different aspects of disease. The FDG helps us in understanding aggressiveness of tumor and thereby survival of a cancer patient. It is enabling us to redefine disease at metabolic level leading to 'Metabolic Classification' of disease. The 18-Fluro-Estradiol scan is exploring breast cancer at receptor level and has enabled us to understand why some breast cancer patients do not respond to the hormone therapy. The 11C-Thymidine scan is able to image proliferative capacity of a tumor and thereby impact on the treatment approach. In addition to the field on oncology, recent advances in Nuclear Imaging are now providing valuable insights in understanding of various other human diseases. We are now redefining Alzheimer's disease and some of the psychiatric illnesses like Schizophrenia and Depression through the new Nuclear Imaging techniques. The years ahead will see extensive application of Nuclear Imaging technology in human disorders. Metabolic Classification of disease would bring out the processes underlying the causation and manifestation of diverse human disorders and help redefine the disease with the aim of more effective and less toxic personalized medicine

  19. Advanced nuclear plants meet the economic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants operated in the baseload regime are economically competitive even when compared with plants burning fossil fuels. As they do not produce emissions when operated, they do not pollute the environment. This is clearly reflected also in the internalized costs. After 2000, many new power plants are expected to be constructed in the USA and worldwide. An important role in this phase will be played by advanced light water reactors of the ABWR and SBWR types representing the future state of the art in technology and safety as well as in cost and plant operations management. (orig.)

  20. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  1. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  2. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  3. The nuclear materials control technology briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

    1992-03-01

    As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

  4. Regulation on nuclear materials In Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia belongs to those countries which actively utilizes atomic energy for peaceful purposes. In order to prevent the deviation of the purpose of nuclear energy utilization and nuclear security, there is a need to enact governmental regulation according to the Act No. 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear Energy article 4.a. The utilization of nuclear energy shall be controlled properly in order to comply with the safety regulations. Safety regulation consists of regulation, licensing and inspection established by regulatory body according to the Act No. 10 Year 1997 article 4.b. The Presidential Decree No. 76/1998 on the regulation of the utilization of nuclear energy in Indonesia is vested to Bapeten (Badan Pengawas Tenaga Nuklir - Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency). Any body who proposes a license to use nuclear materials shall fulfil and comply with the regulation established by Government and Regulatory Body. According to Chapter 3 article 10 paragraph 1 of Government Regulation (GR) No. 29, Year 2008, any person or institution that will utilize nuclear energy shall posses license issued by Regulatory Body. GR No. 43 Year 2006 Chapter 3 article 15 states that the utility proposing license for reactor commissioning shall have the license of nuclear material utilization. Approval on certification of nuclear material, transportation licensing and export of spent fuel are regulated in GR No 26 Year 2002 on the safety of Radioactive Material Transportation. GR No. 29 Year 2008 Chapter III article 16 governs that the licensee shall posses System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material and system of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. GR No 43 year 2006 Chapter 3 article 12 and Bapeten Chainnan Regulation (BCR) No. 3 year 2006 Chapter 2 article 11 state that utilities proposing a construction license shall submit DIQ (Design Information Questionnaire for SSAC) and preliminary physical protection program. As the authorized institution, Bapeten has established the

  5. Thermochemistry of nuclear fuels in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a large number of elements, accompanied with steep temperature gradient results in dynamic chemistry during nuclear fuel burn-up. Understanding this chemistry is very important for efficient and safe usage of nuclear fuels. The radioactive nature of these fuels puts lot of constraint on regulatory bodies to ensure their accident free operation in the reactors. One of the common aims of advanced fuels is to achieve high burn-up. As burn-up of the fuel increases, chemistry of fission-products becomes increasingly more important. To understand different phenomenon taking place in-pile, many out of-pile experiments are carried out. Extensive studies of thermodynamic properties, phase analysis, thermophysical property evaluation, fuel-fission product clad compatibility are carried out with relevant compounds and simulated fuels (SIMFUEL). All these data are compiled and jointly evaluated using different computational methods to predict fuel behaviour during burn-up. Only when this combined experimental and theoretical information confirms safe operation of the pin, a test pin is prepared and burnt in a test reactor. Every fuel has a different chemistry and different constraints associated with it. In this talk, various thermo-chemical aspects of some of the advanced fuels, mixed carbide, mixed nitride, 'Pu' rich MOX, 'Th' based AHWR fuels and metallic fuels will be discussed. (author)

  6. Next generation advanced nuclear reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing energy demand by technological developments and the increase of the world population and gradually diminishing energy resources made nuclear power an indispensable option. The renewable energy sources like solar, wind and geothermal may be suited to meet some local needs. Environment friendly nuclear energy which is a suitable solution to large scale demands tends to develop highly economical, advanced next generation reactors by incorporating technological developments and years of operating experience. The enhancement of safety and reliability, facilitation of maintainability, impeccable compatibility with the environment are the goals of the new generation reactors. The protection of the investment and property is considered as well as the protection of the environment and mankind. They became economically attractive compared to fossil-fired units by the use of standard designs, replacing some active systems by passive, reducing construction time and increasing the operation lifetime. The evolutionary designs were introduced at first by ameliorating the conventional plants, than revolutionary systems which are denoted as generation IV were verged to meet future needs. The investigations on the advanced, proliferation resistant fuel cycle technologies were initiated to minimize the radioactive waste burden by using new generation fast reactors and ADS transmuters.

  7. Concepts of IAEA nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes nuclear material accounting from the standpoint of IAEA Safeguards and how this accounting is applied by the Agency. The basic concepts of nuclear material accounting are defined and the way these apply to States with INFCIRC/153-type safeguards agreements is presented. (author)

  8. Modelling of advanced structural materials for GEN IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of suitable materials and the assessment of long-term materials damage are key issues that need to be addressed for the safe and reliable performance of nuclear power plants. Operating conditions such as high temperatures, irradiation and a corrosive environment degrade materials properties, posing the risk of very expensive or even catastrophic plant damage. Materials scientists are faced with the scientific challenge to determine the long-term damage evolution of materials under service exposure in advanced plants. A higher confidence in life-time assessments of these materials requires an understanding of the related physical phenomena on a range of scales from the microscopic level of single defect damage effects all the way up to macroscopic effects. To overcome lengthy and expensive trial-and-error experiments, the multiscale modelling of materials behaviour is a promising tool, bringing new insights into the fundamental understanding of basic mechanisms. This paper presents the multiscale modelling methodology which is taking root internationally to address the issues of advanced structural materials for Gen IV reactors

  9. Photon CT scanning of advanced ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced ceramic materials are being developed for high temperature applications in advanced heat engines and high temperature heat recovery systems. Small size flaws (10 - 200 μm) and small nonuniformities in density distributions (0.1 -2%) present as long-range density gradients, are critical in most ceramics and their detection is of crucial importance. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging provides a means of obtaining a precise two-dimensional density map of a cross section through an object from which accurate information about small flaws and small density gradients can be obtained. With the use of high energy photon sources high contrast CT images can be obtained for both low and high density ceramics. In the present paper we illustrate the applicability of the photon CT technique to the examination of advanced ceramics. CT images of sintered alumina tiles are presented from which data on high-density inclusions, cracks and density gradients have been extracted

  10. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively new and extremely valuable fuel for electric power production, uranium, requires very careful inventory control from the time the reactor operator assumes financial responsibility for this material until, as partially expended fuel, it is transferred to another facility and the remaining part of its initial value is recovered. Most power reactor operators were operating fossil-fuelled power plants before the advent of nuclear power and have long since established rather complete and adequate controls for these fossil fuels. The reactor operator must have no less adequate controls for the special nuclear material used in his nuclear plant. Power reactor, operation is not an ancient science and during its relatively short history our engineers and scientists have been constantly improving plant designs and methods of operation to reduce costs and make our nuclear plants competitive with fossil-fuelled conventional plants. Nuclear material management must be as modern and efficient as is humanly possible to ensure that technological advances leading to reduced costs are not lost by poor handling of nuclear fuel and the records pertaining to fuel inventory. Nuclear material management requires the maintaining of complete and informative records by the power reactor operator. These records need not be complex to satisfy the criteria of completeness and adequacy. In fact, simplicity is extremely desirable. Despite the fact that nuclear fuel is new and completely different to our conventional fuels no mystery should be attached thereto. Nuclear material control as part of nuclear material management is not limited to simple inventory work but it is the basis for a great deal of other activity that is an inherent part of any power reactor operations such as irradiated fuel shipments, reprocessing of spent fuel, with its associated accounting for reclaimed fuel and material produced during reactor operation, and the establishing and maintaining of an adequate

  11. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  12. Advanced-gas-cooled-nuclear-reactor materials evaluation and development program. Volume 1.Final report, September 23, 1976-September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included in this report is a discussion of the materials selected for the screening phase and more intensive screening phase test programs and the systems and components for which they are candidate materials. Thirty-one (31) commercially available alloy and alloy/coating materials and ten (10) experimental alloys were evaluated in the program. The experimental test facilities developed as part of this program are discussed and experimental testing procedures are summarized. The results of the initial screening test programs are presented. This includes creep testing results and metallographic analyses of candidate materials exposed to simulated HTGR helium and air under stress at temperatures of 7500, 8500, 9500, or 10500C (13820, 15620, 17420, or 19220F) for exposure times to 10,000 hours. Metallographic analyses, weight change and carbon analyses results, and post exposure room temperature tensile and Charpy V-notch impact test results are presented for candidate materials exposed unstressed under the conditions stated above

  13. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  14. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  15. Application of Nuclear Forensics in Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a scientific discipline, nuclear forensics poses formidable scientific challenges with regard to extracting information on the history, origin, movement and processing of nuclear and other radioactive material found to be out of regulatory control. Research into optimized techniques is being pursued by leading nuclear forensic research groups around the world. This research encompasses areas including evidence collection, analytical measurements for rapid and reliable categorization and characterization of nuclear and radioactive material, and interpretation using diverse data characteristics or the 'science of signatures' from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. In this regard, the IAEA recently concluded the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Application of Nuclear Forensics in Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material. The CRP seeks to improve the ability of Member States to provide robust categorization and characterization of seized material, reliable techniques for the collection and preservation of nuclear forensic evidence, and the ability to interpret the results for law enforcement and other purposes. In accordance with broader IAEA objectives, the CRP provides a technical forum for participating institutes from Member States to exchange technical information to benefit national confidence building as well as to advance the international discipline of nuclear forensics. This CRP was initially planned in 2006, commenced in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Three research coordination meetings (RCM) were convened at the IAEA in Vienna to review progress. The leadership of the chairpersons was essential to establishing the technical viability of nuclear forensics at the IAEA and with the Member States

  16. 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13th international symposium on advanced materials (ISAM) was held from september 23-27, 2013, at islamabad, Pakistan. The main theme of this conference was to discuss the ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. In five day of the symposium, nearly Two hundred and twenty seven contributory and invited papers, comprising of Nineteen technical sessions and two poster sessions were presented. Renowned scientists and researchers from foreign and local institutes have shared their counter parts on the topics of common interest. This symposium provided an ideal opportunity for exchange of information amongst scientists, engineers and researchers from all over pakistan and other countries of the world. (A.B.)

  17. Nondestructive characterization of advanced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of nondestructive characterization (NDC) techniques and their application to metal-matrix, polymer-matrix and ceramic-matrix composites is presented. Particular attention is given to the identification of critical materials properties and defects in these advanced composites. NDC is required: (i) to detect discrete defects, such as delaminations and cracking, and (ii) to measure distributed material properties, such as density, resistivity and elastic constants. Ultrasonic and eddy-current characterization are described in detail, along with new NDC results obtained at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory. These include a method for the determination of fibre volume fraction in continuous fibre reinforced metal-matrix composites using eddy-current NDC, and the use of eddy-current methods to complement ultrasonic testing for characterization of impact damage in graphite-epoxy laminates. Future problem areas and possible solutions in NDC of advanced composites are also discussed. 90 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  18. An advanced course in modern nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of nuclear physics is entering the 21st century while experiencing a strong revival. On the one hand it is changing qualitatively through new experimental developments that allow us to direct radioactive and other exotic probes to target nuclei, and spark off extremely energetic nuclear collisions. Also, the impressive sophistication of new detector systems leads us to expect a number of new discoveries in the near future. On the other hand, many new applications have appeared in fields as diverse as medicine, industry, art, archaeology and the environmental sciences. This book is a set of extended lectures on basic and new topics, that gives a tutorial introduction to the field of modern nuclear physics. It is ideally suited to bridging the gap between the standard textbook material and the research literature, and provides the necessary foundation for acting as those who intend to work in any of the many disciplines where nuclear science and technology is going to play an important role in the future. (orig.)

  19. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  20. Cellulose nanocrystals : surface modification and advanced materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The present work focuses on the properties of cellulose nanocrystals, their surface modification and development of advanced materials. Diverse approaches are employed on these nanoscaled substrates aiming to modify their surface properties and extend their use in highly sophisticated applications, such as postsulfation and desulfation, polymer grafting and adsorption, selective oxidation, molecular grafting, and ‘host-guest' inclusion. On the basis of surface modifications, properties analys...

  1. Advances in materials for fossil power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external constraints on the electric power industry over the past 10-15 years have resulted in increased demands on the performance and reliability of materials used in fossil power plants. At the same time, the construction of new plants has been at a low ebb, because of reduced capacity growth and surplus capacity. This led to creation of new institutions to support materials research and development during a period of malaise in industrial support. A remarkable surge of new materials and components for turbines, boilers, and auxiliaries have emerged. Some of the materials advances developed during this period are described. These include improved 1 CrMoV and 12 Cr rotors, temper resistant low Mn 3.5 NiCrMoV, super 9 Cr for heavy section piping and castings, super 12 Cr tubing for superheaters, Nimonic 80A high temperature bolting, titanium alloy blading for L.P. turbines, and many others covered by the present conference

  2. Advanced textural representation of materials appearance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    New York: ACM, 2011 - (Sander, P.), s. 1-84 ISBN 978-1-4503-1135-9. [SIGGRAPH Asia 2011. Hong Kong (CN), 12.12.2011-15.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant ostatní: CESNET(CZ) 387/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : visual texture * Bidirectional Texture Function * materials appearance Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/RO/haindl-advanced textural representation of materials appearance.pdf

  3. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  4. Radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007 ENEA's Department of Nuclear Fusion and Fission, and Related Technologies acted according to national policy and the role assigned to ENEA FPN by Law 257/2003 regarding radioactive waste management and advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies

  5. The AMP (Advanced MultiPhysics) Nuclear Fuel Performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► New, three-dimensional, parallel, multi-physics code to simulate fuel behavior in nominal operation. ► Fully-coupled thermomechanics for nominal operation and operation during transients. ► Isotopic depletion using Scale/ORIGEN-S within a fuel performance code. ► Leveraging of existing, validated material models from existing fuel performance codes. ► Initial validation evaluation of an advanced modeling and simulation code for fuel performance. - Abstract: The AMP (Advanced MultiPhysics) Nuclear Fuel Performance code is a new, three-dimensional, multi-physics tool that uses state-of-the-art solution methods and validated nuclear fuel models to simulate the nominal operation and anticipated operational transients of nuclear fuel. The AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance code leverages existing validated material models from traditional fuel performance codes and the Scale/ORIGEN-S spent-fuel characterization code to provide an initial capability that is shown to be sufficiently accurate for a single benchmark problem and anticipated to be accurate for a broad range of problems. The thermomechanics foundation can be solved in a time-dependent or quasi-static approach with any variation of operator-split or fully-coupled solutions at each time step through interoperable interfaces to leading computational mathematics tools, including PETSc, Trilinos, and SUNDIALS. A baseline validation of the AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance code has been performed through the modeling of an experiment in the Halden Reactor Project (IFA-432) that demonstrates the integrated capability and provides a baseline of the initial accuracy of the software.

