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Sample records for advanced multi-modality radiation

  1. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D W; Hartmann Siantar, C

    2002-02-19

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software product system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. SERA is at a mature level in its life cycle, it has been licensed for research use worldwide, and it has become well established as a computational tool for research. However, along with its strengths, SERA also has some limitations in its structure and computational methodologies. More specifically, it is optimized only for neutron-based applications. Although photon transport can be computed with SERA, the simplified model that is used is designed primarily for photons produced in the neutron transport process. Thus SERA is not appropriate for applications to, for example, standard external-beam photon radiotherapy, which is by far more commonly used in the clinic than neutron based therapy.

  2. Development of Advanced Multi-Modality Radiation Treatment Planning Software for Neutron Radiotherapy and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D; Wessol, D; Wemple, C; Harkin, G; Hartmann-Siantar, C

    2002-08-20

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has long been active in development of advanced Monte-Carlo based computational dosimetry and treatment planning methods and software for advanced radiotherapy, with a particular focus on Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Fast-Neutron Therapy. The most recent INEEL software system of this type is known as SERA, Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications. As a logical next step in the development of modern radiotherapy planning tools to support the most advanced research, INEEL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the developers of the PEREGRTNE computational engine for radiotherapy treatment planning applications, have recently launched a new project to collaborate in the development of a ''next-generation'' multi-modality treatment planning software system that will be useful for all modern forms of radiotherapy.

  3. Role of radiation therapy in the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiation therapy as part of the multi-modal treatment of head and neck cancer appeared to be important with respect to functional and cosmetic morbidity. As for oral cancer, the value of brachytherapy was excellent in cases of localized disease. As far as the latter technique was applicable, patients with tongue cancer at T1, T2 and T3 could be treated by radiation as the initial choice unless palpable neck node metastasis was present. In contrast, cure of the lesion would not be expected from external irradiation alone even when combined with chemotherapy. Accordingly, in such advanced cases, salvage surgery should be applied with or without radiation and/or chemotherapy. As for maxillary cancer, the introduction of ''trimodal therapy'' has improved the local control rate only to a slight degree. After the application of conservative surgery followed by conventional trimodal combination therapy, local control and five-year survival rates have been improved markedly. (author)

  4. Meeting the challenge of managed care - Part I: Radiation oncology as an important part of multi-modal care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Oncology is an important component in multi-modality cancer care. Managed care has defined a number of different ways that radiation oncologists can interact with the other members of the cancer team. This course will review those options. The change in health care delivery is forcing radiation oncologists to examine every aspect of how they organize themselves, deliver care, evaluate that care, and how they are reimbursed for this process. This course will attempt to examine how the pressures of the new paradigms of health care delivery; managed care and outcomes research are impacting upon radiation therapy practice, and what radiation oncologists can do to maintain patient care standards. I. Introduction: A. Managed Care: What it is and where it is going 1. PPO's 2. HMO's 3. POS plans 4. Carve-outs B. Outcomes Research: What it can and cannot do 1. Patterns of care and SEER 2. Rand 3. ''Surrogate outcomes:'' patient satisfaction, quality of life indicators II. Moving from QA and CQI and Benchmarking A. Radiation Oncologists cannot take anything for granted B. Using analytical tools to evaluate all aspects of the radiation oncology practice. 1. Capital Purchases 2. Operational Aspects III Evaluating Staffing Needs A. What traditional jobs in the department should stay? B. Is the cross-training seen in the rest of the hospital appropriate in radiation oncology C. Outsourcing and multi-department organization as ways to improve efficiency D. What about physician extenders? E. What residents, newly trained radiation oncologists, and physician-practice managers must acknowledge to each other IV. Evaluating Technology A. See second and third talks in this series B. Improving efficiency: how does this help when one is not at capacity C. Increasing throughput D. Decreasing cost V. Informatics A. See second and third talks in this series B. What should one expect the computer to do for you C. Some personal observations VI. Gains from Share Services A. Should

  5. Prospective, longitudinal, multi-modal functional imaging for radical chemo-IMRT treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer: the INSIGHT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is an effective organ-sparing treatment option for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). Despite advances in treatment for LAHNC, a significant minority of these patients continue to fail to achieve complete response with standard CRT. By constructing a multi-modality functional imaging (FI) predictive biomarker for CRT outcome for patients with LAHNC we hope to be able to reliably identify those patients at high risk of failing standard CRT. Such a biomarker would in future enable CRT to be tailored to the specific biological characteristics of each patients’ tumour, potentially leading to improved treatment outcomes. The INSIGHT study is a single-centre, prospective, longitudinal multi-modality imaging study using functional MRI and FDG-PET/CT for patients with LAHNC squamous cell carcinomas receiving radical CRT. Two cohorts of patients are being recruited: one treated with, and another treated without, induction chemotherapy. All patients receive radical intensity modulated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Patients undergo functional imaging before, during and 3 months after completion of radiotherapy, as well as at the time of relapse, should that occur within the first two years after treatment. Serum samples are collected from patients at the same time points as the FI scans for analysis of a panel of serum markers of tumour hypoxia. The primary aim of the INSIGHT study is to acquire a prospective multi-parametric longitudinal data set comprising functional MRI, FDG PET/CT, and serum biomarker data from patients with LAHNC undergoing primary radical CRT. This data set will be used to construct a predictive imaging biomarker for outcome after CRT for LAHNC. This predictive imaging biomarker will be used in future studies of functional imaging based treatment stratification for patients with LAHNC. Additional objectives are: defining the reproducibility of FI parameters; determining robust

  6. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  7. STTARR: a radiation treatment and multi-modal imaging facility for fast tracking novel agent development in small animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal models play a pivotal role in the pipeline development of novel agents and strategies in personalized cancer therapy. The Spatio-Temporal Targeting and Amplification of Radiation Response Program (STTARR) consists of an animal imaging and precision radiation facility designed to provide innovative biologic imaging and targeted radiation treatment strategies in small animals. The design is to mirror the imaging and radiation treatment facility in a modern cancer center. The STTARR features imaging equipment of small animal scale including CT, MRI, PET, SPECT, Optical devices as well as image guided irradiators. The fleet of imaging and irradiation equipment provides a platform for identification of biological targets of the specific molecular pathways that influence both tumor progression and a patient's response to radiation therapy. Examples will be given in the utilization of the imaging facilities for development in novel approaches in cancer therapy including a PET-FAZA study for hypoxia measurement in a pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model. In addition, the cone-beam image guided small animal irradiator developed at our institute will also be described. The animal platform (couch) provides motion in 3 dimensions to position the animal to the isocentre of the beam. A pair of rotational arms supporting the X-ray/detector pair enables acquisition of cone-beam images of the animal which give rise to image guided precision of 0.5 mm. The irradiation energy ranges from 50 to 225 kVp at a dose rate from 10-400 cGy/min. The gantry is able to direct X-ray beam of different directions to give conformal radiation treatment to the animal. A dedicated treatment planning system is able to perform treatment planning and provide commonly used clinical metrics in the animal treatment plan. Examples will be given to highlight the use of the image guided irradiator for research of drug/irradiation regimen in animal models. (author)

  8. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  9. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B; Kanal, K; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  10. Multi modal child-to-child interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Tine Basse

    In this presentation the interaction and relation of three boys is analyzed using multi modal analysis. The analysis clearly, and surprisingly demonstrates that the boys interact via different modes and that they are able to handle several interaction partners at the same time. They co-construct ...

  11. Multi-modality treatment of primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with 131I anti-CEA--a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients with primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (57% with prior treatment and/or metastasis) were prospectively treated with external radiation, chemotherapy, and 131I labelled anti-CEA. Therapy began in all trials with whole liver irradiation (21.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy/Fx, 4 days/week, 10 MV photons) with alternate treatment day chemotherapy (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg). One month after external beam therapy, chemotherapy was given (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg) followed the next day by the first administration of 131I anti-CEA. The treatment schedule used was 20 mCi day 0; 10 mCi day 5 as an outpatient. This schedule was derived from tumor dose estimates which indicated that 20 mCi (8-10 mCi/mg IgG) was sufficient to achieve tumor saturation with a tumor effective half-life of 3 to 5 days, depending upon the species of animal from which the antibody was obtained. The median tumor dose for the 20 mCi + 10 mCi regimen was 6.2 Gy. Antibody therapy was delivered in 2-month cycles using antibody generated in different species of animals; rabbit, pig, monkey, and bovine. Toxicity was limited to hematologic toxicity and was manifested as thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia (3.2% Grade IV for each according to RTOG toxicity criteria). Tumor remission evaluated by CT scan digitized tumor volume analysis indicated a 26.6% partial response (PR). Tumor remission by physical examination indicated a 33.3% remission rate (25.9% PR and 7.4% complete remission (CR]. The median survival for patients who responded was 15.2 months. The actuarial median survival for the entire group of patients (metastases and previous treatment) was 6.5 months. The longest partial remission is presently more than 4 years

  12. Multi-modality treatment of primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with /sup 131/I anti-CEA--a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwagon, G.B.; Order, S.E.; Klein, J.L.; Leichner, P.K.; Leibel, S.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Fishman, E.K.; Ettinger, D.S.; Haulk, T.; Kopher, K.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-seven patients with primary nonresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (57% with prior treatment and/or metastasis) were prospectively treated with external radiation, chemotherapy, and /sup 131/I labelled anti-CEA. Therapy began in all trials with whole liver irradiation (21.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy/Fx, 4 days/week, 10 MV photons) with alternate treatment day chemotherapy (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg). One month after external beam therapy, chemotherapy was given (Adriamycin, 15 mg + 5-FU, 500 mg) followed the next day by the first administration of /sup 131/I anti-CEA. The treatment schedule used was 20 mCi day 0; 10 mCi day 5 as an outpatient. This schedule was derived from tumor dose estimates which indicated that 20 mCi (8-10 mCi/mg IgG) was sufficient to achieve tumor saturation with a tumor effective half-life of 3 to 5 days, depending upon the species of animal from which the antibody was obtained. The median tumor dose for the 20 mCi + 10 mCi regimen was 6.2 Gy. Antibody therapy was delivered in 2-month cycles using antibody generated in different species of animals; rabbit, pig, monkey, and bovine. Toxicity was limited to hematologic toxicity and was manifested as thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia (3.2% Grade IV for each according to RTOG toxicity criteria). Tumor remission evaluated by CT scan digitized tumor volume analysis indicated a 26.6% partial response (PR). Tumor remission by physical examination indicated a 33.3% remission rate (25.9% PR and 7.4% complete remission (CR). The median survival for patients who responded was 15.2 months. The actuarial median survival for the entire group of patients (metastases and previous treatment) was 6.5 months. The longest partial remission is presently more than 4 years.

  13. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa [Division 8.5, BAM Fed. Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-18

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  14. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  15. Multi-modality therapy leads to longer survival in primary central nervous system lymphoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, D.; Witham, T.F.; Germanwala, A.; Flickinger, J.C.; Schiff, D.; Kondziolka, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Dept. of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCL) is more frequently encountered by neurosurgeons given the increasing incidence among both nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised patients. The most frequent surgery is stereotactic biopsy. Historically, radiation therapy has been the standard treatment modality for this disease and median survival was in the 15-month range. More recently, multi-modality therapy combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy (systemic, intrathecal, and/or intra-arterial) have resulted in longer survivals. We reviewed survival data for our series of patients treated for PCL over the last decade. Thirty-four patients with histologically confirmed PCL were treated at our center. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine which factor(s) (age, gender, HIV status, Karnofsky Performance Scale, chemotherapy, single modality therapy, histology, location, number of lesions, surgical resection) had a significant impact on survival. The overall median survival was 19 months. Patients receiving multi-modality therapy (n=17) (chemotherapy and radiation) had a median survival of 34 months compared to four months for patients receiving single modality therapy (n=17 including seven HTV positive patients). Multi-modality therapy was the only significant factor affecting survival in this multivariate analysis (p<0.0001). Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly enhances survival over patients treated with single modality therapy alone. Quality of life issues should be addressed on a case by case basis as additional treatment modalities are initiated. (author)

  16. Gestures for Multi-Modal Interfaces: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel, Sébastien

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a review on gestures for multi-modal interfaces and focus on hand gestures. It first introduces the role that the gesture modality plays in human communication. It then describes different types of gestures. Finally, it gives an overview of many techniques for the recognition of hand gestures.

  17. A transformation approach to modelling multi-modal diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that flexible and statistically tractable multi-modal diffusion models can be attained by transformation of simple well-known diffusion models such as the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model, or more generally a Pearson diffusion. The transformed diffusion inherits many properties of...

  18. Detection of Epileptic Seizures with Multi-modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    The main focus of this dissertation lies within the area of epileptic seizure detection. Medically refractory epileptic patients suffer from the unawareness of when the next seizure sets in, and what the consequences will be. A wearable device based on uni- or multi-modalities able to detect and ...

  19. MIDA - Optimizing control room performance through multi-modal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-modal interfaces can support the integration of humans with information processing systems and computational devices to maximize the unique qualities that comprise a complex system. In a dynamic environment, such as a nuclear power plant control room, multi-modal interfaces, if designed correctly, can provide complementary interaction between the human operator and the system which can improve overall performance while reducing human error. Developing such interfaces can be difficult for a designer without explicit knowledge of Human Factors Engineering principles. The Multi-modal Interface Design Advisor (MIDA) was developed as a support tool for system designers and developers. It provides design recommendations based upon a combination of Human Factors principles, a knowledge base of historical research, and current interface technologies. MIDA's primary objective is to optimize available multi-modal technologies within a human computer interface in order to balance operator workload with efficient operator performance. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate MIDA and illustrate its value as a design evaluation tool within the nuclear power industry. (authors)

  20. Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, A.; González González, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply mo

  1. Multi-modal locomotion: from animal to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of robotic vehicles that can be found today are bound to operations within a single media (i.e. land, air or water). This is very rarely the case when considering locomotive capabilities in natural systems. Utility for small robots often reflects the exact same problem domain as small animals, hence providing numerous avenues for biological inspiration. This paper begins to investigate the various modes of locomotion adopted by different genus groups in multiple media as an initial attempt to determine the compromise in ability adopted by the animals when achieving multi-modal locomotion. A review of current biologically inspired multi-modal robots is also presented. The primary aim of this research is to lay the foundation for a generation of vehicles capable of multi-modal locomotion, allowing ambulatory abilities in more than one media, surpassing current capabilities. By identifying and understanding when natural systems use specific locomotion mechanisms, when they opt for disparate mechanisms for each mode of locomotion rather than using a synergized singular mechanism, and how this affects their capability in each medium, similar combinations can be used as inspiration for future multi-modal biologically inspired robotic platforms. (topical review)

  2. A Topic Model Approach to Multi-Modal Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Troelsgård, Rasmus; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Calculating similarities between objects defined by many heterogeneous data modalities is an important challenge in many multimedia applications. We use a multi-modal topic model as a basis for defining such a similarity between objects. We propose to compare the resulting similarities from different model realizations using the non-parametric Mantel test. The approach is evaluated on a music dataset.

  3. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique

  4. A bioinspired multi-modal flying and walking robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim to extend the versatility and adaptability of robots in complex environments, a novel multi-modal flying and walking robot is presented. The robot consists of a flying wing with adaptive morphology that can perform both long distance flight and walking in cluttered environments for local exploration. The robot's design is inspired by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, which can perform aerial and terrestrial locomotion with limited trade-offs. Wings’ adaptive morphology allows the robot to modify the shape of its body in order to increase its efficiency during terrestrial locomotion. Furthermore, aerial and terrestrial capabilities are powered by a single locomotor apparatus, therefore it reduces the total complexity and weight of this multi-modal robot. (paper)

  5. Multi-modal Image Registration for Correlative Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Tian; Zach, Christopher; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Correlative microscopy is a methodology combining the functionality of light microscopy with the high resolution of electron microscopy and other microscopy technologies. Image registration for correlative microscopy is quite challenging because it is a multi-modal, multi-scale and multi-dimensional registration problem. In this report, I introduce two methods of image registration for correlative microscopy. The first method is based on fiducials (beads). I generate landmarks from the fiduci...

  6. The origin of human multi-modal communication

    OpenAIRE

    & Levinson, S.; Holler, J.

    2014-01-01

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionar...

  7. A Multi Modal Web Interface for Tasks Supervision and Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, B.; Tomatis, N.; Arras, K.O.; Jensen, B.; Siegwart, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-modal web interface for autonomous mobile robots. The purpose of this interface is twofold. It serves as a tool for task supervision for the researcher and task specification for the end-user. The applications envisaged are typical service scenarios like remote inspection, transportation tasks or tour guiding. Instead of post-processing a huge amount of data gathered and stored during operation, it is very desirable for the developer to monitor specific inter...

  8. A New Technique for Sampling Multi-Modal Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, K J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that multi-modal Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) may be efficiently sampled using an algorithm originally developed for numerical integrations by Monte-Carlo methods. This algorithm can be used to generate an input PDF which can be used as an independence sampler in a Metropolis-Hastings chain to sample otherwise troublesome distributions.Some examples in one two and five dimensions are worked out.

  9. Learning Nonrigid Deformations for Constrained Multi-modal Image Registration

    OpenAIRE

    Onofrey, John A.; Staib, Lawrence H.; Papademetris, Xenophon

    2013-01-01

    We present a new strategy to constrain nonrigid registrations of multi-modal images using a low-dimensional statistical deformation model and test this in registering pre-operative and post-operative images from epilepsy patients. For those patients who may undergo surgical resection for treatment, the current gold-standard to identify regions of seizure involves craniotomy and implantation of intracranial electrodes. To guide surgical resection, surgeons utilize pre-op anat...

  10. Congestion pricing of multi-modal transportation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Joo Moon; Chang-Ho Park

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the pricing and investment decision problem of multi-modal transportation systems in which the congestion is a significant factor in the assessment of system costs. This study approaches this congestion pricing problem with a number of social welfare maximization problems, all of which have the identical structure except financial constraints. One welfare maximization problem examined in this study yields the pricing and investment decision, which can attain the first-be...

  11. Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.; González González, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply more than one modality in conveying his or her message to the environment in which a computer detects and interprets signals from different modalities. We show some naturally arising problems but do ...

  12. Hermite Regression Analysis of Multi-Modal Count Data

    OpenAIRE

    David E. Giles

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the modeling of count data whose empirical distribution is both multi-modal and over-dispersed, and propose the Hermite distribution with covariates introduced through the conditional mean. The model is readily estimated by maximum likelihood, and nests the Poisson model as a special case. The Hermite regression model is applied to data for the number of banking and currency crises in IMF-member countries, and is found to out-perform the Poisson and negative binomial models.

  13. Multi-Modality Registration And Fusion Of Medical Image Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitalisation of health care providing facilities allows US to maximize the usage of digital data from one patient obtained by various modalities. Complex view on to the problem can be achieved from the site of morphology as well as functionality. Multi-modal registration and fusion of medical image data is one of the examples that provides improved insight and allows more precise approach and treatment. (author)

  14. Achromatic approach to phase-based multi-modal imaging with conventional X-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco; Vittoria, Fabio A; Kallon, Gibril; Basta, Dario; Diemoz, Paul C; Vincenzi, Alessandro; Delogu, Pasquale; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-06-15

    Compatibility with polychromatic radiation is an important requirement for an imaging system using conventional rotating anode X-ray sources. With a commercially available energy-resolving single-photon-counting detector we investigated how broadband radiation affects the performance of a multi-modal edge-illumination phase-contrast imaging system. The effect of X-ray energy on phase retrieval is presented, and the achromaticity of the method is experimentally demonstrated. Comparison with simulated measurements integrating over the energy spectrum shows that there is no significant loss of image quality due to the use of polychromatic radiation. This means that, to a good approximation, the imaging system exploits radiation in the same way at all energies typically used in hard-X-ray imaging. PMID:26193618

  15. Coercive Region-level Registration for Multi-modal Images

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Newstadt, Gregory; Simmons, Jeffrey; hero, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    We propose a coercive approach to simultaneously register and segment multi-modal images which share similar spatial structure. Registration is done at the region level to facilitate data fusion while avoiding the need for interpolation. The algorithm performs alternating minimization of an objective function informed by statistical models for pixel values in different modalities. Hypothesis tests are developed to determine whether to refine segmentations by splitting regions. We demonstrate that our approach has significantly better performance than the state-of-the-art registration and segmentation methods on microscopy images.

  16. Multi-modality multi-interface level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil separation is an important process in the oil industry. To make use of the separators efficiently, it is important to know their internal behaviour, and to measure the levels of multi-interfaces between different materials, such as gas-foam, foam-oil, oil-emulsion, emulsion-water and water-solids. A multi-modality multi-interface level instrument is presented, which is based on capacitance and electromagnetic measurements. Some key issues have been addressed, including the effect of salt content on measurement

  17. Current status of multi-modality treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the current status of multi-modality treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma in Japan as part of the campaign entitled Comprehensive Strategy Against Asbestos-related Diseases'', which was funded by the 2006 Special Coordination Fund for Promoting Science and Technology from the Japan Science and Technology Agency. We evaluated cases of extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) for malignant pleural mesothelioma between January 2002 and December 2006. A questionnaire was sent to a total of 69 institutions, and was returned by 61 of them. A total of 171 patients underwent EPP for malignant pleural mesothelioma during the study period. They consisted of 154 males and 17 females, and the age ranged between 14 and 78 with the average of 59. The side of EPP was on the right in 91 and on the left in 80 cases. One postoperative death due to interstitial pneumonia and 6 in-hospital deaths due to tumor recurrence (n=4), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) empyema (n=1), and pulmonary infarction (n=1) were noted. Preoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin was given in 38 patients, and 12 out of 38 underwent postoperative hemithorax radiation therapy. The median survival was 23 months. The present study showed an increase of cases and also improvement of surgical mortality of EPP for malignant pleural mesothelioma in comparison with former studies. However, we still do not have clinical evidence regarding the feasibility of multi-modality treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma. (author)

  18. Proposed Multi-Modal Palm Veins-Face Biometric Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Bahgat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication technology identifies people by their unique biological information. An account holder’s body characteristics or behaviors are registered in a database and then compared with others who may try to access that account to see if the attempt is legitimate. Since veins are internal to the human body, its information is hard to duplicate. Compared with a finger or the back of a hand, a palm has a broader and more complicated vascular pattern and thus contains a wealth of differentiating features for personal identification. However, a single biometric is not sufficient to meet the variety of requirements, including matching performance imposed by several large-scale authentication systems. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of the drawbacks encountered by uni-modal biometric systems by consolidating the evidence presented by multiple biometric traits/sources. This paper proposes a multi-modal authentication technique based on Palm Veins as a personal identifying factor, augmented by face features to increase the accuracy of security recognition. The obtained results point at an increased authentication accuracy.

  19. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  20. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Sun; Maoxiang Lang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. ...

  1. Pellet bed reactor for multi-modal space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of forthcoming space power needs for both civil and military missions indicates that power requirements will be in tens of megawatts. It is envisioned that the electrical power requirements will be two-fold; long-duration low power will be needed for station keeping, communications and/or surveillance, while short-duration high power will be required for pulsed power devices. These power characteristics led to authors to propose a multi-modal space power reactor using a pellet bed design. Characteristics desired for such a multi-megawatt reactor power source are the following: standby, alert and pulsed power modes; high thermal output heat source (around 1000 MWt peak power); long lifetime standby power (10-30 yrs); high temperature output (1500-1750 K); rapid burst power transition; high reliability (>95%); and meets stringent safety requirements. The proposed pellet bed reactor concept is designed to satisfy these characteristics

  2. Discovering Knowledge from Multi-modal Lecture Recordings

    CERN Document Server

    Kannan, Rajkumar

    2010-01-01

    Educational media mining is the process of converting raw media data from educational systems to useful information that can be used to design learning systems, answer research questions and allow personalized learning experiences. Knowledge discovery encompasses a wide range of techniques ranging from database queries to more recent developments in machine learning and language technology. Educational media mining techniques are now being used in IT Services research worldwide. Multi-modal Lecture Recordings is one of the important types of educational media and this paper explores the research challenges for mining lecture recordings for the efficient personalized learning experiences. Keywords: Educational Media Mining; Lecture Recordings, Multimodal Information System, Personalized Learning; Online Course Ware; Skills and Competences;

  3. Exploring Multi-Modal Distributions with Nested Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Feroz, F

    2013-01-01

    In performing a Bayesian analysis, two difficult problems often emerge. First, in estimating the parameters of some model for the data, the resulting posterior distribution may be multi-modal or exhibit pronounced (curving) degeneracies. Secondly, in selecting between a set of competing models, calculation of the Bayesian evidence for each model is computationally expensive using existing methods such as thermodynamic integration. Nested Sampling is a Monte Carlo method targeted at the efficient calculation of the evidence, but also produces posterior inferences as a by-product and therefore provides means to carry out parameter estimation as well as model selection. The main challenge in implementing Nested Sampling is to sample from a constrained probability distribution. One possible solution to this problem is provided by the Galilean Monte Carlo (GMC) algorithm. We show results of applying Nested Sampling with GMC to some problems which have proven very difficult for standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MC...

  4. Plasmonic Gold Nanostars for Multi-Modality Sensing and Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanostars (AuNSs are unique systems that can provide a novel multifunctional nanoplatform for molecular sensing and diagnostics. The plasmonic absorption band of AuNSs can be tuned to the near infrared spectral range, often referred to as the “tissue optical window”, where light exhibits minimal absorption and deep penetration in tissue. AuNSs have been applied for detecting disease biomarkers and for biomedical imaging using multi-modality methods including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, two-photon photoluminescence (TPL, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and X-ray computer tomography (CT imaging. In this paper, we provide an overview of the recent development of plasmonic AuNSs in our laboratory for biomedical applications and highlight their potential for future translational medicine as a multifunctional nanoplatform.

  5. Multi-modal intervention improved oral intake in hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, M; Beermann, T; Mortensen, M N;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good nutritional practice (GNP) includes screening, nutrition plan and monitoring, and is mandatory for targeted treatment of malnourished patients in hospital. AIMS: To optimize energy- and protein-intake in patients at nutritional risk and to improve GNP in a hospital setting. METHODS...... recall, patient interviews and staff questionnaire before and after the intervention. Interventions: Based on pre-measurements, nutrition support teams in each department made targeted action plans, supervised by an expert team. Education, diagnose-specific nutrition plans, improved menus and eating...... improved from 56% to 77% (p < 0.001), nutrition plans from 21% to 56% (p < 0.0001), and monitoring food intake from 29% to 58% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of energy and protein as well as GNP improved using a multi-modal top-down and bottom-up approach....

  6. Advances in image-guided radiation therapy-the role of PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), the greatest challenge remains target delineation, as the opportunity to maximize cures while simultaneously decreasing radiation dose to the surrounding normal tissues is to be realized. Over the last 2 decades, technological advances in radiographic imaging, biochemistry, and molecular biology have played an increasing role in radiation treatment planning, delivery, and evaluation of response. Previously, fluoroscopy formed the basis of radiation treatment planning. Beginning in the late 1980s, computed tomography (CT) has become the basis for modern radiation treatment planning and delivery, coincident with the rise of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Additionally, multi-modality anatomic imaging registration was the solution pursued to augment delineation of tumors and surrounding structures on CT-based treatment planning. Although these imaging modalities provide the customary anatomic details necessary for radiation treatment planning, they have limitations, including difficulty with identification of small tumor deposits, tumor extension, and distinction from scar tissues. To overcome these limitations, PET and, more recently, PET-CT have been innovative regarding the extent of disease appraisal, target delineation in the treatment planning, and assessment of therapy response. We review the role of functional imaging in IGRT as it reassures transformations on the field of radiation oncology. As we move toward the era of IGRT, the use of multi-modality imaging fusion, and the introduction of more sensitive and specific PET-CT tracers may further assist target definition. Furthermore, the potential to predict early outcome or even detect early recurrence of tumor, may allow for the tailoring of intervention in cancer patients. The convergence of a biological target volume, and perhaps multi-tracer tumor, molecular, and genetic profile tumors will probably be vital in cancer treatment

  7. Non-rigid multi-modal registration on the GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Christoph; Guetter, Christoph; Xu, Chenyang; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2007-03-01

    Non-rigid multi-modal registration of images/volumes is becoming increasingly necessary in many medical settings. While efficient registration algorithms have been published, the speed of the solutions is a problem in clinical applications. Harnessing the computational power of graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose computations has become increasingly popular in order to speed up algorithms further, but the algorithms have to be adapted to the data-parallel, streaming model of the GPU. This paper describes the implementation of a non-rigid, multi-modal registration using mutual information and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between observed and learned joint intensity distributions. The entire registration process is implemented on the GPU, including a GPU-friendly computation of two-dimensional histograms using vertex texture fetches as well as an implementation of recursive Gaussian filtering on the GPU. Since the computation is performed on the GPU, interactive visualization of the registration process can be done without bus transfer between main memory and video memory. This allows the user to observe the registration process and to evaluate the result more easily. Two hybrid approaches distributing the computation between the GPU and CPU are discussed. The first approach uses the CPU for lower resolutions and the GPU for higher resolutions, the second approach uses the GPU to compute a first approximation to the registration that is used as starting point for registration on the CPU using double-precision. The results of the CPU implementation are compared to the different approaches using the GPU regarding speed as well as image quality. The GPU performs up to 5 times faster per iteration than the CPU implementation.

  8. Automatic quantification of multi-modal rigid registration accuracy using feature detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauler, F.; Furtado, H.; Jurisic, M.; Polanec, S. H.; Spick, C.; Laprie, A.; Nestle, U.; Sabatini, U.; Birkfellner, W.

    2016-07-01

    In radiotherapy, the use of multi-modal images can improve tumor and target volume delineation. Images acquired at different times by different modalities need to be aligned into a single coordinate system by 3D/3D registration. State of the art methods for validation of registration are visual inspection by experts and fiducial-based evaluation. Visual inspection is a qualitative, subjective measure, while fiducial markers sometimes suffer from limited clinical acceptance. In this paper we present an automatic, non-invasive method for assessing the quality of intensity-based multi-modal rigid registration using feature detectors. After registration, interest points are identified on both image data sets using either speeded-up robust features or Harris feature detectors. The quality of the registration is defined by the mean Euclidean distance between matching interest point pairs. The method was evaluated on three multi-modal datasets: an ex vivo porcine skull (CT, CBCT, MR), seven in vivo brain cases (CT, MR) and 25 in vivo lung cases (CT, CBCT). Both a qualitative (visual inspection by radiation oncologist) and a quantitative (mean target registration error—mTRE—based on selected markers) method were employed. In the porcine skull dataset, the manual and Harris detectors give comparable results but both overestimated the gold standard mTRE based on fiducial markers. For instance, for CT-MR-T1 registration, the mTREman (based on manually annotated landmarks) was 2.2 mm whereas mTREHarris (based on landmarks found by the Harris detector) was 4.1 mm, and mTRESURF (based on landmarks found by the SURF detector) was 8 mm. In lung cases, the difference between mTREman and mTREHarris was less than 1 mm, while the difference between mTREman and mTRESURF was up to 3 mm. The Harris detector performed better than the SURF detector with a resulting estimated registration error close to the gold standard. Therefore the Harris detector was shown to be the more suitable

  9. Improving protein secondary structure prediction using a multi-modal BP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wu; Sui, Haifeng; Yang, Bingru; Qian, Wenbin

    2011-10-01

    Methods for predicting protein secondary structures provide information that is useful both in ab initio structure prediction and as additional restraints for fold recognition algorithms. Secondary structure predictions may also be used to guide the design of site directed mutagenesis studies, and to locate potential functionally important residues. In this article, we propose a multi-modal back propagation neural network (MMBP) method for predicting protein secondary structures. Using a Knowledge Discovery Theory based on Inner Cognitive Mechanism (KDTICM) method, we have constructed a compound pyramid model (CPM), which is composed of three layers of intelligent interface that integrate multi-modal back propagation neural network (MMBP), mixed-modal SVM (MMS), modified Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD(⁎)) process and so on. The CPM method is both an integrated web server and a standalone application that exploits recent advancements in knowledge discovery and machine learning to perform very accurate protein secondary structure predictions. Using a non-redundant test dataset of 256 proteins from RCASP256, the CPM method achieves an average Q(3) score of 86.13% (SOV99=84.66%). Extensive testing indicates that this is significantly better than any other method currently available. Assessments using RS126 and CB513 datasets indicate that the CPM method can achieve average Q(3) score approaching 83.99% (SOV99=80.25%) and 85.58% (SOV99=81.15%). By using both sequence and structure databases and by exploiting the latest techniques in machine learning it is possible to routinely predict protein secondary structure with an accuracy well above 80%. A program and web server, called CPM, which performs these secondary structure predictions, is accessible at http://kdd.ustb.edu.cn/protein_Web/. PMID:21880310

  10. Multi-modal vertebrae recognition using Transformed Deep Convolution Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunliang; Landis, Mark; Laidley, David T; Kornecki, Anat; Lum, Andrea; Li, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    Automatic vertebra recognition, including the identification of vertebra locations and naming in multiple image modalities, are highly demanded in spinal clinical diagnoses where large amount of imaging data from various of modalities are frequently and interchangeably used. However, the recognition is challenging due to the variations of MR/CT appearances or shape/pose of the vertebrae. In this paper, we propose a method for multi-modal vertebra recognition using a novel deep learning architecture called Transformed Deep Convolution Network (TDCN). This new architecture can unsupervisely fuse image features from different modalities and automatically rectify the pose of vertebra. The fusion of MR and CT image features improves the discriminativity of feature representation and enhances the invariance of the vertebra pattern, which allows us to automatically process images from different contrast, resolution, protocols, even with different sizes and orientations. The feature fusion and pose rectification are naturally incorporated in a multi-layer deep learning network. Experiment results show that our method outperforms existing detection methods and provides a fully automatic location+naming+pose recognition for routine clinical practice. PMID:27104497

  11. Ex-vivo multi-modal microscopy of healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Edgar; Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Castonguay, Alexandre; Lesage, Frédéric; González, Francisco Javier

    2014-09-01

    The thorough characterization of skin samples is a critical step in investigating dermatological diseases. The combination of depth-sensitive anatomical imaging with molecular imaging has the potential to provide vast information about the skin. In this proof-of-concept work we present high-resolution mosaic images of skin biopsies using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) manually co-registered with standard microscopy, bi-dimensional Raman spectral mapping and fluorescence imaging. A human breast skin sample, embedded in paraffin, was imaged with a swept-source OCT system at 1310 nm. Individual OCT volumes were acquired in fully automated fashion in order to obtain a large field-of-view at high resolution (~10μm). Based on anatomical features, the other three modalities were manually co-registered to the projected OCT volume, using an affine transformation. A drawback is the manual co-registration, which may limit the utility of this method. However, the results indicate that multiple imaging modalities provide complementary information about the sample. This pilot study suggests that multi-modal microscopy may be a valuable tool in the characterization of skin biopsies.

  12. Multi-modality systems for molecular tomographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingze; Bai, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In vivo small animal imaging is a cornerstone in the study of human diseases by providing important clues on the pathogenesis, progression and treatment of many disorders. Molecular tomographic imaging can probe complex biologic interactions dynamically and to study diseases and treatment responses over time in the same animal. Current imaging technique including microCT, microMRI, microPET, microSPECT, microUS, BLT and FMT has its own advantages and applications, however, none of them can provide structural, functional and molecular information in one context. Multi-modality imaging, which utilizes the strengths of different modalities to provide a complete understanding of the object under investigation, emerges as an important alternative in small animal imaging. This article is to introduce the latest development of multimodality systems for small animal tomographic imaging. After a systematic review of imaging principles, systems and commerical products for each stand-alone method, we introduce some multimodality strategies in the latest years. In particular, two dual-modality systems, i.e. FMT-CT and FMT-PET are presented in detail. The end of this article concludes that though most multimodality systems are still in a laboratory research stage, they will surely undergo deep development and wide application in the near future.