  6. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  7. Advanced nuclear power plant solidification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hirayama, S.; Nishi, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Huang, C. T. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan (Taiwan)

    2003-07-01

    'Slim-Rad' is an advanced radioactive waste treatment system reflecting Hitachi's long experience as a supplier of nuclear plants. The system utilizes new technologies such as a hollow fiber filter, high-performance cement solidification and laundry and shower drain treatment. By adopting this Slim-Rad system, not only the final waste volume but also the number of radwaste tanks can be reduced 1/8 and 1/2, respectively, compared with previous Hitachi radwaste treatment systems. Moreover, release of radioactivity into the environment from the treated waste is reduced effectively. This paper outlines the system and describes its features, as well as the features of the key technology such as volume reduction and solidification technology.

  8. Research status on radiation damage in nuclear materials and recommendations for IAEA activities. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials. Together, they contributed to significantly advance our comprehension of materials properties like mechanical behavior. It also highlights its impact on nuclear technology, as it provides physical insight into the complex processes responsible for the degradation of structural materials under neutron irradiation

  9. Nuclear materials transportation at Battelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle-Columbus has been a pioneer in designing and developing shipping containers for its own needs and to meet the requirements of the nuclear industry. It has participated in the design and testing of approximately 80 licensed shipping casks. Its involvement has included cask design and testing and the preparation and updating of safety analysis reports. Battelle's capabilities also include all the computer codes needed for thermal, shielding, criticality, and structural analyses as well as a drop test facility for validating codes and obtaining data to supplement structural analyses. These facilities have also been used in the design and licensing of Battelle's four shipping containers, all of which are currently in service. These casks are used principally to transport radioactive sources, surveillance capsules, and spent research reactor fuel. Battelle-Columbus designed, licensed, built, and maintains four shipping casks, primarily to support our Hot Laboratory postirradiation programs on highly irradiated structural and spent fuel materials. These casks vary in size and shipping capacities. Weights range from 1200 to 23,000 pounds. Internal cavities range from 4-1/2 in. I.D. x 5 in. deep to 15-1/2 in. I.D. x 54 in. deep. Each is licensed by the U.S. NRC for Type fissile quantities and each has an IAEA Competent Authority Permit. Although they are used primarily for own purposes, the casks are available for lease to industry and the government. Battelle-Columbus averages about 150 outgoing and incoming shipments of radioactive material a year in packages that range from 50 000 pound spent fuel casks to small 5-gallon cans. The regulatory requirements for each shipment are becoming more detailed and restrictive every day, thus each shipment can almost be considered a major project in itself. Three years ago, a truckload of radioactive waste leaving our site required the generation of only two document; now 13 internal and external documents are required. We

  10. Supplier responsibility for nuclear material quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials must be delivered by either the manufacturer or the distributor with objective, documented evidence that the material was manufactured, inspected, and tested by proven techniques performed by qualified personnel working to documented procedures. Measurement devices used for acceptance must be of proven accuracy. The material and all records must be identified for positive traceability as part of the quality history of the nuclear components, system, or structure in which the material was used. In conclusion, the nuclear material supplier must join the fabricator, the installer, and the user in effective implementation of the total systems approach to the application of quality assurance principles to all phases of procurement, fabrication, installation, and use of the safety-related components, systems, and structures in a nuclear power plant

  11. Advances in nuclear and radiochemistry. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication compiles extended abstracts of the conference. Conference topics were: fundamental nuclear chemistry (nuclear reactions, radioactive decay), actinides, transactinides, radioanalytics (nuclear and non-nuclear methods), nuclear technology (techniques, cross sections, radionuclide production), radiotracers in life sciences (radiopharmaceutical chemistry), radioactive indicators in research and chemistry, radionuclides in geochemistry and cosmochemistry, nuclear fuel cycle (waste management, transmutation, partitioning), radioecology and environmental sciences. (uke)

  12. Economic Criteria Applied to Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear materials must always be subsidiary to the primary purpose of nuclear material processing, i.e. the generation of power or the production and fabrication of end products. Therefore, those responsible for management of nuclear materials must be constantly responsive to the needs of the primary production purpose and fit the required systems to the process so as to secure the needs of nuclear materials management at optimum costs. The nuclear materials management system must concern itself with careful examination of several factors that influence its costs. The control system evolved must complement the process, providing the lowest costs of personnel, analysis and minimum interruption of the operating process. The control system should be integrated with the process needs so that quantitative information derived is available promptly to those responsible for operating supervision. The recording and reporting system should generate maximum subsidiary data. It should be compatible with the systems employed by suppliers and consumers and carry wherever possible additional information connected with the batches of nuclear material. Data generated for the control of nuclear materials should only be that needed to ensure that no significant losses, theft, misappropriation or diversion occurs. Complementary data should be subject to the same rigid test of need as that applied to the nuclear material management data. Procedures, practices, personnel and techniques have been continuously reviewed and revised to ensure the highest quality of nuclear material management performance. To ensure optimum costs balanced with adequate nuclear material control needs, some general rules have been evolved. It is all-important to determine the real needs for the recording and reporting of data. Real economies are attained by the assignment of nuclear materials management, production control and cost responsibilities to a single group. Reliance must then be

  13. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  14. Advances in nuclear oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of some of the significant developments in nuclear logging over the last several years based on publications in scientific journals in the United States and in Europe. Density measurements which make use of the photoelectric effect to distinguish major rock types are now common. Spectral γ-ray measurements of natural radioactivity and neutron-induced radiations make possible elemental analysis from logging data. Familiar logs such as the compensated neutron and density have undergone improvements in data analysis for thin bed identification. Nuclear measurements while drilling have greatly advanced in recent years with the introduction of neutron porosity and γ-ray density measurements in addition to natural γ-ray counting. Multiple radioactive isotopes are now injected into formations and detected by their spectral γ-ray signatures. Computer simulations of logging tool responses have gained wide use in modeling tools and determining their environmental corrections. Monte Carlo codes now routinely run on small computers and parallel processors, whereas they once required large mainframe computers. (Author)

  15. Nuclear integrated database and design advancement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Kim, Seung Hwan; Choi, Sun Young

    1997-01-01

    The objective of NuIDEAS is to computerize design processes through an integrated database by eliminating the current work style of delivering hardcopy documents and drawings. The major research contents of NuIDEAS are the advancement of design processes by computerization, the establishment of design database and 3 dimensional visualization of design data. KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) is the target of legacy database and 3 dimensional model, so that can be utilized in the next plant design. In the first year, the blueprint of NuIDEAS is proposed, and its prototype is developed by applying the rapidly revolutionizing computer technology. The major results of the first year research were to establish the architecture of the integrated database ensuring data consistency, and to build design database of reactor coolant system and heavy components. Also various softwares were developed to search, share and utilize the data through networks, and the detailed 3 dimensional CAD models of nuclear fuel and heavy components were constructed, and walk-through simulation using the models are developed. This report contains the major additions and modifications to the object oriented database and associated program, using methods and Javascript.. (author). 36 refs., 1 tab., 32 figs.

  16. Nuclear integrated database and design advancement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of NuIDEAS is to computerize design processes through an integrated database by eliminating the current work style of delivering hardcopy documents and drawings. The major research contents of NuIDEAS are the advancement of design processes by computerization, the establishment of design database and 3 dimensional visualization of design data. KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) is the target of legacy database and 3 dimensional model, so that can be utilized in the next plant design. In the first year, the blueprint of NuIDEAS is proposed, and its prototype is developed by applying the rapidly revolutionizing computer technology. The major results of the first year research were to establish the architecture of the integrated database ensuring data consistency, and to build design database of reactor coolant system and heavy components. Also various softwares were developed to search, share and utilize the data through networks, and the detailed 3 dimensional CAD models of nuclear fuel and heavy components were constructed, and walk-through simulation using the models are developed. This report contains the major additions and modifications to the object oriented database and associated program, using methods and Javascript.. (author). 36 refs., 1 tab., 32 figs

  17. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  18. Recent Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review introduces advances in clinical and pre-clinical single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) providing noninvasive functional images of biological processes. Development of new collimation techniques such as multi-pinhole and slit-slat collimators permits the improvement of system spatial resolution and sensitivity of SPECT. Application specific SPECT systems using smaller and compact solid-state detector have been customized for myocardial perfusion imaging with higher performance. Combined SPECT/CT providing improved diagnostic and functional capabilities has been introduced. Advances in PET and CT instrumentation have been incorporated in the PET/CT design that provide the metabolic information from PET superimposed on the anatomic information from CT. Improvements in the sensitivity of PET have achieved by the fully 3D acquisition with no septa and the extension of axial field-of-view. With the development of faster scintillation crystals and electronics, time-of-flight (TOF) PET is now commercially available allowing the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio by incorporation of TOF information into the PET reconstruction process. Hybrid PET/SPECT/CT systems has become commercially available for molecular imaging in small animal models. The pre-clinical systems have improved spatial resolution using depth-of-interaction measurement and new collimators. The recent works on solid state detector and dual modality nuclear medicine instrumentations incorporating MRI and optical images will also be discussed

  19. Fuels for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuels for advanced nuclear reactors differ greatly from conventional light water reactor fuels and vary widely between the different concepts, due differences in reactor architecture and deployment. Functional requirements of all fuel designs include (1) retention of fission products and fuel nuclides, (2) dimensional stability, and (3) maintaining a coolable geometry. In all cases, the anticipated fuel performance under normal or off-normal conditions is the limiting factor in reactor system design, and cumulative effects of increased exposure to higher burnup degrades fuel performance. In high-temperature (thermal) gas reactor systems, fuel particles of uranium dioxide or uranium oxycarbide particles are coated with layers of carbon and SiC (or ZrC). Such fuels have been used successfully to very high burnup (10-20% of heavy-metal atoms) and can withstand transient temperatures up to 1600 C. Oxide (pellet-type) and metal (pin-type) fuels clad in stainless steel tubes have been successfully used in liquid metal cooled fast reactors, attaining burnup of 20% or more of heavy-metal atoms. Those fuel designs are being adapted for actinide management missions, requiring greater contents of minor actinides (e.g. Am, Np, Cm). The current status of each fuel system is reviewed and technical challenges confronting the implementation of each fuel in the context of the entire advanced reactor fuel cycle (fabrication, reactor performance, recycle) are discussed

  20. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary

  1. International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This proceeding is a compilation of peer reviewed papers presented at the 13th International Symposium on Advanced Materials (ISAM 2013) held from September 23-27, 2013, at Islamabad, Pakistan. In my capacity as ISAM-2013 Secretary, I feel honoured that the symposium has ended on a positive note. The ever increasing changes and intricacies that characterize modern industry necessitate a growing demand for technical information on advanced materials. ISAM and other similar forums serve to fulfill this need. The five day deliberations of ISAM 2013, consisted of 19 technical sessions and 2 poster sessions. In all, 277 papers were presented, inclusive of 80 contributory, invited and oral presentations. The symposium also hosted panel discussions led by renowned scientists and eminent researchers from foreign as well as local institutes. The ultimate aim of this proceeding is to record in writing the new findings in the field of advanced materials. I hope that the technical data available in this publication proves valuable to young scientists and researchers working in this area of science. At the same time, I wish to acknowledge Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing UK, for accepting the research papers from ISAM-2013 for publication in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The proceeding will be available on the IOP website as an online open access document. I am profoundly thankful to the Symposium Chairman for his steadfast support and valuable guidance without which ISAM 2013 could not have been the mega event that it turned out to be. My gratitude to all our distinguished participants, session chairs/co-chairs, and reviewers for their active role in the symposium. I appreciate the entire organizing committee for the zest and ardor with which each committee fulfilled its obligations to ISAM. Last yet not the least, my thankfulness goes to all our sponsors for wilfully financing the event. Dr. Sara Qaisar Symposium Secretary Further

  2. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  3. Advancing nuclear technology and research. The advanced test reactor national scientific user facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world's premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. Cost free access to the ATR, INL post irradiation examination facilities, and partner facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to United States Department of Energy. To increase overall research capability, ATR NSUF seeks to form strategic partnerships with university facilities that add significant nuclear research capability to the ATR NSUF and are accessible to all ATR NSUF users. (author)

  4. Accountancy, control and protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear distribution of responsibilities between the Agency, the States and the operators is fundamental. The Agency has the responsibility to establish and administer safeguards and to assist Member States, upon their request, to develop the means to solve problems arising from the use of atomic energy, one of them being the control of nuclear material. States have the responsibility, in respect to nuclear activities carried out within their territory, under their jurisdiction or under their control anywhere, to define appropriate measures to control nuclear material, to set up an organizational structure to enable the implementation of the measures and to control compliance with the law. This means that States establish systems for ensuring accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. The paper gives an indication of the advice the Agency may give to States, which may request it, in setting up their systems of accountancy and control and physical protection of nuclear material. It also gives some ideas on the co-ordination of the States' systems, the relationship between the States and the Agency in the accountancy and control of nuclear material and the role of the Agency in the physical protection of nuclear material. The present irreplaceable role of the State as a regulatory power is stressed. (author)

  5. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  6. Role of advanced reactors in further nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the national long-term nuclear R and D program launched in 1992, an endeavor has been made in Korea to develop advanced nuclear reactor systems with significantly enhanced safety and economics from those of the current generation nuclear power plants. The advanced PWR nuclear reactor systems under development in Korea include 1300 MWe Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR), 330 MWt Integral Type System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) for nuclear cogeneration, and 330 MWe Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER) in addition to the evolutionary enhancement of the 1000 MWt KSNPP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant). Three point design philosophy has been adopted for the development of the advanced reactors in Korea : enhancements on safety, economics and public acceptance of nuclear power. To enhance the safety of the advanced reactor systems, a strategy has been adopted to employ advanced design features as well as the passive safety design features. Economically viable design concepts also have been implemented in the evolutionary KSNPP, KNGR, and the SMART development. Economic competitiveness against the fossil plants also has been set as a major objective of the ALWR development program in Korea. These safer and more economical advanced reactors will better promote the public acceptance of the commercial use of the nuclear power and thus could be utilized to meet the forecasted national energy need in the early 21st century. International cooperation in the areas of ALWR development as well as improving public acceptance of the nuclear power is required. (author)

  7. Nuclear material safeguards and security system analysis based on measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear material safeguards and security are the important aspect in the nuclear facility management due to the nuclear material could be terrorisms object. The two aspect of nuclear material security are nuclear material safeguards system and physical protection system. The most important in safeguards system is how to report the existence of nuclear material and the quantity of nuclear material. To perform the safeguards system the data of nuclear material are needed. The data of quality and quantity of nuclear material could be found by destructive analysis (DA) technique and non destructive analysis (NDA) technique. The DA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material that forming in powder, the NDA technique are used to analysis the nuclear material in spent fuel. In BATAN, the technique of measurement of nuclear material weight is more dominant than the other technique to be used in nuclear material safeguards and security systems. (author)

  8. Control of nuclear materials and materials in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Argentina is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreement signed by Argentina are presented. (E.G.)

  9. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  10. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  11. Development of advanced expansion due to compression (A-EDC) test method for safety evaluation of degraded nuclear fuel cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion due to compression (EDC) test has been applied to evaluate the performance of nuclear fuel claddings where pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) is introduced by swelling of fuel pellets and is triggered by the larger hoop deformation of the pellets, especially during accidental transients. The purpose of this study is to modify the EDC test to describe PCMI, specimen volume reduction and others. Ring-shaped specimens were cut from Zry-4 cladding tubes. Cylindrical metal pellets with 8 mm in diameter and 15 mm in maximum height were used as inner pellets. Expansion of the specimens due to the inner pellet compression was performed at room temperature. The experimental data were further analyzed by finite element method. Through the survey in the variation of the specimen and core, specimen size and inner pellet geometry were optimized. Excellent reproducibility with less error was confirmed. The uniaxial tension condition in the hoop direction up to the specimen failure was confirmed. Hoop stress–hoop strain curves were successfully derived. (author)

  12. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  13. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  14. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  15. Reactor Structure Materials: Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress and achievements in 1999 in SCK-CEN's programme on applied and fundamental nuclear fuel research in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is on thermochemical fuel research, the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel as well as on integral experiments

  16. Overview of nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is an overview of transportation as it relates to one specific type of material, low specific activity (LSA) material. It is the predominant type of material that fits into the low-level waste category. An attempt is made to discuss how LSA is regulated, setting forth the requirements. First the general scheme of regulations are reviewed. In addition future changes in the regulations which will affect transportation of LSA materials and, which quite likely, will have an impact on R and D needs in this area are presented

  17. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on advanced nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented and discussed in the 4th International Symposium on Advanced Nuclear Energy Research, of which subject was focussed on the Roles and Direction of Material Science in Nuclear Technology are contained. The sessions organized for the aural session of the symposium were (1) Processing Science for New Materials, (2) New Tools for Advanced Materials Research, (3) Challenge of Materials Database and (4) Frontier of Materials Technology in New Power Systems, from which 18 invited and 77 contributed papers were selected for the publication. The volume includes also summaries of the panel discussions titled as (1) Computer Simulation for Materials Innovation and (2) What is Expected for Materials Science in Future Nuclear Energy Developments ?, with which a complete recording of the discussions for the latter subject was attempted by the Editorial Working Group of the Program Committee. The 65 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Securing nuclear materials in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors review the present stat of nuclear materials safeguards and how these may be reformed in light of the new circumstances in the world. In Section 2, they review the principles that currently guide the application of safeguards and the international coverage provided by the safeguards. In Section 3, they examine the flows of fissile nuclear materials through the civil nuclear fuel cycle and, prospectively, the flow of fissile materials out of dismantled US and former-Soviet nuclear weapons. They show that a substantial fraction of the plutonium in the world's civil fuel cycles is not now under international safeguards. Finally, in Section 4 and 5, they review the range of technical and institutional options that are being considered for securing fissile materials. A primary goal of reforms in nuclear safeguards should be to make their application to civil fuel cycles universal--that is, applying uniformly to both nuclear weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS). But safeguards by themselves may not be sufficient in an era when far larger quantities of weapons-usable material are being stored and handled in the civil sector. They discuss the safeguards implications of a range of these plutonium management options. 63 refs

  19. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of...

  20. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  1. Ion-bombardment etching of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional chemical etching often presents difficulties in revealing the microstructure of some materials. Ion bombardment etching has helped in overcoming these difficulties in the metallographic preparation of nuclear ceramic materials. Metallographic examination has played a key role in supporting the nuclear fuel development and fabrication programme in the Radiometallurgy Division. A representative selection of photomicrographs obtained by ion-bombardment etching is presented in this report. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs

  2. Advances in nuclear fuel technology. 3. Development of advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle technology has a technical characteristics flexibly easy to apply to diverse fuel compositions such as plutonium, minor actinides, and so on and fuel configurations. By using this characteristics, various feasibilities on effective application of uranium resources based on breeding of uranium of plutonium for original mission of FBR, contribution to radioactive wastes problems based on amounts reduction of transuranium elements (TRU) in high level radioactive wastes, upgrading of nuclear diffusion resistance, extremely upgrading of economical efficiency, and so on. In this paper, were introduced from these viewpoints, on practice strategy survey study on FBR cycle performed by cooperation of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) with electric business companies and so on, and on technical development on advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems carried out at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and so on. Here were explained under a vision on new type of fuels such as nitride fuels, metal fuels, and so on as well as oxide fuels, a new recycle system making possible to use actinides except uranium and plutonium, an 'advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology', containing improvement of conventional wet Purex method reprocessing technology, fuel manufacturing technology, and so on. (G.K.)

  3. Fundamentals of materials accounting for nuclear safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S. (comp.)

    1989-04-01

    Materials accounting is essential to providing the necessary assurance for verifying the effectiveness of a safeguards system. The use of measurements, analyses, records, and reports to maintain knowledge of the quantities of nuclear material present in a defined area of a facility and the use of physical inventories and materials balances to verify the presence of special nuclear materials are collectively known as materials accounting for nuclear safeguards. This manual, prepared as part of the resource materials for the Safeguards Technology Training Program of the US Department of Energy, addresses fundamental aspects of materials accounting, enriching and complementing them with the first-hand experiences of authors from varied disciplines. The topics range from highly technical subjects to site-specific system designs and policy discussions. This collection of papers is prepared by more than 25 professionals from the nuclear safeguards field. Representing research institutions, industries, and regulatory agencies, the authors create a unique resource for the annual course titled ''Materials Accounting for Nuclear Safeguards,'' which is offered at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  4. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  5. Advances in High Energy Materials (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. R. Nair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development efforts for realizing higher performance levels of high energy materials (HEMs are continued unabated all over the globe. Of late, it is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure that such materials are also eco-friendly. This has provided thrust to research in the area of force multiplying HEMs and compounds free from pollution causing components. Enhancement of the performance necessitates introduction of strained structure or increase in oxygen balance to achieve near stoichiometry. The search for environment friendly molecules is focused on chlorine free propellant compositions and lead free primary explosives. Energetic polymers offer added advantage of partitioning of energy and thus not necessitating the concentration of only solid components (HEMs and metal fuels in the formulations, to achieve higher performance, thereby leading to improvement in energetics without adversely affecting the processability and mechanical properties. During recent times, research in the area of insensitive explosives has received impetus particularly with the signature of STANAG. This paper gives a review of the all-round advances in the areas of HEMs encompassing oxidizers, high-energy dense materials, insensitive high-energy materials, polymers and plasticizers. Selected formulations based on these materials are also included.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.137-151, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.327

  6. Advanced Nuclear Applications in Medicinr at Chiang Mai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic energy applications in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University (CMU) are mainly performed by department of Radiology that is divided into three dicisions: 1) Diagnostic Radiology Division for the applications of X-rays, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance, 2) Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Division for cancer treatments by photon accelrator and external radionuclides therapy or brachytherapy, 3) Nuclear Meddicine Division for clinical dignosis by using radionuclide scintigraphy, targeted molecular imaging and internal radionuclide therapy. In the last decade, many advanced medical images for clinical diagnosis included of digital & computed radiology (DR & CR), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and images (DSI), computed tomography (CT) with dual X-rays energies, manetic resonance imaging (MRI), and hybrid images of SPECT/CT were established in Radiology Department and PET/CT Cyclitron Center Chiang Mai University (PCCMU), respectively. For cancer treatments, the frontier technologies in radiation oncligy therapy such as tomotherapy, IMRT, 3D conformal radiation treatment, stereotactic radiationtherapy (SRT), stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS), and radiation biology laboratory were implemented in the department as well. As far as fast development of nuclear technology in medicine, future implementation of advanced nuclear applications in medicine strongly need an intergrated knoowledge from many specialties e.g. computer softeare in image reconstruction, accuracy and and precision technology, production of specific radiotracers for molecular imaging and therapy, techniques in radionuclide productions, innovation of new wquipment or materials for radiationprotection and safety, etc. However the most important factors of nuclear applications in medicine are the vision, mission and the value statements of the organization on the high cost in radiology investment and human resources development. We have to emphasize that people who are involved

  7. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  8. Nuclear fuel manufacturing. Testing nuclear materials and materials of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adopting CANDU system for nuclear energy production in Romania was argued by utilization of natural uranium, no isotopic enrichment being required for the fissile nuclide. Manufacturing the nuclear fuel, testing nuclear materials and materials for nuclear use, designing and realisation of the installations associated to the fabrication and testing were the main directions of activity of INR - Pitesti, from its inception. The report presents the main results in the fabrication of nuclear fuel and material testing. There are described the stages of fabrication of sintered powders of uranium dioxide starting from uranium nitrate solution. Efforts for refining uranium nitrate up to the required level of nuclear purity were eventually finalised by working out a technology of sintered uranium dioxide, a technology later on transferred to the pilot plant 'R' and then to the industrial Unit 'E'. In parallel, activities for processing of half-finished Zircaloy 4, for fabrication of sheathing components of uranium dioxide pellets and assembling of fuel clusters were developed. Over 100 experimental fuel elements were manufactured and pre-irradiation characterized in order to check the fabrication technologies as well as the computer codes for calculation of the CANDU type fuel behavior in normal and accident conditions. The irradiation testing of the fuel manufactured in INR was done in the NRU (Canada), MZFR (Germany), BR - 2 (Belgium) and TRIGA (Pitesti, Romania) reactors, while the post-irradiation examination was carried out in the hot loops of the INR reactor. In addition, other relating activities were developed as for instance: establishing technologies for re-entry in the fabrication flow of the UO2 sintered powders, of some recyclable materials and integral recovery of uranium from wastes; testing of the materials to be used in the UO2 sintering powders and identification of reagents and indigenous materials; implementation of the quality assurance systems; testing

  9. Radiochemistry and physical chemistry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important problems of radiochemistry of nuclear materials are listed. It includes improving water-extraction reprocessing of spent fuel, studies in the field of nonaqueous and weakly reagent methods of spent fuel regeneration, solving the problems of conditioning of all types of radioactive wastes as well as improving radioecological monitoring in zones with nuclear fuel cycle plants. It is pointed out that the use of modern physical methods of investigation makes it possible to study the chemical and phase composition of nuclear materials of a different nature, to determine by means of nondestructive methods their valent state, to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of new matrices synthesis

  10. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  11. International safeguards: Accounting for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are one element of the ''non-proliferation regime'', the collection of measures whose aim is to forestall the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that do not already possess them. Safeguards verifications provide evidence that nuclear materials in peaceful use for nuclear-power production are properly accounted for. Though carried out in cooperation with nuclear facility operators, the verifications can provide assurance because they are designed with the capability to detect diversion, should it occur. Traditional safeguards verification measures conducted by inspectors of the IAEA include book auditing; counting and identifying containers of nuclear material; measuring nuclear material; photographic and video surveillance; and sealing. Novel approaches to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in safeguards verifications are under investigation as the number and complexity of nuclear facilities grow. These include the zone approach, which entails carrying out verifications for groups of facilities collectively, and randomization approach, which entails carrying out entire inspection visits some fraction of the time on a random basis. Both approaches show promise in particular situations, but, like traditional measures, must be tested to ensure their practical utility. These approaches are covered on this report. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains contributed papers from various authors on the following subjects: Safeguards systems and implementation, Measurement techniques: general, Measurement techniques: destructive analysis, Measurement techniques: non-destructive assay, Containment and surveillance, Spent fuel strategies, Material accounting and data evaluation

  13. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  14. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  15. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non-fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out-pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in-pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000degC is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation. (author)

  16. Advances in material capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A material capsule system has been developed for irradiation tests of non fissile materials in HANARO. This capsule system has been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. Based on the accumulated experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, several advances in material capsule technologies were obtained recently for a more precise control and analysis of the neutron irradiation effect in HANARO. New instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen, irrespective of the reactor operation, have been developed and out pile tested. The OR/IP capsule technologies for an irradiation test in the HANARO OR and IP test holes with a relatively lower neutron flux than the CT and IR test holes have also been developed and in pile tested, successfully. A high temperature irradiation technology up to 1000 .deg. C is under development. An evaluation of the DPA (Displacement Per Atom) and activation of irradiated specimens was attempted by using the SPECTOR and ORIGEN2 codes, respectively. A new fluence monitor with a decreased activity was designed to measure the thermal and fast neutron fluences of the irradiated specimens. A friction welded tube using STS304 and Al1050 alloys was introduced to prevent a coolant leakage into a capsule during a capsule cutting process after an irradiation

  17. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term ({approx}2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk.