  13. Recent advances in radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technical advances, including megavoltage radiation therapy machines, computerized treatment planning systems, and computed tomography scans, have affected veterinary radiation oncology. his equipment permits far better tumor definition and dose delivery than was possible in the past. In addition, newer anesthetic agents, more dedicated equipment, and willingness of owners to spend more money for treatment have permitted fractionation schedules that can better exploit advances in radiobiology. The challenge now is to use radiobiologic and tumor biology information to make the most effective use of radiation therapy. More collaboration among surgical, medical, and radiation oncologists should result in more effective use of combined-modality treatment for tumors. This article focuses on the recent technical advances and on application of these advances to specific tumor types

  14. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  15. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-05-02

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  16. Making Faces - State-Space Models Applied to Multi-Modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2005-01-01

    The two main focus areas of this thesis are State-Space Models and multi modal signal processing. The general State-Space Model is investigated and an addition to the class of sequential sampling methods is proposed. This new algorithm is denoted as the Parzen Particle Filter. Furthermore, the...... optimizer can be applied to speed up convergence. The linear version of the State-Space Model, the Kalman Filter, is applied to multi modal signal processing. It is demonstrated how a State-Space Model can be used to map from speech to lip movements. Besides the State-Space Model and the multi modal...

  17. A True Multi-modality Approach for High Resolution Optical Imaging: Photo-Magnetic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Alex T.; Ha, Seunghoon; Nouizi, Farouk; Thayer, David; Lin, Yuting; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging leverages the competitive advantage of different imaging systems to improve the overall resolution and quantitative accuracy. Our new technique, Photo-Magnetic Imaging (PMI) is one of these true multi-modality imaging approaches, which can provide quantitative optical absorption map at MRI spatial resolution. PMI uses laser light to illuminate tissue and elevate its temperature while utilizing MR thermometry to measure the laser-induced temperature variation with high s...

  18. Bi-objective optimization for multi-modal transportation routing planning problem based on Pareto optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of study is to solve the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem that aims to select an optimal route to move a consignment of goods from its origin to its destination through the multi-modal transportation network. And the optimization is from two viewpoints including cost and time. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, a bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. Minimizing the total transportation cost and the total transportation time are set as the optimization objectives of the model. In order to balance the benefit between the two objectives, Pareto optimality is utilized to solve the model by gaining its Pareto frontier. The Pareto frontier of the model can provide the multi-modal transportation operator (MTO and customers with better decision support and it is gained by the normalized normal constraint method. Then, an experimental case study is designed to verify the feasibility of the model and Pareto optimality by using the mathematical programming software Lingo. Finally, the sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case. Findings: The calculation results indicate that the proposed model and Pareto optimality have good performance in dealing with the bi-objective optimization. The sensitivity analysis also shows the influence of the variation of the demand and supply on the multi-modal transportation organization clearly. Therefore, this method can be further promoted to the practice. Originality/value: A bi-objective mixed integer linear programming model is proposed to optimize the multi-modal transportation routing planning problem. The Pareto frontier based sensitivity analysis of the demand and supply in the multi-modal transportation organization is performed based on the designed case.

  19. A multi-modality concept for radiotherapy planning with imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported multi-modality concept of radiotherapy planning in the LAN can be realised in any hospital with standard equipment, although in some cases by way of auxiliary configurations. A software is currently developed as a tool for reducing the entire planning work. The heart of any radiotherapy planning is the therapy simulator, which has to be abreast with the requirements of modern radiotherapy. Integration of tomograpy, digitalisation, and electronic data processing has added important modalities to therapy planning which allow more precise target volume definition, and better biophysical planning. This is what is needed in order to achieve well differentiated radiotherapy for treatment of the manifold tumors, and the quality standards expected by the supervisory quality assurance regime and the population. At present, the CT data still are transferred indirect, on storage media, to the EDP processing system of the radiotherapy planning system. Based on the tomographic slices given by the imaging data, the contours and technical problem solutions are derived automatically, either for multi-field radiotherapy or moving field irradiation, depending on the anatomy or the targets to be protected from ionizing radiation. (orig./VHE)

  20. Medical case-based retrieval: integrating query MeSH terms for query-adaptive multi-modal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco de Herrera, Alba G.; Foncubierta-Rodríguez, Antonio; Müller, Henning

    2015-03-01

    Advances in medical knowledge give clinicians more objective information for a diagnosis. Therefore, there is an increasing need for bibliographic search engines that can provide services helping to facilitate faster information search. The ImageCLEFmed benchmark proposes a medical case-based retrieval task. This task aims at retrieving articles from the biomedical literature that are relevant for differential diagnosis of query cases including a textual description and several images. In the context of this campaign many approaches have been investigated showing that the fusion of visual and text information can improve the precision of the retrieval. However, fusion does not always lead to better results. In this paper, a new query-adaptive fusion criterion to decide when to use multi-modal (text and visual) or only text approaches is presented. The proposed method integrates text information contained in MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms extracted and visual features of the images to find synonym relations between them. Given a text query, the query-adaptive fusion criterion decides when it is suitable to also use visual information for the retrieval. Results show that this approach can decide if a text or multi{modal approach should be used with 77.15% of accuracy.

  1. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Dustin R.; Derek W. Austin

    2015-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefi...

  2. Clustered iterative stochastic ensemble method for multi-modal calibration of subsurface flow models

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2013-05-01

    A novel multi-modal parameter estimation algorithm is introduced. Parameter estimation is an ill-posed inverse problem that might admit many different solutions. This is attributed to the limited amount of measured data used to constrain the inverse problem. The proposed multi-modal model calibration algorithm uses an iterative stochastic ensemble method (ISEM) for parameter estimation. ISEM employs an ensemble of directional derivatives within a Gauss-Newton iteration for nonlinear parameter estimation. ISEM is augmented with a clustering step based on k-means algorithm to form sub-ensembles. These sub-ensembles are used to explore different parts of the search space. Clusters are updated at regular intervals of the algorithm to allow merging of close clusters approaching the same local minima. Numerical testing demonstrates the potential of the proposed algorithm in dealing with multi-modal nonlinear parameter estimation for subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Common and uncommon vascular rings and slings: a multi-modality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular rings and pulmonary slings are congenital anomalies of the aortic arch/great vessels and pulmonary arteries, respectively, that commonly present early during infancy and childhood with respiratory and/or feeding difficulties. The diagnosis of these conditions frequently utilizes a multi-modality radiological approach, commonly utilizing some combination of radiography, esophagography, CT angiography and MR angiography. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the radiological findings of common and uncommon vascular rings and pulmonary slings in children using a state-of-the-art multi-modality imaging approach. (orig.)

  4. Common and uncommon vascular rings and slings: a multi-modality review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Agarwal, Prachi P.; Hernandez, Ramiro J.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Attili, Anil K. [University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Lexington, KY (United States); Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Vascular rings and pulmonary slings are congenital anomalies of the aortic arch/great vessels and pulmonary arteries, respectively, that commonly present early during infancy and childhood with respiratory and/or feeding difficulties. The diagnosis of these conditions frequently utilizes a multi-modality radiological approach, commonly utilizing some combination of radiography, esophagography, CT angiography and MR angiography. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the radiological findings of common and uncommon vascular rings and pulmonary slings in children using a state-of-the-art multi-modality imaging approach. (orig.)

  5. Multi-Modal, Multi-Touch Interaction with Maps in Disaster Management Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paelke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-touch interaction has become popular in recent years and impressive advances in technology have been demonstrated, with the presentation of digital maps as a common presentation scenario. However, most existing systems are really technology demonstrators and have not been designed with real applications in mind. A critical factor in the management of disaster situations is the access to current and reliable data. New sensors and data acquisition platforms (e.g. satellites, UAVs, mobile sensor networks have improved the supply of spatial data tremendously. However, in many cases this data is not well integrated into current crisis management systems and the capabilities to analyze and use it lag behind sensor capabilities. Therefore, it is essential to develop techniques that allow the effective organization, use and management of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of data sources. Standard user interfaces are not well suited to provide this information to crisis managers. Especially in dynamic situations conventional cartographic displays and mouse based interaction techniques fail to address the need to review a situation rapidly and act on it as a team. The development of novel interaction techniques like multi-touch and tangible interaction in combination with large displays provides a promising base technology to provide crisis managers with an adequate overview of the situation and to share relevant information with other stakeholders in a collaborative setting. However, design expertise on the use of such techniques in interfaces for real-world applications is still very sparse. In this paper we report on interdisciplinary research with a user and application centric focus to establish real-world requirements, to design new multi-modal mapping interfaces, and to validate them in disaster management applications. Initial results show that tangible and pen-based interaction are well suited to provide an intuitive and visible way to

  6. Predicting the Attitude Flow in Dialogue Based on Multi-Modal Speech Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter; Allwood, Jens

    We present our experiments on attitude detection based on annotated multi-modal dialogue data1. Our long-term goal is to establish a computational model able to predict the attitudinal patterns in humanhuman dialogue. We believe, such prediction algorithms are useful tools in the pursuit of reali...

  7. Multi-modal affect induction for affective brain-computer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Broek, E.L. van den; Brouwer, A.M.; Nijboer, F.; Wouwe, N.C. van; Heylen, D.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable applications of affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCI) in realistic, multi-modal environments require a detailed understanding of the processes involved in emotions. To explore the modalityspecific nature of affective responses, we studied neurophysiological responses (i.e., EEG) of 24

  8. Multi-modal virtual environment research at Armstrong Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    One mission of the Paul M. Fitts Human Engineering Division of Armstrong Laboratory is to improve the user interface for complex systems through user-centered exploratory development and research activities. In support of this goal, many current projects attempt to advance and exploit user-interface concepts made possible by virtual reality (VR) technologies. Virtual environments may be used as a general purpose interface medium, an alternative display/control method, a data visualization and analysis tool, or a graphically based performance assessment tool. An overview is given of research projects within the division on prototype interface hardware/software development, integrated interface concept development, interface design and evaluation tool development, and user and mission performance evaluation tool development.

  9. Distributed Detection in Sensor Networks with Limited Range Multi-Modal Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Ermis, E

    2008-01-01

    We consider a multi-object detection problem over a sensor network (SNET) with limited range multi-modal sensors. Limited range sensing environment arises in a sensing field prone to signal attenuation and path losses. The general problem complements the widely considered decentralized detection problem where all sensors observe the same object. In this paper we develop a distributed detection approach based on recent development of the false discovery rate (FDR) and the associated BH test procedure. The BH procedure is based on rank ordering of scalar test statistics. We first develop scalar test statistics for multidimensional data to handle multi-modal sensor observations and establish its optimality in terms of the BH procedure. We then propose a distributed algorithm in the ideal case of infinite attenuation for identification of sensors that are in the immediate vicinity of an object. We demonstrate communication message scalability to large SNETs by showing that the upper bound on the communication mes...

  10. Multi-modal contributions to detoxification of acute pharmacotoxicity by a triglyceride micro-emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Fettiplace, Michael R.; Lis, Kinga; Ripper, Richard; Kowal, Katarzyna; Pichurko, Adrian; Vitello, Dominic; Rubinstein, Israel; Schwartz, David; Akpa, Belinda S.; Weinberg, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Triglyceride micro-emulsions such as Intralipid® have been used to reverse cardiac toxicity induced by a number of drugs but reservations about their broad-spectrum applicability remain because of the poorly understood mechanism of action. Herein we report an integrated mechanism of reversal of bupivacaine toxicity that includes both transient drug scavenging and a cardiotonic effect that couple to accelerate movement of the toxin away from sites of toxicity. We thus propose a multi-modal the...

  11. A method of image registration for small animal, multi-modality imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Patrick L; Stout, David B.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Chatziioannou, Arion F

    2006-01-01

    Many research institutions have a full suite of preclinical tomographic scanners to answer biomedical questions in vivo. Routine multi-modality imaging requires robust registration of images generated by various tomographs. We have implemented a hardware registration method for preclinical imaging that is similar to that used in the combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scanners in the clinic. We designed an imaging chamber which can be rigidly and reproducibly ...

  12. Multi-Modality Medical Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Analysis and Quality Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-modality medical image fusion has more and more important applications in medical image analysisand understanding. In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-resolution method based on wavelet pyramid to fusemedical images from different modalities such as PET-MRI and CT-MRI. In particular, we evaluate the different fusionresults when applying different selection rules and obtain optimum combination of fusion parameters.

  13. Real-time multi-modality imaging of Glioblastoma tumor resection and recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Hingtgen, Shawn; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Farrar, Christian; Duebgen, Matthias; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Bhere, Deepak; Shah, Khalid

    2012-01-01

    The lack of relevant pre-clinical animal models incorporating the clinical scenario of GBM resection and recurrence has contributed significantly to the inability to successfully treat the devastating brain tumor Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A multi-modality imaging approach that allows real-time assessment of tumor resection during surgery and non-invasive detection of post-operative tumor volumes is urgently needed. In this study, we report the development and implementation of an optical...

  14. Generating multi-modal robot behavior based on a virtual agent framework

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Maha; Kopp, Stefan; Wachsmuth, Ipke; Joublin, Frank

    2010-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the attempt to build sociable, communicative humanoid robots is to endow them with expressive non-verbal behaviors along with speech. One such behavior is gesture, frequently used by human speakers to emphasize, supplement, or even complement what they express in speech. The generation of speech-accompanying robot gesture together with an evaluation of the effects of this multi-modal behavior is still largely unexplored. We present an approach to systematically add...

  15. Multi-modal Sensor Registration for Vehicle Perception via Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Giering, Michael; Venugopalan, Vivek; Reddy, Kishore

    2014-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously leverage multiple modes of sensor information is critical for perception of an automated vehicle's physical surroundings. Spatio-temporal alignment of registration of the incoming information is often a prerequisite to analyzing the fused data. The persistence and reliability of multi-modal registration is therefore the key to the stability of decision support systems ingesting the fused information. LiDAR-video systems like on those many driverless cars are a co...

  16. A computer vision integration model for a multi-modal cognitive system

    OpenAIRE

    Vrecko A.; Skocaj D.; Hawes N.; Leonardis A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a general method for integrating visual components into a multi-modal cognitive system. The integration is very generic and can combine an arbitrary set of modalities. We illustrate our integration approach with a specific instantiation of the architecture schema that focuses on integration of vision and language: a cognitive system able to collaborate with a human, learn and display some understanding of its surroundings. As examples of cross-modal interaction we describe mechanis...

  17. Multi-modal gesture recognition using integrated model of motion, audio and video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutsu, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Takaki; Obara, Junya; Kusajima, Ikuo; Takeichi, Kazunari; Takano, Wataru; Nakamura, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  18. Multi-modal Gesture Recognition using Integrated Model of Motion, Audio and Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOUTSU Yusuke; KOBAYASHI Takaki; OBARA Junya; KUSAJIMAIkuo; TAKEICHI Kazunari; TAKANO Wataru; NAKAMURA Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Gesture recognition is used in many practical applications such as human-robot interaction, medical rehabilitation and sign language. With increasing motion sensor development, multiple data sources have become available, which leads to the rise of multi-modal gesture recognition. Since our previous approach to gesture recognition depends on a unimodal system, it is difficult to classify similar motion patterns. In order to solve this problem, a novel approach which integrates motion, audio and video models is proposed by using dataset captured by Kinect. The proposed system can recognize observed gestures by using three models. Recognition results of three models are integrated by using the proposed framework and the output becomes the final result. The motion and audio models are learned by using Hidden Markov Model. Random Forest which is the video classifier is used to learn the video model. In the experiments to test the performances of the proposed system, the motion and audio models most suitable for gesture recognition are chosen by varying feature vectors and learning methods. Additionally, the unimodal and multi-modal models are compared with respect to recognition accuracy. All the experiments are conducted on dataset provided by the competition organizer of MMGRC, which is a workshop for Multi-Modal Gesture Recognition Challenge. The comparison results show that the multi-modal model composed of three models scores the highest recognition rate. This improvement of recognition accuracy means that the complementary relationship among three models improves the accuracy of gesture recognition. The proposed system provides the application technology to understand human actions of daily life more precisely.

  19. A novel technique to incorporate structural prior information into multi-modal tomographic reconstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kazantsev; Ourselin, S.; Hutton, B. F.; Dobson, K.J.; Kaestner, A. P.; Lionheart, W R B; Withers, P. J.; Lee, P. D.; Arridge, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid expansion of multi-modal imaging techniques in tomography. In biomedical imaging, patients are now regularly imaged using both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and x-ray computed tomography (CT), or using both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In non-destructive testing of materials both neutron CT (NCT) and x-ray CT are widely applied to investigate the inner structure of material or track the dynamics of physical proc...

  20. Discriminative multi-task feature selection for multi-modality classification of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingting; Zu, Chen; Jie, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, multi-task based feature selection methods have been used in multi-modality based classification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in traditional multi-task feature selection methods, some useful discriminative information among subjects is usually not well mined for further improving the subsequent classification performance. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a discriminative multitask feature selection method to select the most discriminative features for multi-modality based classification of AD/MCI. Specifically, for each modality, we train a linear regression model using the corresponding modality of data, and further enforce the group-sparsity regularization on weights of those regression models for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. Furthermore, we propose a discriminative regularization term based on the intra-class and inter-class Laplacian matrices to better use the discriminative information among subjects. To evaluate our proposed method, we perform extensive experiments on 202 subjects, including 51 AD patients, 99 MCI patients, and 52 healthy controls (HC), from the baseline MRI and FDG-PET image data of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The experimental results show that our proposed method not only improves the classification performance, but also has potential to discover the disease-related biomarkers useful for diagnosis of disease, along with the comparison to several state-of-the-art methods for multi-modality based AD/MCI classification. PMID:26311394

  1. A Multi-Modal Face Recognition Method Using Complete Local Derivative Patterns and Depth Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Yin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP. It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP based features.

  2. A multi-modal face recognition method using complete local derivative patterns and depth maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouyi; Dai, Xu; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP). It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP) based features. PMID:25333290

  3. Identification of multi-modal plasma responses to applied magnetic perturbations using the plasma reluctance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nikolas C.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Park, Jong-Kyu; Nazikian, Raffi

    2016-05-01

    Using the plasma reluctance, the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code is able to efficiently identify the structure of multi-modal magnetic plasma response measurements and the corresponding impact on plasma performance in the DIII-D tokamak. Recent experiments demonstrated that multiple kink modes of comparable amplitudes can be driven by applied nonaxisymmetric fields with toroidal mode number n = 2. This multi-modal response is in good agreement with ideal magnetohydrodynamic models, but detailed decompositions presented here show that the mode structures are not fully described by either the least stable modes or the resonant plasma response. This work identifies the measured response fields as the first eigenmodes of the plasma reluctance, enabling clear diagnosis of the plasma modes and their impact on performance from external sensors. The reluctance shows, for example, how very stable modes compose a significant portion of the multi-modal plasma response field and that these stable modes drive significant resonant current. This work is an overview of the first experimental applications using the reluctance to interpret the measured response and relate it to multifaceted physics, aimed towards providing the foundation of understanding needed to optimize nonaxisymmetric fields for independent control of stability and transport.

  4. Discriminative multi-task feature selection for multi-modality classification of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tingting; Zu, Chen; Jie, Biao; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-09-01

    Recently, multi-task based feature selection methods have been used in multi-modality based classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in traditional multi-task feature selection methods, some useful discriminative information among subjects is usually not well mined for further improving the subsequent classification performance. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a discriminative multi-task feature selection method to select the most discriminative features for multi-modality based classification of AD/MCI. Specifically, for each modality, we train a linear regression model using the corresponding modality of data, and further enforce the group-sparsity regularization on weights of those regression models for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. Furthermore, we propose a discriminative regularization term based on the intra-class and inter-class Laplacian matrices to better use the discriminative information among subjects. To evaluate our proposed method, we perform extensive experiments on 202 subjects, including 51 AD patients, 99 MCI patients, and 52 healthy controls (HC), from the baseline MRI and FDG-PET image data of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The experimental results show that our proposed method not only improves the classification performance, but also has potential to discover the disease-related biomarkers useful for diagnosis of disease, along with the comparison to several state-of-the-art methods for multi-modality based AD/MCI classification. PMID:26311394

  5. Automatic and Accurate Conflation of Different Road-Network Vector Data towards Multi-Modal Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid improvement of geospatial data acquisition and processing techniques, a variety of geospatial databases from public or private organizations have become available. Quite often, one dataset may be superior to other datasets in one, but not all aspects. In Germany, for instance, there were three major road network vector data, viz. Tele Atlas (which is now “TOMTOM”, NAVTEQ (which is now “here”, and ATKIS. However, none of them was qualified for the purpose of multi-modal navigation (e.g., driving + walking: Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ consist of comprehensive routing-relevant information, but many pedestrian ways are missing; ATKIS covers more pedestrian areas but the road objects are not fully attributed. To satisfy the requirements of multi-modal navigation, an automatic approach has been proposed to conflate different road networks together, which involves five routines: (a road-network matching between datasets; (b identification of the pedestrian ways; (c geometric transformation to eliminate geometric inconsistency; (d topologic remodeling of the conflated road network; and (e error checking and correction. The proposed approach demonstrates high performance in a number of large test areas and therefore has been successfully utilized for the real-world data production in the whole region of Germany. As a result, the conflated road network allows the multi-modal navigation of “driving + walking”.

  6. A Multi-Modal Unscented Kalman Filter for Inference of Aircraft Position and Taxi Mode from Surface Surveillance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Khadilkar, Harshad Dilip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a multi-modal unscented Kalman lter developed for estimation of aircraft position, velocity and heading from noisy surface surveillance data. The raw data is composed of tracks generated by the Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model-X at Boston Logan International Airport, and is obtained from the Runway Status Lights system. The multi-modal lter formulation facilitates estimation of aircraft taxi mode, described by di erent acceleration and turn rate values, in addition to ...

  7. Research on Satellite Fault Diagnosis and Prediction Using Multi-modal Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangTianshe; SunYanhong; CaoYuping

    2004-01-01

    Diagnosis and prediction of satellite fault are more difficult than that of other equipment due to the complex structure of satellites and the presence of muhi-excite sources of satellite faults. Generally, one kind of reasoning model can only diagnose and predict one kind of satellite faults. In this paper the author introduces an application of a new method using multi-modal reasoning to diagnose and predict satellite faults. The method has been used in the development of knowledge-based satellite fault diagnosis and recovery system (KSFDRS) successfully. It is shown that the method is effective.

  8. On the sensitivity of a hollow sphere as a multi-modal resonant gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubath, F [KITP, Kohn Hall, UCSB CA 93106 (United States); Extermann, J [GAP-Biophotonics, Universite de Geneve, 20 rue de l' Ecole de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Gottardi, L [SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-05-07

    We present a numerical analysis to simulate the response of a spherical resonant gravitational wave detector and to compute its sensitivity. Under the assumption of optimal filtering, we work out the sensitivity curve for a sphere first taking into account only a single transducer, and then using a coherent analysis of the whole set of transducers. We use our model for computing the sensitivity and therefore compare different designs of spherical detectors. In particular, we present the case of 1 m radius bulk and hollow spheres equipped with transducers in a TIGA configuration, and we explore the sensitivity of a hollow sphere as a multi-modal detector.

  9. Using Multi-Modal 3D Contours and Their Relations for Vision and Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baseski, Emre; Pugeault, Nicolas; Kalkan, Sinan;

    2010-01-01

    . We show the potential of reasoning with global entities in the context of visual scene analysis for driver assistance, depth prediction, robotic grasping and grasp learning. We argue that, such 3D global reasoning processes complement widely-used 2D local approaches such as bag-of-features since 3D......In this work, we make use of 3D contours and relations between them (namely, coplanarity, cocolority, distance and angle) for four different applications in the area of computer vision and vision-based robotics. Our multi-modal contour representation covers both geometric and appearance information...... uncertainty associated with the features, relations, and their applicability in a given context....

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, I.; Kacem, N.; Bouhaddi, N.; Bouazizi, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of magnetically coupled beams for multi-modal vibration energy harvesting. A multi-physics model for the proposed device is developed taking into account geometric and magnetic nonlinearities. The coupled nonlinear equations of motion are solved using the Galerkin discretization coupled with the harmonic balance method and the asymptotic numerical method. Several numerical simulations have been performed showing that the expected performances of the proposed vibration energy harvester are significantly promising with up to 130 % in term of bandwidth and up to 60 μWcm-3g-2 in term of normalized harvested power.

  11. Multi-Modal Imaging with a Toolbox of Influenza AReporter Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Tran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reporter viruses are useful probes for studying multiple stages of the viral life cycle. Here we describe an expanded toolbox of fluorescent and bioluminescent influenza A reporter viruses. The enhanced utility of these tools enabled kinetic studies of viral attachment, infection, and co-infection. Multi-modal bioluminescence and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET/CT imaging of infected animals revealed that antiviral treatment reduced viral load, dissemination, and inflammation. These new technologies and applications will dramatically accelerate in vitro and in vivo influenza virus studies.

  12. Data Processing And Machine Learning Methods For Multi-Modal Operator State Classification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Tristan A.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to a set of common signal processing learning methods that may be used in the software portion of a functional crew state monitoring system. This includes overviews of both the theory of the methods involved, as well as examples of implementation. Practical considerations are discussed for implementing modular, flexible, and scalable processing and classification software for a multi-modal, multi-channel monitoring system. Example source code is also given for all of the discussed processing and classification methods.

  13. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fullerton, G; Goins, B [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  14. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  15. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  16. An Evaluation of the Pedestrian Classification in a Multi-Domain Multi-Modality Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Miron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR and modalities (intensity, depth and motion. In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians in both FIR and visible images, but the methods are difficult to compare, because either the datasets are not publicly available or they do not offer a comparison between the two domains. Our two primary contributions are the following: (1 we propose a public dataset, named RIFIR , containing both FIR and visible images collected in an urban environment from a moving vehicle during daytime; and (2 we compare the state-of-the-art features in a multi-modality setup: intensity, depth and flow, in far-infrared over visible domains. The experiments show that features families, intensity self-similarity (ISS, local binary patterns (LBP, local gradient patterns (LGP and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, computed from FIR and visible domains are highly complementary, but their relative performance varies across different modalities. In our experiments, the FIR domain has proven superior to the visible one for the task of pedestrian classification, but the overall best results are obtained by a multi-domain multi-modality multi-feature fusion.

  17. Coronary plaque morphology on multi-modality imagining and periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI may be complicated by periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI as manifested by elevated cardiac biomarkers such as creatine kinase (CK-MB or troponin T. The occurrence of PMI has been shown to be associated with worse short- and long-term clinical outcome. However, recent studies suggest that PMI defined by biomarker levels alone is a marker of atherosclerosis burden and procedural complexity but in most cases does not have independent prognostic significance. Diagnostic multi-modality imaging such as intravascular ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, coronary angioscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to closely investigate the atherosclerotic lesion in order to detect morphological markers of unstable and vulnerable plaques in the patients undergoing PCI. With the improvement of technical aspects of multimodality coronary imaging, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes. There were numerous published data regarding the relationship between pre-PCI lesion subsets on multi-modality imaging and post-PCI biomarker levels. In this review, we discuss the relationship between coronary plaque morphology estimated by invasive or noninvasive coronary imaging and the occurrence of PMI. Furthermore, this review underlies that the value of the multimodality coronary imaging approach will become the gold standard for invasive or noninvasive prediction of PMI in clinical practice.

  18. Multi-modal face parts fusion based on Gabor feature for face recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yan; Su Guangda; Shang Yan; Li Congcong

    2009-01-01

    A novel face recognition method, which is a fusion of multi-modal face parts based on Gabor feature (MMP-GF), is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the bare face image detached from the normalized image was convolved with a family of Gabor kernels, and then according to the face structure and the key-points locations, the calculated Gabor images were divided into five parts: Gabor face, Gabor eyebrow, Gabor eye, Gabor nose and Gabor mouth. After that multi-modal Gabor features were spatially partitioned into non-overlapping regions and the averages of regions were concatenated to be a low dimension feature vector, whose dimension was further reduced by principal component analysis (PCA). In the decision level fusion, match results respectively calculated based on the five parts were combined according to linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a normalized matching algorithm was used to improve the performance. Experiments on FERET database show that the proposed MMP-GF method achieves good robustness to the expression and age variations.

  19. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mutian; Huang, Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B.; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S.; Martin, Kyle; Ling, C. Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A.; Humm, John L.

    2008-10-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ~0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ~0.8 mm could be obtained.

  20. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  1. Treating psychological trauma in first responders: a multi-modal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2015-06-01

    Responding to critical incidents may result in 5.9-22% of first responders developing psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. These impacts may be physical, mental, and/or behavioral. This population remains at risk, given the daily occurrence of critical incidents. Current treatments, primarily focused on combat and rape victims, have included single and double interventions, which have proven helpful to some but not all victims and one standard of care has remained elusive. However, even though the need is established, research on the treatment interventions of first responders has been limited. Given the multiplicity of impacts from psychological trauma and the inadequacies of responder treatment intervention research thus far, this paper proposes a paradigmatic shift from single/double treatment interventions to a multi-modal approach to first responder victim needs. A conceptual framework based on psychological trauma is presented and possible multi-modal interventions selected from the limited, extant first responder research are utilized to illustrate how the approach would work and to encourage clinical and experimental research into first responder treatment needs. PMID:25403791

  2. Multi-modal signal acquisition using a synchronized wireless body sensor network in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugradt, Maik; Mann, Steffen; Tigges, Timo; Görnig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2016-02-01

    Wearable home-monitoring devices acquiring various biosignals such as the electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, electromyogram, respirational activity and movements have become popular in many fields of research, medical diagnostics and commercial applications. Especially ambulatory settings introduce still unsolved challenges to the development of sensor hardware and smart signal processing approaches. This work gives a detailed insight into a novel wireless body sensor network and addresses critical aspects such as signal quality, synchronicity among multiple devices as well as the system's overall capabilities and limitations in cardiovascular monitoring. An early sign of typical cardiovascular diseases is often shown by disturbed autonomic regulations such as orthostatic intolerance. In that context, blood pressure measurements play an important role to observe abnormalities like hypo- or hypertensions. Non-invasive and unobtrusive blood pressure monitoring still poses a significant challenge, promoting alternative approaches including pulse wave velocity considerations. In the scope of this work, the presented hardware is applied to demonstrate the continuous extraction of multi modal parameters like pulse arrival time within a preliminary clinical study. A Schellong test to diagnose orthostatic hypotension which is typically based on blood pressure cuff measurements has been conducted, serving as an application that might significantly benefit from novel multi-modal measurement principles. It is further shown that the system's synchronicity is as precise as 30 μs and that the integrated analog preprocessing circuits and additional accelerometer data provide significant advantages in ambulatory measurement environments. PMID:26479338

  3. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bishnu P. [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, Thomas D., E-mail: thomaswa@umich.edu [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, BSRB 1722, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.

  4. Accelerators for the advanced radiation technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam irradiation facilities are now under construction for the advanced radiation technology (ART) project in Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment of (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) JAERI. The project is intended to make an effective use of ion beams, especially ion beams, in the research field of radiation application technology. The TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities include four ion accelerators to produce almost all kinds of energetic ions in the periodic table. The facilities are also provided with several advanced irradiation means and act as very powerful accelerator complex for material development. Specifically, this report presents an outline of the ART project, features of TIARA as accelerator facilities dedicated to material development, the AVF cyclotron under construction (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Model 930), tandem accelerator, microbeam, and experimental instruments used. (N.K.)

  5. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  6. A Multi-Modal Control Using a Hybrid Pole-Placement-Integral Resonant Controller (PPIR) with Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Control of multi-modal structural vibrations has been an important and challenging problem in flexible structural systems. This paper proposes a new vibration control algorithm for multi-modal structural control. The proposed algorithm combines a pole-placement controller with an integral resonant...... controller. The pole-placement controller is used to achieve a target equivalent modal viscous damping in the system and helps in the suppression of higher modes, which contribute to the vibration response of flexible structures. The integral resonant controller successfully reduces the low frequency...... vibrations e.g. caused by broad-band turbulent wind excitations. Hence, the proposed hybrid controller can effectively suppress complex multi-modal vibrations in flexible systems. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using a...

  7. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin R. Osborne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefit the scanned subject by minimizing time under anesthetic. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and procedure for modifying a commercially available preclinical SPECT-CT platform to enable simultaneous SPECT-CT acquisition. We also evaluate the performance of simultaneous SPECT-CT tomographic imaging with this modified system. Performance was accessed using a 57Co source and image quality was evaluated with Tc99m phantoms in a series of simultaneous SPECT-CT scans.

  8. Feasibility and Initial Performance of Simultaneous SPECT-CT Imaging Using a Commercial Multi-Modality Preclinical Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Dustin R.; Austin, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging provides coregistered PET-CT and SPECT-CT images; however such multi-modality workflows usually consist of sequential scans from the individual imaging components for each modality. This typical workflow may result in long scan times limiting throughput of the imaging system. Conversely, acquiring multi-modality data simultaneously may improve correlation and registration of images, improve temporal alignment of the acquired data, increase imaging throughput, and benefit the scanned subject by minimizing time under anesthetic. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and procedure for modifying a commercially available preclinical SPECT-CT platform to enable simultaneous SPECT-CT acquisition. We also evaluate the performance of simultaneous SPECT-CT tomographic imaging with this modified system. Performance was accessed using a 57Co source and image quality was evaluated with 99mTc phantoms in a series of simultaneous SPECT-CT scans. PMID:26146568

  9. Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The following reports are presented on this project:A first year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; A second year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design; Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration; and Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation.

  10. Multi-Modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including; telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deaf-mutism. Hypopigmentation of the choroid is a unique feature of this condition examined with multi-modal Ultra-Widefield Imaging in this report. Material/Methods Report of a single case. Results Bilateral symmetric choroidal hypopigmentation was observed with hypoautofluorescence in the region of hypopigmentation. Fluorescein angiography revealed a normal vasculature, however a thickened choroid was seen on Enhanced-Depth Imaging Spectral-Domain OCT (EDI SD-OCT). Conclusion(s) Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature of Waardenburg syndrome, which can be visualized with ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened in this condition and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. PMID:26114849

  11. The Power of Correlative Microscopy: Multi-modal, Multi-scale, Multi-dimensional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeffrey; Niethammer, Marc; Taylor, Russell M.; Czymmek, Kirk J.

    2011-01-01

    Correlative microscopy is a sophisticated approach that combines the capabilities of typically separate, but powerful microscopy platforms: often including, but not limited, to conventional light, confocal and super-resolution microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and micro/nanoCT (computed tomography). When targeting rare or specific events within large populations or tissues, correlative microscopy is increasingly being recognized as the method of choice. Furthermore, this multi-modal assimilation of technologies provides complementary and often unique information, such as internal and external spatial, structural, biochemical and biophysical details from the same targeted sample. The development of a continuous stream of cutting-edge applications, probes, preparation methodologies, hardware and software developments will enable realization of the full potential of correlative microscopy. PMID:21782417

  12. Diagnostic imaging of pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis: lessons learned from a multi-modality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado Santos, Jose M. [Hospital Reina Sofia de Tudela, Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Tudela, Navarra (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis may present highly variable radiological expression, which is influenced by the age and condition of the patient, the virulence of the causative agent, the stage of the disease, or the selected imaging tool. Given the multiplicity of available modalities and the multi-faceted nature of the process, purposeful imaging of pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis may be difficult. In order to avoid diagnostic delays and complications, familiarity with the variable expression of the disease and assumption of the potentialities, roles and limitations of the various imaging modalities is required. In this pictorial essay we review, illustrate and discuss, in a multi-modality approach, the various radiological patterns that may be found in pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis, with emphasis on strategies, staging, uncommon distribution patterns, and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic imaging of pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis: lessons learned from a multi-modality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis may present highly variable radiological expression, which is influenced by the age and condition of the patient, the virulence of the causative agent, the stage of the disease, or the selected imaging tool. Given the multiplicity of available modalities and the multi-faceted nature of the process, purposeful imaging of pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis may be difficult. In order to avoid diagnostic delays and complications, familiarity with the variable expression of the disease and assumption of the potentialities, roles and limitations of the various imaging modalities is required. In this pictorial essay we review, illustrate and discuss, in a multi-modality approach, the various radiological patterns that may be found in pediatric hematogenous osteomyelitis, with emphasis on strategies, staging, uncommon distribution patterns, and differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Creating multi-modal logistics centers: Prospect for development in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodir Jumaniyazov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available All we have witnessed several summits of the so-called G-20 to overcome the crisis and attempt to delineate the ”look” of new rules of the emerging new world economic system. However, according to many experts, these rules will not be able to radically change the current system of economic relations, which is based on the processes of globalization and economic interpenetration of the world. One can list the many elements of the system. Among them, as a manifestation of a growing specialization of production, and deepening of cooperative relations in the world the special role is played by multi-modal logistics centers (MLC, of both regional and global concern. If stock and commodity exchanges are the link in the global economy, meanwhile a multimodal logistics centers serve as their practical and technical support.

  15. Multi-modal Person Localization And Emergency Detection Using The Kinect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Galatas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Person localization is of paramount importance in an ambient intelligence environment since it is the first step towards context-awareness. In this work, we present the development of a novel system for multi-modal person localization and emergency detection in an assistive ambient intelligence environment for the elderly. Our system is based on the depth sensor and microphone array of 2 Kinect devices. We use skeletal tracking conducted on the depth images and sound source localization conducted on the captured audio signal to estimate the location of a person. In conjunction with the location information, automatic speech recognition is used as a natural and intuitive means of communication in order to detect emergencies and accidents, such as falls. Our system attained high accuracy for both the localization and speech recognition tasks, verifying its effectiveness.

  16. A Distance Measure Comparison to Improve Crowding in Multi-Modal Problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Todd VOllmer; Terence Soule; Milos Manic

    2010-08-01

    Solving multi-modal optimization problems are of interest to researchers solving real world problems in areas such as control systems and power engineering tasks. Extensions of simple Genetic Algorithms, particularly types of crowding, have been developed to help solve these types of problems. This paper examines the performance of two distance measures, Mahalanobis and Euclidean, exercised in the processing of two different crowding type implementations against five minimization functions. Within the context of the experiments, empirical evidence shows that the statistical based Mahalanobis distance measure when used in Deterministic Crowding produces equivalent results to a Euclidean measure. In the case of Restricted Tournament selection, use of Mahalanobis found on average 40% more of the global optimum, maintained a 35% higher peak count and produced an average final best fitness value that is 3 times better.

  17. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2016-05-19

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications. PMID:27159645

  18. Multi-modal vibration energy harvesting approach based on nonlinear oscillator arrays under magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, I.; Kacem, N.; Bouhaddi, N.; Bouazizi, M. L.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a multi-modal vibration energy harvesting approach based on arrays of coupled levitated magnets. The equations of motion which include the magnetic nonlinearity and the electromagnetic damping are solved using the harmonic balance method coupled with the asymptotic numerical method. A multi-objective optimization procedure is introduced and performed using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for the cases of small magnet arrays in order to select the optimal solutions in term of performances by bringing the eigenmodes close to each other in terms of frequencies and amplitudes. Thanks to the nonlinear coupling and the modal interactions even for only three coupled magnets, the proposed method enable harvesting the vibration energy in the operating frequency range of 4.6-14.5 Hz, with a bandwidth of 190% and a normalized power of 20.2 {mW} {{cm}}-3 {{{g}}}-2.

  19. Programmable aperture microscopy: A computational method for multi-modal phase contrast and light field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective programmable aperture microscope to realize multi-modal computational imaging by integrating a programmable liquid crystal display (LCD) into a conventional wide-field microscope. The LCD selectively modulates the light distribution at the rear aperture of the microscope objective, allowing numerous imaging modalities, such as bright field, dark field, differential phase contrast, quantitative phase imaging, multi-perspective imaging, and full resolution light field imaging to be achieved and switched rapidly in the same setup, without requiring specialized hardwares and any moving parts. We experimentally demonstrate the success of our method by imaging unstained cheek cells, profiling microlens array, and changing perspective views of thick biological specimens. The post-exposure refocusing of a butterfly mouthpart and RFP-labeled dicot stem cross-section is also presented to demonstrate the full resolution light field imaging capability of our system for both translucent and fluorescent specimens.

  20. Multi-Modal Reasoning Medical Diagnosis System Integrated With Probabilistic Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Tian; Xun Chen; Sheng-Ping Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a Multi Modal Reasoning (MMR) method integrated with probabilistic reasoning is proposed for the diagnosis support module of the open eHealth platform. MMR is based on both Rule Based Reasoning (RBR) and Case Based Reasoning (CBR). It is not only applied to the identification of diseases and syndromes based on medical guidelines,but also deals with exceptional cases and individual therapies in order to improve diagnostic accuracy. Moreover, a new rule expression frame is introduced to deal with uncertainty, which can represent and process vague, imprecise, and incomplete information. Furthermore, this system is capable of updating the attributes of rules and inducing rules with a small data sample.

  1. Enhancement of Multi-Modal Biometric Authentication Based on IRIS and Brain Neuro Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Karthikeyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed method describes the current forensics and biometrics in a modern approach andimplements the concept of IRIS along with brain and resolves the issues and increases thestrength of Digital Forensics Community. It has enormous features in biometrics to enhancediverse security levels. A new method to identify individuals using IRIS Patterns with the brainwave signals (EEG is proposed. Several different algorithms were proposed for detecting,verifying and extracting the deterministic patterns in a person’s IRIS from the Eye. The extractedEEG recordings form the person's brain has proved to be unique. Next we combine EEG signalsinto the IRIS patterns a biometric application which makes use of future multi modal combinationarchitecture. The proposed forensic research directions and argues that to move forward thecommunity needs to adopt standardized, modular approaches for person identification. The resultof each authentication test is compared with the user's pre-recorded measurements, usingpattern recognition methods and signal-processing algorithms.

  2. A Distance Measure Comparison to Improve Crowding in Multi-Modal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solving multi-modal optimization problems are of interest to researchers solving real world problems in areas such as control systems and power engineering tasks. Extensions of simple Genetic Algorithms, particularly types of crowding, have been developed to help solve these types of problems. This paper examines the performance of two distance measures, Mahalanobis and Euclidean, exercised in the processing of two different crowding type implementations against five minimization functions. Within the context of the experiments, empirical evidence shows that the statistical based Mahalanobis distance measure when used in Deterministic Crowding produces equivalent results to a Euclidean measure. In the case of Restricted Tournament selection, use of Mahalanobis found on average 40% more of the global optimum, maintained a 35% higher peak count and produced an average final best fitness value that is 3 times better.

  3. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  4. Advanced Multi-modal User Interfaces in 3D Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yenan

    2012-01-01

    Computers are developed continuously to satisfy the human demands, and typical tools used everywhere for ranging from daily life usage to all kinds of research. Virtual Reality (VR), a virtual environment simulated to present physical presence in the real word and imaginary worlds, has been widely applied to simulate the virtual environment. People’s feeling is limited to visual perception when only computers are applied for simulations, since computers are limited to display visualization of...

  5. Providing University Education in Physical Geography across the South Pacific Islands: Multi-Modal Course Delivery and Student Grade Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Poole, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Enormous distances across the vast South Pacific hinder student access to the main Fiji campus of the regional tertiary education provider, the University of the South Pacific (USP). Fortunately, USP has been a pioneer in distance education (DE) and promotes multi-modal delivery of programmes. Geography has embraced DE, but doubts remain about…

  6. Hopc: a Novel Similarity Metric Based on Geometric Structural Properties for Multi-Modal Remote Sensing Image Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanxin; Shen, Li

    2016-06-01

    Automatic matching of multi-modal remote sensing images (e.g., optical, LiDAR, SAR and maps) remains a challenging task in remote sensing image analysis due to significant non-linear radiometric differences between these images. This paper addresses this problem and proposes a novel similarity metric for multi-modal matching using geometric structural properties of images. We first extend the phase congruency model with illumination and contrast invariance, and then use the extended model to build a dense descriptor called the Histogram of Orientated Phase Congruency (HOPC) that captures geometric structure or shape features of images. Finally, HOPC is integrated as the similarity metric to detect tie-points between images by designing a fast template matching scheme. This novel metric aims to represent geometric structural similarities between multi-modal remote sensing datasets and is robust against significant non-linear radiometric changes. HOPC has been evaluated with a variety of multi-modal images including optical, LiDAR, SAR and map data. Experimental results show its superiority to the recent state-of-the-art similarity metrics (e.g., NCC, MI, etc.), and demonstrate its improved matching performance.

  7. DIAGNOSIS-GUIDED METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING MULTI-MODALITY NEUROIMAGING BIOMARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH GENETIC RISK FACTORS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoke; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Many recent imaging genetic studies focus on detecting the associations between genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits (QTs). Although there exist a large number of generalized multivariate regression analysis methods, few of them have used diagnosis information in subjects to enhance the analysis performance. In addition, few of models have investigated the identification of multi-modality phenotypic patterns associated with interesting genotype groups in traditional methods. To reveal disease-relevant imaging genetic associations, we propose a novel diagnosis-guided multi-modality (DGMM) framework to discover multi-modality imaging QTs that are associated with both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its top genetic risk factor (i.e., APOE SNP rs429358). The strength of our proposed method is that it explicitly models the priori diagnosis information among subjects in the objective function for selecting the disease-relevant and robust multi-modality QTs associated with the SNP. We evaluate our method on two modalities of imaging phenotypes, i.e., those extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method not only achieves better performances under the metrics of root mean squared error and correlation coefficient but also can identify common informative regions of interests (ROIs) across multiple modalities to guide the disease-induced biological interpretation, compared with other reference methods. PMID:26776178

  8. Sex in the Curriculum: The Effect of a Multi-Modal Sexual History-Taking Module on Medical Student Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Goodrich, Katie G.; Leitsch, Sara A.; Cook, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a multi-modal curricular intervention designed to teach sexual history-taking skills to medical students. The Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the National Board of Medical Examiners, and others, have identified sexual history-taking as a learning objective…

  9. Risk factors for insufficient perioperative oral nutrition after hip fracture surgery within a multi-modal rehabilitation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai B; Jensen, Pia S; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To examine oral nutritional intake in the perioperative phase in elderly hip fracture patients treated according to a well-defined multi-modal rehabilitation program, including unselected oral nutritional supplementation, and to identify independent risk factors for insufficient nutritional intake....

  10. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  11. Imaging results of multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system designed for breast diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opieliński, Krzysztof J; Pruchnicki, Piotr; Gudra, Tadeusz; Podgórski, Przemysław; Kurcz, Jacek; Kraśnicki, Tomasz; Sąsiadek, Marek; Majewski, Jarosław

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, in the era of common computerization, transmission and reflection methods are intensively developed in addition to improving classical ultrasound methods (US) for imaging of tissue structure, in particular ultrasound transmission tomography UTT (analogous to computed tomography CT which uses X-rays) and reflection tomography URT (based on the synthetic aperture method used in radar imaging techniques). This paper presents and analyses the results of ultrasound transmission tomography imaging of the internal structure of the female breast biopsy phantom CIRS Model 052A and the results of the ultrasound reflection tomography imaging of a wire sample. Imaging was performed using a multi-modal ultrasound computerized tomography system developed with the participation of a private investor. The results were compared with the results of imaging obtained using dual energy CT, MR mammography and conventional US method. The obtained results indicate that the developed UTT and URT methods, after the acceleration of the scanning process, thus enabling in vivo examination, may be successfully used for detection and detailed characterization of breast lesions in women. PMID:25759234

  12. Faceted Subtopic Retrieval: Exploiting the Topic Hierarchy via a Multi-modal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitao Sang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming amount of web videos posted on the social mediawebsites make effective browsing and search a challenging task. Theuser-provided metadata, has been proved useful in large-scale videoorganization and retrieval. Search result clustering, which utilizesthe associated metadata to cluster the returned results intosemantic groups according to its involved subtopics, has shown itsadvantages. Most of the existing works on search result clusteringare devoted to solving the ambiguous problem resulted fromgeneral queries. In this paper, we propose the problem of\\textit{faceted subtopic retrieval}, which focus on more complexqueries concerning political and social events or issues.Hierarchical topic model (hLDA is adapted to exploit the intrinsictopic hierarchy inside the retrieved collections. Furthermore, thispaper offers a new perspective of multi-modal video analysis byexploring the pairwise visual cues deriving from duplicate detectionfor constrained topic modeling. We modify the standard hierarchicaltopic model by integrating: 1 query related Supervision knowledge(ShLDA and 2 duplicate Relation constraints (RShLDA. Carefullydesigned experiments on web-scale video dataset validate theproposed method.

  13. Multi-scale patch and multi-modality atlases for whole heart segmentation of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiahai; Shen, Juan

    2016-07-01

    A whole heart segmentation (WHS) method is presented for cardiac MRI. This segmentation method employs multi-modality atlases from MRI and CT and adopts a new label fusion algorithm which is based on the proposed multi-scale patch (MSP) strategy and a new global atlas ranking scheme. MSP, developed from the scale-space theory, uses the information of multi-scale images and provides different levels of the structural information of images for multi-level local atlas ranking. Both the local and global atlas ranking steps use the information theoretic measures to compute the similarity between the target image and the atlases from multiple modalities. The proposed segmentation scheme was evaluated on a set of data involving 20 cardiac MRI and 20 CT images. Our proposed algorithm demonstrated a promising performance, yielding a mean WHS Dice score of 0.899 ± 0.0340, Jaccard index of 0.818 ± 0.0549, and surface distance error of 1.09 ± 1.11 mm for the 20 MRI data. The average runtime for the proposed label fusion was 12.58 min. PMID:26999615

  14. The application of multi-modal MRI in venous thrombolysis therapy for hyperacute cerebral arterial thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of MRI in thrombolytic therapy of hyperacute cerebral arterial thrombosis. Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with acute cerebral arterial thrombosis were recruited, plain CT and multi-modal MRI were performed in all patients. Thirty-three patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction were treated by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator(rt-PA) and followed-up periodically using MRI. Results: The 33 patients with thrombolysis selected by MRI demonstrated clinical improvement, 90 d modified Rankin scale scores (mRs) were less than 2 and life quality Barthal indexes(BI) were from 80 to 100. The complication included one asymptomatic parenchymal hematoma(PH 1) one weeks after thrombolytic therapy and 4 (12.2%) hemorrhagic infarction(HI) 6 to 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy. Conclusions: MRI has significant clinical value for the screening and follow-up of intravenous thrombolytic therapy of hyperacute ischemic stroke. MRI-based thrombolysis is a safe and effective method for hyperacute ischemic stroke. (authors)

  15. Holographic Raman tweezers controlled by multi-modal natural user interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Zoltán; Keša, Peter; Nikorovič, Matej; Kaňka, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Šerý, Mojmír; Bernatová, Silvie; Valušová, Eva; Antalík, Marián; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Holographic optical tweezers provide a contactless way to trap and manipulate several microobjects independently in space using focused laser beams. Although the methods of fast and efficient generation of optical traps are well developed, their user friendly control still lags behind. Even though several attempts have appeared recently to exploit touch tablets, 2D cameras, or Kinect game consoles, they have not yet reached the level of natural human interface. Here we demonstrate a multi-modal ‘natural user interface’ approach that combines finger and gaze tracking with gesture and speech recognition. This allows us to select objects with an operator’s gaze and voice, to trap the objects and control their positions via tracking of finger movement in space and to run semi-automatic procedures such as acquisition of Raman spectra from preselected objects. This approach takes advantage of the power of human processing of images together with smooth control of human fingertips and downscales these skills to control remotely the motion of microobjects at microscale in a natural way for the human operator.

  16. Analysis of Predictive Values Based on Individual Risk Factors in Multi-Modality Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lange

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of diagnostic tests with binary end-points is most frequently measured by sensitivity and specificity. However, from the clinical perspective, the main purpose of a diagnostic agent is to assess the probability of a patient actually being diseased and hence predictive values are more suitable here. As predictive values depend on the pre-test probability of disease, we provide a method to take risk factors influencing the patient’s prior probability of disease into account, when calculating predictive values. Furthermore, approaches to assess confidence intervals and a methodology to compare predictive values by statistical tests are presented. Hereby the methods can be used to analyze predictive values of factorial diagnostic trials, such as multi-modality, multi-reader-trials. We further performed a simulation study assessing length and coverage probability for different types of confidence intervals, and we present the R-Package facROC that can be used to analyze predictive values in factorial diagnostic trials in particular. The methods are applied to a study evaluating CT-angiography as a noninvasive alternative to coronary angiography for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Hereby the patients’ symptoms are considered as risk factors influencing the respective predictive values.

  17. Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia with Abnormal Eosinophils: A Case Report with Multi- Modality Diagnostic Work-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Cherng Tzeng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities often carries a favorableprognosis. AML with inv(16(p13q22 occurs predominantly in younger patients and usually showsgranulocytic and monocytic differentiation with abnormal eosinophils. It is referred to as acutemyelomonocytic leukemia with abnormal eosinophils (AMML Eo. We report a case in a 27-year-oldman with leukocytosis (10.6x103/μL with 34% blasts, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. Marrowaspiration showed 47% blasts and 33% eosinophils, of which 19% were morphologically abnormalwith both eosinophilic and basophilic cytoplasmic granules. Cytochemically, the blasts were positivefor myeloperoxidase while the granules of abnormal eosinophils were positive for naphthol ASDchloroacetate esterase. With flow cytometric immunophenotyping the blasts expressed CD13, CD33,CD117, myeloperoxidase and CD34. Marrow trephine showed 90% cellularity with 40% blastsexpressing CD34, CD117, and myeloperoxidase on immunohistochemistry. Chromosomal analysisreveled a karyotype of 46, XY, inv(16(p13q22. This case illustrates a typical AMML Eo confirmedby a multi-modality diagnostic approach including morphology, cytochemistry, flow cytometry,immunohistochemistry, and conventional cytogenetic study.

  18. Anticipation by multi-modal association through an artificial mental imagery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, Wilmer; Escobar, Esaú; Hermosillo, Jorge; Lara, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Mental imagery has become a central issue in research laboratories seeking to emulate basic cognitive abilities in artificial agents. In this work, we propose a computational model to produce an anticipatory behaviour by means of a multi-modal off-line hebbian association. Unlike the current state of the art, we propose to apply hebbian learning during an internal sensorimotor simulation, emulating a process of mental imagery. We associate visual and tactile stimuli re-enacted by a long-term predictive simulation chain motivated by covert actions. As a result, we obtain a neural network which provides a robot with a mechanism to produce a visually conditioned obstacle avoidance behaviour. We developed our system in a physical Pioneer 3-DX robot and realised two experiments. In the first experiment we test our model on one individual navigating in two different mazes. In the second experiment we assess the robustness of the model by testing in a single environment five individuals trained under different conditions. We believe that our work offers an underpinning mechanism in cognitive robotics for the study of motor control strategies based on internal simulations. These strategies can be seen analogous to the mental imagery process known in humans, opening thus interesting pathways to the construction of upper-level grounded cognitive abilities.

  19. MINC 2.0: A Flexible Format for Multi-Modal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert D.; Neelin, Peter; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Janke, Andrew L.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Robbins, Steven M.; Baghdadi, Leila; Lerch, Jason; Sled, John G.; Adalat, Reza; MacDonald, David; Zijdenbos, Alex P.; Collins, D. Louis; Evans, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    It is often useful that an imaging data format can afford rich metadata, be flexible, scale to very large file sizes, support multi-modal data, and have strong inbuilt mechanisms for data provenance. Beginning in 1992, MINC was developed as a system for flexible, self-documenting representation of neuroscientific imaging data with arbitrary orientation and dimensionality. The MINC system incorporates three broad components: a file format specification, a programming library, and a growing set of tools. In the early 2000's the MINC developers created MINC 2.0, which added support for 64-bit file sizes, internal compression, and a number of other modern features. Because of its extensible design, it has been easy to incorporate details of provenance in the header metadata, including an explicit processing history, unique identifiers, and vendor-specific scanner settings. This makes MINC ideal for use in large scale imaging studies and databases. It also makes it easy to adapt to new scanning sequences and modalities. PMID:27563289

  20. A multi-modal treatment approach for the shoulder: A 4 patient case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the clinical management of four cases of shoulder impingement syndrome using a conservative multimodal treatment approach. Clinical Features Four patients presented to a chiropractic clinic with chronic shoulder pain, tenderness in the shoulder region and a limited range of motion with pain and catching. After physical and orthopaedic examination a clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome was reached. The four patients were admitted to a multi-modal treatment protocol including soft tissue therapy (ischaemic pressure and cross-friction massage, 7 minutes of phonophoresis (driving of medication into tissue with ultrasound with 1% cortisone cream, diversified spinal and peripheral joint manipulation and rotator cuff and shoulder girdle muscle exercises. The outcome measures for the study were subjective/objective visual analogue pain scales (VAS, range of motion (goniometer and return to normal daily, work and sporting activities. All four subjects at the end of the treatment protocol were symptom free with all outcome measures being normal. At 1 month follow up all patients continued to be symptom free with full range of motion and complete return to normal daily activities. Conclusion This case series demonstrates the potential benefit of a multimodal chiropractic protocol in resolving symptoms associated with a suspected clinical diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome.

  1. Modeling a Multi-modal Distribution of Wind Direction Data in Kudat, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulkamal Masseran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind direction is the direction from which the wind is blowing. It is expressed in terms of degrees measured clockwise from geographical direction. The knowledge of the wind direction can be used to obtain information about the wind energy potential, dispersion of particulate matter in the air, the effects of engineering structures on the building, maritime study, and etc. This study provides a suitable model for the wind direction that indicates multi-modal distributional properties. A case study involves with a data from Kudat, Malaysia has been analysed. The statistical models known as a Finite Mixture of von Mises Fisher (mvMF and Circular Distribution based on Nonnegative Trigonometric Sums (NNTS has been fitted to the data. Then, the suitability of mvMF and NNTS models were judged based on a graphical representation and goodness-of-fit statistics. The results found that the mvMF model with  components is sufficient to provide a best model. 

  2. Imaging in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy is an important part of cancer treatment in which cancer patients are treated using high-energy radiation such as x-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Currently, about half of all cancer patients receive radiation treatment during their whole cancer care process. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver the necessary radiation dose to cancer cells while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. Success of radiation therapy highly relies on how accurately 1) identifies the target and 2) aim radiation beam to the target. Both tasks are strongly dependent of imaging technology and many imaging modalities have been applied for radiation therapy such as CT (Computed Tomography), MRI (Magnetic Resonant Image), and PET (Positron Emission Tomography). Recently, many researchers have given significant amount of effort to develop and improve imaging techniques for radiation therapy to enhance the overall quality of patient care. For example, advances in medical imaging technology have initiated the development of the state of the art radiation therapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), gated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, and Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT). Capability of determining the local tumor volume and location of the tumor has been significantly improved by applying single or multi-modality imaging for static or dynamic target. The use of multi-modality imaging provides a more reliable tumor volume, eventually leading to a better definitive local control. Image registration technique is essential to fuse two different image modalities and has been in significant improvement. Imaging equipment and their common applications that are in active use and/or under development in radiation therapy are reviewed

  3. G-Heart: A GPU-based System for Electrophysiological Simulation and Multi-modality Cardiac Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Kuanquan Wang; Wangmeng Zuo; Changqing Gai

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiological simulation and multi-modality visualization are computationally intensive and valuable in studying the structure, mechanism, and dynamics of heart. The existing multi-CPU based approaches can reduce the calculation time, but suffer from the hardware and communication cost problems and are inefficient for 3D data visualization. Compared with multi-CPU, the highly parallel and multi-core properties of GPU make it a suitable alternative for accelerating cardiac simul...

  4. Radiation therapy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1967 through 1985, 92 patients with T3 and T4 laryngeal carcinoma were treated with radiation at Osaka University Hospital. Of 92 patients, patients with 14 T3 and 29 T4 carcinoma were treated with a total dose of 60 Gy or more, and those with 14 T3 and 21 T4 carcinoma were treated with a total dose of 40 to 58 Gy and followed by total laryngectomy. Other 14 patients were palliatively treated with a total dose less than 60 Gy without surgery. The 5-year local control rates for T3 and T4 carcinoma treated with radical radiation were 48% and 24%, respectively. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates for T3 carcinoma treated with radical and preoperative radiotherapy were 48% and 71%, and corresponding figures for T4 carcinoma were 52% and 43%. There were no statistically significant differences between cause-specific survival rates of radical and preoperative groups. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates for T3N0 and T4N0 cases treated with radical radiation were 83% and 56%, and corresponding figures for T3N+ and T4N+ cases were 13% and 45%. Voice preservation rates of T3 and T4 patients treated with radical radiation were about 1/2 and 1/4, respectively. Considering the QOL of patients, radiotherapy for advanced carcinoma of larynx should be considered as a primary treatment especially for N0 cases. (author)

  5. Advanced optic fabrication using ultrafast laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren L.; Qiao, Jun; Qiao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Advanced fabrication and finishing techniques are desired for freeform optics and integrated photonics. Methods including grinding, polishing and magnetorheological finishing used for final figuring and polishing of such optics are time consuming, expensive, and may be unsuitable for complex surface features while common photonics fabrication techniques often limit devices to planar geometries. Laser processing has been investigated as an alternative method for optic forming, surface polishing, structure writing, and welding, as direct tuning of laser parameters and flexible beam delivery are advantageous for complex freeform or photonics elements and material-specific processing. Continuous wave and pulsed laser radiation down to the nanosecond regime have been implemented to achieve nanoscale surface finishes through localized material melting, but the temporal extent of the laser-material interaction often results in the formation of a sub-surface heat affected zone. The temporal brevity of ultrafast laser radiation can allow for the direct vaporization of rough surface asperities with minimal melting, offering the potential for smooth, final surface quality with negligible heat affected material. High intensities achieved in focused ultrafast laser radiation can easily induce phase changes in the bulk of materials for processing applications. We have experimentally tested the effectiveness of ultrafast laser radiation as an alternative laser source for surface processing of monocrystalline silicon. Simulation of material heating associated with ultrafast laser-material interaction has been performed and used to investigate optimized processing parameters including repetition rate. The parameter optimization process and results of experimental processing will be presented.

  6. Facile Fabrication of Animal-Specific Positioning Molds For Multi-modality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently multi-modal imaging system has become widely adopted in molecular imaging. We tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds for PET/MR fusion imaging using easily available molding clay and rapid foam. The animal-specific positioning molds provide immobilization and reproducible positioning of small animal. Herein, we have compared fiber-based molding clay with rapid foam in fabricating the molds of experimental animal. The round bottomed-acrylic frame, which fitted into microPET gantry, was prepared at first. The experimental mice was anesthetized and placed on the mold for positioning. Rapid foam and fiber-based clay were used to fabricate the mold. In case of both rapid foam and the clay, the experimental animal needs to be pushed down smoothly into the mold for positioning. However, after the mouse was removed, the fabricated clay needed to be dried completely at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for hardening. Four sealed pipe tips containing [18F]FDG solution were used as fiduciary markers. After injection of [18F]FDG via tail vein, microPET scanning was performed. Successively, MRI scanning was followed in the same animal. Animal-specific positioning molds were fabricated using rapid foam and fiber-based molding clay for multimodality imaging. Functional and anatomical images were obtained with microPET and MRI, respectively. The fused PET/MR images were obtained using freely available AMIDE program. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared using easily available rapid foam, molding clay and disposable pipet tips. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were co-registered with negligible misalignment

  7. Improving efficiency of multi-modality registration of brain scans based on mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One approach for multi-modality registration uses a similarity measure based on mutual information (MI) of voxel intensities. MI measures the statistical dependence between two images by comparing the joint probability distribution (approximated by the 2D joint histogram), with the distribution in the case of complete independence (approximated from the I D histograms). The MI measure reaches a maximum when the images are aligned. The purpose of the current work was to investigate if the registration process could be accelerated through subsampling, i.e. by using only a subset of all voxels for the calculations. The behaviour of the MI measure at different subsampling factors was studied. It was observed that subsampling caused MI to exhibit multiple local maxima unless it was accompanied by a reduction in the number of bins used for the histograms. However, too few bins in the histograms made the peak of the MI measure broader. It was therefore concluded that a coarse-to-fine subsampling procedure, followed by a corresponding increase in the number of bins in the histogram, would be the best choice. The method was validated on SPET-MRI data from seven healthy volunteers. Using a 64:1, 32:1 and 16:1 subsampling scheme with a corresponding bin size of 24, 32 and 48, the new method converged in an average time of 2.5 min as compared to 46 min for the original method (PC Pentium 200). The average absolute differences were 0.24, 0.34, 0.30 mm translation and 0.58, 0.41, 0.66 degrees rotation. We conclude that the suggested scheme renders the registration method sufficiently rapid for routine use in the clinical setting

  8. Multi-modal vibration based MEMS energy harvesters for ultra-low power wireless functional nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacci, J.; Gottardi, M.; Serra, E.; Di Criscienzo, R.; Borrielli, A.; Bonaldi, M.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this contribution is to report and discuss a preliminary study and rough optimization of a novel concept of MEMS device for vibration energy harvesting, based on a multi-modal dynamic behavior. The circular-shaped device features Four-Leaf Clover-like (FLC) double spring-mass cascaded systems, kept constrained to the surrounding frame by means of four straight beams. The combination of flexural bending behavior of the slender beams plus deformable parts of the petals enable to populate the desired vibration frequency range with a number of resonant modes, and improve the energy conversion capability of the micro-transducer. The harvester device, conceived for piezoelectric mechanical into electric energy conversion, is intended to sense environmental vibrations and, thereby, its geometry is optimized to have a large concentration of resonant modes in a frequency range below 5-10 kHz. The results of FEM (Finite Element Method) based analysis performed in ANSYSTM Workbench are reported, both concerning modal and harmonic response, providing important indications related to the device geometry optimization. The analysis reported in this work is limited to the sole mechanical modeling of the proposed MEMS harvester device concept. Future developments of the study will encompass the inclusion of piezoelectric conversion in the FEM simulations, in order to have indications of the actual power levels achievable with the proposed harvester concept. Furthermore, the results of the FEM studies here discussed, will be validated against experimental data, as soon as the MEMS resonator specimens, currently under fabrication, are ready for testing.

  9. 239PU(N, f) at Resonance Energies and its Multi-Modal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Bax, H.; Ruskov, I.; Demattè, L.

    2003-10-01

    A measurement of fission fragment total kinetic energy (TKE) and mass yield distributions Y (A,TKE) in the 239Pu(n,f) resolved resonance region has been performed applying the twin Frisch gridded ionization chamber technique. Special emphasis was devoted to cope with the strong α-activity of this isotope by an improved pile-up rejection system. Up to about 200 eV all fission resonances could be resolved and their two-dimensional mass yield and TKE distribution, Y(A,TKE), measured. Compared to the results on 235U(n,f), much smaller fluctuations of the fission fragment mass and TKE have been observed in the case of 239Pu. From a physical point of view such fluctuations have been expected for the fission fragment properties, because the only possible lowenergy spin states (Jπ=0+,1+) belong to well separated (about 1.25 MeV) transition state bands. Hence, it was expected to observe differences in the fission fragment mass and TKE distributions between spin 0+ and 1+ resonances. However, no spin dependence and only a slight anti-correlation of the TKE with the prompt neutron multiplicity, νp. has been found in the resolved resonance energy region above 1 eV. Within the multi-modal random neck-rupture (MM-RNR) model the Y(A,TKE) distributions have been fitted assuming three fission modes, two asymmetric and one symmetric one. The branching ratio of the two asymmetric modes shows similar fluctuations as the experimental TKE. Recently, a new theoretical approach has given a solution to the absence of pronounced fluctuations of the fission properties in the case of 239Pu. Since only one transition state is involved in the fission of 0+ and 1+ resonances with a given fission fragment distribution, no fluctuations are expected.

  10. Implementation of a multi-modal mobile sensor system for surface and subsurface assessment of roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Birken, Ralf; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar

    2015-03-01

    There are more than 4 million miles of roads and 600,000 bridges in the United States alone. On-going investments are required to maintain the physical and operational quality of these assets to ensure public's safety and prosperity of the economy. Planning efficient maintenance and repair (M&R) operations must be armed with a meticulous pavement inspection method that is non-disruptive, is affordable and requires minimum manual effort. The Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (VOTERS) project developed a technology able to cost- effectively monitor the condition of roadway systems to plan for the right repairs, in the right place, at the right time. VOTERS technology consists of an affordable, lightweight package of multi-modal sensor systems including acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, and GPS sensors. Vehicles outfitted with this technology would be capable of collecting information on a variety of pavement-related characteristics at both surface and subsurface levels as they are driven. By correlating the sensors' outputs with the positioning data collected in tight time synchronization, a GIS-based control center attaches a spatial component to all the sensors' measurements and delivers multiple ratings of the pavement every meter. These spatially indexed ratings are then leveraged by VOTERS decision making modules to plan the optimum M&R operations and predict the future budget needs. In 2014, VOTERS inspection results were validated by comparing them to the outputs of recent professionally done condition surveys of a local engineering firm for 300 miles of Massachusetts roads. Success of the VOTERS project portrays rapid, intelligent, and comprehensive evaluation of tomorrow's transportation infrastructure to increase public's safety, vitalize the economy, and deter catastrophic failures.

  11. Embedded security system for multi-modal surveillance in a railway carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouaoui, Rhalem; Audigier, Romaric; Ambellouis, Sébastien; Capman, François; Benhadda, Hamid; Joudrier, Stéphanie; Sodoyer, David; Lamarque, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Public transport security is one of the main priorities of the public authorities when fighting against crime and terrorism. In this context, there is a great demand for autonomous systems able to detect abnormal events such as violent acts aboard passenger cars and intrusions when the train is parked at the depot. To this end, we present an innovative approach which aims at providing efficient automatic event detection by fusing video and audio analytics and reducing the false alarm rate compared to classical stand-alone video detection. The multi-modal system is composed of two microphones and one camera and integrates onboard video and audio analytics and fusion capabilities. On the one hand, for detecting intrusion, the system relies on the fusion of "unusual" audio events detection with intrusion detections from video processing. The audio analysis consists in modeling the normal ambience and detecting deviation from the trained models during testing. This unsupervised approach is based on clustering of automatically extracted segments of acoustic features and statistical Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) modeling of each cluster. The intrusion detection is based on the three-dimensional (3D) detection and tracking of individuals in the videos. On the other hand, for violent events detection, the system fuses unsupervised and supervised audio algorithms with video event detection. The supervised audio technique detects specific events such as shouts. A GMM is used to catch the formant structure of a shout signal. Video analytics use an original approach for detecting aggressive motion by focusing on erratic motion patterns specific to violent events. As data with violent events is not easily available, a normality model with structured motions from non-violent videos is learned for one-class classification. A fusion algorithm based on Dempster-Shafer's theory analyses the asynchronous detection outputs and computes the degree of belief of each probable event.