  18. Nuclear fuels and materials irradiation technology development in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipments for the irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials in the HANARO are classified into a capsule and an FTL (Fuel Test Loop). Capsules for irradiation tests of nuclear fuels and materials in HANARO have been developed. Also, extensive efforts have been made to establish the design/manufacturing and irradiation technologies for irradiating nuclear fuels and materials by using these capsules and their control systems, which should be compatible with HANARO's characteristics. Other devices consisting of a fixing of the capsule during an irradiation test in the HANARO, a cutting and a transporting of the capsule main body after an irradiation test were also developed. These capsules and others have been actively utilized for various material irradiation tests requested by users. Based on the accumulated experiences and a user's sophisticated requirements, capsules for a creep test and a fatigue test of materials during an irradiation in HANARO have been developed. And, the irradiation plans related to developing the Gen-IV reactor systems by using capsules in HANARO will mean more emphasis on the development of capsules by focusing on the irradiation tests of materials or nuclear fuels for Gen-IV reactor systems, such as the SFR and the VHTR. The FTL is one of the irradiation devices, which can conduct an irradiation test of a nuclear fuel in HANARO under the operating conditions of commercial nuclear power plants. The 3-test fuel rods can be irradiated in HANARO by using the FTL. The installation of the FTL was completed in March 2007. Currently, the commissioning test of the FTL is being performed. At first the FTL will be used for the irradiation test of an advanced nuclear fuel for a PWR from the end of this year. In this paper, the status and the perspective in the field of material irradiation tests in HANARO are described. (author)

  19. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  20. Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Director General will open the symposium by presenting a series of challenges facing the international safeguards community: the need to ensure a robust system, with strong verification tools and a sound research and development programme; the importance of securing the necessary support for the system, in terms of resources; the effort to achieve universal participation in the non-proliferation regime; and the necessity of re-energizing disarmament efforts. Special focus will be given to the challenge underscored by recent events, of strengthening international efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. (author)

  1. TALSPEAK Chemistry in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of trivalent transplutonium actinides from fission product lanthanide ions represents a challenging aspect of advanced nuclear fuel partitioning schemes. The challenge of this separation could be amplified in the context of the AFCI-UREX+1a process, as Np and Pu will accompany the minor actinides to this stage of separation. At present, the baseline lanthanide-actinide separation method is the TALSPEAK (Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous complexes) process. TALSPEAK was developed in the late 1960's at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and has been demonstrated at pilot scale. This process relies on the complex interaction between an organic and an aqueous phase both containing complexants for selectively separating the trivalent actinide. The 3 complexing components are: the di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), the lactic acid (HL) and the diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA). In this report we discuss observations on kinetic and thermodynamic features described in the prior literature and describe some results of our ongoing research on basic chemical features of this system. The information presented indicates that the lactic acid buffer participates in the net operation of the TALSPEAK process in a manner that is not explained by existing information on the thermodynamic features if the known Eu(III)-lactate species. (authors)

  2. Polymers for nuclear materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The use of open-celled microcellular foams as solid sorbents for metal ions and other solutes could provide a revolutionary development in separation science. Macroreticular and gel-bead materials are the current state-of-the-art for solid sorbents to separate metal ions and other solutes from solution. The new polymer materials examined in this effort offer a number of advantages over the older materials that can have a large impact on industrial separations. The advantages include larger usable surface area in contact with the solution, faster sorption kinetics, ability to tailor the uniform cell size to a specific application, and elimination of channeling and packing instability

  3. Search of new scintillation materials for nuclear medicine application

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, M V

    2000-01-01

    Oxide crystals have a great potential to develop new advanced scintillation materials which are dense, fast, and bright. This combination of parameters, when combined to affordable price, gives a prospect for materials to be applied in nuclear medicine devices. Some of them have been developed for the last two decades along the line of rear-earth (RE) garnet (RE/sub 3/Al/sub 5/O/sub 12/) oxiorthosilicate (RE/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/) and perovskite (REAlO/sub 3/) crystals doped with Ce ions. Among recently developed oxide materials the lead tungstate scintillator (PWO) becomes the most used scintillation material in high energy physics experiments due to its application in CMS and ALICE experiments at LHC. In this paper we discuss scintillation properties of some new heavy compounds doped with Ce as well as light yield improvement of PWO crystals to apply them in low energy physics and nuclear medicine. (18 refs).

  4. Identifying Nuclear Materials Using Tagged Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, C L; Borodzin, K; Durham, J M; Fabritius, J M; Guardincerri, E; Hecht, A; Milner, E C; Miyadera, H; Perry, J O; Poulson, D

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by stopped cosmic-ray muons to identify nuclear materials are described. The neutrons are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of uranium objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects. The specificity of the technique to significant quantities of nuclear material along with its insensitivity to spatial details may provide a new method for the task of warhead verification for future arms reduction treaties.

  5. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  6. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear...

  7. Mass spectrometry of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the 235U/238U ratio in product-quality material have improved from uncertainties of 0.1 percent (rel) to 0.2 percent since the Manhattan Project. The hardware and procedural changes responsible for these measurement improvements are traced and discussed

  8. Advanced nuclear techniques for health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Particle accelerators were developed seventy years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic structure. Nuclear reactors were developed fifty years ago with the promise of producing low cost energy and for military purposes. In the last three decades, we have witnessed a major shift towards the use of high energy ions from accelerators and high quality neutron beams from reactors in the analysis of materials composition and structure for a broad range of scientific applications. Electrostatic accelerators have evolved into specialised tools for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis techniques. AMS is the technique of choice for the analysis of carbon-14 and other long-lived radionuclides in oceanography, hydrology, paleoclimatology and other environmental applications where isotope sensitivities of one part in 1015 are required. AMS is also applied in toxicology to study human exposure to chemicals and biomolecules at atto mole levels. Synchrotron accelerators fitted with insertion devices like wigglers and ondulators have revived interest in the field of hard x-rays microprobes. Recent developments are based on the use of Fresnel zone plates and tapered glass capillaries producing photon fluxes of 1010 photons per sec per μm2 that allow minimum detection limits below 10-15 g, an ideal microanalytical tool for biology and materials studies. Finally, high-flux neutrons produced by modern research reactors have unique properties for characterising the structure of matter in condensed states. In particular, small angle neutron scattering with cold neutrons is a versatile technique to determine microstructural features with dimensions in the range 10 to 1000 angstroms in biological, environmental and industrial samples. In conclusion, ions, synchrotron radiation and neutron beams are increasingly used to probe materials structure and composition on the microscopic scale, each with their own range of applications, advantages and disadvantages

  9. Nuclear material accounting software for Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the needs identified during initial surveys of nuclear facilities in Ukraine was improved accounting software for reporting material inventories to the regulatory body. AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application written in Microsoft Access that was jointly designed by an US/Ukraine development team. The design is highly flexible and configurable, and supports a wide range of computing infrastructure needs and facility requirements including situations where networks are not available or reliable. AIMAS has both English and Russian-language options for displays and reports, and it operates under Windows 3.1, 95, or NT 4.0trademark. AIMAS functions include basic physical inventory tracking, transaction histories, reporting, and system administration functions (system configuration, security, data backup and recovery). Security measures include multilevel password access control, all transactions logged with the user identification, and system administration control. Interfaces to external modules provide nuclear fuel burn-up adjustment and barcode scanning capabilities for physical inventory taking. AIMAS has been installed at Kiev Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR), South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant (SUNPP), Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Energy and Industry (SINEI), and the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety/Nuclear Regulatory Administration (MEPNS/NRA). Facility specialists are being trained to use the application to track material movement and report to the national regulatory authority

  10. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  11. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Saha, Deepak [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Thangirala, Mani [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Booras, George [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Powers, John [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Riley, Colin [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States); Hendrix, Howard [Energy Industries Of Ohio Inc., Independence, OH (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using

  12. Software development for managing nuclear material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear facilities, the nuclear material control is one of the most important activities. The Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), when inspecting routinely, regards the data provided as a major safety factor. Having a control system of nuclear material that allows the amount and location of the various items to be inspected, at any time, is a key factor today. The objective of this work was to enhance the existing system using a more friendly platform of development, through the VisualBasic programming language (Microsoft Corporation), to facilitate the operation team of the reactor IEA-R1 Reactor tasks, providing data that enable a better and prompter control of the IEA-R1 nuclear material. These data have allowed the development of papers presented at national and international conferences and the development of master's dissertations and doctorate theses. The software object of this study was designed to meet the requirements of the CNEN and the IAEA safeguard rules, but its functions may be expanded in accordance with future needs. The program developed can be used in other reactors to be built in the country, since it is very practical and allows an effective control of the nuclear material in the facilities. (author)

  13. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  14. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems

  15. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  16. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  17. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  18. Nuclear fusion reactor material data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working conditions for the materials to be used for nuclear fusion reactors are many sided, complicated and harsh. The existing experimental results can not be employed directly for reactor design. In such a case, it is insufficient to simply accumulate the experimental data on the specific properties of specific materials, and it is necessary to predict the material behaviour in the reactor system by rearranging those data in accordance with the purpose. When extreme characteristics are frequently pursued, wide insight is necessary regarding from the fundamental theory to the testing of practical equipment. In the development of nuclear fusion reactor materials, it is especially important to satisfy the condition that the design purpose of the system for selecting the optimum materials should be fully understood. A new material engineering approach has become necessary, in which a barrier existing so far between materials and the design is removed. From this viewpoint, the specifications, present status and design and development of material data base presently under development, the use of the data base made for trial, and the interface of material development and nuclear fusion reactor design, are described. In this data base, most of the data handle literature data, and the event data base mainly composed of experimental data is very few, similarly to other fields. Data modification will be necessary to respond the questions of users. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Advanced neutron source materials surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will be composed of several different materials, one of which is 6061-T6 aluminum. Among other components, the reflector vessel and the core pressure boundary tube (CPBT), are to be made of 6061-T6 aluminum. These components will be subjected to high thermal neutron fluences and will require a surveillance program to monitor the strength and fracture toughness of the 6061-T6 aluminum over their lifetimes. The purpose of this paper is to explain the steps that were taken in the summer of 1994 toward developing the surveillance program. The first goal was to decide upon standard specimens to use in the fracture toughness and tensile testing. Second, facilities had to be chosen for specimens representing the CPBT and the reflector vessel base, weld, and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) metals. Third, a timetable had to be defined to determine when to remove the specimens for testing

  20. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  1. Advanced materials for integrated optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Ph D, Xingcun Colin

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to integrated optical waveguides for information technology and data communications. Integrated coverage ranges from advanced materials, fabrication, and characterization techniques to guidelines for design and simulation. A concluding chapter offers perspectives on likely future trends and challenges. The dramatic scaling down of feature sizes has driven exponential improvements in semiconductor productivity and performance in the past several decades. However, with the potential of gigascale integration, size reduction is approaching a physical limitation due to the negative impact on resistance and inductance of metal interconnects with current copper-trace based technology. Integrated optics provides a potentially lower-cost, higher performance alternative to electronics in optical communication systems. Optical interconnects, in which light can be generated, guided, modulated, amplified, and detected, can provide greater bandwidth, lower power consumption, ...

  2. NATO Conference on Materials for Advanced Batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhead, J; Steele, B

    1980-01-01

    The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead Hig...

  3. Materials analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to produce focused beams of a few MeV light ions from Van de Graaff accelerators has resulted in the development of nuclear microprobes. Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reactions, and particle-induced x-ray emission are used to provide spatially resolved information from the near surface region of materials. Rutherford backscattering provides nondestructive depth and mass resolution. Nuclear reactions are sensitive to light elements (Z < 15). Particle-induced x-ray analysis is similar to electron microprobe analysis, but 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive. The focused beams are usually produced with specially designed multiplets of magnetic quadrupoles. The LASL microprobe uses a superconducting solenoid as a final lens. The data are acquired by a computer interfaced to the experiment with CAMAC. The characteristics of the information acquired with a nuclear microprobe are discussed; the means of producing the beams of nuclear particles are described; and the limitations and applications of such systems are given

  4. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  5. Advances in nuclear desalination in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    relatively clean feed water from MAPS outflow) and aims for longer membrane life resulting in lower water cost. The MSF plant which is in advanced stage of completion is designed for higher top brine temperature with Gain Output Ratio (GOR) of 9 and utilizes less pumping power (being long tube design). The desalination plant can meet the fresh water needs of around 45,000 persons/140 liters per capita per day (l.p.c.d.) There is a provision of augmentation of product water capacity by blending the low TDS product of MSF plant with brackish ground water/moderate salinity permeate from SWRO plant. This will then serve the need of larger population. Useful design data are expected from the plant on the coupling of small and medium size reactors (SMR) based on PHWR. It will further enable us to design large size commercial plants up to 50,000 m3/d capacity. Efforts at BARC are also directed towards the utilization of waste heat. The Centre has been studying the possibility of use of waste heat of nuclear reactors for seawater desalination using low temperature evaporation (LTE) technology. The know-how utilizing waste heat was developed and a 30 cubic metre/day pilot plant was installed. The LTE plant has been connected to CIRUS reactor at BARC, Mumbai for demonstration of coupling to a nuclear research reactor . The product water from this plant after minor polishing meets the make up water requirement of the research reactor. The desalination industry is witnessing numerous technological innovations so that these are available to the population in the water scarce areas. The following new projects on 'Desalination Technology Studies and Development' have been taken up to incorporate some of the important innovative features; (i) Desalination by Centrifugal Reverse Osmosis (CRO), (ii) Low Temperature Evaporation (LTE) Desalination Plant with Cooling Tower, (iii) Multi-Effect Distillation Vapor Compression (MED-VC) Desalination Plants, (iv) Continuous Thin Film Composite (TFC

  6. Nuclear wasteform materials: Atomistic simulation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroneos, A., E-mail: alex.chroneos@open.ac.uk [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310 Athens (Greece); Rushton, M.J.D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jiang, C. [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tsoukalas, L.H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Ever increasing global energy demand combined with a requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions has rekindled an interest in nuclear power generation. In order that nuclear energy remains publicly acceptable and therefore a sustainable source of power it is important that nuclear waste is dealt with in a responsible manner. To achieve this, improved materials for the long-term immobilisation of waste should be developed. The extreme conditions experienced by nuclear wasteforms necessitate the detailed understanding of their properties and the mechanisms acting within them at the atomic scale. This latter issue is the focus of the present review. Atomic scale simulation techniques can accelerate the development of new materials for nuclear wasteform applications and provide detailed information on their physical properties that cannot be easily accessed by experiment. The present article introduces examples of how atomic scale, computational modelling techniques have led to an improved understanding of current nuclear wasteform materials and also suggest how they may be used in the development of new wasteforms.