  12. A novel technique to incorporate structural prior information into multi-modal tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a rapid expansion of multi-modal imaging techniques in tomography. In biomedical imaging, patients are now regularly imaged using both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and x-ray computed tomography (CT), or using both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In non-destructive testing of materials both neutron CT (NCT) and x-ray CT are widely applied to investigate the inner structure of material or track the dynamics of physical processes. The potential benefits from combining modalities has led to increased interest in iterative reconstruction algorithms that can utilize the data from more than one imaging mode simultaneously. We present a new regularization term in iterative reconstruction that enables information from one imaging modality to be used as a structural prior to improve resolution of the second modality. The regularization term is based on a modified anisotropic tensor diffusion filter, that has shape-adapted smoothing properties. By considering the underlying orientations of normal and tangential vector fields for two co-registered images, the diffusion flux is rotated and scaled adaptively to image features. The images can have different greyscale values and different spatial resolutions. The proposed approach is particularly good at isolating oriented features in images which are important for medical and materials science applications. By enhancing the edges it enables both easy identification and volume fraction measurements aiding segmentation algorithms used for quantification. The approach is tested on a standard denoising and deblurring image recovery problem, and then applied to 2D and 3D reconstruction problems; thereby highlighting the capabilities of the algorithm. Using synthetic data from SPECT co-registered with MRI, and real NCT data co-registered with x-ray CT, we show how the method can be used across a range of imaging modalities. (paper)

  13. MIND: modality independent neighbourhood descriptor for multi-modal deformable registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Mattias P; Jenkinson, Mark; Bhushan, Manav; Matin, Tahreema; Gleeson, Fergus V; Brady, Sir Michael; Schnabel, Julia A

    2012-10-01

    Deformable registration of images obtained from different modalities remains a challenging task in medical image analysis. This paper addresses this important problem and proposes a modality independent neighbourhood descriptor (MIND) for both linear and deformable multi-modal registration. Based on the similarity of small image patches within one image, it aims to extract the distinctive structure in a local neighbourhood, which is preserved across modalities. The descriptor is based on the concept of image self-similarity, which has been introduced for non-local means filtering for image denoising. It is able to distinguish between different types of features such as corners, edges and homogeneously textured regions. MIND is robust to the most considerable differences between modalities: non-functional intensity relations, image noise and non-uniform bias fields. The multi-dimensional descriptor can be efficiently computed in a dense fashion across the whole image and provides point-wise local similarity across modalities based on the absolute or squared difference between descriptors, making it applicable for a wide range of transformation models and optimisation algorithms. We use the sum of squared differences of the MIND representations of the images as a similarity metric within a symmetric non-parametric Gauss-Newton registration framework. In principle, MIND would be applicable to the registration of arbitrary modalities. In this work, we apply and validate it for the registration of clinical 3D thoracic CT scans between inhale and exhale as well as the alignment of 3D CT and MRI scans. Experimental results show the advantages of MIND over state-of-the-art techniques such as conditional mutual information and entropy images, with respect to clinically annotated landmark locations. PMID:22722056

  14. Obstacle traversal and self-righting of bio-inspired robots reveal the physics of multi-modal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    Most animals move in nature in a variety of locomotor modes. For example, to traverse obstacles like dense vegetation, cockroaches can climb over, push across, reorient their bodies to maneuver through slits, or even transition among these modes forming diverse locomotor pathways; if flipped over, they can also self-right using wings or legs to generate body pitch or roll. By contrast, most locomotion studies have focused on a single mode such as running, walking, or jumping, and robots are still far from capable of life-like, robust, multi-modal locomotion in the real world. Here, we present two recent studies using bio-inspired robots, together with new locomotion energy landscapes derived from locomotor-environment interaction physics, to begin to understand the physics of multi-modal locomotion. (1) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired legged robot traversing grass-like beam obstacles reveals that, with a terradynamically ``streamlined'' rounded body like that of the insect, robot traversal becomes more probable by accessing locomotor pathways that overcome lower potential energy barriers. (2) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired self-righting robot further suggests that body vibrations are crucial for exploring locomotion energy landscapes and reaching lower barrier pathways. Finally, we posit that our new framework of locomotion energy landscapes holds promise to better understand and predict multi-modal biological and robotic movement.

  15. A novel multi-modal platform to image molecular and elemental alterations in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Sally; Hackett, Mark J; Hou, Huishu; Kumar, Saroj; Maley, Jason; Ivanishvili, Zurab; Suen, Brandon; Szmigielski, Aleksander; Jiang, Zhongxiang; Sylvain, Nicole J; Nichol, Helen; Kelly, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem, with the prevalence and economic burden predicted to increase due to aging populations in western society. Following stroke, numerous biochemical alterations occur and damage can spread to nearby tissue. This zone of "at risk" tissue is termed the peri-infarct zone (PIZ). As the PIZ contains tissue not initially damaged by the stroke, it is considered by many as salvageable tissue. For this reason, much research effort has been undertaken to improve the identification of the PIZ and to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that drive tissue damage in the PIZ in the hope of identify new therapeutic targets. Despite this effort, few therapies have evolved, attributed in part, to an incomplete understanding of the biochemical mechanisms driving tissue damage in the PIZ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been the gold standard to study alterations in gross brain structure, and is frequently used to study the PIZ following stroke. Unfortunately, MRI does not have sufficient spatial resolution to study individual cells within the brain, and reveals little information on the biochemical mechanisms driving tissue damage. MRI results may be complemented with histology or immuno-histochemistry to provide information at the cellular or sub-cellular level, but are limited to studying biochemical markers that can be successfully "tagged" with a stain or antigen. However, many important biochemical markers cannot be studied with traditional MRI or histology/histochemical methods. Therefore, we have developed and applied a multi-modal imaging platform to reveal elemental and molecular alterations that could not previously be imaged by other traditional methods. Our imaging platform incorporates a suite of spectroscopic imaging techniques; Fourier transform infrared imaging, Raman spectroscopic imaging, Coherent anti-stoke Raman spectroscopic imaging and X-ray fluorescence imaging. This approach does not preclude the use of

  16. Fabrication of animal-specific positioning molds for multi-modality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of efforts to image tumor-bearing animal models by PET/MRI, we tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds with RT CradleTM and Angel ClayTM (Donerland. Co., Korea). For successful multi-modality imaging, animal-specific positioning molds for immobilization and reproducible positioning of animal are prerequisite. First. we prepared acrylic frame fitted to microPET gantry. Pre-mixed RT CradleTM foaming reagents 'A' and 'B' were poured into the wrapped acrylic frame. During still soft, the anesthetized mouse was gently pressed into the foaming mixture for positioning. After removing the animal, entirely hardened mold was used for microPET and MR imaging. In case of Angel ClayTM, commercially available clay, the anesthetized mouse was placed on flattened clay directly, and tenderly pushed down into the mold for positioning. After the mouse was removed, the mold was completely dried at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for next day imaging studies. The sealed pipet tip containing F-18 activity was used as fiduciary markers. U87MG tumor cells were injected subcutaneously into the right hindlimb of nude mouse. The tumor was allowed to grow up to ∼5 mm in diameter. The mouse was injected with 540 Ci of [18F]FDG. Right after microPET imaging, T2-weighted MR imaging was performed with fast gradient spin echo sequence in 0.8 mm of a slice thickness. Animal-specific beds were easily fabricated by using both RT CradleTM and Angel ClayTM. The fusion PET/MRI images were obtained by using AMIDE fusion program. U87MG tumor was clearly visualized by both microPET and MRI imaging. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared by using cheap and easily available RT CradleTM and Angel ClayTM. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were obtained with little discrepancy, and small glioblastoma in mouse was easily identified in microPET images

  17. Fabrication of animal-specific positioning molds for multi-modality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Yun, Seon Young; Woo, Seung Tae; Kim, Kyeong Min; Chang, Young Min; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheal; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jeong Soo [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As part of efforts to image tumor-bearing animal models by PET/MRI, we tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds with RT Cradle{sup TM} and Angel Clay{sup TM} (Donerland. Co., Korea). For successful multi-modality imaging, animal-specific positioning molds for immobilization and reproducible positioning of animal are prerequisite. First. we prepared acrylic frame fitted to microPET gantry. Pre-mixed RT Cradle{sup TM} foaming reagents 'A' and 'B' were poured into the wrapped acrylic frame. During still soft, the anesthetized mouse was gently pressed into the foaming mixture for positioning. After removing the animal, entirely hardened mold was used for microPET and MR imaging. In case of Angel Clay{sup TM}, commercially available clay, the anesthetized mouse was placed on flattened clay directly, and tenderly pushed down into the mold for positioning. After the mouse was removed, the mold was completely dried at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for next day imaging studies. The sealed pipet tip containing F-18 activity was used as fiduciary markers. U87MG tumor cells were injected subcutaneously into the right hindlimb of nude mouse. The tumor was allowed to grow up to {approx}5 mm in diameter. The mouse was injected with 540 Ci of [{sup 18}F]FDG. Right after microPET imaging, T{sub 2}-weighted MR imaging was performed with fast gradient spin echo sequence in 0.8 mm of a slice thickness. Animal-specific beds were easily fabricated by using both RT Cradle{sup TM} and Angel Clay{sup TM}. The fusion PET/MRI images were obtained by using AMIDE fusion program. U87MG tumor was clearly visualized by both microPET and MRI imaging. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared by using cheap and easily available RT Cradle{sup TM} and Angel Clay{sup TM}. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were obtained with little discrepancy, and small glioblastoma in mouse was easily identified in microPET images.

  18. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan Sue; Morris Norm; Shum David; O’Dwyer Siobhan; Polit Denise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for o...

  19. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and γ-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose

  20. Radiation Hard Electronics for Advanced Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced reconfigurable/reprogrammable communication systems will require use of commercial sub 100 nm electronics. Legacy radiation tolerant circuits fail to...

  1. DataViewer3D: An open-source, cross-platform multi-modal neuroimaging data visualization tool

    OpenAIRE

    Andre D Gouws

    2009-01-01

    Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. MRI, MEG, EEG) relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D) is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modal...

  2. Une ontologie pour la conception d'une plateforme collaborative exploitant une table multi- tactile et multi-modale

    OpenAIRE

    Joiron, Céline; Fürst, Frédéric; Kassel, Gilles; Jones, Alistair; Barthès, Jean-Paul,; Moulin, Claude; Lenne, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    L'objectif du projet TATIN-PIC (TAble Tactile Interactive et Plateforme Intelligente de Conception), est de développer une plateforme exploitant une table interactive multi-tactile et multi-modale dédiée à la conception préliminaire. À cette fin, une ontologie – OntoTATIN-PIC – est construite pour représenter les connaissances liées aux dispositifs et à l'activité de conception. Dans cet article, nous présentons, d'une part, l'originalité de cette ontologie : OntoTATIN-PIC étend l'ontologie f...

  3. An efficacious method to assemble a modern multi-modal robotic team: dilemmas, challenges, possibilities and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahi Hosnijeh, Amir; Samani, Hooman Aghaebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    A modern multiagent robotic platform consists of a cooperative team of humans which develop a collaborative team of robots. The multi-modal nature of both the system and the team causes a complex problem which needs to be solved for optimum performance. Both the management and the technical aspect of a modern robotic team are explored in this Chapter in the platform of the RoboCup Competition. RoboCup is an example of such an environment where researchers from different disciplines j...

  4. Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system - A new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter; Terney, Daniella; Sams, Thomas; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three......) and audio and video recording. The results showed that a non-subject specific MISA system developed on data from the modalities: accelerometer (ACM), gyroscope and EMG is able to detect 98% of the simulated seizures and at the same time mistakes only 4 of the normal movements for seizures. If the...

  5. Role of the multi-modality image archival and communication system in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various non-invasive imaging systems produce increasing amount of diagnostic images day by day in digital format. The direct consequence of this tendency places electronic archives and image transfers in spotlight. Moreover, the digital image archives may support any other activities like simultaneous displaying of multi-modality images, telediagnostics, on-line consultation, construction of standard databases for dedicated organs by regional and/or country wide (e.g. myocardial scintigraphy, mammography, etc....) in order to obtain much more exact diagnosis as well as to support education and training. Our institute started similar research and developing activities few years ago, resulting the construction of our PACS systems -MEDISA LINUX Debian and eRAD ImageMedicalTM LINUX Red Hat- together with the telecommunication part. Mass storage unit of PACS is based on hard drives connecting in RAID with l.2Tbyte capacity. The on-line telecommunication system consists of an ISDN Multi-Media System (MMS) and Internet based independent units. MMS was dedicated mainly for on-line teleconferencing and consultation by the simultaneously transferred morphological and functional images obtaining from the central archives by DICOM or any other allowable image formats. MMS has been created as a part and requirements of an EU research project - RETRANSPLANT -. The central archives -PACS- can be accessed by DICOM 3.0 protocol on Internet surface through well maintained and secure access rights. Displaying and post-processing of any retrieved images on individual workstations are supported by eRAD ImageMedicalTM PracticeBuilder1-2-3 (Window based) image manager with its unique supports and services. The 'real engine' of PracticeBuilder is Ver.5.0 or newer Internet Explorer. The unique feature of PracticelBuilder1-2-3 is the extremely fast patient and image access from the archives even from very 'far distance' (through continents), due to the exceptional image communication

  6. Applications of the Petri net to simulate, test, and validate the performance and safety of complex, heterogeneous, multi-modality patient monitoring alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, E B; Gelhot, V

    2004-01-01

    This research is motivated by the rapid pace of medical device and information system integration. Although the ability to interconnect many medical devices and information systems may help improve patient care, there is no way to detect if incompatibilities between one or more devices might cause critical events such as patient alarms to go unnoticed or cause one or more of the devices to become stuck in a disabled state. Petri net tools allow automated testing of all possible states and transitions between devices and/or systems to detect potential failure modes in advance. This paper describes an early research project to use Petri nets to simulate and validate a multi-modality central patient monitoring system. A free Petri net tool, HPSim, is used to simulate two wireless patient monitoring networks: one with 44 heart monitors and a central monitoring system and a second version that includes an additional 44 wireless pulse oximeters. In the latter Petri net simulation, a potentially dangerous heart arrhythmia and pulse oximetry alarms were detected. PMID:17271039

  7. Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumor of breast treated with a multi-modality approach in a tertiary cancer care centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumor (PT of the breast can be categorized into benign, borderline and malignant subgroups depending on various histopathological factors. Although malignant PTs may be indolent and controlled by local excision, they frequently show local and distant relapses. Literature reveals local recurrence to be the predominant pattern of failure and thus emphasizes the importance of adjuvant radiation in these tumors. The role of systemic chemotherapy has remained doubtful. Materials and Methods: We have analyzed details of all patients of PT (n = 33 treated with adjuvant multi-modality approach in our institute since 1994–2009. The demographic data, treatment details, recurrence patterns and salvage treatment options were documented. Results: All patients received adjuvant radiation. Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean survival of the entire cohort was 150.618 months. There was a trend for better overall survival with borderline grade (193.6 vs. 160.2 months; P = 0.08, log rank. The disease free survival (DFS favored borderline grade (193.6 months vs. 82.9 months for high grade; P = 0.02, log rank. The DFS was significantly better in tumors having negative margins on postoperative histopathological examination (DFS rate at 5 years being 100% vs. 69.2% for positive or close margins; P = 0.015. The mode of surgery did not have any impact on survival. Conclusion: Adjuvant Radiation should be discussed taking into account surgical margins, size and various pathological factors of the primary. Adjuvant radiation may be utilized in high risk patients to enhance loco-regional control. Systemic chemotherapy is an option, worth exploring, in cases of systemic failure.

  8. G-Heart: A GPU-based System for Electrophysiological Simulation and Multi-modality Cardiac Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrophysiological simulation and multi-modality visualization are computationally intensive and valuable in studying the structure, mechanism, and dynamics of heart. The existing multi-CPU based approaches can reduce the calculation time, but suffer from the hardware and communication cost problems and are inefficient for 3D data visualization. Compared with multi-CPU, the highly parallel and multi-core properties of GPU make it a suitable alternative for accelerating cardiac simulation and visualization. In this paper, we develop a G-Heart system where GPU-based acceleration technologies are adopted for both the simulation of cardiac electrophysiological activities and the online illustration 3D multi-modality (anatomical and electrophysiological data. In the simulation stage, a phase-field method is employed to cope with the no-flux boundary condition. For heart geometrical structure illustration, a GPU-based ray-casting volume rendering algorithm is implemented and an improved context-preserving model with user interaction is integrated into the proposed framework. Finally, a fusion visualization method is proposed, which can provide 3D visualization results for both the simulation data and the anatomical data simultaneously.

  9. Advances of radiation oncology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xue; YU Jin-ming

    2009-01-01

    @@ Radiation therapy is one of the main treatment modalities used in cancer management. It is the primary curative modality for about 30% of patients with cancer, and more than half of all cancer patients received radiation therapy sometime during the course of their disease. It is estimated that 70% of the patients with cancer required radiation therapy in China.

  10. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  11. Development of EndoTOFPET-US, a multi-modal endoscope for ultrasound and time of flight positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EndoTOFPET-US project aims at delevoping a multi-modal imaging device that combines Ultrasound with Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography into an endoscopic imaging device. The goal is to obtain a coincidence time resolution of about 200 ps FWHM and sub-millimetric spatial resolution for the PET head, integrating the components in a very compact detector suitable for endoscopic use. The scanner will be exploited for the clinical test of new bio-markers especially targeted for prostate and pancreatic cancer as well as for diagnostic and surgical oncology. This paper focuses on the status of the Time-Of-Flight Positron Emission Tomograph under development for the EndoTOFPET-US project

  12. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  13. A weakly nonlinear model for multi-modal evolution of wind-generated long internal waves in a closed basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sakai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A weakly nonlinear evolution model that accounts for multi-modal interaction in a small, continuously stratified lake of variable depth is derived. In particular, an evolution model for the first two vertical modes in a lake that is subject to wind stress forcing is numerically simulated. Defining modal energies, energy transfer between the first and the second vertical modes is calculated for several different forms of the density stratification. Modal energy transfer mainly occurs during reflection of mode-one waves at the vertical end walls, and it is shown that the amount of energy transfer from the first to the second mode is greatly dependent on the shape of the stratification profile. Also, the initial modal energy partition at the wind setup is shown to depend significantly on the penetration depth of the internal shear stress induced by the wind stress, especially if the stress distribution extends into the upper levels of the metalimnion.

  14. Histopathology in 3D: From three-dimensional reconstruction to multi-stain and multi-modal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Magee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy applied to the domain of histopathology has traditionally been a two-dimensional imaging modality. Several authors, including the authors of this work, have extended the use of digital microscopy to three dimensions by stacking digital images of serial sections using image-based registration. In this paper, we give an overview of our approach, and of extensions to the approach to register multi-modal data sets such as sets of interleaved histopathology sections with different stains, and sets of histopathology images to radiology volumes with very different appearance. Our approach involves transforming dissimilar images into a multi-channel representation derived from co-occurrence statistics between roughly aligned images.

  15. Performance study of a fan beam collimator designed for a multi-modality small animal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology to design and conduct the performances of a fan beam collimator. This fan beam collimator was designed to use with a multi-modality small animal imaging device and the performance of the collimator was studied for a 3D geometry. Analytical expressions were formulated to calculate the parameters for the collimator. A Monte Carlo model was developed to analyze the scattering and image noises for a 3D object. The results showed that the performance of the fan beam collimator was strongly dependent on the source distribution and position. The fan beam collimator showed increased counting efficiency in comparison to a parallel hole collimator. Inside attenuating medium, the increased attenuating effect outweighed the fan beam increased counting efficiency.

  16. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  17. Advanced Radiation Protection (ARP): Thick GCR Shield Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Radiation Project to date has focused on SEP events.  For long duration missions outside Earth’s geomagnetic field, the galactic cosmic ray...

  18. Distributed flow estimation and closed-loop control of an underwater vehicle with a multi-modal artificial lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Levi; Lagor, Francis D; Lei, Hong; Tan, Xiaobo; Paley, Derek A

    2015-04-01

    Bio-inspired sensing modalities enhance the ability of autonomous vehicles to characterize and respond to their environment. This paper concerns the lateral line of cartilaginous and bony fish, which is sensitive to fluid motion and allows fish to sense oncoming flow and the presence of walls or obstacles. The lateral line consists of two types of sensing modalities: canal neuromasts measure approximate pressure gradients, whereas superficial neuromasts measure local flow velocities. By employing an artificial lateral line, the performance of underwater sensing and navigation strategies is improved in dark, cluttered, or murky environments where traditional sensing modalities may be hindered. This paper presents estimation and control strategies enabling an airfoil-shaped unmanned underwater vehicle to assimilate measurements from a bio-inspired, multi-modal artificial lateral line and estimate flow properties for feedback control. We utilize potential flow theory to model the fluid flow past a foil in a uniform flow and in the presence of an upstream obstacle. We derive theoretically justified nonlinear estimation strategies to estimate the free stream flowspeed, angle of attack, and the relative position of an upstream obstacle. The feedback control strategy uses the estimated flow properties to execute bio-inspired behaviors including rheotaxis (the tendency of fish to orient upstream) and station-holding (the tendency of fish to position behind an upstream obstacle). A robotic prototype outfitted with a multi-modal artificial lateral line composed of ionic polymer metal composite and embedded pressure sensors experimentally demonstrates the distributed flow sensing and closed-loop control strategies. PMID:25807584

  19. Advanced radiation chemistry research: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical transformations in materials exposed to high-energy radiations. It is based on the use of ionizing radiation as the initiator or catalyst in chemical reactions. The most significant advantage of radiation chemistry lies in its ability to be used in the production and study of almost any reactive atomic and molecular species playing a part in chemical reaction, synthesis, industrial processes, or in biological systems. Over the the last few years a number of meetings have taken place, under the auspices of the IAEA, in order to evaluate recent developments in radiation chemistry as well as the trends indicated by the results obtained. Radiation chemists from different countries have participated at these meetings. The present publication, a companion to the previous publication - New Trends and Development in Radiation Chemistry, IAEA-TECDOC-527 (1989) - includes some of the important contributions presented at these meetings. It is hoped that it will provide a useful overview of current activities and of emerging trends in this field, thus promoting better understanding of potential contributions of radiation chemistry to other fields of knowledge as well as to practical applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Radiation from advanced solid rocket motor plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Myruski, Brian L.

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to develop an understanding of solid rocket motor (SRM) plumes in sufficient detail to accurately explain the majority of plume radiation test data. Improved flowfield and radiation analysis codes were developed to accurately and efficiently account for all the factors which effect radiation heating from rocket plumes. These codes were verified by comparing predicted plume behavior with measured NASA/MSFC ASRM test data. Upon conducting a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art of SRM plume flowfield and radiation prediction methodology and the pertinent data base, the following analyses were developed for future design use. The NOZZRAD code was developed for preliminary base heating design and Al2O3 particle optical property data evaluation using a generalized two-flux solution to the radiative transfer equation. The IDARAD code was developed for rapid evaluation of plume radiation effects using the spherical harmonics method of differential approximation to the radiative transfer equation. The FDNS CFD code with fully coupled Euler-Lagrange particle tracking was validated by comparison to predictions made with the industry standard RAMP code for SRM nozzle flowfield analysis. The FDNS code provides the ability to analyze not only rocket nozzle flow, but also axisymmetric and three-dimensional plume flowfields with state-of-the-art CFD methodology. Procedures for conducting meaningful thermo-vision camera studies were developed.

  1. Advancements in Afterbody Radiative Heating Simulations for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Panesi, Marco; Brandis, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Four advancements to the simulation of backshell radiative heating for Earth entry are presented. The first of these is the development of a flow field model that treats electronic levels of the dominant backshell radiator, N, as individual species. This is shown to allow improvements in the modeling of electron-ion recombination and two-temperature modeling, which are shown to increase backshell radiative heating by 10 to 40%. By computing the electronic state populations of N within the flow field solver, instead of through the quasi-steady state approximation in the radiation code, the coupling of radiative transition rates to the species continuity equations for the levels of N, including the impact of non-local absorption, becomes feasible. Implementation of this additional level of coupling between the flow field and radiation codes represents the second advancement presented in this work, which is shown to increase the backshell radiation by another 10 to 50%. The impact of radiative transition rates due to non-local absorption indicates the importance of accurate radiation transport in the relatively complex flow geometry of the backshell. This motivates the third advancement, which is the development of a ray-tracing radiation transport approach to compute the radiative transition rates and divergence of the radiative flux at every point for coupling to the flow field, therefore allowing the accuracy of the commonly applied tangent-slab approximation to be assessed for radiative source terms. For the sphere considered at lunar-return conditions, the tangent-slab approximation is shown to provide a sufficient level of accuracy for the radiative source terms, even for backshell cases. This is in contrast to the agreement between the two approaches for computing the radiative flux to the surface, which differ by up to 40%. The final advancement presented is the development of a nonequilibrium model for NO radiation, which provides significant backshell

  2. Exhibition as mass communication: critical studies of multi-modal communicative environments

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the literature on mass communication research ignores exhibition; that is, it does not investigate and provide any theories about the communicative function of trade show exhibits, museum exhibitions, and international expositions, particularly in their most advanced forms as multimedia spatial formations. This paper considers the reasons for the lacunae particularly in critical approaches to historical, cultural and philosophical perspectives on exhibition. It also identi...

  3. Multi-modal magnetic resonance elastography for noninvasive assessment of ovarian tissue rigidity in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Charles D.; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Miller, Frank H.; Carroll, Timothy; Fasanati, Charles; Shea, Lonnie; Brinson, L. Catherine; Woodruff, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, physicians have relied on touch to palpate tissue and detect abnormalities throughout the body. While this time-tested method has provided a simple diagnostic exam for large, superficial abnormalities, it does not permit quantifiable measurements of stiffness in deeper, small organs. Advances in noninvasive imaging to measure tissue rigidity represent important extensions of manual palpation techniques. Tissue fibrosis occurs with age in many organs; in the ovary, it is thought...

  4. Evaluation of a multi-modal grounded theory approach to explore patients’ daily coping with breathlessness due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastrup, Lene; Dahl, Ronald; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich;

    2013-01-01

    the multi-modal GT approach, which encompasses videos of daily life activity, interviews, medical history, demographics, self-rated sensation of breathlessness, and physiological measurements. A formative evaluation was conducted according to the criteria that the data collection should strengthen the...

  5. Active control of multi-modal propagation of tonal noise in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The active control of tonal noise propagating in ducts at frequencies where many modes are able to propagate is considered. The final objective of the work reported is to cancel the prominent 450-500 Hz blade passing frequency of the rotary suction fans found in chimney stacks of power stations...... laboratory. The study of the full control system, which comprises thirty secondary sources and thirty-two error sensors, has revealed a number of new results, in particular with respect to the positioning of the sources and sensors along the length of the duct. Eventually, a reduction of the radiated power...

  6. Radiation protection optimization. Advances in practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Community, protection against the dangers of ionizing radiation is regulated in conformity with the provisions of two Council Directives. One is of general application for all activities involving a hazard arising from ionizing radiation and lays down the basic safety standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation. The other is derived from the abovementioned one and lays down the basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. The Commission, in collaboration with the Spanish Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear and the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, organized on 12, 13 and 14 September 1988 in Madrid, the third scientific seminar on the optimization principle (Alara) which is a key element of the two abovementioned Council Directives. The seminar allowed an analysis of the progress made since the previous seminars of 1979 and 1983, in the practical implementation of the optimization principle, in relation to the design and operation of nuclear and industrial installations, natural radioactivity, medical practices and countermeasures. The report contains the 20 original contributions presented and some general considerations on the results of the seminar

  7. Advances in radiation treatment of natural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long term project has been developed to improve the properties of fibers of henequen. The fibers, impregnated with a monomer and with monomer-dye mixtures, were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The properties of the materials depend on the amount of the polymer included in the fiber structure as a result of the radiation effect. This amount has been evaluated by means of spectroscopy and microscopical analysis, and related with dose and dose rate. The materials obtained by this treatment have better mechanical and surface properties than the non-treated ones. Also, the fibers dyed by the inclusion of the dye in the structure have a significant color solidity. The steps of the process have been optimized, particularly the impregnation. (author)

  8. Imaging Tumor Hypoxia to Advance Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Boss, Mary-Keara; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Most solid tumors contain regions of low oxygenation or hypoxia. Tumor hypoxia has been associated with a poor clinical outcome and plays a critical role in tumor radioresistance. Recent Advances: Two main types of hypoxia exist in the tumor microenvironment: chronic and cycling hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia results from the limited diffusion distance of oxygen, and cycling hypoxia primarily results from the variation in microvessel red blood cell flux and temporary disturbances in p...

  9. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Charn Il [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers.

  10. Advances in radiation oncology in new millennium in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of recent radiation therapy is to improve the quality of treatment and the after treatment quality of life. In Korea, sharing the same objective, significant advancement was made due to the gradual increase of patient number and rapid increase of treatment facilities. The advancement includes generalization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), application of linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and furthermore, the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Authors in this paper prospectively review the followings: the advancement of radiation oncology in Korea, the recent status of four-dimensional radiation therapy. IMRT, the concept of the treatment with biological conformity, the trend of combined chemoradiotherapy, the importance of internet and radiation oncology information management system as influenced by the revolution of information technology, and finally the global trend of telemedicine in radiation oncology. Additionally, we suggest the methods to improve radiotherapy treatment, which include improvement of quality assurance (QA) measures by developing Koreanized QA protocol and system, regional study about clinical protocol development for phase three clinical trial, suggestion of unified treatment protocol and guideline by academic or research societies, domestic generation of treatment equipment's or system, establishment of nationwide data base of radiation-oncology-related information, and finally pattems-of-care study about major cancers

  11. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  12. Multi-modality functional image guided dose escalation in the presence of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In order to increase local tumour control by radiotherapy without increasing toxicity, it appears promising to harness functional imaging (FI) to guide dose to sub-volumes of the target with a high tumour load and perhaps de-escalate dose to low risk volumes, in order to maximise the efficiency of the deposited radiation dose. Methods and materials: A number of problems have to be solved to make focal dose escalation (FDE) efficient and safe: (1) how to combine ambiguous information from multiple imaging modalities; (2) how to take into account uncertainties of FI based tissue classification; (3) how to account for geometric uncertainties in treatment delivery; (4) how to add complementary FI modalities to an existing scheme. A generic optimisation concept addresses these points and is explicitly designed for clinical efficacy and for lowering the implementation threshold to FI-guided FDE. It combines classic tumour control probability modelling with a multi-variate logistic regression model of FI accuracy and an uncomplicated robust optimisation method. Results: Its key elements are (1) that dose is deposited optimally when it achieves equivalent expected effect everywhere in the target volume and (2) that one needs to cap the certainty about the absence of tumour anywhere in the target region. For illustration, an example of a PET/MR-guided FDE in prostate cancer is given. Conclusions: FDE can be safeguarded against FI uncertainties, at the price of a limit on the sensible dose escalation

  13. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    estimation of advanced regional association metrics at the voxel level. PMID:27378902

  14. Recent advances in radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial application of radiation technology for food processing started in the nineties after it was approved by FAO/IAEA/WHO and Codex Alimentarius Commission in the eighties. Sanitary applications were initially explored commercially with microbial decontamination of spices and dry ingredients as the primary commodities to be processed on a large scale. Subsequently, with the emergence of E.coli O157:H7 as the potential food poisoning risk in ground beef, irradiation of meat was initiated in the late nineties in the USA. Since then irradiation, has become a very useful food safety tool and the technology has been approved for addressing food safety risks in moluscan shellfish and vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and more recently for raw uncooked meat by USFDA. Phytosanitary applications assumed importance after USFDA approved irradiation as a method of phytosanitary treatment and subsequent endorsement of the process by International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2003. These approvals were responsible for development of international trade in agricultural commodities. The first to demonstrate the feasibility of the process were India and Australia, the countries that exported mangoes to New Zealand and USA, respectively. As far as the source of radiation is concerned, the world is slowly moving towards deployment of machine sources, thereby reducing its dependence on radioisotopes for commercial irradiation. (author)

  15. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-01-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  16. Advanced materials for radiation-cooled rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Biaglow, James; Schneider, Steven

    1993-11-01

    The most common material system currently used for low thrust, radiation-cooled rockets is a niobium alloy (C-103) with a fused silica coating (R-512A or R-512E) for oxidation protection. However, significant amounts of fuel film cooling are usually required to keep the material below its maximum operating temperature of 1370 C, degrading engine performance. Also the R-512 coating is subject to cracking and eventual spalling after repeated thermal cycling. A new class of high-temperature, oxidation-resistant materials are being developed for radiation-cooled rockets, with the thermal margin to reduce or eliminate fuel film cooling, while still exceeding the life of silicide-coated niobium. Rhenium coated with iridium is the most developed of these high-temperature materials. Efforts are on-going to develop 22 N, 62 N, and 440 N engines composed of these materials for apogee insertion, attitude control, and other functions. There is also a complimentary NASA and industry effort to determine the life limiting mechanisms and characterize the thermomechanical properties of these materials. Other material systems are also being studied which may offer more thermal margin and/or oxidation resistance, such as hafnium carbide/tantalum carbide matrix composites and ceramic oxide-coated iridium/rhenium chambers.

  17. Assessment of rigid multi-modality image registration consistency using the multiple sub-volume registration (MSR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Registration of different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, functional MRI (fMRI), positron (PET) and single photon (SPECT) emission tomography is used in many clinical applications. Determining the quality of any automatic registration procedure has been a challenging part because no gold standard is available to evaluate the registration. In this note we present a method, called the 'multiple sub-volume registration' (MSR) method, for assessing the consistency of a rigid registration. This is done by registering sub-images of one data set on the other data set, performing a crude non-rigid registration. By analysing the deviations (local deformations) of the sub-volume registrations from the full registration we get a measure of the consistency of the rigid registration. Registration of 15 data sets which include CT, MR and PET images for brain, head and neck, cervix, prostate and lung was performed utilizing a rigid body registration with normalized mutual information as the similarity measure. The resulting registrations were classified as good or bad by visual inspection. The resulting registrations were also classified using our MSR method. The results of our MSR method agree with the classification obtained from visual inspection for all cases (p < 0.02 based on ANOVA of the good and bad groups). The proposed method is independent of the registration algorithm and similarity measure. It can be used for multi-modality image data sets and different anatomic sites of the patient. (note)

  18. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-05-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases. PMID:27231621

  19. An Empiric Evaluation of a Real-Time Robot Dancing Framework based on Multi-Modal Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical robots have already inspired the creation of worldwide robotic dancing contests, as RoboCup-Junior's Dance, where school teams, formed by children aged eight to eighteen, put their robots in action, performing dance to music in a display that emphasizes creativity of costumes and movement. This paper describes and assesses a framework for robot dancing edutainment applications. The proposed architecture enables the definition of choreographic compositions, which result on a conjunction of reactive dancing motions in real-time response to multi-modal inputs. These inputs are shaped by three rhythmic events (representing soft, medium, and strong musical note-onsets, different dance floor colors, and the awareness of the surrounding obstacles. This layout was applied to a Lego-NXT humanoid robot, built with two Lego-NXT kits, and running on a hand-made dance stage. We report on an empirical evaluation over the overall robot dancing performance made to a group of students after a set of live demonstrations. This evaluation validated the framework's potential application in edutainment and its ability to sustain the interest of the general audience by offering a reasonable compromise between musical-synchrony, animacy and dance performance’s variability.