  7. Subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the subcritical calculation of the nuclear material warehouse of the Reactor TRIGA Mark III labyrinth in the Mexico Nuclear Center is presented. During the adaptation of the nuclear warehouse (vault I), the fuel was temporarily changed to the warehouse (vault II) and it was also carried out the subcritical calculation for this temporary arrangement. The code used for the calculation of the effective multiplication factor, it was the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code known as MCNPX, developed by the National Laboratory of Los Alamos, for the particles transport. (Author)

  8. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  9. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  10. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  11. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  12. Nuclear reactor safety. Qualification of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility has been realized for nuclear qualification and extensive testing of material which are used (or could be used) in nuclear plants, mainly plastic materials (insulating, thightness, coatings). The test cell of reference accident simulation called CESAR facility was built to study the synergic effect between irradiation and thermodynamic and chemical conditions occuring in a reactor accident. This facility allow the reproduction in real size of time, temperature, pressure and irradiation found in the containment shell in case of primary coolant system failure

  13. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs

  14. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  15. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  16. Proceedings of the twenty fourth annual general meeting of Materials Research Society of India and theme symposium on advanced materials for energy applications: abstract and souvenir book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials science and engineering plays a crucial role in the development of advanced technologies that include development of materials that can withstand high temperatures and intense neutron dose, development of advanced sensors and radiochemical processing methodologies. The contributed papers in the symposium were focussed on energy materials: thermoelectrics, photovoltaics; nuclear materials: alloys and glasses; oxides and ceramics; alloys and intermetallics; fictionalised nanomaterials and applications; thin films; soft matter and bio materials etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Advanced Functional Materials for Energy Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush

    The current global heavy dependency on fossil fuels gives rise to two critical problems: I) fossil fuels will be depleted in the near future; II) the release of green house gas CO2 generated by the combustion of fossil fuels contributes to global warming. To potentially address both problems, this dissertation documents three primary areas of investigation related to the development of alternative energy sources: electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysts for hydrogen generation, and photoreduction catalysts for converting CO2 to CH4. Fuel cells could be a promising source of alternative energy. Decreasing the cost and improving the durability and power density of Pt/C as a catalyst for reducing oxygen are major challenges for developing fuel cells. To address these concerns, we have synthesized a Nitrogen-Sulfur-Iron-doped porous carbon material. Our results indicate that the synthesized catalyst exhibits not only higher current density and stability but also higher tolerance to crossover chemicals than the commercial Pt/C catalyst. More importantly, the synthetic method is simple and inexpensive. Using photocatalysts and solar energy is another potential alternative solution for energy demand. We have synthesized a new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(i-SCH 2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-Fe2(CO) 6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). As photosensitizer ZrPF absorbs the visible light and produces photoexcited electrons that can be transferred through axial covalent bond to di-nuclear complex 1 for hydrogen generation. Additionally, we have studied the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 using self-doped TiO2 (Ti+3@TiO 2) as photocatalytic materials. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap, leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor under visible

  18. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  19. Nuclear Material Accountancy Assessment Technical Measures in Nuclear Centrifuge Enrichment Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear material accountancy assessment is the main technical measures for nuclear materials regulatory. It is an important basis to detect theft, loss and the illegal diversion of nuclear material. In order to implement the control of nuclear materials for nuclear facilities,

  20. ANCRE alliance: Road-map for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Created in 2009 by the Higher Education and Research ministry and by the Ecology ministry, ANCRE, the National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination aims at enhancing the efficiency of French research in the field of energy by promoting partnerships and synergies between public and private sectors (research organizations, universities and companies). ANCRE aims to propose a coordinated strategy for research and innovation projects. Beyond its four founding members, CEA, CNRS, IFPEN and CPU, ANCRE brings together all the French public research organizations concerned with energy issues, and has strong links with the industrial sector. Among the 10 programmatic groups of ANCRE, one is specifically dedicated to Nuclear Energies (fission and fusion). This group has proposed road-maps in five scientific fields, considered as strategic for R and D, in relation to industrial objectives and scientific bottlenecks: nuclear materials, nuclear chemistry, reactor physics, instrumentation and fusion. For twenty to thirty years, R and D on nuclear materials has evolved from the heavy metallurgy of the first generation of power reactors to the nano-materials science under extreme conditions for present and future needs. Nuclear systems are characterized by extreme operating conditions: high temperatures, mechanical stresses, radiations, corrosive environment, and long durations. In order to deal with these extreme conditions, it is necessary to have a sound knowledge of the materials, to the finest scale. R and D development was made possible by advances in materials science, in relation to more efficient observation means (now reaching the atom scale) and deeper control of the microstructure. Development of simulation methods at the atomic level (ab initio, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, etc.) have also allowed a better understanding of phenomena at their most fundamental level. Material performance issues, however, remain significant, as the performance

  1. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  2. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system

  3. Workshop on advanced nuclear data online services. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Workshop on Advanced Nuclear Data Online Services held in Vienna, Austria, 29 November to 3 December 1999. It includes the main topics of the agenda, the list of participants, and general comments and recommendations. (author)

  4. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s, FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports. CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  5. Bibliography of Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-12-01

    This report, published in two, volumes, is a bibliography of the reports published at the Connecticut Advanced Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (CANEL). The reports cover the period 1952 through 1965 and include the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor program, the Advanced Reactor Materials program and the SNAP-50 program. The bibliography contains the report number, title, author, date published, and classification. In some cases where the writing of a report was a group effort, and in some reports containing compilations of certain types of data, the author column is not applicable. This is indicated by a {open_quotes}n.a.{close_quotes} in the author column. The following types of reports are included: PWAC`s, TIM`s, CNLM`s. FXM`s and miscellaneous reports. PWAC and TIM reports conform to the requirements of AEC Manual Chapter 3202-041 and 3202-042, respectively. Most of the technical information of interest generated by this project is documented in these reports, CNLM and FXM reports were written primarily for internal distribution. However, these reports contain enough information of technical interest to warrant their inclusion. All CNLM`s and those FXM`s considered to be of interest are included in this bibliography. The MPR`s (Monthly Progress Reports) are the most important of the miscellaneous categories of reports. The other miscellaneous categories relate primarily to equipment and reactor specifications. The Division of Technical Information Extension (DTIE) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee has been designated as the primary recipient of the reports in the CANEL library. When more than one copy of a report was available, the additional copies were delivered to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, California.

  6. UF6 cylinder washing at ANF [Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Nuclear Fuels (ANF) Corporation receives UF6 cylinders in its Richland, WA fuel fabrication plant from its utility customers. Following transfer of the UF6, designated cylinders are cleaned by washing using a specialized process which emphasizes personnel safety and low cost. The cleaning operation is conducted in accordance with the guidelines is conducted in accordance with the guidelines of ANSI Standard N14.1. Specialized equipment has been developed for carrying out this operation with a minimum of space and manpower. Equipment designs and process methods are selected to ensure that the cylinders meet cleanliness requirements while maintaining low personnel radiation exposures, avoiding introduction of organic material and achieving low applied labor. A photo tour is used to illustrate the equipment and methods used

  7. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  8. Material development for India’s nuclear power programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Suri

    2013-10-01

    The area of materials research has registered a phenomenal growth in the recent years, assiduously accepting and assimilating ideas, concepts and analytical as well as experimental methodologies and techniques form almost all scientific disciplines, thereby demonstrating its remarkably multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character. The focus of the materials programme of this centre is to provide materials, processes and processing solutions to the emerging needs of evolving indigenous nuclear energy systems by proactive research and development on a continuing basis. The initial stage of our activities was formulated around three stage Indian nuclear power programme. In stage I, material issues related to in-core materials with emphasis on development of fabrication routes of zirconium alloys for structural application were addressed. Subsequently the thrust areas were development and characterization of mixed oxide fuel, advanced zirconium alloys, structural steels, superalloys, neutron absorber materials based on boron carbides and borides, and shape memory alloys. The research was useful for in-service performance evaluation, safety assessment, residual life estimation and life extension of nuclear reactors built during stage I i.e., PHWRs and BWRs. It also included developments which would permit rapid expansion of nuclear power initially through fast breeder reactor based on mixed oxide fuel and later based on metallic fuels. For the 3rd stage, multilayer coatings, graphite coolant tube, BeO, refractory metals and alloys, heat-treated zirconium alloys are being developed for CHTR, ADSS and AHWR. The materials being developed for fusion programme are low Z and high Z material for plasma facing application, Cu-alloys for heat sink, austenitic steels, RAFMS and ODS for structurals and NbTi, Nb3Sn and Nb3Al superconductors, lithium titanate, lithium silicate breeders, and Pb–Bi coolant. A brief overview of the materials research activities currently being

  9. Interatomic potentials for materials of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures to develop embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials are described, with foreseeable applications in nuclear materials. Their reliability is shown by evaluating relevant properties. The studied materials are Nb, Zr and U. The first two were then used to develop an inter species potential for the Zr-Nb binary system. In this sense, the Fe-Cu system was also studied starting from Fe and Cu potentials extracted from the literature. (author)

  10. Fuel rod bundles proposed for advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to be a general presentation for fuel bundles to be used in Advanced Pressure Tube Nuclear Reactors (APTNR). The characteristics of such a nuclear reactor resemble those of known advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors like: Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACRTM-1000, pertaining to AECL) and Indian Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). We have also developed a fuel bundle proposal which will be referred as ASEU-43 (Advanced Slightly Enriched Uranium with 43 rods). The ASEU-43 main design along with a few neutronic and thermalhydraulic characteristics are presented in the paper versus similar ones from INR Pitesti SEU-43 and CANDU-37 standard fuel bundles. General remarks regarding the advantages of each fuel bundle and their suitability to be burned in an APTNR reactor are also revealed. (authors)

  11. A VISION of Advanced Nuclear System Cost Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISION (VerifIable fuel cycle SImulatiON) is the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative's and Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Program's nuclear fuel cycle systems code designed to simulate the US commercial reactor fleet. The code is a dynamic stock and flow model that tracks the mass of materials at the isotopic level through the entire nuclear fuel cycle. As VISION is run, it calculates the decay of 70 isotopes including uranium, plutonium, minor actinides, and fission products. VISION.ECON is a sub-model of VISION that was developed to estimate fuel cycle and reactor costs. The sub-model uses the mass flows generated by VISION for each of the fuel cycle functions (referred to as modules) and calculates the annual cost based on cost distributions provided by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report1. Costs are aggregated for each fuel cycle module, and the modules are aggregated into front end, back end, recycling, reactor, and total fuel cycle costs. The software also has the capability to perform system sensitivity analysis. This capability may be used to analyze the impacts on costs due to system uncertainty effects. This paper will provide a preliminary evaluation of the cost uncertainty affects attributable to (1) key reactor and fuel cycle system parameters and (2) scheduling variations. The evaluation will focus on the uncertainty on the total cost of electricity and fuel cycle costs. First, a single light water reactor (LWR) using mixed oxide fuel is examined to ascertain the effects of simple parameter changes. Three system parameters; burnup, capacity factor and reactor power are varied from nominal cost values and the affect on the total cost of electricity is measured. These simple parameter changes are measured in more complex scenarios 2-tier systems including LWRs with mixed fuel and fast recycling reactors using transuranic fuel. Other system parameters are evaluated and results will be presented in the paper. Secondly, the uncertainty due to variation

  12. Radiation damage in nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste is usually envisioned in some sort of ceramic material. The physical and chemical properties of host materials for nuclear waste can be altered by internal radiation and consequently their structural integrity can be jeopardized. Assessment of long-term performance of these ceramic materials is therefore vital for a safe and successful disposal. This paper presents an overview of studies on several possible candidate materials for immobilization of fission products and actinides, such as spinel (MgAl2O4), perovskite (CaTiO3), zircon (ZrSiO4), and pyrochlore (Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7). The basic microscopic picture of radiation damage in ceramics consists of atomic displacements and ionization. In many cases these processes result in amorphization (metaminctization) of irradiated material. The evolution of microscopic structure during irradiation leads to various macroscopic radiation effects. The connection between microscopic and macroscopic picture is in most cases at least qualitatively known and studies of radiation induced microscopic changes are therefore an essential step in the design of a reliable nuclear waste host material. The relevance of these technologically important results on our general understanding of radiation damage processes and on current research efforts in Slovenia is also addressed. (author)

  13. Designed porosity materials in nuclear reactor components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacout, A. M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Stan, Marius

    2016-09-06

    A nuclear fuel pellet with a porous substrate, such as a carbon or tungsten aerogel, on which at least one layer of a fuel containing material is deposited via atomic layer deposition, and wherein the layer deposition is controlled to prevent agglomeration of defects. Further, a method of fabricating a nuclear fuel pellet, wherein the method features the steps of selecting a porous substrate, depositing at least one layer of a fuel containing material, and terminating the deposition when the desired porosity is achieved. Also provided is a nuclear reactor fuel cladding made of a porous substrate, such as silicon carbide aerogel or silicon carbide cloth, upon which layers of silicon carbide are deposited.

  14. Development of proactive technology against nuclear materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear power plants are getting older, the extent of materials degradation increases and unexpected degradation mechanisms may occur under complex environments, including high-temperature and pressure, radiation and coolant. The components in the primary system are maintained at the temperature of 320 .deg. C, pressure of 2500 psi, and reactor internals are exposed to fast neutrons. The pipes and nozzles are affected by the mechanical, thermal and corrosive cyclic fatigue stresses. Since the steam generator tubes are affected by both primary and secondary coolants, the materials degradation mechanisms are dependent upon the multiple or complex factors. In this report, we make contribution to the enhancement of reactor safety by developing techniques for predicting and evaluating materials behaviors in nuclear environments. The research product in the following five areas, described in this report, plays a vital role in improving the safe operation of nuclear reactors, upgrading the level of skills and extending the use of nuclear power. Development of corrosion control and protection technology Development of fracture mechanical evaluation model of reactor pressure Development of prediction and analysis technology for radiation damage Development of advanced diagnostic techniques for micro-materials degradation Development of core technology for control of steam generator degradation

  15. Nuclear Materials Identification System Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.G.

    2001-04-10

    This report describes the operation and setup of the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with a {sup 252}Cf neutron source at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The components of the system are described with a description of the setup of the system along with an overview of the NMIS measurements for scanning, calibration, and confirmation of inventory items.

  16. Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Pain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.

  17. Advanced High-Temperature Engine Materials Technology Progresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to generate technology for advanced materials and structural analysis that will increase fuel economy, improve reliability, extend life, and reduce operating costs for 21st century civil propulsion systems. The primary focus is on fan and compressor materials (polymer-matrix composites - PMC's), compressor and turbine materials (superalloys, and metal-matrix and intermetallic-matrix composites - MMC's and IMC's), and turbine materials (ceramic-matrix composites - CMC's). These advanced materials are being developed in-house by Lewis researchers and on grants and contracts.

  18. The changing role of nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear materials accounting and accounting systems at what have been DOE Production sites are evolving into management decision support tools. As the sites are moving into the mode of making decisions on how to disposition complex and varied nuclear material holdings, the need for complete and many times different information has never been greater. The artificial boundaries that have historically been established between what belongs in the classic material control and accountability (MC and A) records versus what goes into the financial, radiological control, waste, or decommissioning and decontamination records are being challenged. In addition, the tools historically used to put material into different categories such as scrap codes, composition codes, etc. have been found to be inadequate for the information needs of today. In order to be cost effective and even, more importantly to effectively manage -our inventories, the new information systems the authors design have to have the flexibility to serve many needs. In addition, those tasked with the responsibility of managing the inventories must also expand beyond the same artificial boundaries. This paper addresses some of the things occurring at the Savannah River Site to support the changing role of nuclear materials accounting

  19. Nuclear material accounting: The next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Hanford company (Westinghouse Hanford) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have undertaken a joint effort to develop a new generation material accounting system. The system will incorporate the latest advances in microcomputer hardware, software, and network technology. This system, the Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS), offers greater performance and functionality at a reduced overall cost. It also offers the possibility of establishing a standard among DOE and NRC facilities for material accounting. This report provides a discussion of this system

  20. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable 3He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  1. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

    2010-01-27

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  2. Advanced training of specialists in nuclear energy at ONPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The is considered the relevance of training of specialists in nuclear energy in the form of advanced training to maintain professional skills at the needed level.The problems of thr re-profiling of specialists working in the nuclear industry and having a non specialized education to the specialty 'Nuclear Engineering' are also considered. The results of activity of the Centre for Continuing Education of ONPU in this direction for recent years are presented.

  3. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  4. Spanish program of advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy Spanish Plan is promoting some actions within the area of advanced reactors. Efforts are focussed onto the European Program of Advanced Reactors, the Program of Passive Plants (EPRI), European Fast Reactor Project and the APWR-1000 Program of INI. Electrical sector utilities and industrial partners supported by the Administration have organized an steering committee. The program of Passive Plants includes activities on Qualification, design and detailed engineering (Qualification project, SBWR project of G.E. and AP600 Project of Westinghouse. The european project on advanced plants has the following Spanish contribution: Analysis of alternative Dossier on European requisites (EUR) and Design of an European Reactor (EPR)

  5. Hot cell works and related irradiation tests in fission reactor for development of new materials for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present status of research works in Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, utilizing Japan Materials Testing Reactor and related hot cells will be described.Topics are mainly related with nuclear materials studies, excluding fissile materials, which is mainly aiming for development of materials for advanced nuclear systems such as a nuclear fusion reactor. Conflict between traditional and routined procedures and new demands will be described and future perspective is discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  7. Knowledge of raw materials in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textbook has four sections and twenty chapters. The first section briefly represents an introduction to nuclear technology and important types of reactors. The second section is allocated to the description of structure of solid cristalline substances. Physical properties of metals and mineralogy, atomic and nuclear properties, heat property of liquids and gases are also discussed in this section. The third section copes with the radiation effect of reactors on substances and in the fourth section reactor materials, fuels, cladding, reflectors, moderators and coolants are studied

  8. Materials for generation-IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV. Six systems have been selected for Generation IV consideration: gas-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, molten salt-cooled reactor, sodium-cooled fast reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and very high temperature reactor. The structural materials need to resist much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. For this reason, the first consideration in the development of Generation-IV concepts is selection and deployment of materials that operate successfully in the aggressive operating environments expected in the Gen-IV concepts. This paper summarizes the Gen-IV operating environments and describes the various candidate materials under consideration for use in different structural applications. (author)

  9. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Advancing Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  10. The advanced test reactor national scientific user facility advancing nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help ensure the long-term viability of nuclear energy through a robust and sustained research and development effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor and associated post-irradiation examination facilities a National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), allowing broader access to nuclear energy researchers. The mission of the ATR NSUF is to provide access to world-class nuclear research facilities, thereby facilitating the advancement of nuclear science and technology. The ATR NSUF seeks to create an engaged academic and industrial user community that routinely conducts reactor-based research. Cost free access to the ATR and PIE facilities is granted based on technical merit to U.S. university-led experiment teams conducting non-proprietary research. Proposals are selected via independent technical peer review and relevance to DOE mission. Extensive publication of research results is expected as a condition for access. During FY 2008, the first full year of ATR NSUF operation, five university-led experiments were awarded access to the ATR and associated post-irradiation examination facilities. The ATR NSUF has awarded four new experiments in early FY 2009, and anticipates awarding additional experiments in the fall of 2009 as the results of the second 2009 proposal call. As the ATR NSUF program mature over the next two years, the capability to perform irradiation research of increasing complexity will become available. These capabilities include instrumented irradiation experiments and post-irradiation examinations on materials previously irradiated in U.S. reactor material test programs. The ATR critical facility will also be made available to researchers. An important component of the ATR NSUF an education program focused on the reactor-based tools available for resolving nuclear science and technology issues. The ATR NSUF provides education programs including a summer short course, internships, faculty-student team

  11. Retrieval system of nuclear data for transmutation of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Utsumi, Misako; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A database storing the data on nuclear reaction was built to calculate for simulating transmutation behaviours of materials /1/-/3/. In order to retrieve and maintain the database, the user interface for the data retrieval was developed where special knowledge on handling of the database or the machine structure is not required for end-user. It is indicated that using the database, the possibility of He formation and radioactivity in a material can be easily retrieved though the evaluation is qualitatively. (author)

  12. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management - Preliminary Concepts -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approach to Connect Global Objectives and Local Actions: (1) Articulate global objectives into a hierarchy of subsystem requirements and local attributes and measures; (2) Establish a baseline system and viable alternatives through the interactions and relationships (e.g., networks) of local system elements and their options; (3) Evaluate performance of system alternatives and develop improved nuclear material management strategies and technologies; and (4) The need to address greatest concerns first (prioritized or graded approach) and to make tradeoffs among implementation options and competing objectives entails a risk-based approach. IGNMM could provide a systematic understanding of global nuclear materials management and evolutionarily improve and integrate the management through an active architecture, using for example, situation awareness, system models, methods, technologies, and international cooperation. Different tools would be used within the overall framework to address individual issues on the desired geographic scale that could be easily linked to broader analyses. Life-cycle system analyses would allow for evaluating material path alternatives on an integrated global scale. Disconnects, overlaps, technical options, and alternatives for optimizing nuclear materials processes could be evaluated in an integrated manner

  13. Proceedings of the 2004 international congress on advances in nuclear power plants - ICAPP'04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2004 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP'04) provides a forum for the industry to exchange the latest ideas and research findings on nuclear plants from all perspectives. This conference builds on the success of last year's meeting held in Cordoba, Spain, and on the 2002 inaugural meeting held in Hollywood, Florida. Because of the hard work of many volunteers from around the world, ICAPP'04 has been successful in achieving its goal. More than 325 invited and contributed papers/presentations are part of this ICAPP. There are 5 invited plenary sessions and 70 technical sessions with contributed papers. The ICAPP'04 Proceedings contain almost 275 papers prepared by authors from 25 countries covering topics related to advances in nuclear power plant technology. The program by technical track deals with: 1 - Water-Cooled Reactor Programs and Issues (Status of All New Water-Cooled Reactor Programs; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage I; Advanced PWRs: Developmental Stage II; Advanced PWRs: Basic Design Stage; Advanced BWRs; Economics, Regulation, Licensing, and Construction; AP1000); 2 - High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (Pebble Bed Modular Reactors; Very High Temperature Reactors; HTR Fuels and Materials; Innovative HTRs and Fuel Cycles); 3 - Long Term Reactor Programs and Strategies (Supercritical Pressure Water Reactors; Lead-Alloy Fast Reactors; Sodium and Gas Fast Reactors; Status of Advanced Reactor Programs; Non-classical Reactor Concepts); 4 - Operation, Performance, and Reliability Management (Information Technology Effect on Plant Operation; Operation, Maintenance and Reliability; Improving Performance and Reducing O and M Costs; Plant Modernization and Retrofits); 5 - Plant Safety Assessment and Regulatory Issues (LOCA and non-LOCA Analysis Methodologies; LOCA and non-LOCA Plant Analyses; In-Vessel Retention; Containment Performance and Hydrogen Control; Advances in Severe Accident Analysis; Advances in Severe Accident

  14. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m2, basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc

  15. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, I. J.; Yu, C. H

    2003-09-01

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m{sup 2}, basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc.

  16. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the prescriptions of The Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors and its enforcement order, the regulations stipulate permission of refining facilities, merger of enterprises, records, security, cancellation of designation, reports, etc. Application for the respective permissions is specified. Security and protection against radiation and the responsibilities for operation are ensured by way of the respective aspects. (Mori, K.)

  17. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  18. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of nuclear power plants needs design codes (e.g. ASME or RCC-MR) to allow save and reliable design and operation. To meet the requirements of advanced future plants either existing codes have to be amended or new codes have to be developed. Future Generation IV plants like the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) or the sodium fast reactor (SFR) are currently in this stage of code development. Some important issues to be considered in this context are: design curves (lower bound scatter bands), creep-fatigue, negligible creep, crack growth (fatigue, creep, fast fracture), damage monitoring. The paper will provide some insight into the materials problems behind design rules. Examples will be taken from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Possibilities for the replacement of the linear life fraction rule with advanced creep-fatigue damage assessments will be discussed. Specific emphasize will be put on the role of cyclic softening. Damage assessment and propagation of cracks from flaws under creep and fatigue will be touched upon. Some results from creep at low temperatures (irradiation creep, negligible creep) will be presented. (author)

  19. Advances in chemical standards for nuclear fuel analysis and safeguards purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Consultants' Meeting were to evaluate the results of enquiries conducted by the IAEA and the CEC on the needs and availability of nuclear reference materials, to prepare a report on the results of the enquiries and on the advances in chemical standards for nuclear fuel analyses and safeguards purposes and to identify needs which are not being met or could not be met in the future

  20. Perspective of nuclear energy and advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear energy growth will be the result of the contributions of every single plant being constructed or projected at present as it is connected to the grid. As per IAEA, there exists presently 34 nuclear power plants under construction 81 with the necessary permits and funding and 223 proposed, which are plants seriously pursuing permits and financing. This means that in a few decades the number of nuclear power plants in operation will have doubled. This growth rate is characterised by the incorporation of new countries to the nuclear club and the gradually increasing importance of Asian countries. During this expansive phase, generation III and III+designs are or will be used. These designs incorporate the experience from operating plants, and introduce innovations on rationalization design efficiency and safety, with emphasis on passive safety features. In a posterior phase, generation IV designs, presently under development, will be employed. Generation IV consists of several types of reactors (fast reactors, very high temperature reactors, etc), which will improve further sustain ability, economy, safety and reliability concepts. The described situation seems to lead to a renaissance of the nuclear energy to levels hardly thinkable several years ago. (Author)

  1. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a ''window'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in ''windows'' for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed

  2. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  3. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  4. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has been performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  5. Experiences and Trends of Manufacturing Technology of Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Atoms for Peace' mission initiated in the mid-1950s paved the way for the development and deployment of nuclear fission reactors as a source of heat energy for electricity generation in nuclear power reactors and as a source of neutrons in non-power reactors for research, materials irradiation, and testing and production of radioisotopes. The fuels for nuclear reactors are manufactured from natural uranium (∼99.3% 238U + ∼0.7% 235U) and natural thorium (∼100% 232Th) resources. Currently, most power and research reactors use 235U, the only fissile isotope found in nature, as fuel. The fertile isotopes 238U and 232Th are transmuted in the reactor to human-made 239Pu and 233U fissile isotopes, respectively. Likewise, minor actinides (MA) (Np, Am and Cm) and other plutonium isotopes are also formed by a series of neutron capture reactions with 238U and 235U. Long term sustainability of nuclear power will depend to a great extent on the efficient, safe and secure utilization of fissile and fertile materials. Light water reactors (LWRs) account for more than 82% of the operating reactors, followed by pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), which constitute ∼10% of reactors. LWRs will continue to dominate the nuclear power market for several decades, as long as economically viable natural uranium resources are available. Currently, the plutonium obtained from spent nuclear fuel is subjected to mono recycling in LWRs as uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX), containing up to 12% PuO2, in a very limited way. The reprocessed uranium (RepU) is also re-enriched and recycled in LWRs in a few countries. Unfortunately, the utilization of natural uranium resources in thermal neutron reactors is 2 and MOX fuel technology has matured during the past five decades. These fuels are now being manufactured, used and reprocessed on an industrial scale. Mixed uranium- plutonium monocarbide (MC), mononitride (MN) and U-Pu-Zr alloys are recognized as advanced fuels for sodium

  6. Helium mobility in advanced nuclear ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this work is to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms able to drive the helium behaviour in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to thermal annealing or ion irradiation. TiC, TiN and ZrC polycrystals were implanted with 3 MeV 3He ions at room temperature in the fluence range 2 * 1015 et 6 * 1016 cm-2. Some of them have been pre-irradiated with self-ions (14 MeV Ti or Zr). Fully controlled thermal annealing tests were subsequently carried out in the temperature range 1000 - 1600 C for two hours. The evolution of the helium depth distribution in function of implantation dose, temperature and pre-irradiation dose was measured thanks to the deuteron-induced nuclear reaction 3He(d, p0)4He between 900 keV and 1.8 MeV. The microstructure of implanted and annealed samples was investigated by transmission electron microscopy on thin foils prepared using the FIB technique. Additional characterization tools, as X-ray diffraction and Raman microspectrometry, have been also applied in order to obtain complementary information. Among the most relevant results obtained, the following have to be outlined: - double-peak helium depth profile was measured on as implanted sample for the three compounds. The first peak is located near the end of range and includes the major part of helium, a second peak located close to the surface corresponds to the helium atoms trapped by the native vacancies; - the helium retention capacity in transition metal carbides and nitrides submitted to fully controlled thermal treatments varies according to ZrC0.92 ≤ TiC0.96 ≤ TiN0.96; - whatever the investigated material, a self-ion-induced pre-damaging does not modify the initial helium profile extent. The influence of the post-implantation thermal treatment remains preponderant in any case; - the apparent diffusion coefficient of helium is in the range 4 * 10-18 - 2 * 10-17 m2 s-1 in TiC0.96 and 3.5 * 10-19 - 5.3 * 10-18 m2 s-1 in TiN0.96 between 1100 and 1600 C. The

  7. Nuclear data needs for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear data for material analysis using neutron-based methods are examined. Besides a critical review of the available data, emphasis is given to emerging application areas and new experimental techniques. Neutron scattering and reaction data, as well as decay data for delayed and prompt gamma activation analysis are all discussed in detail. Conclusions are formed concerning the need of new measurement, calculation, evaluation and dissemination activities. (author)

  8. Strength of structural materials of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monography reviews the phenomenon of stress-corrosion craving of zirconium-alloy fuel cans in the nuclear fuel fission products and ways of its prevention. Equations of creep and limiting state of FBR core materials were derived on the basis of the concept of deformation processes unity taking into account the degree of structural stability of alloys, temperature, nonstationary loading and aggressive media effects. Equations of durability under joint quasistatic and cyclic loading are developed. 146 refs.; 91 figs.; 16 tabs

  9. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brochure contains the abstracts of the papers presented at the 7th EPS meeting 1980 in Darmstadt. The main subjects were: a) Neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect in materials research, b) ion implantation in micrometallurgy, c) applications of nuclear reactions and radioisotopes in research on solids, d) recent developments in activation analysis and e) pions, positrons, and heavy ions applied in solid state physics. (RW)

  10. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  12. Contributions to radiochemical and nuclear materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of talks given during a seminar of the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in april 1981 in honor of R. LINDNER on the occasion of his 60th birth day. The topics include general aspects of research practice and science prognosis, retrospective essays about the discovery of nuclear fission by O. HAHN as well as surveys of actual research activities concerning a radiochemistry and the use of radioactivity in material science

  13. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  14. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  15. Materials qualification for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of materials to be used in the fabrication of components submitted to pressure destined to Atucha II nuclear power plant must fulfill the quality assurance requirements in accordance with the international standards. With the aim of promoting the national participation in CNA II, ENACE had the need to adapt these requirements to the national industry conditions and to the availability of official entities' qualification and inspection. As a uniform and normalized assessment for the qualification of materials did not exist in the country, ENACE had to develop a materials suppliers qualification system. This paper presents a suppliers qualification procedure, its application limits and the alternative procedures for the acceptance of individual stock and for the stock materials purchase. (Author)

  16. Nuclear reactor materials at the atomic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle A. Marquis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available With the renewed interest in nuclear energy, developing new materials able to respond to the stringent requirements of the next-generation fission and future fusion reactors has become a priority. An efficient search for such materials requires detailed knowledge of material behaviour under irradiation, high temperatures and corrosive environments. Minimizing the rates of materials degradation will be possible only if the mechanisms by which it occurs are understood. Atomic-scale experimental probing as well as modelling can provide some answers and help predict in-service behaviour. This article illustrates how this approach has already improved our understanding of precipitation under irradiation, corrosion behaviour, and stress corrosion cracking. It is also now beginning to provide guidance for the development of new alloys.