  20. Multi-modal pharmacokinetic modelling for DCE-MRI: using diffusion weighted imaging to constrain the local arterial input function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamy, Valentin; Modat, Marc; Shipley, Rebecca; Dikaios, Nikos; Cleary, Jon; Punwani, Shonit; Ourselin, Sebastien; Atkinson, David; Melbourne, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    The routine acquisition of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging data in oncology yields the possibility of combined model fitting of traditionally separate models of tissue structure and function. In this work we hypothesise that diffusion weighted imaging data may help constrain the fitting of pharmacokinetic models to dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI data. Parameters related to tissue perfusion in the intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) modelling of diffusion weighted MRI provide local information on how tissue is likely to perfuse that can be utilised to guide DCE modelling via local modification of the arterial input function (AIF). In this study we investigate, based on multi-parametric head and neck MRI of 8 subjects (4 with head and neck tumours), the benefit of incorporating parameters derived from the IVIM model within the DCE modelling procedure. Although we find the benefit of this procedure to be marginal on the data used in this work, it is conceivable that a technique of this type will be of greater use in a different application.

  1. An efficient nano-based theranostic system for multi-modal imaging-guided photothermal sterilization in gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Since understanding the healthy status of gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is of vital importance, clinical implementation for GI tract-related disease have attracted much more attention along with the rapid development of modern medicine. Here, a multifunctional theranostic system combining X-rays/CT/photothermal/photoacoustic mapping of GI tract and imaging-guided photothermal anti-bacterial treatment is designed and constructed. PEGylated W18O49 nanosheets (PEG-W18O49) are created via a facile solvothermal method and an in situ probe-sonication approach. In terms of excellent colloidal stability, low cytotoxicity, and neglectable hemolysis of PEG-W18O49, we demonstrate the first example of high-performance four-modal imaging of GI tract by using these nanosheets as contrast agents. More importantly, due to their intrinsic absorption of NIR light, glutaraldehyde-modified PEG-W18O49 are successfully applied as fault-free targeted photothermal agents for imaging-guided killing of bacteria on a mouse infection model. Critical to pre-clinical and clinical prospects, long-term toxicity is further investigated after oral administration of these theranostic agents. These kinds of tungsten-based nanomaterials exhibit great potential as multi-modal contrast agents for directed visualization of GI tract and anti-bacterial agents for phothothermal sterilization. PMID:25934293

  2. Composite multi-modal vibration control for a stiffened plate using non-collocated acceleration sensor and piezoelectric actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel active method for multi-mode vibration control of an all-clamped stiffened plate (ACSP) is proposed in this paper, using the extended-state-observer (ESO) approach based on non-collocated acceleration sensors and piezoelectric actuators. Considering the estimated capacity of ESO for system state variables, output superposition and control coupling of other modes, external excitation, and model uncertainties simultaneously, a composite control method, i.e., the ESO based vibration control scheme, is employed to ensure the lumped disturbances and uncertainty rejection of the closed-loop system. The phenomenon of phase hysteresis and time delay, caused by non-collocated sensor/actuator pairs, degrades the performance of the control system, even inducing instability. To solve this problem, a simple proportional differential (PD) controller and acceleration feed-forward with an output predictor design produce the control law for each vibration mode. The modal frequencies, phase hysteresis loops and phase lag values due to non-collocated placement of the acceleration sensor and piezoelectric patch actuator are experimentally obtained, and the phase lag is compensated by using the Smith Predictor technology. In order to improve the vibration control performance, the chaos optimization method based on logistic mapping is employed to auto-tune the parameters of the feedback channel. The experimental control system for the ACSP is tested using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed composite active control algorithm is an effective approach for suppressing multi-modal vibrations. (paper)

  3. Multi-modal adaptive optics system including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography for the clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Matthias; Drexler, Wolfgang; Levecq, Xavier; Lamory, Barbara; Ritter, Markus; Prager, Sonja; Hafner, Julia; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Pircher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new compact multi-modal imaging prototype that combines an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera with AO-optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a single instrument. The prototype allows acquiring AO fundus images with a field of view of 4°x4° and with a frame rate of 10fps. The exposure time of a single image is 10 ms. The short exposure time results in nearly motion artifact-free high resolution images of the retina. The AO-OCT mode allows acquiring volumetric data of the retina at 200kHz A-scan rate with a transverse resolution of ~4 µm and an axial resolution of ~5 µm. OCT imaging is acquired within a field of view of 2°x2° located at the central part of the AO fundus image. Recording of OCT volume data takes 0.8 seconds. The performance of the new system is tested in healthy volunteers and patients with retinal diseases.

  4. Atypical song reveals spontaneously developing coordination between multi-modal signals in brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R Hoepfner

    Full Text Available The courtship and dominance behavior of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater consists of a multi-modal display, including song as well as postural and wing movements. The temporal sequences of the acoustic and the visual display are coordinated. In adult male cowbirds the largest wing movements of the display are synchronized with silent periods of song, but it is unknown how this coordination emerges during song development. Here we investigate how visual display features are coordinated with song by using atypical song sequence structure of isolation-reared male cowbirds. In birds with atypical song, all components of the visual display were highly similar to those of "normal" song displays, but their timing was slightly different. The number of maximal wing movement cycles of isolation-reared males was linked to the number of sound units in the song, and was therefore reduced during the abbreviated song types of isolates. These data indicate that young cowbirds do not need to be exposed to a model of the visual display during ontogeny and that there is synchronization with the temporal structure of song. A physiological link between respiratory and syringeal control of silent periods between sound units and wing movement cycles may be driving this synchronization.

  5. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  6. Establishing radiation therapy advanced practice in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Advanced practice (AP) is of increasing interest to many radiation therapists (RTs) both nationally and internationally. In New Zealand, initial research (2005–2008) showed strong support for the development of an AP role for medical radiation technologists (MRTs). Here, we report on a nationwide survey in which RTs validated and prioritised nine AP profiles for future development. Methods: All registered RTs in New Zealand (n = 260) were invited to take part in a survey in December 2011; 73 of whom returned a complete response. Results: RTs supported the implementation of AP roles in New Zealand and the requirement of a Master's degree qualification to underpin clinical knowledge. Most RTs endorsed the criteria attributed to each of the nine proposed AP profiles. The study identified that activities may qualify as either advanced practice or standard practice depending on the department. All participants agreed that an advanced practitioner should be a leader in the field, able to initiate and facilitate future developments within as well as outside this specific role. Acceptance of the AP roles by RTs and other health professionals as well as the availability of resources for successful implementation, were concerns expressed by some RTs. Conclusion: The authors recommend (1) the development of one scope of practice titled ‘advanced practitioner’ with generic and specialist criteria for each profile as the future career pathway, (2) promotion and support for the AP pathway by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology and the New Zealand Medical Radiation Technologists Board

  7. Integration of Fiber-Optic Sensor Arrays into a Multi-Modal Tactile Sensor Processing System for Robotic End-Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kampmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing complexity of robotic missions and the development towards long-term autonomous systems, the need for multi-modal sensing of the environment increases. Until now, the use of tactile sensor systems has been mostly based on sensing one modality of forces in the robotic end-effector. The use of a multi-modal tactile sensory system is motivated, which combines static and dynamic force sensor arrays together with an absolute force measurement system. This publication is focused on the development of a compact sensor interface for a fiber-optic sensor array, as optic measurement principles tend to have a bulky interface. Mechanical, electrical and software approaches are combined to realize an integrated structure that provides decentralized data pre-processing of the tactile measurements. Local behaviors are implemented using this setup to show the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of prostate cancer patients in exercise intervention studies to date and is also a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting because of concerns of fragility fracture. However, this group of patients often have developed significant muscle atrophy and functional impairments from prior and continuing androgen deprivation that is exacerbated by subsequent and more intensive interventions such as chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Multi-site randomized controlled trial in Western Australia and New South Wales to examine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal physical exercise program in 90 prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. Participants will be randomized to (1) modular multi-modal exercise intervention group or (2) usual medical care group. The modular multi-modal exercise group will receive a 3-month supervised exercise program based on bone lesion location/extent. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 3 months (end of the intervention) and 6 months follow-up. Delaying or preventing skeletal complication and improving physical function for men with bone metastases would provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients. However, exercise programs must be designed and executed with careful consideration of the skeletal complications associated with bone metastatic disease and cumulative toxicities from androgen deprivation such as osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. The results from this study will form the basis for the development of a specific exercise prescription in this patient group in order to alleviate disease burden, counteract the adverse treatment related side-effects and enhance quality of life. ACTRN: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611001158954.aspx

  9. DataViewer3D: An Open-Source, Cross-Platform Multi-Modal Neuroimaging Data Visualization Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, André; Woods, Will; Millman, Rebecca; Morland, Antony; Green, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities [e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography, EEG] relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D) is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modality can guide comparative analysis of another modality in a single coordinate space. DV3D is built on Python, a dynamic object-oriented programming language with support for integration of modular toolkits, and development of cross-platform software for neuroimaging. DV3D harnesses the power of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) for two-dimensional (2D) and 3D rendering, calling VTK's low level C++ functions from Python. Users interact with data via an intuitive interface that uses Python to bind wxWidgets, which in turn calls the user's operating system dialogs and graphical user interface tools. DV3D currently supports NIfTI-1, ANALYZE and DICOM formats for MRI data display (including statistical data overlay). Formats for other data types are supported. The modularity of DV3D and ease of use of Python allows rapid integration of additional format support and user development. DV3D has been tested on Mac OSX, RedHat Linux and Microsoft Windows XP. DV3D is offered for free download with an extensive set of tutorial resources and example data. PMID:19352444

  10. DataViewer3D: An open-source, cross-platform multi-modal neuroimaging data visualization tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre D Gouws

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration and display of results from multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. MRI, MEG, EEG relies on display of a diverse range of data within a common, defined coordinate frame. DataViewer3D (DV3D is a multi-modal imaging data visualization tool offering a cross-platform, open-source solution to simultaneous data overlay visualization requirements of imaging studies. While DV3D is primarily a visualization tool, the package allows an analysis approach where results from one imaging modality can guide comparative analysis of another modality in a single coordinate space. DV3D is built on Python, a dynamic object-oriented programming language with support for integration of modular toolkits, and development of cross-platform software for neuroimaging. DV3D harnesses the power of the Visualization Toolkit (VTK for 2D and 3D rendering, calling VTK's low level C++ functions from Python. Users interact with data via an intuitive interface that uses Python to bind wxWidgets, which in turn calls the user's operating system dialogs and graphical user interface tools. DV3D currently supports NIfTI-1, ANALYZE™ and DICOM formats for MRI data display (including statistical data overlay. Formats for other data types are supported. The modularity of DV3D and ease of use of Python allows rapid integration of additonal format support and user development. DV3D has been tested on Mac OSX, RedHat Linux and Microsoft Windows XP. DV3D is offered for free download with an extensive set of tutorial resources and example data.

  11. Experimental verification of a novel MEMS multi-modal vibration energy harvester for ultra-low power remote sensing nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacci, J.; Sordo, G.; Serra, E.; Kucera, M.; Schmid, U.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we discuss the verification and preliminary experimental characterization of a MEMS-based vibration Energy Harvester (EH) design. The device, named Four-Leaf Clover (FLC), is based on a circular-shaped mechanical resonator with four petal-like mass-spring cascaded systems. This solution introduces several mechanical Degrees of Freedom (DOFs), and therefore enables multiple resonant modes and deformation shapes in the vibrations frequency range of interest. The target is to realize a wideband multi-modal EH-MEMS device, that overcomes the typical narrowband working characteristics of standard cantilevered EHs, by ensuring flexible and adaptable power source to ultra-low power electronics for integrated remote sensing nodes (e.g. Wireless Sensor Networks - WSNs) in the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, aiming to self-powered and energy autonomous smart systems. Finite Element Method simulations of the FLC EH-MEMS show the presence of several resonant modes for vibrations up to 4-5 kHz, and level of converted power up to a few μW at resonance and in closed-loop conditions (i.e. with resistive load). On the other hand, the first experimental tests of FLC fabricated samples, conducted with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), proved the presence of several resonant modes, and allowed to validate the accuracy of the FEM modeling method. Such a good accordance holds validity for what concerns the coupled field behavior of the FLC EH-MEMS, as well. Both measurements and simulations performed at 190 Hz (i.e. out of resonance) showed the generation of power in the range of nW (Root Mean Square - RMS values). Further steps of this work will include the experimental characterization in a full range of vibrations, aiming to prove the whole functionality of the FLC EH-MEMS proposed design concept.

  12. Multi-Modal Homing in Sea Turtles: Modeling Dual Use of Geomagnetic and Chemical Cues in Island-Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S.; Putman, Nathan F.; Ernst, David A.; Kurth, Jessica A.; Lohmann, Catherine M. F.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Sea turtles are capable of navigating across large expanses of ocean to arrive at remote islands for nesting, but how they do so has remained enigmatic. An interesting example involves green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that nest on Ascension Island, a tiny land mass located approximately 2000 km from the turtles’ foraging grounds along the coast of Brazil. Sensory cues that turtles are known to detect, and which might hypothetically be used to help locate Ascension Island, include the geomagnetic field, airborne odorants, and waterborne odorants. One possibility is that turtles use magnetic cues to arrive in the vicinity of the island, then use chemical cues to pinpoint its location. As a first step toward investigating this hypothesis, we used oceanic, atmospheric, and geomagnetic models to assess whether magnetic and chemical cues might plausibly be used by turtles to locate Ascension Island. Results suggest that waterborne and airborne odorants alone are insufficient to guide turtles from Brazil to Ascension, but might permit localization of the island once turtles arrive in its vicinity. By contrast, magnetic cues might lead turtles into the vicinity of the island, but would not typically permit its localization because the field shifts gradually over time. Simulations reveal, however, that the sequential use of magnetic and chemical cues can potentially provide a robust navigational strategy for locating Ascension Island. Specifically, one strategy that appears viable is following a magnetic isoline into the vicinity of Ascension Island until an odor plume emanating from the island is encountered, after which turtles might either: (1) initiate a search strategy; or (2) follow the plume to its island source. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sea turtles, and perhaps other marine animals, use a multi-modal navigational strategy for locating remote islands. PMID:26941625

  13. WE-D-9A-04: Improving Multi-Modality Image Registration Using Edge-Based Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multi-modality deformable image registration (DIR) for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy is difficult, particularly when matching computed tomography (CT) scans with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We hypothesized that the ‘shared information’ between images of different modalities was to be found in some form of edge-based transformation, and that novel edge-based DIR methods might outperform standard DIR methods. Methods: We propose a novel method that combines gray-scale edge-based morphology and mutual information (MI) in two stages. In the first step, we applied a modification of a previously published mathematical morphology method as an efficient gray scale edge estimator, with denoising function. The results were fed into a MI-based solver (plastimatch). The method was tested on 5 HN patients with pretreatment CT and MR datasets and associated follow-up weekly MR scans. The followup MRs showed significant regression in tumor and normal structure volumes as compared to the pretreatment MRs. The MR images used in this study were obtained using fast spin echo based T2w images with a 1 mm isotropic resolution and FOV matching the CT scan. Results: In all cases, the novel edge-based registration method provided better registration quality than MI-based DIR using the original CT and MRI images. For example, the mismatch in carotid arteries was reduced from 3–5 mm to within 2 mm. The novel edge-based method with different registration regulation parameters did not show any distorted deformations as compared to the non-realistic deformations resulting from MI on the original images. Processing time was 1.3 to 2 times shorter (edge vs. non-edge). In general, we observed quality improvement and significant calculation time reduction with the new method. Conclusion: Transforming images to an ‘edge-space,’ if designed appropriately, greatly increases the speed and accuracy of DIR

  14. Multi-modal proteomic analysis of retinal protein expression alterations in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D VanGuilder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a leading cause of adult blindness, diabetic retinopathy is a prevalent and profound complication of diabetes. We have previously reported duration-dependent changes in retinal vascular permeability, apoptosis, and mRNA expression with diabetes in a rat model system. The aim of this study was to identify retinal proteomic alterations associated with functional dysregulation of the diabetic retina to better understand diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and that could be used as surrogate endpoints in preclinical drug testing studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multi-modal proteomic approach of antibody (Luminex-, electrophoresis (DIGE-, and LC-MS (iTRAQ-based quantitation methods was used to maximize coverage of the retinal proteome. Transcriptomic profiling through microarray analysis was included to identify additional targets and assess potential regulation of protein expression changes at the mRNA level. The proteomic approaches proved complementary, with limited overlap in proteomic coverage. Alterations in pro-inflammatory, signaling and crystallin family proteins were confirmed by orthogonal methods in multiple independent animal cohorts. In an independent experiment, insulin replacement therapy normalized the expression of some proteins (Dbi, Anxa5 while other proteins (Cp, Cryba3, Lgals3, Stat3 were only partially normalized and Fgf2 and Crybb2 expression remained elevated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results expand the understanding of the changes in retinal protein expression occurring with diabetes and their responsiveness to normalization of blood glucose through insulin therapy. These proteins, especially those not normalized by insulin therapy, may also be useful in preclinical drug development studies.

  15. 大学英语课堂中PPT课件的多模态性研究%Multi -modal Analysis of Power Point in the College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨

    2012-01-01

    以系统功能语言学为基础的多模态理论是语言学家在长期的外语研究中创立的全新理念,图像、颜色和动作等非语言形式在多模态理论的发展中得到重新认可和重视。PPT课件通过声音、图像、文字、动画等非语言形式成为高校英语重要的多媒体教学手段。本文通过视觉模态、听觉模态和视听模态分析了PPT课件在大学英语课堂中的多模态应用。%Based on the system functional linguistics multi modal is a new concept created by the lin guist in the long term of the foreign language analysis. Nonlinguistic such as pictures, colors and animations gain attention and recognition again with the development of multi modal. PPT becomes an important multi media tool by means of sound, picture, word and animation in English teaching. The paper analyzes the appli cation of PPT in multi modal through the visual modal, acoustical modal and audio visual modal in the col lege English class.

  16. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for γ-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration

  17. Advances in Radiation Therapy in Pediatric Neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Ranjit S; Wolden, Suzanne L

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy remains a highly effective therapy for many pediatric central nervous system tumors. With more children achieving long-term survival after treatment for brain tumors, late-effects of radiation have become an important concern. In response to this problem, treatment protocols for a variety of pediatric central nervous system tumors have evolved to reduce radiation fields and doses when possible. Recent advances in radiation technology such as image guidance and proton therapy have led to a new era of precision treatment with significantly less exposure to healthy tissues. These developments along with the promise of molecular classification of tumors and targeted therapies point to an optimistic future for pediatric neuro-oncology. PMID:26271789

  18. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility and the toxicity of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We analyzed 77 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC stage 111-2, stage IV-75. Sixty-six patients received infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2, on Day 1), eleven patients received infusion of 5.FU (1000 mg/m2, on Day 1-5) and carboplatin (300 mg/m2, on Day 1) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radiation therapy. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 44 months. The overall chemotherapy response rates were 87%. The toxicities of chemotherapy were mild. Only 3 patients experienced Grade 3 toxicities (1 for cytopenia, 2 for nausea/vomiting). The degree of radiation induced mucositis was not severe, and ten patients developed Grade 2 mucositis. The 5-year overall survival rates were 68% and the 5-year disease free survival rates were 65%. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 82% and 5-year locoregional control rates were 75%. This single institution experience suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival and disease free survival for patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma without increase of toxicity

  20. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs.

  1. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs

  2. Advance in clinical research of radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is one of common late side effects derived by thoracic radiotherapy. RIHD is often subclinical and there is an extremely long clinical latent period between radiation therapy and the first clinical presentation of radiation injury, and it did not cause clinical attention for a long time. Until the 1990s, epidemiologic investigations demonstrate that thoracic cancer radiotherapy increased rates of cardiac mortality, RIHD has partly offset the survival benefit provided by adjuvant RT. Radiotherapy techniques has undergone many improvements over the last decades, these improvements decreased both the volume and dose of radiation delivered to the heart, seem to have decreased the incidence of RIHD. Nonetheless, recent studies indicate that the problem of RIHD may persist. For instance, patients with Hodgkin's Disease, lung cancer, and esophageal may still receive either a high dose of radiation to a small part of the heart or a lower dose to the whole heart in radiotherapy. Therefore, long-term cardiac followup of these patients is essential. This article briefly review the clinical presentations, influence factors, prevention and managements, diagnosis and study advances of RIHD. (authors)

  3. Long-term quality of life after intensified multi-modality treatment of oral cancer including intra-arterial induction chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Adorján F.; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Thorn, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) studies are well established when accompanying trials in head and neck cancer, but studies on long-term survivors are rare. Aims: The aim was to evaluate long-term follow-up patients treated with an intensified multi-modality therapy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, tertiary care center. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 oral/oropharyngeal cancer survivors having been treated with an effective four modality treatment (intra-arterial induction ch...

  4. Postoperative radiation for advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To discuss both general and specific indications for radiation following surgery for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck are often not suitable candidates for treatment with definitive radiation, and are treated with surgery. Frequently these patients fail by recurring in either the primary sites or in the necks. Adjuvant radiation is therefore often a critical component in the management of these patients. While radiation can be done either prior to or after surgery, most centers prefer the postoperative setting. This refresher course will review general concepts of postoperative irradiation for the patient with head and neck cancer and apply these concepts to specific situations. The course will begin with a broad review of the indications for postoperative irradiation as not all patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the head and neck require additional treatment. We will also review the concept of using postoperative radiation to allow for more conservative surgery with preservation of function. The second portion of the course will focus on general techniques of postoperative irradiation. We will review concepts of patient setup and treatment portal design and describe how specific techniques are practiced at MDACC. Controversial topics, including field matching, total dose and fractionation, and the timing of postoperative radiation will be discussed. The final section of the course will review the results of postoperative irradiation as applied to the head and neck in general as well as to specific subsites. In addition to results for the common scenarios of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, we will review results of postoperative irradiation for skin cancers of the head and neck, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands

  5. Advances in the project about Pin type silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained advances in the collaboration project ININ-CINVESTAV about development of Pin type semiconductor radiation detectors here are presented. It has been characterized the response to different types of radiation made in CINVESTAV and INAOE. Measurements have been realized with different types of sensitive to charge preamplifiers determining the main characteristics which must be executed to be able to be employed with low capacitance detectors. As applications it has been possible to measure the irradiation time in a mammography machine and X-ray energy spectra have been obtained in the order of 14 KeV, with 4 KeV at ambient temperature. The future actions of project have been indicated and the possible applications of these detectors. (Author)

  6. Advanced Simulations of Optical Transition and Diffraction Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078350; Bobb, Lorraine Marie; Bolzon, B; Bravin, Enrico; Karataev, Pavel; Kruchinin, Konstantin; Lefevre, Thibaut; Mazzoni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Charged particle beam diagnostics is a key task in modern and future accelerator installations. The diagnostic tools are practically the “eyes” of the operators. The precision and resolution of the diagnostic equipment are crucial to define the performance of the accelerator. Transition and diffraction radiation (TR and DR) are widely used for electron beam parameter monitoring. However, the precision and resolution of those devices are determined by how well the production, transport and detection of these radiation types are understood. This paper reports on simulations of TR and DR spatial-spectral characteristics using the physical optics propagation (POP) mode of the Zemax advanced optics simulation software. A good consistency with theory is demonstrated. Also, realistic optical system alignment issues are discussed.

  7. Thin film design for advanced thermochromic smart radiator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yu-Dong; Wang Zhi-Min; Ma Ya-Li; Zhang Fu-Jia

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the research on the materials and design methods for advanced smart radiator devices (SRDs) on large-area flexible substrates utilized on spacecraft. The functional material is thermochromic vanadium dioxide. The coating design of 3RD is similar to the design of broadband filter coatings in a mid-infrared region. The multilayer coatings have complex structures. Coating materials must be highly transparent in a required spectrum region and also mechanically robust enough to endure the influence from the rigorous environments of outer space. The number of layers must be very small, suitable for the deposition on large-area flexible substrates. All the coatings are designed initially based on optical calculation and practical experience, and then optimized by the TFCALC software. Several designs are described and compared with each other. The results show that the emittance variability of the designed SRDs is great than 400%, more advanced than the reported ones.

  8. Hyperfractionation radiation therapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Ye, Ji Won [College of Medicine, Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    The effects of hyperfractionation radiation therapy, such as the failure pattern and survival, on the treatment results in advanced stage head and neck cancer were studied. Between September 1990 and October 1998, 24 patients with advanced stage (III, IV) head and neck cancers, were treated using hyperfractionation radiation therapy in the Department at Radiation Oncology at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The male to female ratio was 7 ; 1, and the age range from 38 to 71 years with the median of 56 years. With regard to the TNM stage, 11 patients were stage III and 13 were stage IV. The sites of primary cancer were the nasopharynx in six, the hypopharynx in 6, the larynx in five, the oropharynx in three, the maxillary sinus in three, and the oral cavity in one patient. The radiotherapy was delivered by 6 MV X-ray, with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy at two fractions a day, with at least 6 hours inter-fractional interval. The mean total radiation doses was 72 Gy, (ranging from 64.4 to 76.8 Gy). Fallow-up periods ranged between 3 and 136 months, with the median of 52 months. The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years in all patients were 66.7% and 52.4%. The disease-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years (3YDFS, 5YDFS) in all patients Were 66.7% and 47.6%. The 3YDFS and 5YDFS in stage III patients were 81.8% and 63.6%, and those in stage IV patients were 53.8% and 32.3%. Ten patients were alive with no local nor distant failures at the time of analyses. Six patients (25%) died due to distant metastasis and 12.5% died due to local failure. Distant metastasis was the major cause of failure, but 2 patients died due to unknown failures and 3 of other diseases. The distant metastasis sites were the lung (3 patients), the bone (1 patient), and the liver (2 patients). One patient died of second esophageal cancer. There were no severe late complications, with the exception of 1 osteoradionecrosis of the mandible 58 months after treatment. Although this study was

  9. Hyperfractionation radiation therapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of hyperfractionation radiation therapy, such as the failure pattern and survival, on the treatment results in advanced stage head and neck cancer were studied. Between September 1990 and October 1998, 24 patients with advanced stage (III, IV) head and neck cancers, were treated using hyperfractionation radiation therapy in the Department at Radiation Oncology at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The male to female ratio was 7 ; 1, and the age range from 38 to 71 years with the median of 56 years. With regard to the TNM stage, 11 patients were stage III and 13 were stage IV. The sites of primary cancer were the nasopharynx in six, the hypopharynx in 6, the larynx in five, the oropharynx in three, the maxillary sinus in three, and the oral cavity in one patient. The radiotherapy was delivered by 6 MV X-ray, with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy at two fractions a day, with at least 6 hours inter-fractional interval. The mean total radiation doses was 72 Gy, (ranging from 64.4 to 76.8 Gy). Fallow-up periods ranged between 3 and 136 months, with the median of 52 months. The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years in all patients were 66.7% and 52.4%. The disease-free survival rates at 3 and 5 years (3YDFS, 5YDFS) in all patients Were 66.7% and 47.6%. The 3YDFS and 5YDFS in stage III patients were 81.8% and 63.6%, and those in stage IV patients were 53.8% and 32.3%. Ten patients were alive with no local nor distant failures at the time of analyses. Six patients (25%) died due to distant metastasis and 12.5% died due to local failure. Distant metastasis was the major cause of failure, but 2 patients died due to unknown failures and 3 of other diseases. The distant metastasis sites were the lung (3 patients), the bone (1 patient), and the liver (2 patients). One patient died of second esophageal cancer. There were no severe late complications, with the exception of 1 osteoradionecrosis of the mandible 58 months after treatment. Although this study was

  10. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  11. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  12. MISTRAL: A game-theoretical model to allocate security measures in a multi-modal chemical transportation network with adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a multi-modal security-transportation model to allocate security resources within a chemical supply chain which is characterized by the use of different transport modes, each having their own security features. We consider security-related risks so as to take measures against terrorist acts which could target critical transportation systems. The idea of addressing security-related issues, by supporting decisions for preventing or mitigating intentional acts on transportation infrastructure, has gained attention in academic research only recently. The decision model presented in this paper is based on game theory and it can be employed to organize intelligence capabilities aimed at securing chemical supply chains. It enables detection and warning against impending attacks on transportation infrastructures and the subsequent adoption of security countermeasures. This is of extreme importance for preventing terrorist attacks and for avoiding (possibly huge) human and economic losses. In our work we also provide data sources and numerical simulations by applying the proposed model to a illustrative multi-modal chemical supply chain. - Highlights: • A model to increase the security in a multimodal chemical supply chain is proposed. • The model considers adaptive opponents having multi-attribute utility functions. • The model is based on game theory using an attacker–defender schema. • The model provides recommendations about where to allocate security measures. • Numerical simulations on a sample multimodal chemical supply chain are shown

  13. Advances in microbeam technologies and applications to radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberet, P; Seznec, H

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. PMID:25911406

  14. Advanced remote decontamination techniques reduce costs and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly contaminated cell in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Facilities was recently decontaminated using a series of remote and contact techniques. The approach used in decontaminating the cell was very successful: It resulted in an 87% lower radiation dose to workers and a cost saving of 39% compared with a hands-on procedure used in another cell 2 yr earlier. Eight cycles of remote decontamination, combining use of an alkaline cleaner foam spray and pressurized water rinse, preceded manned entry. Initial radiation readings in cell C, averaging 50 rad/h, were first reduced to 2 and $1033/m2 of cell surface area. This paper is part of a larger effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program to clean out six radioactive cells and to dismantle PNL's pilot-scale radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter. In this program, numerous other advanced techniques are being developed and are proving valuable, particularly in lowering radiation doses

  15. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11-01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  16. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  17. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Advanced Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling

    2015-01-01

    Novel approach enables high-speed special-purpose processors Advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable communication systems will require sub-130-nanometer electronics. Legacy single event upset (SEU) radiation-tolerant circuits are ineffective at speeds greater than 125 megahertz. In Phase I of this project, ICs, LLC, demonstrated new base-level logic circuits that provide SEU immunity for sub-130-nanometer high-speed circuits. In Phase II, the company developed an innovative self-restoring logic (SRL) circuit and a system approach that provides high-speed, SEU-tolerant solutions that are effective for sub-130-nanometer electronics scalable to at least 22-nanometer processes. The SRL system can be used in the design of NASA's next-generation special-purpose processors, especially reconfigurable communication processors.

  18. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy compared with radiation therapy alone in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the outcomes of patients receiving such treatment. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 137 previously untreated and histologically confirmed advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with either radiation therapy only or combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the Seoul National University Hospital between 1984 and 1996. The stage distribution was as follows: AJCC Stage III-21, Stage IV-61 in the radiation therapy group (RT group); AJCC Stage III-1, Stage IV-54 in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy group (CT/RT group). The median follow-up for surviving patients was 48 months. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 71% for the CT/RT group and 59% for the RT group (p = 0.04). The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 63% for the CT/RT group and 52% for the RT group (p = 0.04). Distant metastasis (DM) incidence was significantly lower in the CT/RT group. The 5-year freedom from distant metastasis rates were 84% for the CT/RT group and 66% for the RT group (p 0.01). The incidence of locoregional failures was also lower in the CT/RT group, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (69% vs. 56%, p = 0.09) Conclusion: While not providing conclusive evidence, historical evidence from this institution suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves both overall and the disease-free survival of patients with advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  19. O laboratório didático a partir da perspectiva da multimodalidade representacional The didactic laboratory perspective from multi-modal representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho dá continuidade às reflexões existentes na literatura da área de educação científica que tratam do papel desempenhado pelo laboratório didático no ensino das ciências. Ao situar o laboratório didático a partir de uma perspectiva semiótica baseada no referencial da multimodalidade representacional, defende-se a importância desse espaço, na escola, para apropriação, consolidação e aprimoramento dos conceitos científicos. A ação experimental sobre e com os objetos do mundo natural e instrumentação envolvida é aqui ponderada como uma modalidade representacional que deveria compor o espectro multimodal de representações de ensino, com o objetivo de tornar o discurso e as ideias científicas mais integradas e significativas.This work gives continuity to the existent reflections in the literature of scientific education area that suport considerations about the function carried out by the didactic laboratory in the science teaching. When placing didactic laboratory in a semiotic perspective, based on the referential of the multi-modal representations, it is defended the importance of that space in the school for appropriation, consolidation and improvement of the scientific concepts. The experimental action on and with the objects of the natural world and implicated instrumentation it is here pondered as a representational modal that should compose the multi-modal representations spectrum in teaching with the objective to making the speech and scientific ideas integrated and significant.

  20. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  1. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Sue

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for older women, on cognitive and physical functioning. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial involves community dwelling women, without cognitive impairment, aged 65–75 years. Participants are randomised to exercise intervention or non-exercise control groups, for 16 weeks. The intervention consists of twice weekly, 60 minute, exercise classes incorporating aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility, co-ordination and agility training. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and secondary outcomes include physical functioning and a neurocognitive biomarker (brain derived neurotrophic factor. Measures are taken at baseline and 16 weeks later and qualitative data related to the experience and acceptability of the program are collected from a sub-sample of the intervention group. Discussion If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. First, an inexpensive, effective strategy will have been developed that could ameliorate the increased prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment predicted to accompany population ageing. Second, more robust evidence will have been provided about the mechanisms that link exercise to cognitive improvement allowing future research to be better focused and potentially more productive. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number

  2. Simulation of the expected performance of INSERT: A new multi-modality SPECT/MRI system for preclinical and clinical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busca, P., E-mail: busca@elet.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Fiorini, C., E-mail: carlo.fiorini@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butt, A.D.; Occhipinti, M.; Peloso, R.; Quaglia, R.; Schembari, F.; Trigilio, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nemeth, G.; Major, P. [Mediso Medical Imaging Systems, Alsotorokvesz 14, H-1022 Budapest (Hungary); Erlandsson, K. [University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Hutton, B.F. [University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2014-01-11

    A new multi-modality imaging tool is under development in the framework of the INSERT (INtegrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced Stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy) project, supported by the European Community. The final goal is to develop a custom SPECT apparatus, that can be used as an insert for commercially available MRI systems such as 3 T MRI with 59 cm bore diameter. INSERT is expected to offer more effective and earlier diagnosis with potentially better outcome in survival for the treatment of brain tumors, primarily glioma. Two SPECT prototypes will be developed, one dedicated to preclinical imaging, the second one dedicated to clinical imaging. The basic building block of the SPECT detector ring is a small 5 cm×5 cm gamma camera, based on the well-established Anger architecture with a continuous scintillator readout by an array of silicon photodetectors. Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) are being considered as possible scintillator readout, considering that the detector choice plays a predominant role for the final performance of the system, such as energy and spatial resolution, as well as the useful field of view of the camera. Both solutions are therefore under study to evaluate their performances in terms of field of view (FOV), spatial and energy resolution. Preliminary simulations for both the preclinical and clinical systems have been carried out to evaluate resolution and sensitivity. -- Highlights: • We introduce INSERT, a new multi-modality SPECT/MRI instrument. • We propose two possible photodetectors (SDD, SiPM) for the scintillators readout. • We show possible results for INSERT, based on simulations.