  17. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  18. Nuclear Fuels & Materials Spotlight Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. J. van Rooyen,; T. M. Lillo; Y. Q. WU; P.A. Demkowicz; L. Scott; D.M. Scates; E. L. Reber; J. H. Jackson; J. A. Smith; D.L. Cottle; B.H. Rabin; M.R. Tonks; S.B. Biner; Y. Zhang; R.L. Williamson; S.R. Novascone; B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; D.R. Gaston; C.J. Permann; D. Anders; S.L. Hayes; P.C. Millett; D. Andersson; C. Stanek; R. Ali; S.L. Garrett; J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; J. Palmer; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; G. Kohse; P. Ramuhali; H.T. Chien; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; D.W. Nigg; G. Imel; J. T. Harris

    2014-04-01

    As the nation's nuclear energy laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory brings together talented people and specialized nuclear research capability to accomplish our mission. This edition of the Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division Spotlight provides an overview of some of our recent accomplishments in research and capability development. These accomplishments include: • The first identification of silver and palladium migrating through the SiC layer in TRISO fuel • A description of irradiation assisted stress corrosion testing capabilities that support commercial light water reactor life extension • Results of high-temperature safety testing on coated particle fuels irradiated in the ATR • New methods for testing the integrity of irradiated plate-type reactor fuel • Description of a 'Smart Fuel' concept that wirelessly provides real time information about changes in nuclear fuel properties and operating conditions • Development and testing of ultrasonic transducers and real-time flux sensors for use inside reactor cores, and • An example of a capsule irradiation test. Throughout Spotlight, you'll find examples of productive partnerships with academia, industry, and government agencies that deliver high-impact outcomes. The work conducted at Idaho National Laboratory helps to spur innovation in nuclear energy applications that drive economic growth and energy security. We appreciate your interest in our work here at INL, and hope that you find this issue informative.

  19. Integrating the stabilization of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H.F. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In response to Recommendation 94-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, the Department of Energy committed to stabilizing specific nuclear materials within 3 and 8 years. These efforts are underway. The Department has already repackaged the plutonium at Rocky Flats and metal turnings at Savannah River that had been in contact with plastic. As this effort proceeds, we begin to look at activities beyond stabilization and prepare for the final disposition of these materials. To describe the plutonium materials being stabilize, Figure 1 illustrates the quantities of plutonium in various forms that will be stabilized. Plutonium as metal comprises 8.5 metric tons. Plutonium oxide contains 5.5 metric tons of plutonium. Plutonium residues and solutions, together, contain 7 metric tons of plutonium. Figure 2 shows the quantity of plutonium-bearing material in these four categories. In this depiction, 200 metric tons of plutonium residues and 400 metric tons of solutions containing plutonium constitute most of the material in the stabilization program. So, it is not surprising that much of the work in stabilization is directed toward the residues and solutions, even though they contain less of the plutonium.

  20. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  1. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  2. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  4. Catalytic Methods in Asymmetric Synthesis Advanced Materials, Techniques, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2011-01-01

    This book covers advances in the methods of catalytic asymmetric synthesis and their applications. Coverage moves from new materials and technologies to homogeneous metal-free catalysts and homogeneous metal catalysts. The applications of several methodologies for the synthesis of biologically active molecules are discussed. Part I addresses recent advances in new materials and technologies such as supported catalysts, supports, self-supported catalysts, chiral ionic liquids, supercritical fluids, flow reactors and microwaves related to asymmetric catalysis. Part II covers advances and milesto

  5. Engineering with advanced materials for tailing dam designing

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Ilievski, Darko

    2012-01-01

    Tailing dam accidents hapened in the past serve as "alarm" for application of advanced methods and techniques at designing of tailing dams. The designing of advanced tailing dam nowdays is very current topic, due to the fact that designing would resolve very important issues for environmental protection. Advanced materials (geosyntetics) are used at process of construction in order the tailing dam to be constructed and to perform according to the advanced world standards. By applying the geos...

  6. To MARS and Beyond with Nuclear Power - Design Concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The President Park of ROK has also expressed support for space program promotion, praising the success of NARO as evidence of a positive outlook. These events hint a strong signal that ROK's space program will be accelerated by the national eager desire. In this national eager desire for space program, the policymakers and the aerospace engineers need to pay attention to the advanced nuclear technology of ROK that is set to a major world nuclear energy country, even exporting the technology. The space nuclear application is a very much attractive option because its energy density is the most enormous among available energy sources in space. This paper presents the design concept of Korea Advanced Nuclear Thermal Engine Rocket (KANuTER) that is one of the advanced nuclear thermal rocket engine developing in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) for space application. Solar system exploration relying on CRs suffers from long trip time and high cost. In this regard, nuclear propulsion is a very attractive option for that because of higher performance and already demonstrated technology. Although ROK was a late entrant into elite global space club, its prospect as a space racer is very bright because of the national eager desire and its advanced technology. Especially it is greatly meaningful that ROK has potential capability to launch its nuclear technology into space as a global nuclear energy leader and a soaring space adventurer. In this regard, KANuTER will be a kind of bridgehead for Korean space nuclear application.

  7. Muon tomography algorithms for fissile nuclear materials detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon Tomography is a novel technique which exploits the multiple coulomb scattering of these particles for nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. It describes the concept and theory of cosmic-ray muon tomography, and discuss preliminary and advanced reconstruction algorithms (PoCA algorithm and MLS-EM algorithm), which take advantage of the scattering angle. Our algorithms are validated with simulation experimental demonstrations. Based upon the results from simulations, we conclude that muon radiography can be useful for detecting fissile nuclear materials. (authors)

  8. Multiscale damage modeling of advanced composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Menna, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    The use of composite materials has spread over the years throughout the engineering areas of structures. The technological progress in this field has recently expanded, resulting in the design of new composite configurations, including multilayered composite materials and multifunctional nanostructured materials. Even though traditional and emerging composite materials offer wide potentialities for engineering, a significant challenge is still open with respect to damage phenomena. Driven by ...

  9. Insulation materials for advanced water storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    sections different insulation materials are described with respect to material characteristics and some comments on the easiness of application for tank insulation. The material properties listed in this paper are typical values, which gives an idea of the possibilities but in case of a specific design a...

  10. Advances in Nuclear Power Process Heat Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an IAEA coordinated research project, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities related to practical nuclear process heat applications. An overview of current progress on high temperature gas cooled reactors coupling schemes for different process heat applications, such as hydrogen production and desalination is included. The associated safety aspects are also highlighted. The summary report documents the results and conclusions of the project.

  11. Safeguards for nuclear material transparency monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacArthur, D A; Wolford, J K

    1999-06-02

    The US and the Russian Federation are currently engaged in negotiating or implementing several nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements. These involve placing nuclear material in specially designed containers within controlled facilities. Some of the agreements require the removal of nuclear components from stockpile weapons. These components are placed in steel containers that are then sealed and tagged. Current strategies for monitoring the agreements involve taking neutron and gamma radiation measurements of components in their containers to monitor the presence, mass, and composition of plutonium or highly enriched uranium, as well as other attributes that indicate the use of the material in a weapon. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will yield data containing information about the design of the weapon being monitored. In each case, the design data are considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. To prevent the disclosure of this information in a bilateral or trilateral inspection scenario, so-called information barriers have evolved. These barriers combine hardware, software, and procedural safeguards to contain the sensitive data within a protected volume, presenting to the inspector only the processed results needed for verification. Interlocks and volatile memory guard against disclosure in case of failure. Implementing these safeguards requires innovation in radiation measurement instruments and data security. Demonstrating their reliability requires independent testing to uncover any flaws in design. This study discusses the general problem and gives a proposed solution for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It uses historical examples to illustrate the evolution of other successful systems.

  12. Advances in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of commercially available phosphate glasses with a wide range of sensitivities have recently been developed. Chief among these is BP-1, which has a high sensitivity and an unprecedented charge resolution. CR-39 has been found to respond differently at velocities below ∼10-2c, where nuclear stopping begins to dominate, than at high velocities, where electronic stopping dominates. Atomic force microscopy has been shown to be a powerful new tool for the study of the etching process, using recoil tracks in mica. CR-39 has been used to set limits on cold fusion rates in strong conflict with rates claimed by some electrochemists. CR-39 and BP-1 have been used to study a number of topics in atomic and nuclear physics including charge pickup in relativistic nucleus-nucleus reactions, nuclear and electromagnetic spallation of relativistic heavy nuclei, the determination of electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy nuclei, and cluster radioactivity. CR-39 is being used to search for strangelets in nature and in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. Several studies of cosmic ray composition, including TREK, ANTIPODE, HIIS, and UHCRE, are obtaining new results using CR-39, polycarbonate, and BP-1 glass. An experiment to search for weakly interacting massive elementary particles called WIMPs will use mica to detect very short tracks of nuclei that recoil when struck elastically by the WIMPs. (Author)

  13. Development of the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management (ANSIM) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea has become a technically independent nuclear country and has grown into an exporter of nuclear technologies. Thus, nuclear facilities are increasing in significance at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), and it is time to address the nuclear safety. The importance of nuclear safety cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, a management system is needed urgently to manage the safety of nuclear facilities and to enhance the efficiency of nuclear information. We have established ISP (Information Strategy Planning) for the Integrated Information System of nuclear facility and safety management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a management system for nuclear safety. Therefore, we developed the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management system (hereinafter referred to as the 'ANSIM system'). The ANSIM system has been designed and implemented to computerize nuclear safety information for standardization, integration, and sharing in real-time. Figure 1 shows the main home page of the ANSIM system. In this paper, we describe the design requirements, contents, configurations, and utilizations of the ANSIM system

  14. Development of the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management (ANSIM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Ko, Young Cheol; Song, Tai Gil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korea has become a technically independent nuclear country and has grown into an exporter of nuclear technologies. Thus, nuclear facilities are increasing in significance at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), and it is time to address the nuclear safety. The importance of nuclear safety cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, a management system is needed urgently to manage the safety of nuclear facilities and to enhance the efficiency of nuclear information. We have established ISP (Information Strategy Planning) for the Integrated Information System of nuclear facility and safety management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a management system for nuclear safety. Therefore, we developed the Advanced Nuclear Safety Information Management system (hereinafter referred to as the 'ANSIM system'). The ANSIM system has been designed and implemented to computerize nuclear safety information for standardization, integration, and sharing in real-time. Figure 1 shows the main home page of the ANSIM system. In this paper, we describe the design requirements, contents, configurations, and utilizations of the ANSIM system

  15. Manufacturing system for nuclear grade materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes on the manufacturing system for nuclear grade steel materials at Mizushima Works of Kawasaki Steel Corporation. This works has developed the manufacturing system by using a ladle refining furnace (LRF), and obtained the ASME quality system certificate for thick plates and forgings of nuclear grade. The impurity content of raw material is regulated, and the contents of As, Sb, Cu and S are kept at minimum. In the convertor refining, dephosphorization is carried out thoroughly. Then, the second refining and the degasing treatment are carried out in the LRF. The chemical composition of the refined steel is shown in a table which shows very low content of harmful elements. The result of measurement of the rise of transition temperature (Tr 30) by neutron irradiation was good. The characteristic features of the rolling works are smoothness of lay-out, computer control and automatic operation, and an ultra-powerful rolling machine. The manufactured plates show good accuracy of thickness and smooth plate surface. Forging and heat treatment for plates and forgings are made. The quality system manual of this works is written according to the requirement of ASME code. The certified material test report (CMTR) is issued for shipped material. The person in charge of non-destructive test is authorized according to the ASNT Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (1975). (Kato, T.)

  16. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to improve the properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The objectives are to: (1) develop materials based on modifications of the state-of-the-art materials; (2) minimize or eliminate stability problems in the cathode, anode, and interconnect; (3) Electrochemically evaluate (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) the current state-of-the-art air electrode materials and cathode/electrolyte interfacial properties; (4) Develop accelerated electrochemical test methods to evaluate the performance of SOFCs under controlled and reproducible conditions; and (5) Develop and test materials for use in low-temperature SOFCs. The goal is to modify and improve the current state-of-the-art materials and minimize the total number of cations in each material to avoid negative effects on the materials properties. Materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabricatoin and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions.