  3. The Gray Lecture 2001: coming technical advances in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the current limits on the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) due to technical factors and to assess the potential for major improvements in technology. Methods and Materials: The method of this review was to assess the efficacy of current RT in general terms; strategies for improving RT; historical record of technological advances; rationale for further reductions of treatment volume; and importance of defining and excluding nontarget tissues from the target volume. The basis for the interest in proton beam RT is developed, and the relative dose distributions of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and intensity-modulated proton RT (IMPT) are discussed. The discovery of the proton and the first proposal that protons be used in RT is described. This is followed by a brief mention of the clinical outcome studies of proton RT. Likely technical advances to be integrated into advanced proton RT are considered, specifically, four-dimensional treatment planning and delivery. Finally, the increment in cost of some of these developments is presented. Results: For definitive RT, dose limits are set by the tolerance of normal tissues/structures adjacent or near to the target. Using imaging fusion of CT, MRI, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and other studies will result in improved definition of the target margins. Proton beams are likely to replace photon beams because of their physical characteristics. Namely, for each beam path, the dose deep to the target is zero, across the target it is uniform, and proximal to the target it is less. Proton therapy can use as many beams, beam angles, noncoplanar, and dynamic, as well as static, intensity modulation, as can photon plans. The ability for much greater accuracy in defining the target position in space and then maintaining the target in a constant position in the radiation beam despite target movement between and during dose fractions will be possible. The cost of proton

  4. Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT) for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Twenty-two patients with NPC treated at our hospital between April 1994 and December 2002 were the subjects of this study. They received hyperfractionated RT with a fraction size of 1.2 Gy, with a median tumor dose of 72 Gy (range 64.8-80.4). During this study period, our institutional strategy for locoregionally advanced NPC included neoadjuvant or concurrent chemotherapy combined with hyperfractionated RT, and 17 patients received some forms of cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 59 months, the estimated 5-year disease-free survival rate and overall survival rate were 72.7 and 85.2%, respectively. Acute hematological toxicities were acceptable and manageable. However, >50% of patients required nutritional support, and experienced severe pharyngitis, skin reaction and body weight loss. With regard to late sequelae, one patient developed grade 3 osteomyelitis, and one patient each developed grade 4 passage disturbance and laryngeal edema. No patients experienced any grades of optic nerve injury or temporal lobe necrosis. Hyperfractionated RT using 1.2 Gy per fraction, for a total dose of 72 Gy, produces a comparable treatment outcome. Although deleterious neurological sequelae were not observed in this study, caution should be exercised regarding other late sequelae, such as osteomyelitis and passage disturbance. (author)

  5. Investigation for industrial development related to the establishment of advanced radiation application research center

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y I; Kim In Kyu

    2002-01-01

    To promote an enhance the radiation application research through the cooperation between industry and Advanced Radiation Application Research Center, the related industries with radiation technology were surveyed. The related industries were bioresources, environment control and chemical industries and non-destructive testing including trace technology

  6. Hyperthermia with radiation in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxic cells are deterrent to cure with radiotherapy. Hyperthermia (HT) which has the potential to be cytocidal can be complementary to radiation therapy. HT can be complementary to radiation as the targets of cellular lethality are different and hypoxic cells are more sensitive. The present study involves radiation of locally advanced Head and neck cancer with weekly HT as an adjuvant

  7. Radiation therapy and arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gallbladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard therapy is not yet established for the unresectable advanced gallbladder cancer (AGC). Here described is the outcome of authors' therapeutic protocol for AGC during the time Jan., 1989-Dec., 2008. Subjects are 73 patients (M 32/F 41, average age 65 y) with AGC of Stage IV. One shot arterial infusion (AI) of EEP regimen (etoposide (VP16)/4'epiadriamycin (EPIR)/cisplatin (CDDP)) is conducted via hepatic artery proper or common at the first angiography and one week later, external radiation therapy (RT), with about 30-50 Gy/6 fractions (actually, 12-61.6 Gy). AI is weekly done with FP regimen (CDDP/5-fluorouracil (FU)) through the reservoir indwelled in the gastroduodenal artery for 6 months where a metal stent for the stegnosis of bile duct is used if necessary after RT, and in recent days, additionally with biweekly CDDP/gemcitabin (GEM) regimen depending on patient's state after FP. As a result, RT is conducted to 62 cases (RT alone 8 cases), AI, 64 (alone, 10), and RT+AI, 54. Response is found to be 49% (CR 7 cases and PR, 28). Survivals 1- and 3-year are 39 and 6%, respectively, and average survival time, 408 days. Survival rate in (RT+AI) is significantly superior to that in AI alone and in RT alone. Prognosis in patients with jaundice, hepatic or duodenal invasion is significantly inferior to those without the symptom, and in non-responded cases, to responded cases. Complications like hepatic abscess are seen in 4 cases at 6 months after treatment. Four actual case-reports are presented in details with their images. Combination of RT+AI is suggested to be of utility for AGC, of which multi-center trial is awaited with addition of newer anti-cancers developed recently. (K.T.)

  8. Novel particle and radiation sources and advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mako, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    The influence Norman Rostoker had on the lives of those who had the pleasure of knowing him is profound. The skills and knowledge I gained as a graduate student researching collective ion acceleration has fueled a career that has evolved from particle beam physics to include particle and radiation source development and advanced materials research, among many other exciting projects. The graduate research performed on collective ion acceleration was extended by others to form the backbone for laser driven plasma ion acceleration. Several years after graduate school I formed FM Technologies, Inc., (FMT), and later Electron Technologies, Inc. (ETI). Currently, as the founder and president of both FMT and ETI, the Rostoker influence can still be felt. One technology that we developed is a self-bunching RF fed electron gun, called the Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). The MPG has important applications for RF accelerators and microwave tube technology, specifically clinically improved medical linacs and "green" klystrons. In addition to electron beam and RF source research, knowledge of materials and material interactions gained indirectly in graduate school has blossomed into breakthroughs in materials joining technologies. Most recently, silicon carbide joining technology has been developed that gives robust helium leak tight, high temperature and high strength joints between ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal. This joining technology has the potential to revolutionize the ethylene production, nuclear fuel and solar receiver industries by finally allowing for the practical use of silicon carbide as furnace coils, fuel rods and solar receptors, respectively, which are applications that have been needed for decades.

  9. Radiation biology: Major advances and perspectives for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)

  10. A fully automated multi-modal computer aided diagnosis approach to coronary calcium scoring of MSCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-03-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. However, it can be difficult for a human observer to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the feasibility and requirement for an automated scoring method to reduce the subjectivity and reproducibility error inherent with manual clinical calcium scoring.

  11. An automated multi-modal object analysis approach to coronary calcium scoring of adaptive heart isolated MSCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. This can be challenging for a human observer as it is difficult to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. The inclusion or exclusion of false positive or true positive calcified plaques respectively will alter the patient calcium score incorrectly, thus leading to the possibility of incorrect treatment prescription. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the Volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the requirement and

  12. Final report for LDRD project 11-0029 : high-interest event detection in large-scale multi-modal data sets : proof of concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Events of interest to data analysts are sometimes difficult to characterize in detail. Rather, they consist of anomalies, events that are unpredicted, unusual, or otherwise incongruent. The purpose of this LDRD was to test the hypothesis that a biologically-inspired anomaly detection algorithm could be used to detect contextual, multi-modal anomalies. There currently is no other solution to this problem, but the existence of a solution would have a great national security impact. The technical focus of this research was the application of a brain-emulating cognition and control architecture (BECCA) to the problem of anomaly detection. One aspect of BECCA in particular was discovered to be critical to improved anomaly detection capabilities: it's feature creator. During the course of this project the feature creator was developed and tested against multiple data types. Development direction was drawn from psychological and neurophysiological measurements. Major technical achievements include the creation of hierarchical feature sets created from both audio and imagery data.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of high-surface-area millimeter-sized silica beads with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure by the addition of agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) with hierarchical multi-modal pore structure featuring high specific surface area and ordered mesoporous frameworks were successfully prepared using aqueous agar addition, foaming and drop-in-oil processes. The pore-related properties of the prepared spherical silica (SSs) and SSFs were systematically characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), Hg intrusion porosimetry, and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm measurements. Improvements in the BET surface area and total pore volume were observed at 504 m2 g−1 and 5.45 cm3 g−1, respectively, after an agar addition and foaming process. Despite the increase in the BET surface area, the mesopore wall thickness and the pore size of the mesopores generated from the block copolymer with agar addition were unchanged based on the SAXRD, TEM, and BJH methods. The SSFs prepared in the present study were confirmed to have improved BET surface area and micropore volume through the agar loading, and to exhibit interconnected 3-dimensional network macropore structure leading to the enhancement of total porosity and BET surface area via the foaming process. - Highlights: • Millimeter-sized spherical silica foams (SSFs) are successfully prepared. • SSFs exhibit high BET surface area and ordered hierarchical pore structure. • Agar addition improves BET surface area and micropore volume of SSFs. • Foaming process generates interconnected 3-D network macropore structure of SSFs

  14. A Robust and Accurate Two-Step Auto-Labeling Conditional Iterative Closest Points (TACICP) Algorithm for Three-Dimensional Multi-Modal Carotid Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengkai; Wang, Guijin; Huang, Lingyun; Hu, Yuxin; Yuan, Chun; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xihai

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is among the leading causes of death and disability. Combining information from multi-modal vascular images is an effective and efficient way to diagnose and monitor atherosclerosis, in which image registration is a key technique. In this paper a feature-based registration algorithm, Two-step Auto-labeling Conditional Iterative Closed Points (TACICP) algorithm, is proposed to align three-dimensional carotid image datasets from ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR). Based on 2D segmented contours, a coarse-to-fine strategy is employed with two steps: rigid initialization step and non-rigid refinement step. Conditional Iterative Closest Points (CICP) algorithm is given in rigid initialization step to obtain the robust rigid transformation and label configurations. Then the labels and CICP algorithm with non-rigid thin-plate-spline (TPS) transformation model is introduced to solve non-rigid carotid deformation between different body positions. The results demonstrate that proposed TACICP algorithm has achieved an average registration error of less than 0.2mm with no failure case, which is superior to the state-of-the-art feature-based methods. PMID:26881433

  15. Age-related changes in the structure and function of prefrontal cortex-amygdala circuitry in children and adolescents: a multi-modal imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Carrasco, Melisa; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Thomason, Moriah E; Monk, Christopher S

    2014-02-01

    The uncinate fasciculus is a major white matter tract that provides a crucial link between areas of the human brain that underlie emotion processing and regulation. Specifically, the uncinate fasciculus is the major direct fiber tract that connects the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. The aim of the present study was to use a multi-modal imaging approach in order to simultaneously examine the relation between structural connectivity of the uncinate fasciculus and functional activation of the amygdala in a youth sample (children and adolescents). Participants were 9 to 19years old and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results indicate that greater structural connectivity of the uncinate fasciculus predicts reduced amygdala activation to sad and happy faces. This effect is moderated by age, with younger participants exhibiting a stronger relation. Further, decreased amygdala activation to sad faces predicts lower internalizing symptoms. These results provide important insights into brain structure-function relationships during adolescence, and suggest that greater structural connectivity of the uncinate fasciculus may facilitate regulation of the amygdala, particularly during early adolescence. These findings also have implications for understanding the relation between brain structure, function, and the development of emotion regulation difficulties, such as internalizing symptoms. PMID:23959199

  16. Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images. Pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging techniques such as high magnetic field imaging and multidetector-row CT have been markedly improved recently. The final image-reading systems easily produce more than a thousand diagnostic images per patient. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive cross-correlation processing technique using multi-modality images, in order to decrease the considerable time and effort involved in the interpretation of a radiogram (multi-formatted display and/or stack display method, etc). In this scheme, the criteria of an attending radiologist for the differential diagnosis of liver cyst, hemangioma of liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver cancer on magnetic resonance images with various sequences and CT images with and without contrast enhancement employ a cross-correlation coefficient. Using a one-dimensional cross-correlation method, comprehensive image processing could be also adapted for various artifacts (some depending on modality imaging, and some on patients), which may be encountered at the clinical scene. This comprehensive image-processing technique could assist radiologists in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases. (author)

  17. Multi-modal assessment of on-road demand of voice and manual phone calling and voice navigation entry across two embedded vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Bruce; Kidd, David; Reimer, Bryan; Reagan, Ian; Dobres, Jonathan; McCartt, Anne

    2016-03-01

    One purpose of integrating voice interfaces into embedded vehicle systems is to reduce drivers' visual and manual distractions with 'infotainment' technologies. However, there is scant research on actual benefits in production vehicles or how different interface designs affect attentional demands. Driving performance, visual engagement, and indices of workload (heart rate, skin conductance, subjective ratings) were assessed in 80 drivers randomly assigned to drive a 2013 Chevrolet Equinox or Volvo XC60. The Chevrolet MyLink system allowed completing tasks with one voice command, while the Volvo Sensus required multiple commands to navigate the menu structure. When calling a phone contact, both voice systems reduced visual demand relative to the visual-manual interfaces, with reductions for drivers in the Equinox being greater. The Equinox 'one-shot' voice command showed advantages during contact calling but had significantly higher error rates than Sensus during destination address entry. For both secondary tasks, neither voice interface entirely eliminated visual demand. Practitioner Summary: The findings reinforce the observation that most, if not all, automotive auditory-vocal interfaces are multi-modal interfaces in which the full range of potential demands (auditory, vocal, visual, manipulative, cognitive, tactile, etc.) need to be considered in developing optimal implementations and evaluating drivers' interaction with the systems. Social Media: In-vehicle voice-interfaces can reduce visual demand but do not eliminate it and all types of demand need to be taken into account in a comprehensive evaluation. PMID:26269281

  18. Multi-modality PET-CT imaging of breast cancer in an animal model using nanoparticle x-ray contrast agent and 18F-FDG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, C. T.; Ghaghada, K.; Espinosa, G.; Strong, L.; Annapragada, A.

    2011-03-01

    Multi-modality PET-CT imaging is playing an important role in the field of oncology. While PET imaging facilitates functional interrogation of tumor status, the use of CT imaging is primarily limited to anatomical reference. In an attempt to extract comprehensive information about tumor cells and its microenvironment, we used a nanoparticle xray contrast agent to image tumor vasculature and vessel 'leakiness' and 18F-FDG to investigate the metabolic status of tumor cells. In vivo PET/CT studies were performed in mice implanted with 4T1 mammary breast cancer cells.Early-phase micro-CT imaging enabled visualization 3D vascular architecture of the tumors whereas delayedphase micro-CT demonstrated highly permeable vessels as evident by nanoparticle accumulation within the tumor. Both imaging modalities demonstrated the presence of a necrotic core as indicated by a hypo-enhanced region in the center of the tumor. At early time-points, the CT-derived fractional blood volume did not correlate with 18F-FDG uptake. At delayed time-points, the tumor enhancement in 18F-FDG micro-PET images correlated with the delayed signal enhanced due to nanoparticle extravasation seen in CT images. The proposed hybrid imaging approach could be used to better understand tumor angiogenesis and to be the basis for monitoring and evaluating anti-angiogenic and nano-chemotherapies.

  19. Evidence-based development and first usability testing of a social serious game based multi-modal system for early screening for atypical socio-cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Miklos; Borsos, Zsófia; Stefanik, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    At current, screening for, and diagnosis of, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are based on purely behavioral data; established screening tools rely on human observation and ratings of relevant behaviors. The research and development project in the focus of this paper is aimed at designing, creating and evaluating a social serious game based multi-modal, interactive software system for screening for high functioning cases of ASD at kindergarten age. The aims of this paper are (1) to summarize the evidence-based design process and (2) to present results from the first usability test of the system. Game topic, candidate responses, and candidate game contents were identified via an iterative literature review. On this basis, the 1st partial prototype of the fully playable game has been created, with complete data recording functionality but without the decision making component. A first usability test was carried out on this prototype (n=13). Overall results were unambiguously promising. Although sporadic difficulties in, and slightly negative attitudes towards, using the game occasionally arose, these were confined to non-target-group children only. The next steps of development include (1) completing the game design; (2) carrying out first large-n field test; (3) creating the first prototype of the decision making component. PMID:26294452

  20. Development of advanced natural polymer using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was performed to develop the environment-friendly and higher value-added materials using natural polymers derivatives from biotic-resources by radiation technology. To study for structural change of natural polymer by radiation, the effect of electron beam and Gamma ray into four kinds of plants such as Kenaf core, kenaf bast, ock and cornhusk was investigated. As results of analysis about structural change of natural polymer by radiation, efficiently separating process of Lignin was developed by improved decomposition of Lignin with increasing power of radiation. Environ-friendly separating process of Cellulose and Lignin using radiation and water-cook was developed without toxically chemical treatment. Papers were fabricated by cellulose and tensile strength of pulp fabricated by radiation was invested properties of pulp depending on power of radiation. High purity cellulose was fabricated by reduced chemical ratio between hemi-cellulose and Lignin with control of radiative power. Manufacturing process of natural paper highly containing cellulose content was developed using efficient separation of cellulose from ock tree, kenaf core and kenaf bast through radiation technique. Cellulose fiber was fabricated using separated cellulose by radiation through the drying and wetting spinning with methanol and water. Also nano-fiber with Lignin was made by electro-spinning with different ratio between PAN and Lignin. Effect of thermal treatment and carbonization of fabricated nano-fiber was invested. Carbon fiber with Lignin was applied to high value-added a secondary battery used as a cathode in half cell type. The secondary battery with carbon fiber with Lignin used as a cathode showed very efficient performance, which revealed capacity-preservation with 100% during 100 cycles. This project could significantly contribute to national competitiveness with radiation technology and Low-carbon and green-growth industrial technology, based on securement of

  1. Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)–conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique

  2. Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Heckman, Kenneth; Vivenzio, Todd; Nissen, Kristopher; Wolfsberger, Luciant D.; Cormack, Robert A.; Mauch, Peter; Ng, Andrea K. [Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)-conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique

  3. Radiation Mitigation Methods for Advanced Readout Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in the development of advanced instruments and instrument components for planetary science missions. Specifically, an area of importance in...

  4. Moessbauer filtration of synchrotron radiation: advances and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review of the conventional ways of Moessbauer filtration (obtaining highly monochromatized radiation limited only by the energy width of the Moessbauer line) is presented and some new proposals related to the Moessbauer filtration of synchrotron radiation (SR) are discussed

  5. Proceedings of the national conference in advance materials and radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced materials are materials that are either designed or processed using new methods or modified concepts that lead to paradigm shifts in understanding and have vast potential for application in niche areas. In a time when research competitiveness is an increasingly dominant issue to a modern economy, the development, evaluation, performance and marketing of advanced materials all become very important. On the other hand the recent researches in the field of radiation and their interactions with matter have not only helped the development in different fields in science and technology but also contributed towards the improvement of the quality of human life to a great extent. All this has become possible with the different discoveries and inventions leading to the development of various radiation sources and detectors. The core aim of this conference is to provide an opportunity for the delegates to meet, interact and exchange new ideas in the areas of advanced materials and radiation physics. Topics discussed in the conference were: Nano Structured Materials; Electronic and Photonic Materials; Advanced Polymeric Materials; Materials Computational Methods; Advanced Biomaterials; Optical and Spectroscopy Properties of Materials; Radiation Measurements and Instrumentation; Radiation Sources, Reactors and Accelerators; Basic Radiation Processes; Applications of Radiations and related areas. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. The radiation chemistry of advanced polymeric materials containing fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, J.S.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry; Logothetis, A.L. [Du Pont, Central Research and Development, Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Full text: TFE/PMVE (tetrafluoroethylene/perfluoromethylvinyl ether) is a commercial perfluoroelastomer marketed by the Du Pont Company under the trade-name Kalrez. Very little is known about the radiation chemistry of this fluoropolymer which in general is consistent with all fluoropolymers. In 1984, Uschold, while attempting to graft vinyl monomers onto irradiated TFE/PMVE, found that the fluoroelastomer crosslinked forming and insoluble network. Unfortunately, Uschold found that the mechanical properties of irradiated TFE/PMVE were inferior when compared to the chemically crosslinked analogues because of the simultaneous radiation scissioning of the polymer chain. This chemical curing is described elsewhere. The radiation crosslinking of TFE/PMVE was also briefly studied by Luo et al. and later by Sun et al. but they exclusively looked at the sol/gel behaviour. Recently Lyons reviewed the radiation chemistry of fluoropolymers and showed that most research solely focused on the physical properties of the cured material and little attention placed on the development of mechanisms of radiation chemistry. In this study, we have employed both physical and chemical techniques such as tensile tests and {sup 19}F NMR to formulate a radiation mechanism describing both chain scission and crosslinking processes. {sup 19}F NMR identified and quantified new functionalities such as carboxylic acid and saturated chain ends. The crosslinking reaction has been tentatively postulated for the first time. Factors affecting the radiation chemistry such as the presence of oxygen and irradiation temperature will be briefly discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Strengthening of an advanced automated radiation laboratory. Hungary. Terminal report project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advanced Automated Radiation Laboratory was completed; the hardware and software bases are now suitable for up-to-date kinetical measurements in radiation chemistry and technology both for Hungarian experts and for specialists from abroad. It would be possible and useful e.g. to organize further training courses in the field of radiation chemistry and technology by the IAEA and/or the UNDP, as well as to send fellows from developing countries for practical research work or other purposes (TCDC)

  8. Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy...

  9. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed. PMID:25722878

  10. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  11. Application of Advanced Radiation Shielding Materials to Inflatable Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovation is a weight-optimized, inflatable structure that incorporates radiation shielding materials into its construction, for use as a habitation module or...

  12. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    Wondergem Jan; Zubizarreta Eduardo; Rosenblatt Eduardo; Joiner Michael C; Ibbott Geoffrey S; Kiel Krystyna; Salminen Eeva K; Meghzifene Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment wi...

  13. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Rui-yun PENG

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies o...

  14. Advances in small intestinal ionizing radiation injury research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intestinal ionising radiation injuries are a dose limiting factor in the course of radiotherapy of abdominal and pelvic malignancies. In this paper it is reviewed that ionizing radiation injuries of small intestine,including clinical symptoms, epithelium and submucosa changes, signal molecular expression changes, histological and ultrastructure changes. The ongoing works of our laboratory on subjects of intestinal injuries induced by heavy ions and protection against these injuries are also presented. (authors)

  15. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings

  16. Surgical site infection prevention in a local hospital setting - A cost-effectiveness analysis of a multi-modal intervention to prevent surgical site infection after hemi arthroplasty in hip fracture patients

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Vebjørn Enger

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are associated with incremental hospital costs, cause diverse clinical consequences and are detrimental to quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of SSI, identify clinical consequences and estimate the costeffectiveness of a multi-modal intervention strategy to prevent SSI in a local hospital setting. The strategy included use of antibiotic cement, antibiotic prophylaxis and minimum two surgeons for hemi arthroplasty trea...

  17. Correlations between FDG PET glucose uptake-MRI gray matter volume scores and apolipoprotein E ε4 gene dose in cognitively normal adults: a cross-validation study using voxel-based multi-modal partial least squares

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kewei; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Reschke, Cole; Lee, Wendy; Liu, Xiaofen; Alexander, Gene E; Bandy, Dan; Caselli, Richard J.; Reiman, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    We previously introduced a voxel-based, multi-modal application of the partial least square algorithm (MMPLS) to characterize the linkage between patterns in a person’s complementary complex datasets without the need to correct for multiple regional comparisons. Here we used it to demonstrate a strong correlation between MMPLS scores to characterize the linkage between the covarying patterns of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) measurements of regional glucose metaboli...

  18. Sulfur-infiltrated porous carbon microspheres with controllable multi-modal pore size distribution for high energy lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunyu; Liu, Lianjun; Zhao, Huilei; Krall, Andy; Wen, Zhenhai; Chen, Junhong; Hurley, Patrick; Jiang, Junwei; Li, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur has received increasing attention as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries is limited by the challenges of poor electrical conductivity of sulfur, dissolution of the polysulfide intermediates into the electrolyte, and volume expansion of sulfur during cycling. Herein, we report the fabrication of novel-structured porous carbon microspheres with a controllable multi-modal pore size distribution, i.e., a combination of interconnected micropores, mesopores and macropores. Cathodes made of sulfur infiltrated in such a hierarchical carbon framework provide several advantages: (1) a continuous and high surface area carbon network for enhanced electrical conductivity and high sulfur loading; (2) macropores and large mesopores bridged by small mesopores to provide good electrolyte accessibility and fast Li ion transport and to accommodate volume expansion of sulfur; and (3) small mesopores and micropores to improve carbon/sulfur interaction and to help trap polysulfides. An initial discharge capacity at 1278 mA h g-1 and capacity retention at 70.7% (904 mA h g-1) after 100 cycles at a high rate (1 C) were achieved. The material fabrication process is relatively simple and easily scalable.Sulfur has received increasing attention as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries due to its high theoretical specific capacity. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries is limited by the challenges of poor electrical conductivity of sulfur, dissolution of the polysulfide intermediates into the electrolyte, and volume expansion of sulfur during cycling. Herein, we report the fabrication of novel-structured porous carbon microspheres with a controllable multi-modal pore size distribution, i.e., a combination of interconnected micropores, mesopores and macropores. Cathodes made of sulfur infiltrated in such a hierarchical carbon framework provide

  19. 从多模态角度浅析手机广告%A Brief Analysis of Mobile Advertisement from the Multi-modal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2014-01-01

    20世纪90年代西方兴起的多模态话语分析,逐渐成为语言学研究的新热点之一。经过十多年的发展,多模态分析已从语言学逐渐延伸到其他领域,研究对象也从语言文字扩展到音乐、图片、视频等多种社会符号系统。于是,随着人类社会步入3G时代,手机的普及使得手机广告具有极大的发展市场,将多模态分析运用到手机广告中将是今后的必然趋势。该文试图从多模态分析角度对手机广告进行浅析。%Multimodal discourse analysis rising in the western in 1990s has gradually become a new hot spot of the linguistic re-search. After more than ten years of development, multimodal analysis is not only applied in linguistics, but also extended to other areas. The research object is also extended from language to music, pictures, video and other social symbols. Thus, as human soci-ety has entered the 3G era, the popularity of mobile phones makes the mobile advertising market has great development, and the multimodal analysis will be greatly applied to mobile advertising. This paper attempts to analyze mobile advertisement from a multi-modal perspective.

  20. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  1. Blending work-integrated learning with distance education in an Australian radiation therapy advanced practice curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced practice for radiation therapists has been a part of the international landscape for several years; however formal implementation into the Australian health care system is yet to happen. Despite this, three short course radiation therapy advanced practitioner programs have been established by an Australian tertiary institution in response to clinical service needs at several organisations. This paper describes the rationale for curriculum design and development of the program materials, the small-scale implementation of the programs at pilot sites, and the evolution of the curriculum to be available to registered radiation therapists nationally. Each program has been designed around a specific clinical role, where flexibility of delivery to busy practitioners was central to the decision to offer them via distance education. The curriculum comprises theoretical units of study which run in parallel to and underpin clinical practice units, where advanced competence in the specific area of practice is overseen by an experienced radiation oncologist mentor. Given the nature of the disparate clinical services requiring an advanced radiation therapy practitioner, the workplace learning component of the course is individually negotiated at a local level. Outcomes suggest that the flexible clinically based training underpinned by a distance education academic curriculum is able to support the development of advanced radiation therapy practitioners responsive to local service need, and ultimately may improve the patient experience

  2. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    McFee, Brian; Lanckriet, Gert

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning t...

  3. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  4. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DAVIS; J. APRUZESE; , Y. CHONG; R. CLARK; A. DASGUPTA; J. GIULIANI; P. KEPPLE; R. TERRY; J. THORNHILL; A. VELIKOVICH

    2003-05-01

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings.

  5. Modeling solar radiation at the Earth's surface recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation data is important for a wide range of applications, e.g. in engineering, agriculture, health sector, and in many fields of the natural sciences. A few examples showing the diversity of applications may include: architecture and building design e.g. air conditioning and cooling systems; solar heating system design and use; solar power generation; weather and climate prediction models; evaporation and irrigation; calculation of water requirements for crops; monitoring plant growth and disease control; skin cancer research. Solar radiation data must be provided in a variety of f

  6. Introduction and fundamentals: Lecture No. 2. Course on advances in radiation, International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie that science variously called health physics or radiation. Some of the underlying assumptions of radiation protection are discussed, and some developments in the radiological sciences since 1975 described

  7. Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are using RAFT polymerization to synthesize smart polymer nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of protein, peptide and nucleic acid drugs. In the coming program period we plan to synthesize these carriers using radiation to initiate the RAFT polymerizations. In this way we will avoid the need to add free radical initiators to initiate this polymerization, yielding a purer polymer-drug nanocarrier. (author)

  8. Establishment of Research Infrastructure for National Advanced Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, Il Hiun; Byun, Myung Woo; Jeong, Il Yun; and others

    2007-07-15

    Construction of fundamental analysis system for RT/RFT advancement and pilot scale laboratory/facility for industry support and Assembly/installation of 30 MeV cyclotron for RI production and research utilizing positron beam, and construction of /distribution system for industrial and medical purpose were carried out for fast settlement for research environment of ARTI (a Jeongeup branch of KAERI)

  9. Establishment of Research Infrastructure for National Advanced Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of fundamental analysis system for RT/RFT advancement and pilot scale laboratory/facility for industry support and Assembly/installation of 30 MeV cyclotron for RI production and research utilizing positron beam, and construction of /distribution system for industrial and medical purpose were carried out for fast settlement for research environment of ARTI (a Jeongeup branch of KAERI)

  10. Fabrication of advanced military radiation detector sensor and performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, our country is facing a continuous nuclear weapons threat. Therefore, we must have a high-level nuclear weapons protection system. The best protection against nuclear weapons is detecting their use to reduce casualties in our country to a minimum. That means, the development of a military radiation detector is a very important issue. The Korea army is using the 'PDR - 1K portable military radiation surveymeter' in NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical warfare) operations. The PDR - 1K military detector can measure beta and gamma rays only but it cannot detect alpha particles. Because of its characteristics, the Korea army has weaknesses in tactical operations. The PDR - 1K sensor is based on a GM - tube sensor system. For the mechanical structure, detectors utilizing a GM-tube sensor do not work on a high - radiation battlefield and they do not carry out nuclide analysis for fixed electron signal output. In the meantime, the United States of America and Germany are using 'AN/PDR - 77' and 'SVG - 2' that were made from scintillator sensors. They have excellent physical qualities and radiation responses for military use. Also, nuclide analysis is available. Therefore, in this study we fabricated a military - grade scintillator radiation sensor that is able to detect alpha, beta, and gamma - rays to overcome PDR - 1K's weaknesses. Also, physical characteristics and radiation response evaluation for the fabricated sensors was carried out. The alpha - particle sensor and beta - ray sensor were fabricated using a ZnS(Ag) powder state scintillator, and a Saint - Gobain organic plastic scintillator BC-408 panel, respectively. The gamma ray sensor was manufactured using a 10 x 10 x 10 mm3 CsI(Tl) inorganic scintillator crystal. A detailed explanation follows. The alpha particle sensor was fabricated by using air - brushing method to Zns(Ag) powder scintillator spreading. The ZnS(Ag) layer thickness was 35 μm (detection efficiency: 41%). This alpha - particle sensor

  11. Advances in Radiation-Tolerant Solar Arrays for SEP Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark J.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    As the power levels of commercial communications satellites reach the 20 kWe and higher, new options begin to emerge for transferring the satellite from LEO to GEO. In the past electric propulsion has been demonstrated successfully for this mission - albeit under unfortunate circumstances when the kick motor failed. The unexpected use of propellant for the electric propulsion (EP) system compromised the life of that vehicle, but did demonstrate the viability of such an approach. Replacing the kick motor on a satellite and replacing that mass by additional propellant for the EP system as well as mass for additional revenue-producing transponders should lead to major benefits for the provider. Of course this approach requires that the loss in solar array power during transit of the Van Allen radiation belts is not excessive and still enables the 15 to 20 year mission life. In addition, SEP missions to Jupiter, with its exceptional radiation belts, would mandate a radiation-resistant solar array to compete with a radioisotope alternative. Several critical issues emerge as potential barriers to this approach: reducing solar array radiation damage, operating the array at high voltage (>300 V) for extended times for Hall or ion thrusters, designing an array that will be resistant to micrometeoroid impacts and the differing environmental conditions as the vehicle travels from LEO to GEO (or at Jupiter), producing an array that is light weight to preserve payload mass fraction - and to do this at a cost that is lower than today's arrays. This paper will describe progress made to date on achieving an array that meets all these requirements and is also useful for deep space electric propulsion missions.

  12. Advanced technology lunar telescopes III. Radiation resistant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical lunar telescope requires high resolution imaging array detectors that are immune to (or can be easily shielded from) solar flare particle radiation and cosmic rays. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs), the detectors of choice for ground-based applications, fall short in this respect because of their high susceptibility to radiation induced bulk traps and loss of charge transfer efficiency (CTE). Blooming in CCDs also limits the dynamic range and degrades resolution, while the well known red leak problem hinders observations in the ultraviolet. The authors describe an ongoing program at NASA GSFC to develop intensified random-access Charge-Injection Devices (CIDs), a new generation of space uv detectors which do not have the shortcomings of CCDs. CIDs, like CCDs, are silicon array detectors. Unlike CCDs, however, CIDs have more than 100x greater tolerance to ionizing particle radiation. Since CIDs do not transfer charge, CTE degradation has very little effect on the overall sensitivity and noise level. CIDs can perform extremely fast windowing of selected regions of interest with high signal levels (e.g. bright cores of galaxies or strong emission lines, etc) while monitoring the remainder of the array at lower rates. This selective readout ability plus the lack of blooming give CIDs a high dynamic range of operation but with minimal demands on the memory storage and telemetry data bandwidth. The authors demonstrate the operation of a row-windowing CID and discuss the potential applications of these devices to astronomical research from the moon

  13. Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le

    2009-06-01

    One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.

  14. Design of radiation resistant metallic multilayers for advanced nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail, E-mail: zherne@bnl.gov, E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Gill, Simerjeet, E-mail: zherne@bnl.gov, E-mail: gills@bnl.gov; Stanic, Vesna; DiMasi, Elaine; Kisslinger, Kim; Ecker, Lynne [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Baldwin, J. Kevin; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Demkowicz, M. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    Helium implantation from transmutation reactions is a major cause of embrittlement and dimensional instability of structural components in nuclear energy systems. Development of novel materials with improved radiation resistance, which is of the utmost importance for progress in nuclear energy, requires guidelines to arrive at favorable parameters more efficiently. Here, we present a methodology that can be used for the design of radiation tolerant materials. We used synchrotron X-ray reflectivity to nondestructively study radiation effects at buried interfaces and measure swelling induced by He implantation in Cu/Nb multilayers. The results, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show a direct correlation between reduced swelling in nanoscale multilayers and increased interface area per unit volume, consistent with helium storage in Cu/Nb interfaces in forms that minimize dimensional changes. In addition, for Cu/Nb layers, a linear relationship is demonstrated between the measured depth-dependent swelling and implanted He density from simulations, making the reflectivity technique a powerful tool for heuristic material design.

  15. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Looking beyond traditional chemotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savir, Guy; Huber, Kathryn E; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2013-07-01

    About a third of all pancreatic cancer is found to be locally advanced at the time of diagnosis, where the tumor is inoperable but remains localized to the pancreas and regional lymphatics. Sadly, this remains a universally deadly disease with progression to distant disease being the predominant mode of failure and average survival under one year. Optimal treatment of these patients continues to be an area of controversy, with chemotherapy alone being the treatment preference in Europe, and chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation in selected patients, preferred in the USA. The aim of this paper is to summarize the key abstracts presented at the 2013 ASCO Annual Meeting that address evolving approaches to the management of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The late breaking abstract (#LBA4003) provided additional European data showing non-superiority of chemoradiation compared to chemotherapy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients without distant progression following 4 months of chemotherapy. Another late breaking abstract, (#LBA4004), unfortunately showed a promising new complement to gemcitabine and capecitabine using immunotherapy in the form of a T-helper vaccine did not translate to improved survival in the phase III setting. PMID:23846922

  16. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce ∼ 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy's Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories' Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched

  17. Multi-modal imaging of angiogenesis in a nude rat model of breast cancer bone metastasis using magnetic resonance imaging, volumetric computed tomography and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Berger, Martin R; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-01-01

    , respectively. DCE-US allows for real-time imaging of vascularization in bone metastases after injection of microbubbles. In conclusion, in a model of site-specific breast cancer bone metastases multi-modal imaging techniques including MRI, VCT and US offer complementary information on morphology and functional parameters of angiogenesis in these skeletal lesions. PMID:22929330

  18. Concomitant chemo radiation in the treatment of advanced cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study results of non randomized radio chemotherapy in the cervix cancer treatment are cheering and clinically the answers are faster. However only some randomized studies using hydroxyurea showed a benefit in survival term. The association tolerance of 5 FU with cisplatin is generally acceptable but we don't know yet the long-range toxicity. Finally we'll have to determine in which quantity, the pelvis control improvement should be able to increase the survival rate, because the metastases are frequent in these carcinoma advanced forms. 59 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Concurrent Cisplatin and Radiation Versus Cetuximab and Radiation for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) and radiation (RT) with cetuximab (C225) and RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: This study retrospectively compared 174 consecutive, newly diagnosed LAHNC patients definitively treated from March 1, 2006, to April 1, 2008, with single-agent CDDP/RT (n = 125) or C225/RT (n = 49). We excluded patients who received additional concurrent, induction, or adjuvant systemic therapy; weekly cisplatin; prior head-and-neck radiotherapy; or primary surgical resection. Outcomes were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox model, and competing-risks analysis tools. Results: The C225/RT patients were older and had decreased creatinine clearance. At a median follow-up of 22.5 months for living patients, the 2-year locoregional failure rate was 5.7% for CDDP/RT and 39.9% for C225/RT (p < 0.0001). The 2-year failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 87.4% vs. 44.5% (p < 0.0001) and 92.8% vs. 66.6% (p = 0.0003), respectively, in favor of CDDP/RT. When the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis, treatment with CDDP/RT predicted for improved locoregional control (p < 0.0001), FFS (p < 0.0001), and OS (p = 0.01). Late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity or feeding tube dependence 9 months after completion of RT was observed in 21% of patients in the CDDP/RT cohort and 24% in the C225/RT cohort (p = 0.66). Conclusions: In this study of LAHNC patients, CDDP/RT achieved better locoregional control, FFS, and OS than C225/RT. Although the results were upheld on multivariate analysis, they must be interpreted cautiously because of the retrospective nature of the study and significant differences in patient selection. There was no statistically significant difference in late Grade 3 or 4 effects or feeding tube dependence.

  20. Concurrent Cisplatin and Radiation Versus Cetuximab and Radiation for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutcher, Lawrence, E-mail: Koutchel@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sherman, Eric; Fury, Matthew [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zhang Zhigang; Mo Qianxing [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Stewart, Laschelle; Schupak, Karen; Gelblum, Daphna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wong, Richard; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zelefsky, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Pfister, David [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) and radiation (RT) with cetuximab (C225) and RT for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: This study retrospectively compared 174 consecutive, newly diagnosed LAHNC patients definitively treated from March 1, 2006, to April 1, 2008, with single-agent CDDP/RT (n = 125) or C225/RT (n = 49). We excluded patients who received additional concurrent, induction, or adjuvant systemic therapy; weekly cisplatin; prior head-and-neck radiotherapy; or primary surgical resection. Outcomes were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox model, and competing-risks analysis tools. Results: The C225/RT patients were older and had decreased creatinine clearance. At a median follow-up of 22.5 months for living patients, the 2-year locoregional failure rate was 5.7% for CDDP/RT and 39.9% for C225/RT (p < 0.0001). The 2-year failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 87.4% vs. 44.5% (p < 0.0001) and 92.8% vs. 66.6% (p = 0.0003), respectively, in favor of CDDP/RT. When the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis, treatment with CDDP/RT predicted for improved locoregional control (p < 0.0001), FFS (p < 0.0001), and OS (p = 0.01). Late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity or feeding tube dependence 9 months after completion of RT was observed in 21% of patients in the CDDP/RT cohort and 24% in the C225/RT cohort (p = 0.66). Conclusions: In this study of LAHNC patients, CDDP/RT achieved better locoregional control, FFS, and OS than C225/RT. Although the results were upheld on multivariate analysis, they must be interpreted cautiously because of the retrospective nature of the study and significant differences in patient selection. There was no statistically significant difference in late Grade 3 or 4 effects or feeding tube dependence.

  1. Management of metastatic malignant thymoma with advanced radiation and chemotherapy techniques: report of a rare case

    OpenAIRE

    D’Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G. Kesava

    2015-01-01

    Malignant thymomas are rare epithelial neoplasms of the anterior superior mediastinum that are typically invasive in nature and have a higher risk of relapse that may ultimately lead to death. Here we report a case of an advanced malignant thymoma that was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection and subsequently with advanced and novel radiation therapy techniques. A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with a stage IV malignant thymoma with multiple metast...

  2. Radiation-resistant requirement analysis of device for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that high levels of radiation can cause significant damage by altering the properties of materials. A practical understanding of the effects of radiation - how radiation affects various types of materials and components - is required to design equipment to operate reliably in a gamma radiation environment. When designing equipment to operate in a high gamma radiation environment, such as will be present in a nuclear spent fuel handling facility, several important steps should be followed. To do this, the system design process in the radiation environment is reviewed. Also, through the investigation of the foreign literature, threshold values are generally reported. The threshold values are normally the dose required to begin degradation in a particular material property. In order to active test of the Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP), the radiation-resistant analysis of the device for active test of the ACP are conducted, which is operated in the radiation environment called a hot-cell. For analyzing the radiation effects of the ACP, a gamma dose rates for a hot-cell environment of the ACP are calculated by using the SCALE 4.4 code. Also, the radiation effect analysis of the main device for the ACP such as vol-oxidation, reduction reactor and servo manipulator is performed

  3. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as 'a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care'. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities. PMID:26451243

  4. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities

  5. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health, Taree, New South Wales (Australia); Harris, Jillian [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Woznitza, Nick [Homerton University Hospital and School of Allied Health Professions, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury (Australia); Maresse, Sharon [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Sale, Charlotte [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health, Taree, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities.

  6. Treatment of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer remains associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection can be curative, but the majority of patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Treatment for patients with locally advanced disease is controversial. Therapeutic options include systemic therapy alone, concurrent chemoradiation, or induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. We review the evidence to date regarding the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), as well as evolving strategies including the emerging role of targeted therapies. We propose that if radiation is used for patients with LAPC, it should be delivered with concurrent chemotherapy and following a period of induction chemotherapy.

  7. Advances in traceability of solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland) commenced in 1989, five years after the alarming observation of the ozone depletion in the Antarctic and in association with the establishment of the solar UV monitoring network of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It was soon realised that the instrumentation for solar UVR measurements was far from adequate for the challenging task of measuring the solar UV spectrum. In addition, the intercomparison of lamps used as secondary standards of UV irradiance between the National Standard Laboratories revealed significant discrepancies. In the course of this study, a national lamp-based scale for UV irradiance was established by STUK and subsequently was confirmed with the detector-based scale of the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). Methods for (i) radiometric testing, (ii) calibration and (iii) data correction were developed for solar UV spectroradiometers and for broadband erythemally weighted (EW) solar UV radiometers. A common opinion in the early 1990s was that EW radiometers were not good enough for solar UV monitoring; spectroradiometers or multi-channel narrow band radiometers were seen as the only option for reliable solar UV radiometry. Later on, several intercomparisons revealed that, without stringent methods of quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA), even high precision spectroradiometers easily yield UV data erroneous by 20% or more. The reliability of the spectroradiometric solar UVR measurements made by STUK was verified in the Nordic solar UV radiometer intercomparisons in 1993 and 1996 and in the largest European intercomparison of solar UV spectroradiometers in 1997. At STUK, it was considered that the low cost and easy-to-operate EW radiometers also had a role in solar UV monitoring. After developing the calibration methods for EW radiometers and gaining experience in testing of 16 EW radiometers, STUK organised the first

  8. Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review paper, we present radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers. We first describe the mechanisms inducing microscopic and macroscopic changes under irradiation: radiation-induced attenuation, radiation-induced emission and compaction. We then discuss the influence of various parameters related to the optical fiber, to the harsh environments and to the fiber-based applications on the amplitudes and kinetics of these changes. Then, we focus on advances obtained over the last years. We summarize the main results regarding the fiber vulnerability and hardening to radiative constraints associated with several facilities such as Mega-joule class lasers, ITER, LHC, nuclear power plants or with space applications. Based on the experience gained during these projects, we suggest some of the challenges that will have to be overcome in the near future to allow a deeper integration of fibers and fiber-based sensors in radiative environments. (authors)

  9. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Ploen, J.; Vogelius, I. R.;

    2013-01-01

    external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect of......Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is part of the standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancers. Tumor regression at the time of operation is desirable, but not much is known about the relationship between radiation dose and tumor regression. In the present study we...... estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination of...

  10. Answer to preoperative chemie radiation in locally advanced rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study the pre-operative combined therapy effect in the treatment of the rectum cancer cases of the Servicio de Cirugia General 2 of the Hospital Mexico. The study covers since January of 2003 until December of 2005. It has like specific objectives to analyze the effect in the tumour stages, the sphincters preservation and the recurrence. In the conclusions, it notes that the pre-operative chemie-radiation in the rectum cancer is indicated in II and III stages, in which it has showed most advantages for the patient. It describes that the time between the end of pre-operative combined treatment and the surgery must has at least six weeks to guarantee the effect in the tumour and to reduce the treatment toxicity. It concludes besides, that the complication rate after the pre-operative combined therapy and the total meso rectum excision is approximately of 33%; however, the pelvic septic complications can reduce with an ostomy of protection. It focus that the technique of sphincters preservation has showed to be effective and secure if it does a previous selection to the patients in appropriate form. To get an suitable stages must count with trans rectum endoscopic ultrasound and a tomography of suitable quality. It concludes, also, in intervened tumours after of neo-adjuvancy they don't need free distal margins of illness higher to 2 cm. The total meso rectum excision is the updated surgical recommendation in the rectum cancer

  11. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  12. Planning report for establishment of research infrastructure for national advanced radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of research infrastructure and assistant of industry renovation is needed to achieve technology level-up in the all industry areas including plant engineering, material engineering, polymers, nondestructive tests, radioisotope tracer application, environment engineering, medical science, agriculture, sterilization, sprouting, biotechnology and aerospace, which would be the core motivation of our future industry. Especially for early settlement of research environment for the new RT-specialized national institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI) in Jeongup, Chonbuk, Korea is essential. For this purpose, an intensive system construction is demanded including: 1) Area of establishment of the system assisting radiation technology advancement: It is expected that radioisotope production for industrial or medical uses and activation of the related researches and training of experts by manufacture, installation, and operation of 30 MeV cyclotron. It also can be contributed in the promotion of national radiation related science and technology by establishment of a basic and advanced analysis system. 2) Area of establishment of training and education system of RT experts. 3) Area of establishment of a system for technological assistance for industry and industry-university-institute network. Contribution to balanced regional development and promotion of national RT-based science through establishment of RT industry cluster with Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTi) at Jeongup as the center figure

  13. Management of radiation necrosis and advanced cancer of the chest wall in patients with breast malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive resection, with individualized reconstruction by several methods, is of value in many patients with radiation necrosis and/or advanced breast cancer of the chest wall. Although this does not always significantly lengthen survival, it can improve the quality of life markedly in many instances. Remarkably large defects can be reconstructed with single-stage procedures

  14. Recent advances in radiation monitoring systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present projections indicate that by 1990 a minimum of 700 nuclear power stations will be in operation in at least 42 different countries. The health physics' profession is confronted, therefore, with a massive effort to control the radiological consequences of these operations. Regulations have been adopted or are being considered by the various governments to guide the health physicist. It is apparent that the necessary radiological measurements will become increasingly complex, require improved sensitivity and accuracy, increase in frequency, and demand more attention from the health physics staff. Computerized systems offer a cost-effective solution to keep these expanding requirements within manageable limits. The technology of computers, minicomputers and microcomputers is one of the most dynamic developments occurring in today's society. It has a history of doing 'more-for-less' as each new advancement reaches the commercial market. In the face of constant cost escalation in nuclear plant construction, the opportunity to provide more-for-less is a most welcome change. In anticipation of expanded radiological requirements and the availability of a compatible technology to meet them, the next step is to design and test a total system to be responsive to regulatory guidelines. Such a system will be described with appropriate emphases on both the data acquisition and data management subsystems. As the system evolves, it is logical to view its full purpose as a health physics operations center more than just another monitoring tool. Here the data vital to the decision-making processes are displayed rapidly and intelligently for interpretation by the operators. Overall, system design and operation should provide the health physicist with credible data to reflect favorably on the environmental and public acceptability of nuclear power

  15. Radiation induced apoptosis and initial DNA damage are inversely related in locally advanced breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Gallego Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA-damage assays, quantifying the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation, have been proposed as a predictive test for radiation-induced toxicity. Determination of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry analysis has also been proposed as an approach for predicting normal tissue responses following radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between initial DNA damage, estimated by the number of double-strand breaks induced by a given radiation dose, and the radio-induced apoptosis rates observed. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp. Radio-induced apoptosis at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Results Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and data fitted to a semi logarithmic mathematical model. A positive correlation was found among radio-induced apoptosis values at different radiation doses: 1, 2 and 8 Gy (p Conclusions An inverse association was observed for the first time between these variables, both considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  16. Radiation and physical protection challenges at advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this study is to examine challenges and opportunities for radiation protection in advanced nuclear reactors and fuel facilities proposed under the Generation IV (GEN IV) initiative which is examining and pursuing the exploration and development of advanced nuclear science and technology; and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which seeks to develop worldwide consensus on enabling expanded use of economical, carbon-free nuclear energy to meet growing energy demand. The International Energy Agency projects nuclear power to increase at a rate of 1.3 to 1.5 percent a year over the next 20 years, depending on economic growth. Much of this growth will be in Asia, which, as a whole, currently has plans for 40 new nuclear power plants. Given this increase in demand for new nuclear power facilities, ranging from light water reactors to advanced fuel processing and fabrication facilities, it is necessary for radiation protection and physical protection technologies to keep pace to ensure both worker and public health. This paper is based on a review of current initiatives and the proposed reactors and facilities, primarily the nuclear fuel cycle facilities proposed under the GEN IV and GNEP initiatives. Drawing on the Technology Road map developed under GEN IV, this work examines the potential radiation detection and protection challenges and issues at advanced reactors, including thermal neutron spectrum systems, fast neutron spectrum systems and nuclear fuel recycle facilities. The thermal neutron systems look to improve the efficiency of production of hydrogen or electricity, while the fast neutron systems aim to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel. While there are components of these advanced systems that can draw on the current and well-developed radiation protection practices, there will inevitably be opportunities to improve the overall quality of radiation

  17. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  18. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  19. Advances in radiation chemistry of polymers. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting on radiation effects on polymers was held at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame to review and discuss advances in the radiation processing of polymers. The trends in the basic research, research and development, and industrial applications were reported. The scope of more applied uses of irradiation involving polymers ranged from discussions of the curing of materials for dental applications, to the effects on polyolefins, the most broadly used class of polymers prevalent in industrial radiation processing, and to emerging interests in hydrogels, carbon fiber composites, heterogeneous mixtures based on material by-products (scrap plastic and wood fragments), grafted materials and materials for electronic uses. In addition, the emerging interests in the use of recently developed high power x ray systems for industrial use were presented. The document contains 12 individual papers, each of them was indexed and abstracted separately

  20. Preoperative radiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion for locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and Purpose: To determine the percentage of complete responders and the resectability rate for patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the rectum treated by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusional chemotherapy and pelvic radiation. Materials and Methods: Between October 1992 and June 1996, 29 patients with a diagnosis of locally advanced unresectable rectal cancer received preoperative 5 FU by continuous intravenous infusion at a dose of 225 mg/m2/day concurrent with pelvic radiation (median 54 Gy/28 fractions). All patients were clinical stage T4 on the bases of organ invasion or tumor fixation. Median time for surgical resection was 6 weeks. Results: Median follow-up for the group was 28 months (range 5-57 months). Six patients were felt to be persistently unresectable or developed distant metastases and did not undergo surgical resection. Of the 29 patients, 23 proceeded to surgery, 18 were resectable for cure, 13 by abdominoperineal resection, 3 by anterior resection and 2 by local excision. Of the 29 patients, 4 (13%) had a complete response, and 90% were clinically downstaged. Of the 18 resected patients, 1 has died of his disease, 17 are alive, and 15 disease-free. The regimen was well tolerated; there was only one treatment-related complication, a wound dehiscence. Conclusion: The combination of 5 FU infusion and pelvic radiation in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer is well tolerated and provides a baseline for comparison purposes with future combinations of newer systemic agents and radiation

  1. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology

  2. Advances in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors. Proceedings of a Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation dosimetry is a fundamental part of all radiation protection work. The measurements are made with a variety of instruments, and health physicists, after professional interpretation of the data, can assess the levels of exposure which might be encountered in a given area or the individual doses received by workers, visitors and others at places where the possibility of radiation exposure exists. The types of radiation concerned here are photon radiations, ranging from soft X-rays to gamma rays, and particulate radiations such as β-rays, α-particles, protons, neutrons and fission fragments. The type of technique used depends not only on the type of radiation but also on such factors as whether the radiation is from a source internal or external to the body. Radiation dosimetry is not only used at nuclear facilities; it has diverse applications, for example in determining doses when radiation sources are employed for medical diagnostics and therapy, in safeguarding workers in any industry where isotopes are used, and in assessing the effect of both naturally occurring and man-made radiations on the general public and the environment. The advances of modern technology have increased the variety of sources; an example can be given from colour television, where the high potential necessary in certain colour cathode-ray tubes generates a non-negligible amount of X-rays. The Symposium on New Developments in Physical and Biological Radiation Detectors was one of a continuing series of meetings in which the International Atomic Energy Agency furthers the exchange of information on all aspects of personnel and area dosimetry. The Symposium was devoted in particular to a study of the dose meters themselves - their radiation-sensitive elements (both physical and biological),their instrumentation, and calibration and standardization. Several speakers suggested that the situation in the standardization and calibration of measuring equipment and sources was

  3. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has become the second leading cause of death worldwide. At least half of all cancer cases occur in low and middle income (LMI) countries. However, all countries are facing an increased demand for health services for cancer treatment, and a changing and more expensive environment in diagnosis, and treatment, including radiation therapy. The use of radiation therapy in cancer treatment has brought tremendous benefits to cancer patients globally. It is a very cost effective modality for cancer treatment and has a major role in both the cure and palliation of cancer in a multidisciplinary setting. Advances in imaging and treatment delivery have changed radiation therapy approaches in many diseases in high income countries, but are expensive and often difficult to deliver. In particular, the benefits of radiotherapy are not evenly distributed in the world since countries with high income can provide access to the most advanced technology as opposed to what is available for cancer patients in countries with limited resources. The acquisition of advanced technology is often based on consumer demand rather than real clinical need. New techniques of treatment - if they are to use resources from available services - should be introduced to clinical practice only either in the framework of clinical studies or after critical and objective assessment has shown clinical benefits to be superior to previous practice. The International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) was organized, at the request of the Member States, to discuss and assess new advances in radiation oncology in the context of physical and economic challenges that all countries face today. Participants submitted research studies, which were reviewed by members of the scientific committee and presented in the form of 46 lectures and 103 posters. The programme dealt with the requirements - when transferring to advanced radiation technology - for staff training, treatment planning and

  4. Impact of advanced microstructural characterization techniques on modeling and analysis of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of radiation-induced alterations of dimensional and mechanical properties has been shown to be a direct and often predictable consequence of radiation-induced microstructural changes. Recent advances in understanding of the nature and role of each microstructural component in determining the property of interest has led to a reappraisal of the type and priority of data needed for further model development. This paper presents an overview of the types of modeling and analysis activities in progress, the insights that prompted these activities, and specific examples of successful and ongoing efforts. A review is presented of some problem areas that in the authors' opinion are not yet receiving sufficient attention and which may benefit from the application of advanced techniques of microstructural characterization. Guidelines based on experience gained in previous studies are also provided for acquisition of data in a form most applicable to modeling needs

  5. Synthesis of advanced aluminide intermetallic coatings by low-energy Al-ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingli; Gu, Yan; Zhao, Panpan; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2016-05-01

    Metals that work at high temperatures (for instance, superalloys in gas-turbines) depend on thermally grown oxide (TGO, commonly alumina) to withstand corrosion attack. Nickel Aluminide (NiAl) as one superior alumina TGO former plays an important role in protective coatings for turbine blades in gas-turbine engines used for aircraft propulsion and power generation. Lowering TGO growth rate is essentially favored for offering sustainable protection, especially in thermal barrier coatings (TBC). However, it can only be achieved currently by a strategy of adding the third element (Pt or reactive elements) into NiAl during traditional diffusion- or deposition-based synthesis of the coating. Here we present a highly flexible Al-ion radiation-based synthesis of advanced NiAl coatings, achieving low TGO growth rate without relying on the third element addition. Our results expand the strategy for lowering TGO growth rate and demonstrate potentials for ion radiation in advancing materials synthesis.

  6. Advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Influence of preoperative radiation therapy on toxicity and long-term survival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surgical treatment of gastric cancer has better long-term survival rates when performed in patients with early gastric cancer. Worse results are obtained in treatment of advanced gastric cancer. Most patients in west centers are treated in advanced stages. A great number of them go through a surgical treatment unable by itself to cure them. the frequent local recurrence caused by failure of the surgical treatment has been keeping poor survival rates in patients with advanced gastric cancer for decades. The desire of improving survival is the reason of the use of adjuvant therapies. This paper achieved the retrospective study of the influence of preoperative radiation therapy (2000 cGy) in long-term survival rates (120 months) of patients with advanced gastric cancer on stages IIIa, IIIb and IV. The possible injuries caused in the liver and kidney were observed also as well as first group was treated by surgical and radiation therapies and the second received surgical treatment only. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when sex, age, race, occurrence of other diseases, nutritional assessment, TNM stage, occurrence of obstruction or bleeding caused by tumor, surgical procedure and hepatic and renal function were considered. Survival rates and changes on hepatic and renal function were statistically compared. The results showed a statistic improvement on the long-term survival rates of stage IIIa patients treated by preoperative radiation therapy. No statistic difference was observed on hepatic or renal function between the groups. No adverse influence of radiation therapy method was detected by the used parameters. There was no statistical difference between the two groups when immediate surgical complications were considered. (author)

  7. Enhancing Cloud Radiative Processes and Radiation Efficiency in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacono, Michael J. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2015-03-09

    The objective of this research has been to evaluate and implement enhancements to the computational performance of the RRTMG radiative transfer option in the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Efficiency is as essential as accuracy for effective numerical weather prediction, and radiative transfer is a relatively time-consuming component of dynamical models, taking up to 30-50 percent of the total model simulation time. To address this concern, this research has implemented and tested a version of RRTMG that utilizes graphics processing unit (GPU) technology (hereinafter RRTMGPU) to greatly improve its computational performance; thereby permitting either more frequent simulation of radiative effects or other model enhancements. During the early stages of this project the development of RRTMGPU was completed at AER under separate NASA funding to accelerate the code for use in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Earth Observing System GEOS-5 global model. It should be noted that this final report describes results related to the funded portion of the originally proposed work concerning the acceleration of RRTMG with GPUs in WRF. As a k-distribution model, RRTMG is especially well suited to this modification due to its relatively large internal pseudo-spectral (g-point) dimension that, when combined with the horizontal grid vector in the dynamical model, can take great advantage of the GPU capability. Thorough testing under several model configurations has been performed to ensure that RRTMGPU improves WRF model run time while having no significant impact on calculated radiative fluxes and heating rates or on dynamical model fields relative to the RRTMG radiation. The RRTMGPU codes have been provided to NCAR for possible application to the next public release of the WRF forecast model.

  8. Phase 1 Study of Erlotinib Plus Radiation Therapy in Patients With Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, C. Hope; Deep, Nicholas L.; Nabell, Lisle; Carroll, William R.; Desmond, Renee; Clemons, Lisa; Spencer, Sharon; Magnuson, J. Scott [Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Rosenthal, Eben L., E-mail: oto@uab.edu [Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the toxicity profile of erlotinib therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, prospective, phase 1 open-label study of erlotinib with radiation therapy to treat 15 patients with advanced cutaneous head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Toxicity data were summarized, and survival was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The majority of patients were male (87%) and presented with T4 disease (93%). The most common toxicity attributed to erlotinib was a grade 2-3 dermatologic reaction occurring in 100% of the patients, followed by mucositis (87%). Diarrhea occurred in 20% of the patients. The 2-year recurrence rate was 26.7%, and mean time to cancer recurrence was 10.5 months. Two-year overall survival was 65%, and disease-free survival was 60%. Conclusions: Erlotinib and radiation therapy had an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The disease-free survival in this cohort was comparable to that in historical controls.

  9. Radiation therapy for the treatment of feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of radiation therapy for feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. A full course radiation therapy protocol was applied to six cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of seven histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, one was staged as T1, and six as T4 according to WHO staging system of epidermal tumors. The animals were submitted to twelve radiation fractions of 4 Gy each, on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule, and the equipment used was an orthovoltage unit. Energy used was 120 kV, 15 mA and 2 mm aluminum filter. The cats were evaluated during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 87% of the lesions had complete remission and 13% partial remission to the treatment. Side effects were considered mild according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity criteria, and included erythema, epilation and rhinitis. Radiation Therapy was considered safe for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, leading to mild side effects and can represent a good therapeutic option. (author)

  10. INVITED REVIEW-IMAGE REGISTRATION IN VETERINARY RADIATION ONCOLOGY: INDICATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE ADVANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang; Lawrence, Jessica; Cheng, Kun; Montgomery, Dean; Forrest, Lisa; Mclaren, Duncan B; McLaughlin, Stephen; Argyle, David J; Nailon, William H

    2016-03-01

    The field of veterinary radiation therapy (RT) has gained substantial momentum in recent decades with significant advances in conformal treatment planning, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), and intensity-modulated (IMRT) techniques. At the root of these advancements lie improvements in tumor imaging, image alignment (registration), target volume delineation, and identification of critical structures. Image registration has been widely used to combine information from multimodality images such as computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve the accuracy of radiation delivery and reliably identify tumor-bearing areas. Many different techniques have been applied in image registration. This review provides an overview of medical image registration in RT and its applications in veterinary oncology. A summary of the most commonly used approaches in human and veterinary medicine is presented along with their current use in IGRT and adaptive radiation therapy (ART). It is important to realize that registration does not guarantee that target volumes, such as the gross tumor volume (GTV), are correctly identified on the image being registered, as limitations unique to registration algorithms exist. Research involving novel registration frameworks for automatic segmentation of tumor volumes is ongoing and comparative oncology programs offer a unique opportunity to test the efficacy of proposed algorithms. PMID:26777133

  11. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Kevin L., E-mail: kevinmoore@ucsd.edu; Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 26504 (Greece); McNutt, Todd R. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy.

  12. Vision 20/20: Automation and advanced computing in clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Vision 20/20 paper considers what computational advances are likely to be implemented in clinical radiation oncology in the coming years and how the adoption of these changes might alter the practice of radiotherapy. Four main areas of likely advancement are explored: cloud computing, aggregate data analyses, parallel computation, and automation. As these developments promise both new opportunities and new risks to clinicians and patients alike, the potential benefits are weighed against the hazards associated with each advance, with special considerations regarding patient safety under new computational platforms and methodologies. While the concerns of patient safety are legitimate, the authors contend that progress toward next-generation clinical informatics systems will bring about extremely valuable developments in quality improvement initiatives, clinical efficiency, outcomes analyses, data sharing, and adaptive radiotherapy

  13. Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning' Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

    2011-12-29

    The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

  14. Radiation induced apoptosis and initial DNA damage are inversely related in locally advanced breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA-damage assays, quantifying the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation, have been proposed as a predictive test for radiation-induced toxicity. Determination of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry analysis has also been proposed as an approach for predicting normal tissue responses following radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between initial DNA damage, estimated by the number of double-strand breaks induced by a given radiation dose, and the radio-induced apoptosis rates observed. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp). Radio-induced apoptosis at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and data fitted to a semi logarithmic mathematical model. A positive correlation was found among radio-induced apoptosis values at different radiation doses: 1, 2 and 8 Gy (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Mean DSB/Gy/DNA unit obtained was 1.70 ± 0.83 (range 0.63-4.08; median, 1.46). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between initial damage to DNA and radio-induced apoptosis at 1 Gy (p = 0.034). A trend toward 2 Gy (p = 0.057) and 8 Gy (p = 0.067) was observed after 24 hours of incubation. An inverse association was observed for the first time between these variables, both considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity

  15. Intensity modulated radiation therapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: Results of feasibility study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Rui Bai; Guo-Hua Wu; Wei-Jian Guo; Xu-Dong Wu; Yuan Yao; Yin Chen; Ren-Hua Zhou; Dong-Qin Lu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with chemotherapy could increase radiation dose to gross tumor volume without severe acute radiation related toxicity by decreasing the dose to the surrounding normal tissue in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Twenty-one patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were evaluated in this clinical trial,Patients would receive the dose of IMRT from 21Gy to 30Gy in 7 to 10 fractions within two weeks after conventional radiotherapy of 30Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. The total escalation tumor dose would be 51, 54,57, 60Gy, respectively. 5-fluororacil (5-FU) or gemcitabine was given concurrently with radiotherapy during the treatment course.RESULTS: Sixteen patients who had completed the radiotherapy plan with doses of 51Gy (3 cases), 54Gy (3 cases), 57Gy (3 cases) and 60Gy (7 cases) were included for evaluation. The median levels of CA19-9 prior to and after radiotherapy were 716 U/ml and 255 U/ml respectively (P<0.001) in 13 patients who demonstrated high levels of CA19-9 before radiotherapy. Fourteen patients who suffered from pain could reduce at least 1/3-1/2 amount of analgesic intake and 5 among these patients got complete relief of pain. Ten patients improved in Kamofsky performance status (KPS). The median follow-up period was 8 months and one-year survival rate was 35 %. No patient suffered more than grade Ⅲ acute toxicities induced by radiotherapy.CONCLUSION: Sixty Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks with late course IMRT technique combined with concurrent 5-FU chemotherapy can provide a definitely palliative benefit with tolerable acute radiation related toxicity for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

  16. Advances in lung cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Hennon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The last few years have witnessed an explosion of the use of minimally invasive techniques for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all stages of lung cancer. The use of these techniques has improved the risk-benefit ratio of surgery and has made it more acceptable to patients considering lung surgery. They have also facilitated the delivery of multi-modality therapy to patients with advanced lung cancer. This review article summarizes current surgical techniques that represent the "cutting edge" of thoracic surgery for lung cancer.

  17. A meta-analysis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiation in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun He

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation can decrease the risk of recurrence and metastasis but not improve the 5 years overall survival and 5 years disease free survival compared to radiotherapy alone in the patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  18. Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry. Methods and Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors. Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth. Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response

  19. Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorek, Daniel L.J., E-mail: dthorek1@jhmi.edu [Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kramer, Robin M. [Tri-Institutional Training Program in Laboratory Animal Medicine and Science, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Weill Cornell Medical College, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Qing; Jeong, Jeho; Lupu, Mihaela E. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Alycia M.; Moynahan, Mary E.; Lowery, Maeve [Department of Medicine, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Ulmert, David [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Skåne University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Zanzonico, Pat; Deasy, Joseph O.; Humm, John L. [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States); Russell, James, E-mail: russellj@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry. Methods and Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors. Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth. Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response.

  20. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO). Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major theme of the ICARO meeting was to review technological advances in radiation oncology and its application in routine clinical practice, especially in mid- and low-income countries. A major goal of the conference was to educate clinicians on the challenges of new technology in terms of assessing cost benefits, staffing, education, and Quality Assurance (QA), as these issues are frequently not properly considered when decisions are made to purchase new technologies. The main objectives of the conference were: - To exchange information on the current advances in the field among leading experts; - To define future challenges and directions in the clinical use of radiotherapy; - To explore the applications of improved imaging tools in treatment planning; - To review the current status of evidence based recommendations for the treatment of common cancers. - To review the current role and future potential of technological and molecular /biological innovations in radiation oncology. This conference is of interest to individuals involved in the application of new technologies in radiation oncology. In particular, the conference attempted to put technological developments into the perspective of the priorities of low and middle-income countries. Each of the 150 papers in this Book of Extended Synopses has been indexed separately

  1. SBBN 2010: 7. Congress of the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Biosciences. Radiations in biosciences: advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advance and new perspectives related to the use of ionizing and no ionizing radiations in nuclear biosciences are presented. Multidisciplinary approach, including radiopharmacy, radioprotection and dosimetry, cytogenetic, biosafety, radioecology, environmental toxicology are studied. Topics of Nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and image diagnosis, such as computerized tomography, PET scan, phantoms, biomedical radiography, are reported. Use of radioisotopes, evaluation of radiation dose rates, radiation dose distribution, radiation monitoring is considered. Environmental impact of radiation are also in human beings, animals and for several purposes are analyzed. (MAC)

  2. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To discuss both general and specific indications for radiation following surgery for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Patients with advanced cancers of the head and neck are often not suitable candidates for treatment with definitive radiation, and are treated with surgery. Frequently these patients fail by recurring in either the primary sites or in the necks. Adjuvant radiation is therefore often a critical component in the management of these patients. While radiation can be done either prior to or after surgery, most centers prefer the postoperative setting. This refresher course will review general concepts of postoperative irradiation for the patient with head and neck cancer and apply these concepts to specific situations. The course will begin with a broad review of the indications for postoperative irradiation as not all patients undergoing surgery for cancers of the head and neck require additional treatment. We will also review the concept of using postoperative radiation to allow for more conservative surgery with preservation of function. The second portion of the course will focus on general techniques of postoperative irradiation. We will review concepts of patient setup and treatment portal design and describe how specific techniques are practiced at MDACC. Controversial topics, including field matching, total dose and fractionation, and the timing of postoperative radiation will be discussed. The final section of the course will review the results of postoperative irradiation as applied to the head and neck in general as well as to specific subsites. In addition to results for the common scenarios of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx, we will review results of postoperative irradiation for skin cancers of the head and neck, paranasal sinuses, and salivary glands

  3. Analysis of the clinical benefit of 5-fluorouracil and radiation treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the palliative benefit of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy in patients with surgically unresectable localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with locally advanced surgically unresectable symptomatic pancreatic cancer received 5-FU chemotherapy and local radiation therapy. They were retrospectively reviewed in regard to their clinical benefit response (a composite of measurement of pain assessment, weight, and Karnofsky performance status [KPS]), as well as radiological response, time to progression, and overall survival. Results: Median survival for the 25 patients was 9 months and median progression-free survival was 6 months. Thirty-two percent of patients survived in excess of 1 year. Analgesic requirements increased >50% in 2 patients and KPS deteriorated in 10 patients. Of the 13 remaining patients, 2 sustained a >7% weight loss and 2 gained weight post-treatment. Six patients improved in one parameter of analgesic consumption, weight loss or KPS without deteriorating in any others. Thus, the clinical benefit response index for 5-FU-radiation was 6/25 (24%). In terms of tumor response, 8 patients (44%) demonstrated a reduction in tumor volume post-treatment, 4 of whom (22%) experienced a >50% reduction. Four additional patients had radiologically stable disease. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, the clinical benefit response index for 5-FU-radiation was 24%, a value similar to the 23.8% reported for single agent gemcitabine. The median survival of 7 months was also similar to the 5.65 months reported for gemcitabine. The radiological partial response rate of 22% and the 1-year survival of 32% were higher for 5-FU-radiation than the reported values for gemcitabine. A randomized trial would be necessary to compare 5-FU-radiation to gemcitabine directly; however, from this review it did not appear that the overall palliative benefit of 5-FU-radiation was inferior to gemcitabine

  4. Has the practice of radiation oncology for locally advanced and metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer changed in Canada?