  17. Current trends in nuclear material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The business of radioactive material transportation has evolved considerably in the past 40 years. Current practices reflect extensive international experience in handling radioactive cargo within a mature and tested regulatory framework. Nevertheless, new developments continue to have an impact on how shipments of nuclear material are planned and carried out. Entities involved in the transport of radioactive materials must keep abreast of these developments and work together to find innovative solutions to ensure that safe, smooth transport activities may continue. Several recent trends in the regulatory environment and political atmosphere require attention. There are four key trends that we'll be examining today: 1) the reduction in the pool of available commercial carriers; 2) routing restrictions; 3) package validation issues; and 4) increasing political sensitivities. Careful planning and cooperative measures are necessary to alleviate problems in each of these areas. (author)

  18. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor

  20. The French national system for centralized accounting of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French national system for centralized accounting of nuclear materials located on French soil is described. Texts of accountancy regulations and operator's obligations, which determine the technical conditions for nuclear material management are presented. The NUclear Material Operation Declaration Form used for declaring changes in inventory is considered. The hardware configuration of the automated accounting system for nuclear materials consists of multiprocessor mini-computer, SUN computers, a SYBASE relational database manager and optical fiber network

  1. Uranium as Raw Material for Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is lot of information bringing our attention to the problem of limited raw material resources. Fortunately uranium for nuclear energy is very concentrated source and that is why its transport brings no problems and could be realized from anywhere. Second question is if overall resources are available for current nuclear energy development. Data documenting reasons for nowadays price growth are presenting and it is clearly shown that the most probable explanation is that there is gap in new uranium mines preparation and the lot of smaller mines were closed in the period of low uranium prices. Conclusion is that there is at least for the first half of this century even for thermal reactors enough uranium. Situation could be changed if there will massive production of liquid fuel using hydrogen, produced through nuclear heating. Public information about former military uranium resources are also included. Contemporary about one half of US nuclear power-stations is using high enriched uranium diluted with natural uranium - it is expected to continue this way up to 2012. Uranium is complicated market (Authors)

  2. International nuclear safety center database on material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International nuclear safety center database on the following material properties is described: fuel, cladding,absorbers, moderators, structural materials, coolants, concretes, liquid mixtures, uranium dioxide

  3. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry which is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified

  6. New trends in advanced high energy materials

    OpenAIRE

    Adam S. Cumming

    2009-01-01

    In the last twenty years military explosives and energetic materials in general have changed significantly. This has been due to several factors which include new operational requirements such as Insensitive Munitions (IM), but is also due to the availability of new materials and to new assessment and modelling techniques. These permit more effective use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in applying the technology. This article will outline some of the e...

  7. Advanced Magnetostrictive Materials for Sonar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajapan Rajapan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric or magnetostrictive materials can be utilised as active materials for electroacoustic underwater transducers. Piezoceramic materials gained edge over the conventional magnetostrictive materials during 1940s due to their unique electro-acoustic properties. At present, inspite of passive sonars there is a need of low-frequency high-power active sonars for the Navy. This led toresearch for new activematerials with competing characteristics to that of the existing piezo transducers. The discovery of a giant magnetostrictive material, commercially known as Terfenol-D, led to a breakthrough in the development of a new generation of sonar transducers. Now, the materials (including composites as well as sensors are commercially available. A new generation of transducers have emerged in ocean-related areas like acoustic tomography, longrange underwater communication, geophysical exploration, oil well exploration, etc.Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, has also developed the basic material technology a few years back. At present, in India, National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai, is developing underwater transducers utilising giant magnetostrictive materials as well as piezoelectric materials for marine applications like sub-bottom profiling (seafloor mapping and long-range underwater communications. A prototype of a portable, low-frequency medium power transmitter operating over a wide-frequency range has been developed. The main advantage of this transducer is its simplicity in design. In this paper, (he recent developments in material processes, importance of device-oriented material characterisation, and transducer design aspects have been emphasised. Some results on the underwater performance of a wide-band transducer have also been presented. These materials also have ultrasonic applications, capable of revolutionising the processing industry.

  8. Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Systems. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Basic Research Needs for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, July 31-August 3, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Gibala, R.; Zinkle, S.; Miller, J.R.; Pimblott, S.; Burns, C.; Raymond, K.; Grimes, R.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Clark, S.; Ewing, R.; Wagner, A.; Yip, S.; Buchanan, M.; Crabtree, G.; Hemminger, J.; Poate, J.; Miller, J.C.; Edelstein, N.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Gruzalski, G.; Michaels, G.; Morss, L.; Peters, M.; Talamini, K.

    2006-10-01

    The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 new nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X

  9. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core sp...

  10. Study of Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Takashi [Kinugasa Research Organization Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Progress of global warming requires us to establish a low-carbon society. Carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is emitted from two major sectors in the world. The largest CO{sub 2} emitting sector is power sector having 46 % of the world share. Nuclear power has an important role because it does not emit CO{sub 2} while it produces electricity. The second largest sector is transportation and has about 23 % of the world share. 73 % of transportation is land-transportation, that is to say automobile. Therefore, lots of motor-car companies are expressing their vision to supply electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid vehicle (HV) in these few years. In order to manufacture EV and HV, rare-earth materials such as neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) are necessary. EV and HV are driven by an electric motor using permanent magnet. Nd is used to improve torque of permanent magnet. Dy is used as supplement for the case of HV in order to enhance thermal resistance because electric motor is exposed to high temperature circumference with combustion engine. 97 % of world supply of rare-earth production is shared by China. The reduction of exportation amount of rare-earth from China to Japan have brought a significant impact on Japan's industries especially for motor-car companies, which are going to supply EV and HV. Japan is going to develop new rare-earth mines outside of China such as in Vietnam. The most important problem relating to rare-earth mining is 'thorium'. The popular minerals containing rare-earth are monazite, bastnasite and so on. Thorium is mostly included in the same minerals. Therefore, thorium is separated whenever rare-earth is refined. Thorium separated in China can be stored for future usage as nuclear fuel. Though thorium began to be considered also in a working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan since 2010, it is not clear when thorium starts to be used and how much amount of thorium will be consumed. It is estimated that consumption of thorium will be

  11. Study of Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of global warming requires us to establish a low-carbon society. Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is emitted from two major sectors in the world. The largest CO2 emitting sector is power sector having 46 % of the world share. Nuclear power has an important role because it does not emit CO2 while it produces electricity. The second largest sector is transportation and has about 23 % of the world share. 73 % of transportation is land-transportation, that is to say automobile. Therefore, lots of motor-car companies are expressing their vision to supply electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid vehicle (HV) in these few years. In order to manufacture EV and HV, rare-earth materials such as neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) are necessary. EV and HV are driven by an electric motor using permanent magnet. Nd is used to improve torque of permanent magnet. Dy is used as supplement for the case of HV in order to enhance thermal resistance because electric motor is exposed to high temperature circumference with combustion engine. 97 % of world supply of rare-earth production is shared by China. The reduction of exportation amount of rare-earth from China to Japan have brought a significant impact on Japan's industries especially for motor-car companies, which are going to supply EV and HV. Japan is going to develop new rare-earth mines outside of China such as in Vietnam. The most important problem relating to rare-earth mining is 'thorium'. The popular minerals containing rare-earth are monazite, bastnasite and so on. Thorium is mostly included in the same minerals. Therefore, thorium is separated whenever rare-earth is refined. Thorium separated in China can be stored for future usage as nuclear fuel. Though thorium began to be considered also in a working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan since 2010, it is not clear when thorium starts to be used and how much amount of thorium will be consumed. It is estimated that consumption of thorium will be smaller than the production of

  12. The convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the full text of a convention to facilitate the safe transfer of nuclear material, and to insure the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage, and transport. Two annexes are included, which establish categories of nuclear materials and levels of physical protection to be applied in international transport

  13. Nuclear Materials Management for the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical role of weapons testing to a broader role that is focused on being a solution to multiple National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) challenges and opportunities with nuclear materials for the nation. NTS is supporting other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to make the production complex smaller, more consolidated, and more modern. With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through dispositioning and consolidating nuclear material. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State-of-the-art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that these new activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS is aggressively addressing this challenge

  14. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  15. Importance of Advanced Planning of Manufacturing for Nuclear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shykinov Nick

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of energy demands by growing economies, climate changes, fossil fuel pricing volatility, and improved safety and performance of nuclear power plants, many countries express interest in expanding or acquiring nuclear power capacity. In the light of the increased interest in expanding nuclear power the supply chain for nuclear power projects has received more attention in recent years. The importance of the advanced planning of procurement and manufacturing of components of nuclear facilities is critical for these projects. Many of these components are often referred to as long-lead items. They may be equipment, products and systems that are identified to have a delivery time long enough to affect directly the overall timing of a project. In order to avoid negatively affecting the project schedule, these items may need to be sourced out or manufactured years before the beginning of the project. For nuclear facilities, long-lead items include physical components such as large pressure vessels, instrumentation and controls. They may also mean programs and management systems important to the safety of the facility. Authorized nuclear operator training, site evaluation programs, and procurement are some of the examples. The nuclear power industry must often meet very demanding construction and commissioning timelines, and proper advanced planning of the long-lead items helps manage risks to project completion time. For nuclear components there are regulatory and licensing considerations that need to be considered. A national nuclear regulator must be involved early to ensure the components will meet the national legal regulatory requirements. This paper will discuss timing considerations to address the regulatory compliance of nuclear long-lead items.

  16. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  17. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  18. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  19. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  20. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  1. Development of advanced nuclear reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several advanced reactor designs have been so far developed in Russia. The AES-91 and AES-92 plants with the VVER-1000 reactors have been developed at the beginning of 1990. However, the former design has been built in China and the latest which is certified meeting European Utility Requirements is being built in India. Moreover, the model VVER-1500 reactor with 50-60 MWd/t burn-up and an enhanced safety was being developed by Gidropress about 2005, excepting to be completed in 2007. But, this schedule has slipped in favor of development of the AES-2006 power plant incorporating a third-generation standardized VVER-1200 reactor of 1170 MWe. This is an evolutionary development of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor in the AES-92 plant, with longer life, greater power and efficiency and its lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II, to start operation in 2012-13. Based on Atomenergoproekt declaration, the AES-2006 conforms to both Russian standards and European Utility Requirements. The most important features of the AES-2006 design are mentioned as: a design based on the passive safety systems, double containment, longer plant service life of 50 years with a capacity factor of 92%, longer irreplaceable components service life of 60 years, a 28.6% lower amount of concrete and metal, shorter construction time of 54 months, a Core Damage Frequency of 1x10-7/ year and lower liquid and solid wastes by 70% and 80% respectively. The presented paper includes a comparative analysis of technological and safety features, economic parameters and environmental impact of the AES-2006 design versus the other western advanced reactors. Since the Bushehr phase II NPP and several other NPPs are planning in Iran, such analysis would be of a great importance

  2. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  3. New trends in advanced high energy materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S. Cumming

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years military explosives and energetic materials in general have changed significantly. This has been due to several factors which include new operational requirements such as Insensitive Munitions (IM, but is also due to the availability of new materials and to new assessment and modelling techniques. These permit more effective use of materials and a more detailed understanding of the processes involved in applying the technology. This article will outline some of the effects in addition to taking a glance at what the future might hold.

  4. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. PMID:26568373

  5. Quality Assurance Protocol for AFCI Advanced Structural Materials Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this letter is to inform you of recent progress on the development of advanced structural materials in support of advanced fast reactors and AFCI. As you know, the alloy development effort has been initiated in recent months with the procurement of adequate quantities of the NF616 and HT-UPS alloys. As the test alloys become available in the coming days, mechanical testing, evaluation of optimizing treatments, and screening of environmental effects will be possible at a larger scale. It is therefore important to establish proper quality assurance protocols for this testing effort in a timely manner to ensure high technical quality throughout testing. A properly implemented quality assurance effort will also enable preliminary data taken in this effort to be qualified as NQA-1 during any subsequent licensing discussions for an advanced design or actual prototype. The objective of this report is to describe the quality assurance protocols that will be used for this effort. An essential first step in evaluating quality protocols is assessing the end use of the data. Currently, the advanced structural materials effort is part of a long-range, basic research and development effort and not, as yet, involved in licensing discussions for a specific reactor design. After consultation with Mark Vance (an ORNL QA expert) and based on the recently-issued AFCI QA requirements, the application of NQA-1 quality requirements will follow the guidance provided in Part IV, Subpart 4.2 of the NQA-1 standard (Guidance on Graded Application of QA for Nuclear-Related Research and Development). This guidance mandates the application of sound scientific methodology and a robust peer review process in all phases, allowing for the data to be qualified for use even if the programmatic mission changes to include licensing discussions of a specific design or prototype. ORNL has previously implemented a QA program dedicated to GNEP activities and based on an appropriately graded

  6. Can we maintain our advanced expertise in nuclear technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explains why it is important in the light of the Federal Government's plans to wind down nuclear power generation, to provide for governmental or other programmes for ensuring that the advanced expertise in nuclear science and technology in Germany will be maintained well into the future and passed on to the next generation of scientists and (radiation protection) engineers, as a policy to accompany the present Government's plans for a national nuclear power phaseout. The necessity for hedging Germany's high standards and the know-how in nuclear science and technology is explained, not least with respect to protection of the population from the hazards emanating from the operation of nuclear facilities. (orig./CB)

  7. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colographic displays and menu-driven touch screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  8. Advances in ultrafine-grained materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses new developments in the processing and properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG materials. These materials are produced through the application of severe plastic deformation to conventional coarse-grained metals and typically they have grain sizes within the submicrometer or even the nanometer range. Although several techniques are now available for achieving excellent homogeneity and high fractions of high-angle grain boundaries, this review concentrates on the major procedures of equal-channel angular pressing and high-pressure torsion. It is shown that UFG materials exhibit both excellent strength at ambient temperature and, if the grains are reasonably stable, outstanding superplastic properties at elevated temperatures. These materials also have a high innovation potential for use in commercial applications.

  9. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  10. The role of thermal analysis for characterization of nuclear fuels and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand of new materials with desired properties has accelerated the growth of materials for advanced applications in areas like nuclear, space, defense, health, aviation and transport. Thermal analysis and thermo-chemistry plays a pivotal role in materials development and is interdisciplinary in nature. The use of thermal analysis techniques in thermochemical and thermophysical property investigations, thermodynamics and phase diagram studies have contributed significantly to the research in nuclear energy program. UO2 or (U,Pu)O2/(U,Th)O2 are used as a potential nuclear fuels for thermal or fast breeder reactors, respectively

  11. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  12. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies

  13. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs

  14. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness

  15. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  16. Security of Nuclear Material in Transport. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides guidance to states and their competent authorities on how to implement and maintain a physical protection regime for transport of nuclear material. It will also be useful to shippers or carriers in the design and implementation of their physical protection systems. The publication builds upon the Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5), IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13, and provides additional guidance on how to implement these recommendations in practice

  17. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y2O3) with 6LiF (95% 6Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  18. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J. I. [Dept. Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  19. Scanning of Vehicles for Nuclear Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2014-01-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  20. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally specific requirements arising from nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS. The main features of these systems are a clear task related architecture with adaptable redundancy, a consequent application of standards for interfaces and communication, comprehensive tools for easy design and service and a highly ergonomic screen based man-machine-interface. The engineering tasks are supported by an integrated engineering system, which has the capacity for design, test and diagnosis of all I and C functions and the related equipment. TELEPERM XP is designed to optimally perform all automatic functions, which require no nuclear specific qualification. This includes all sequences and closed-loop controls as well as most man-machine-interface functions. TELEPERM XS is designed for all control tasks which require a nuclear specific qualification. This especially includes all function to initiated automatic countermeasures to prevent or to cope with accidents. By use of the complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS, advanced and likewise economical plant automation and man-machine-interfaces can be implemented into Nuclear Power Plant, assuring compliance with the relevant international safety standards. (author). 10 figs