    OpenAIRE

    Han, K.; Bezjak, A.; Xu, W.; Kane, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim Previous surveys have revealed wide variations in the management by radiation oncologists of non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) in Canada. The aim of the present study was to determine the current patterns of practice for locally advanced and metastatic nsclc among Canadian radiation oncologists. Materials and Methods An online survey was distributed electronically to all members of the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists. Those who treat lung cancer were invited to participate....

  5. Non-physician practitioners in radiation oncology: advanced practice nurses and physician assistants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With changes in reimbursement and a decrease in the number of residents, there is a need to explore new ways of achieving high quality patient care in radiation oncology. One mechanism is the implementation of non-physician practitioner roles, such as the advanced practice nurse (APN) and physician assistant (PA). This paper provides information for radiation oncologists and nurses making decisions about: (1) whether or not APNs or PAs are appropriate for their practice, (2) which type of provider would be most effective, and (3) how best to implement this role. Methods: Review of the literature and personal perspective. Conclusions: Specific issues addressed regarding APN and PA roles in radiation oncology include: definition of roles, regulation, prescriptive authority, reimbursement, considerations in implementation of the role, educational needs, and impact on resident training. A point of emphasis is that the non-physician practitioner is not a replacement or substitute for either a resident or a radiation oncologist. Instead, this role is a complementary one. The non-physician practitioner can assist in the diagnostic work-up of patients, manage symptoms, provide education to patients and families, and assist them in coping. This support facilitates the physician's ability to focus on the technical aspects of prescribing radiotherapy

  6. Advances in Studies of Cloud Overlap and Its Radiative Transfer in Climate Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 荆现文

    2016-01-01

    The latest advances in studies on the treatment of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer in global climate models are summarized. Developments with respect to this internationally challenging problem are described from aspects such as the design of cloud overlap assumptions, the realization of cloud overlap assumptions within climate models, and the data and methods used to obtain consistent observations of cloud overlap structure and radiative transfer in overlapping clouds. To date, there has been an appreciable level of achievement in studies on cloud overlap in climate models, demonstrated by the development of scientific assumptions (e.g., e-folding overlap) to describe cloud overlap, the invention and broad application of the fast radiative transfer method for overlapped clouds (Monte Carlo Independent Column Approximation), and the emergence of continuous 3D cloud satellite observation (e.g., CloudSat/CALIPSO) and cloud-resolving models, which provide numerous data valuable for the exact description of cloud overlap structure in climate models. However, present treatments of cloud overlap and its radiative transfer process are far from complete, and there remain many unsettled problems that need to be explored in the future.

  7. Evaluation of radiation consolidation in advanced-stage unfavorable non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates a randomized trial moderate dose consolidation irradiation to involved lymph node regions in unfavorable, advanced-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma after a complete response to multiagent chemotherapy. One hundred ten patients in complete restaged remission after treatment with one of the regimens previously reported in the induction phase of this prospective randomized Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial were assigned to observation or to radiation therapy with delivery of 2,500-3,000 cGy at 150-200 cGy/d to the previously involved lymph node regions

  8. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    space weather monitoring and alarm system--SPE exposure analysis system, an advanced space weather data distribution and display system, and a high-fidelity space weather simulation system. In addition, significant new real-time space weather data sets, which will enhance the forecasting and now-casting of near-Earth space environment conditions, are being made available through unique NASA-NOAA-USAF collaborations. These new data sets include coronal mass ejection monitoring by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and in-situ plasma and particle monitoring at the L1 libration point by the Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. Advanced real-time radiation monitoring data from charged particle telescopes and tissue equivalent proportional counters will also be available to assist crew and flight controllers in monitoring the external and intravehicular radiation environment.

  9. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications

  10. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  11. WE-D-BRD-01: Innovation in Radiation Therapy Delivery: Advanced Digital Linac Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wong, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Last few years has witnessed significant advances in linac technology and therapeutic dose delivery method. Digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams have been clinically implemented in a number of hospitals. Gated VMAT is becoming increasingly popular in treating tumors affected by respiratory motion. This session is devoted to update the audience with these technical advances and to present our experience in clinically implementing the new linacs and dose delivery methods. Topics to be covered include, technical features of new generation of linacs from different vendors, dosimetric characteristics and clinical need for FFF-beam based IMRT and VMAT, respiration-gated VMAT, the concept and implementation of station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT), beam level imaging and onboard image guidance tools. Emphasis will be on providing fundamental understanding of the new treatment delivery and image guidance strategies, control systems, and the associated dosimetric characteristics. Commissioning and acceptance experience on these new treatment delivery technologies will be reported. Clinical experience and challenges encountered during the process of implementation of the new treatment techniques and future applications of the systems will also be highlighted. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of emerging digital linacs and summarize their key geometric and dosimetric features. SPORT as an emerging radiation therapy modality specifically designed to take advantage of digital linacs. Discuss issues related to the acceptance and commissioning of the digital linacs and FFF beams. Describe clinical utility of the new generation of digital linacs and their future applications.

  12. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel

  13. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest

  14. Platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis was performed of 39 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the last five years at our departments. There were 26 men and 13 women with median age 55 (24-75) years. Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 6 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in the remaining 33 patients. Induction chemotherapy consisted of either regimen A (cisplating 100 mg/m2 day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m2 days 2-6 as continuous infusion, bleomycin 15 mg days 15 and 29 i.m., mitomycin 4 mg/m2 day 22 and hydroxyurea 1000 mg/m2 daily days 23-27) or regimen B (carboplatin 300 mg/m2 day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m2 days 1-5 as continuous infusion and methotrexate 1.2 g/m2 day 14 with leucovorin rescue). After completion of induction chemotherapy 13 patients (33%) had complete remission (CR) and 19 (49%) partial remission (PR). The CR rate was increased after radiation therapy to 72%. Survival rates were 88% at 12 and 78% at 24 months. Median time to progression was 29.5 months. In conclusion, induction chemotherapy with a platinum-based regimen followed by radiation therapy achieved a high rate of local control. If the treatment also prolongs survival must, however, be studied by randomized trials. (orig.)

  15. Radiation effects in advanced multiple gate and silicon-on-insulator transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review paper is to describe in a comprehensive manner the current understanding of the radiation response of state-of-the-art Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) and FinFET CMOS technologies. Total Ionizing Dose (TID) response, heavy-ion micro-dose effects and single-event effects (SEEs) will be discussed. It is shown that a very high TID tolerance can be achieved by narrow-fin SOI FinFET architectures, while bulk FinFETs may exhibit similar TID response to the planar devices. Due to the vertical nature of FinFETs, a specific heavy-ion response can be obtained, whereby the angle of incidence becomes highly important with respect to the vertical sidewall gates. With respect to SEE, the buried oxide in the SOI FinFETs suppresses the diffusion tails from the charge collection in the substrate compared to the planar bulk FinFET devices. Channel lengths and fin widths are now comparable to, or smaller than the dimensions of the region affected by the single ionizing ions or lasers used in testing. This gives rise to a high degree of sensitivity to individual device parameters and source-drain shunting during ion-beam or laser-beam SEE testing. Simulations are used to illuminate the mechanisms observed in radiation testing and the progress and needs for the numerical modeling/ simulation of the radiation response of advanced SOI and FinFET transistors are highlighted. (authors)

  16. Visual outcome of accelerated fractionated radiation for advanced sinonasal malignancies employing photons/protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the visual outcomes of patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies treated with proton/photon accelerated fractionated radiation (AFR). Patients and methods: Between 1991 and 2001, AFR was used to treat 36 patients with advanced stage primary (n = 33) or recurrent (n = 3) nasal or paranasal malignant tumors. Full ophthalmologic follow-up was documented. The median dose to the gross tumor volume (GTV) was 69.6 CGE (range 60.8-77). Visual complications were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) and the late effects of normal tissue (LENT) scoring systems. The median follow-up was 52.4 months (range 17-122.8). Results: Thirteen patients developed late visual/ocular toxicity. Cataracts were LENT grade 1 and 3 in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. One LENT grade 1 vascular retinopathy and 1 optic neuropathy were also observed. Three and five patients presented with nasolacrimal duct stenosis (CTC grade 2, 2 patients; CTC grade 3, 1 patient) and dry-eye syndrome (CTC grade 1, 1 patient; CTC grade 2, 4 patients), respectively. The 3- and 5-year probability of LENT/CTC grade ≥2 visual toxicity were 15.8 ± 6.7% and 20.7 ± 7.8%, respectively. Conclusions: AFR for locally advanced nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors enables delivery of 70 CGE to the tumor with acceptable ophthalmologic complications

  17. Methods and tools for the evaluation of the sensitivity to natural radiations of advanced integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric neutrons, whose fluxes and energies dependent on the altitude, the sun activity and the geographic coordinates, have been identified as being capable to provoke SEE (Single Event Effects), by indirect ionisation, in integrated devices issued from advanced manufacturing processes (nano-metric devices). This concerns not only avionics but also applications operating at ground level. The evaluation of the sensitivity to SEE provoked by natural radiation becomes thus a mandatory step during the selection of devices devoted to be included in applications requiring high reliability. The sensitivity to SEE can be mitigated by different approaches at different levels from manufacturing level (use of particular process technologies such as SOI - Silicon On Isolator -) to the system level (hardware/software redundancy). Independently of the adopted hardening approach, the so-called radiation ground testing are mandatory to evaluate the error rates of a device or a system. During such tests, the DUT (Device Under Test) is exposed to a flux of particles while it performs a given activity. For SEU (Single Event Upsets) radiation ground testing, two main strategies exist: static test: the circuit areas which are supposed to be sensitive to SEUs (registers, memories,...) are initialized with a reference pattern. The content of the sensitive area is periodically compared to the reference pattern to identify potential SEU. Dynamic test: the DUT performs an activity representative of the one it will execute during the final application. Static test: strategies are frequently adopted as they provide the intrinsic sensitivity, in terms of the average number of particles needed to provoke an SEU, of different sensitive areas of the device. From such a strategy can thus be obtained a 'worst case estimation' of the device sensitivity. This thesis aims at giving a description and validating the methodologies required to estimate the sensitivity to radiations of two types of

  18. Is interferon-α and retinoic acid combination along with radiation superior to chemo-radiation in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of cervix?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Partha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Locally advanced cervical cancers comprise a large majority of the gynecologic cancers in India and other developing countries. Concurrent chemo-radiation has improved the survival of high risk stage I and stage II cervical cancers. There is no evidence that the same survival benefit has been achieved with chemo-radiation in stage III and stage IV disease. Interferon-a and Retinoic acid have synergistic anti-proliferative activity. In combination with radiation, they substantially enhance the sensitivity of the squamous carcinoma cells to radiation. Based on these observations from the in vitro studies, a few clinical trials have evaluated the combination of interferon-a and Retinoic acid, concomitant with radiation, to treat cervical cancers. The results from these early trials were encouraging and the combination had minimal toxicities. However, till date, no phase III randomized controlled trial has been done to evaluate this therapeutic modality.

  19. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concluded with a roundtable discussion on patient information. All the available presentations, documents and posters are compiled in this document which starts with a report summarising the presentations and the main findings from the conference. 40 presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Advances in external radiotherapy (M. Brada, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital UK); 2 - Advances in brachytherapy (D. Peiffert, Alexis Vautrin center, Nancy); 3 - The impact of new technologies on the risk of accident (R. Almaberti, HAS); 4 - What is a side effect, a complication or an accident in radiotherapy? (P. Scalliet, University hospital St Luc, Belgium); 5 - The range of radiosensitivity in the human population: hyper- and hypo- sensitivity (S. Bouffler, HPA UK) 6 - Radiation-induced sequelae: toward an individual profile (D. Azria, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, France); 7 - Evaluation and management of secondary cancer risk in modern Radiation Therapy: elaboration of an ICRP/ICRU publication (J.M. Cosset, Curie Institute - ICRP); 8 - Cardiovascular risks in radiotherapy (K. Trott, University College London Institute UK); 9 - Risk acceptability in radiotherapy (F. Mettler, New Mexico Health Care System, US); 10 - Lessons learned from accidents in conventional external radiotherapy (O. Holmberg, IAEA); 11 - Lessons learned from accidental exposures in modern external radiotherapy (P. Ortiz Lopez, ICRP); 12 - Lessons learned from accidents in brachytherapy (L. Pinillos-Ashton, National Cancer Institute, Peru); 13 - Lessons learned from French accidents (S. Derreumaux, IRSN); 14-15 - WHO Radiotherapy risk profile (M. Barton, New South Wales Univ., Australia; D. Noble); 16 - Methods of risk analysis applied to radiotherapy (M.L. Ramirez, FORO/CSN, Spain); 17 - Radiation safety issues linked to the omnipresence of computers (JC. Rosenwald, SFPM); 18 - From Airline Safety Management System to Security in Radiotherapy:a French experience (E. Lartigau, INCa); 19

  20. Report of the evaluation by the ad hoc review committee on advanced photon and synchrotron radiation research. In-advance evaluation in fiscal year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 13 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Photon and Synchrotron Radiation Research in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the adequacy of the R and D programs to be implemented for five years starting in Fiscal Year 2002 at Advanced Photon Research Center and at Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Kansai Research Establishment of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of ten specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from May to July 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advanced and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on June 21, 2001, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on July 12, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Advanced Photon and Synchrotron Radiation Research. (author)

  1. Chemotherapy and cyclic radiation therapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (4 squamous, 4 adenocarcinoma, 1 large cell) were treated with a combination of radiation therapy and cyclic chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and platinum. Four previously untreated patients had stage III, 2 having distant metastases, 5 previously treated patients were restaged as stage III with distant metastasis in one. Moderate hematologic toxicity was noted. Objective responses occurred in 67 per cent, regardless of previous treatment or performance status. Responders survived for a median of 11 months with one complete response patient surviving at 14 months while 5 partial response patients survived for a median of 10 months. This regimen is feasible and its utility as the initial treatment of locally advanced disease should be further investigated. (Auth.)

  2. Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Undulator Sector at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) has designed and built a multipurpose undulator beamline at Sector 12 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The first optical enclosure contains all the white light components including a high performance thin, cryogenically cooled Si (1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. All the experimental stations are equipped with an exhaust for reactive gases that allows in-situ studies of chemical reactions. The monochromatic windowless beamline is used for elastic and inelastic X-ray scattering, surface scattering, small-angle scattering, and spectroscopy research. Each of these activities is in general confined to one of the three experimental stations. The end station (12-ID-D) is a monochromatic enclosure that is used for surface scattering and includes MOCVD equipment for in-situ measurements

  3. Combination therapy for advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma with radiation and bleomycin, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients of advanced oral cancers (squamous cell carcinoma) were treated with combination of radiation and bleomycin in the first course of treatment, and then treated with either Ra needle or 198Au grain implantation, 2 to 3 weeks after the first course of treatment for severe mucositis. The treatments were performed during 1975 to 1977. In the combination therapy, external irradiation (daily 250 rad) of Telecobalt γ-ray or Betatron electron beam was given by 4 fractionations per week during 2.5 to 3 weeks (2,500 to 3,000 rad). Bleomycin (5 mg) was injected intramuscularly about 30 min before the irradiation, giving a total of 50 to 60 mg during therapy. In the second course of therapy, Ra needle or 198Au grain implants were employed in 14 cases and further external irradiation was given for the remaining cases except one which had two primary origins of cancer in the tongue and liver. As a result of the combination therapy, 12 primary tumors out of 25 cases markedly regressed (more than 50% regression) and by subsequent radiotherapy, 11 primary tumors out of 24 were completely controlled during more than 14 months of follow-up observation. The tongue cancer in one exceptional case was controlled by the combination of radiation (3,000 rad) and bleomycin (60 mg) alone. Fifteen of 25 patients are still alive, while 10 patients died of cancer. This therapy of combined irradiation and bleomycin seems to be effective on advanced oral cancers because the local tumor control rate increased markedly. (author)

  4. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, John M.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Robin, David S.; Sannibale, Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander A.; Zolotorev, Max S.

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the 'femtoslicing' beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. These CSR pulses were first...

  5. Recent advances in stimulated radiation studies during radiowave heating the near earth space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, high-frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980s. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE which exists in a frequency band of ±100 kHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Recent upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities in Alaska and Norway have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  6. External and interstitial radiation therapy of locally advanced carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report concerns 164 cases of locally advanced breast cancer (stage III), treated between December 1977 and January 1987. The local therapy consisted exclusively of radiation therapy including external beam irradiation (60 Co) up to 45-50 Gy supplemented with a boost, delivered either by interstitial 192Ir (30-40 Gy) or by external irradiation from limited fields (15-22 Gy). Eighty-one patients also received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. A total of 51 local failures (31%) occurred. The actuarial rate of survival with local tumor control was 53% at 5 years and 49% at 6.5 years. A total of 69 patients developed distant metastases (42%). The actuarial survival without distant failure was 43% at 5 years and 37% at 6 years. The actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 53% and 38% at 7 years. The cosmetic results were excellent in 58 patients and poor in 13 patients (9.7%). The result suggests that stage III breast cancer can be satisfactorily treated with radiation therapy alone as local treatment. (orig.)

  7. Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Recent Advances in Generation of Yellow-Orange and Mid-IR Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Guina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent advances in the development of semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs producing yellow-orange and mid-IR radiation. In particular, we focus on presenting the fabrication challenges and characteristics of high-power GaInNAs- and GaSb-based gain mirrors. These two material systems have recently sparked a new wave of interest in developing SDLs for high-impact applications in medicine, spectroscopy, or astronomy. The dilute nitride (GaInNAs gain mirrors enable emission of more than 11 W of output power at a wavelength range of 1180–1200 nm and subsequent intracavity frequency doubling to generate yellow-orange radiation with power exceeding 7 W. The GaSb gain mirrors have been used to leverage the advantages offered by SDLs to the 2–3 μm wavelength range. Most recently, GaSb-based SDLs incorporating semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors were used to generate optical pulses as short as 384 fs at 2 μm, the shortest pulses obtained from a semiconductor laser at this wavelength range.

  8. Advances in the physics of radiation oncology - 50 years of contributions by US Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical Physicists have a long standing record in the advancement of the discipline of Radiation Oncology, not only in the United States but world-wide, going back to the pre-world war II era. In the United States the contributions of Failla and Quimby, first at Memorial Hospital and then at Columbia University in New York, laid the foundation for the Profession of Medical Physics in the US. Radiation Therapy first used low and high kilovoltage machines for external beam therapy. Radium (Parker) and radon seeds (Quimby) were used for brachytherapy. Subsequently, clinical Van-de-Graaff machines (Trump and Wright) and the Betatron (Kerst, Adams and Skaggs) provided the required photon beams and also made available clinically useful electron beams. The work of John Laughlin, Larry Lanzl, Jacques Ovadia together with Gail Adams and Lester Skaggs, needs to be recognized for their pioneering efforts. With the introduction of Cobalt-60 Teletherapy (Harold Johns and the Canadian Group, Gilbert Fletcher and the MD Anderson Group) and Linear Accelerators (Henry Kaplan and the Stanford Group, and Varian), in the late 1950s ∼ 1960, there was even a greater need for the strong participation of medical physicists, as a useful technical resource to the physicians

  9. Recent advances in the estimation of genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the major advances that have occurred during the last few years in the estimation of genetic risks of exposure of human populations to ionizing radiation. Among these are: (i) an upward revision of the estimates of the baseline frequencies of Mendelian diseases (from 1.25% to 2.4%); (ii) the conceptual change to the use of a doubling dose based on human data on spontaneous mutation rates and mouse data on induced mutation rates (from the one based entirely on mouse data on spontaneous and induced mutation rates, which was the case thus far); (iii) the fuller development of the concept of mutation component (MC) and its application to predict the responsiveness of Mendelian and chronic multi factorial diseases to induced mutations; (iv) the introduction of the concept that the major adverse effects of radiation exposure of human germ cells are likely to be manifest as multi-system developmental abnormalities and (v) the introduction of concept of potential recoverability correction factor (PRCF) to bridge the gap between induced mutations studied in mice and the risk of genetic disease in humans are reviewed

  10. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  11. Adjuvant role of radiation therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer without pathological lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Lee, Yoon Se; Kwon, Minsu; Kim, Ji Won; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sang-Wook; Nam, Soon Yuhl

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The application of adjuvant RT to reduce recurrence should be tailored in cases of pathologically negative node metastasis. Objectives The treatment modality following surgical resection of advanced laryngeal cancer is determined by adverse factors. Aside from lymph node metastasis (LNM) or positive margins, definite risk factors supporting adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) have not been clearly suggested. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for advanced laryngeal cancer without LNM and the role of RT. Materials and methods Pathologically T3 and T4-staged laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma without LNM were reviewed. The patients were classified into RT (+) (n = 22) and RT (-) (n = 38) groups. Results Five-year overall survival (OS) of the RT (+) and RT (-) groups was 84.4% and 83.8%, respectively. Five-year disease-specific survival of the RT (+) and RT (-) groups was 88.4% and 93.9%. Five-year local control rate of the RT (+) and RT (-) groups was 94.7% and 91.3%. The factors affecting OS were smoking history and recurrence history (p = 0.02). By multivariate analysis, smoking history and recurrence history were determining factors for 5-year OS (p = 0.024 and p = 0.047, respectively). PMID:26924463

  12. 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plus arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve the therapeutic response and survival of locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with radiochemotherapy. Methods: Fifty-nine patients with stage II-III pancreatic cancer were divided into two groups: 33 patients were treated with three-dimensional conformed radiotherapy (3DCRT) plus regional intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (CT) and 26 patients received 3DCRT alone. Results: The response (pain-alleviating) rates were 78.8% in 3DCRT + CT group and 80.8% in 3DCRT group, while the overall response (CR + PR) rates were 78.8% and 42.3% (P < 0.01), respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-year survival rates were 72.2%, 48.5%, 9.1% and 50.0%, 15.4%, 3.9%, with the difference in the 2-year survival between these two groups statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy combined with regional intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective treatment for unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer

  13. The Study of Multi-modality Medical Image Fusion Algorithm Based on GHM Multiwavelet%基于GHM多小波的多模态医学图像融合算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁梓淯; 李红岩; 李萌

    2013-01-01

      本文研究了基于多小波的多模态医学图像融合。在分析结构成像和功能成像特性的基础上,提出了分层融合的理念。详细阐述了预滤波后,如何使用GHM多小波分解二维医学图像、具体融合规则和多小波重构。与单小波分解相比,多小波要经过分解前的预滤波和重构后的后滤波。实验结果分析证实,该算法融合效果良好,各项指标有一定的提升。%This paper studies the multi-modality medical image fusion based on multiwavelet.On the basis of analyzing the structure imaging and functional imaging characteristics,we proposed the concept of hierarchical fusion.The study elaborated the way of using GHM multiwavelet decomposition of two-dimensional medical image,the specific fusion rules and multiwavelet reconstruction after pre-filtering.Compared with wavelet decomposition,multiwavelet to go through pre and post-filtering.Experiment results confirmed that the fusion algorithm effect is good.All the indexes have certain ascend.

  14. Association between impaired brain activity and volume at the sub-region of Broca's area in ultra-high risk and first-episode schizophrenia: A multi-modal neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Koike, Shinsuke; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Suga, Motomu; Nagai, Tatsuya; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Tada, Mariko; Gonoi, Wataru; Takizawa, Ryu; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that functional abnormalities in Broca's area, which is important in language production (speech and thoughts before speech), play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. While multi-modal approaches have proved useful in revealing the specific pathophysiology of psychosis, the association of functional abnormalities with gray matter volume (GMV) here in subjects with an ultra-high risk (UHR) of schizophrenia, those with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls has yet to be clarified. Therefore, the relationship between cortical activity measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a verbal fluency task, and GMV in the Broca's area assessed using a manual tracing in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which considers individual structural variation, was examined for 57 subjects (23 UHR/18 FES/16 controls). The UHR and FES group showed significantly reduced brain activity compared to control group in the left pars triangularis (PT) (P=.036, .003, respectively). Furthermore in the FES group, the reduced brain activity significantly positively correlated with the volume in the left PT (B=0.29, P=.027), while significant negative association was evident for all subjects (B=-0.18, P=.010). This correlation remained significant after adjusting for antipsychotics dosage, and voxel-wise analysis could not detect any significant correlation between impaired cortical activity and volume. The significant relationship between neural activity and GMV in the left PT may reflect a specific pathophysiology related to the onset of schizophrenia. PMID:26873807

  15. A combined salt-hard templating approach for synthesis of multi-modal porous carbons used for probing the simultaneous effects of porosity and electrode engineering on EDLC performance

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Nidhi

    2015-06-01

    A new approach, based on a combination of salt and hard templating for producing multi-modal porous carbons is demonstrated. The hard template, silica nanoparticles, generate mesopores (∼22 nm), and in some cases borderline-macropores (∼64 nm), resulting in high pore volume (∼3.9 cm3/g) while the salt template, zinc chloride, generates borderline-mesopores (∼2 nm), thus imparting high surface area (∼2100 m2/g). The versatility of the proposed synthesis technique is demonstrated using: (i) dual salt templates with hard template resulting in magnetic, nanostructured-clay embedded (∼27% clay content), high surface area (∼1527 m2/g) bimodal carbons (∼2 and 70 nm pores), (ii) multiple hard templates with salt template resulting in tri-modal carbons (∼2, 12 and 28 nm pores), (iii) low temperature (450 °C) synthesis of bimodal carbons afforded by the presence of hygroscopic salt template, (iv) easy coupling with physical activation approaches. A selected set of thus synthesized carbons were used to evaluate, for the first time, the simultaneous effects of carbon porosity and pressure applied during electrode fabrication on EDLC performance. Electrode pressing was found to be more favorable for carbons containing hard-templated mesopores (∼87% capacitance retention at current density of 40 A/g) as compared to those without (∼54% capacitance retention). © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparities in the Use of Radiation Therapy in Patients With Local-Regionally Advanced Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is indicated for the treatment of local-regionally advanced breast cancer (BCa). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that black and Hispanic patients with local-regionally advanced BCa would receive lower rates of RT than their white counterparts. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with invasive BCa and ≥10 metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed between 1988 and 2005. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity with use of RT. Multivariate models stratified for those undergoing mastectomy or lumpectomy. Results: Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Approximately half of the patients did not receive RT. Most patients were white (72%); the remainder were Hispanic (10.4%), black (10.3%), and Asian (7.3%). On univariate analysis, Hispanics (odd ratio [OR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.00) and blacks (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) were less likely to receive RT than whites. On multivariate analysis, blacks (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86) and Hispanics (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) were less likely than whites to receive RT. Disparities persisted for blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85) and Hispanics (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89) who received mastectomy, but not for those who received lumpectomy. Conclusions: Many patients with local-regionally advanced BCa do not receive RT. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to receive RT. This disparity was noted predominately in patients who received mastectomy. Future efforts at improving rates of RT are warranted. Efforts at eliminating racial/ethnic disparities should focus on black and Hispanic candidates for postmastectomy RT.

  17. Feasibility of CBCT-based target and normal structure delineation in prostate cancer radiotherapy: Multi-observer and image multi-modality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In-room cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging and adaptive treatment strategies are promising methods to decrease target volumes and to spare organs at risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the inter-observer contouring uncertainties of target volumes and organs at risks (oars) in localized prostate cancer radiotherapy using CBCT images. Furthermore, CBCT contouring was benchmarked against other image modalities (CT, MR) and the influence of subjective image quality perception on inter-observer variability was assessed. Methods and materials: Eight prostate cancer patients were selected. Seven radiation oncologists contoured target volumes and oars on CT, MRI and CBCT. Volumes, coefficient of variation (COV), conformity index (cigen), and coordinates of center-of-mass (COM) were calculated for each patient and image modality. Reliability analysis was performed for the support of the reported findings. Subjective perception of image quality was assessed via a ten-scored visual analog scale (VAS). Results: The median volume for prostate was larger on CT compared to MRI and CBCT images. The inter-observer variation for prostate was larger on CBCT (CIgen = 0.57 ± 0.09, 0.61 reliability) compared to CT (CIgen = 0.72 ± 0.07, 0.83 reliability) and MRI (CIgen = 0.66 ± 0.12, 0.87 reliability). On all image modalities values of the intra-observer reliability coefficient (0.97 for CT, 0.99 for MR and 0.94 for CBCT) indicated high reproducibility of results. For all patients the root mean square (RMS) of the inter-observer standard deviation (σ) of the COM was largest on CBCT with σ(x) = 0.4 mm, σ(y) = 1.1 mm, and σ(z) = 1.7 mm. The concordance in delineating OARs was much stronger than for target volumes, with average CIgen > 0.70 for rectum and CIgen > 0.80 for bladder. Positive correlations between CIgen and VAS score of the image quality were observed for the prostate, seminal vesicles and rectum. Conclusions: Inter-observer variability for target

  18. Radiation effects in advanced SOI devices: New insights into total ionizing dose and single-event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SOI technology has already demonstrated intrinsic resistance to transient radiation effects due to the dielectric isolation provided by the buried oxide. But this special feature raises questions about their Total Ionizing Dose (TID) sensitivity, particularly in Fully Depleted (FD) SOI and multiple gate devices. This paper thus gives an overview of recent advances in radiation effects on innovative SOI devices. Both TID and Single-Event Effects (SEE) in Extra Thin SOI (ETSOI) and FinFET devices are reviewed as well as upcoming challenges to mitigate radiation effects in nanometer scale SOI technologies. (authors)

  19. Radiation biology: Major advances and perspectives for radiotherapy; Biologie des radiations: avancees majeures et perspectives pour la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, A. [Societe Magelis, lotissement Bel-Air, 6, rue Frederic-Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Vogin, G.; Granzotto, A. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Centre d' hadrontherapie etoile, 60, avenue Rockfeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Devic, C.; Viau, M.; Thomas, C.; Foray, N. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Maalouf, M. [CR-U1052, centre de recherche en cancerologie de Lyon, Inserm, batiment Cheney A, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Centre national d' etudes spatiales, 2, place Maurice-Quentin, 75039 Paris cedex 01 (France); Colin, C. [EA3738, faculte de medecine Lyon-Sud, 69921 Oullins (France); Service de radiologie, centre hospitalo-universitaire Lyon-Sud, chemin du Grand-Revoyet, 69495 Pierre-Benite (France)

    2011-08-15

    At the beginning of the 21. century, radiation biology is at a major turning point in its history. It must meet the expectations of the radiation oncologists, radiologists and the general public, but its purpose remains the same: to understand the molecular, cellular and tissue levels of lethal and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation in order to better protect healthy tissues and to develop treatments more effective against tumours. Four major aspects of radiobiology that marked this decade will be discussed: technological developments, the importance of signalling and repair of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, the impact of individual factor in the response to radiation and the contribution of radiobiology to better choose innovative therapies such as proton-therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A translational radiobiology should emerge with the help of radiotherapists and radiation physicists and by facilitating access to the new radio and/or chemotherapy modalities. (authors)

  20. Optimizing radiation dose by using advanced modelled iterative reconstruction in high-pitch coronary CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the potential of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) for optimizing radiation dose of high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA). High-pitch 192-slice dual-source CCTA was performed in 25 patients (group 1) according to standard settings (ref. 100 kVp, ref. 270 mAs/rot). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE (strength levels 1-5). In another 25 patients (group 2), high-pitch CCTA protocol parameters were adapted according to results from group 1 (ref. 160 mAs/rot), and images were reconstructed with ADMIRE level 4. In ten patients of group 1, vessel sharpness using full width at half maximum (FWHM) analysis was determined. Image quality was assessed by two independent, blinded readers. Interobserver agreements for attenuation and noise were excellent (r = 0.88/0.85, p < 0.01). In group 1, ADMIRE level 4 images were most often selected (84 %, 21/25) as preferred data set; at this level noise reduction was 40 % compared to FBP. Vessel borders showed increasing sharpness (FWHM) at increasing ADMIRE levels (p < 0.05). Image quality in group 2 was similar to that of group 1 at ADMIRE levels 2-3. Radiation dose in group 2 (0.3 ± 0.1 mSv) was significantly lower than in group 1 (0.5 ± 0.3 mSv; p < 0.05). In a selected population, ADMIRE can be used for optimizing high-pitch CCTA to an effective dose of 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  1. High-dose rate intra-operative radiation therapy for local advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to improve the local control for advanced and recurrent cancers of the rectum, we have integrated high-dose rate intra-operative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) into the treatment program. Between 11/92 and 10/95, 47 patients (pts) were treated. There were 26 males and 21 females whose ages ranged from 30-80 (median = 62) years. There were 19 pts with primary unresectable rectal cancer, and 28 pts who were treated for recurrent rectal cancer. Histology was adenocarcinoma - 45 pts, squamous cancer - 2 pts. The range of follow-up is 1-34 months (median = 14 months). The majority of primary unresectable pts received pre-operative radiation therapy (4500-5040 cGy) with chemotherapy (5-FU with Leucovorin) 4-6 weeks later, they underwent resection + HDR-IORT (1200 cGy). For the 28 pts with recurrent cancer, the majority received surgery and HDR-IORT alone because they had received prior RT. For the pts with primary unresectable disease, actuarial 2-year local control was 77%, actuarial distant metastasis-free survival was 71%, disease free survival was 66%, and overall survival was 84%. For those pts with recurrent disease, actuarial 2-year local control rate was 65%, distant metastasis-free survival was 65%, disease free survival was 47%, and overall survival was 61%. Complications occurred in 36%. There were no cases where the anatomical distribution of disease, or technical limitations prevented the adequate delivery of HDR-IORT. We conclude that this technique was most versatile, and enabled all appropriate pts to receive IORT. The preliminary data in terms of local control are encouraging, even for the poor prognostic sub-group of pts with recurrent cancer

  2. Optimizing radiation dose by using advanced modelled iterative reconstruction in high-pitch coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordic, Sonja; Husarik, Daniela B.; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Desbiolles, Lotus; Leschka, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kantonsspital, Divison of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Sedlmair, Martin; Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare, Computed Tomography Division, Forchheim (Germany); Manka, Robert [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Clinic of Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University and ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland); Plass, Andre; Maisano, Francesco [University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Wildermuth, Simon [Kantonsspital, Divison of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the potential of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) for optimizing radiation dose of high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA). High-pitch 192-slice dual-source CCTA was performed in 25 patients (group 1) according to standard settings (ref. 100 kVp, ref. 270 mAs/rot). Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ADMIRE (strength levels 1-5). In another 25 patients (group 2), high-pitch CCTA protocol parameters were adapted according to results from group 1 (ref. 160 mAs/rot), and images were reconstructed with ADMIRE level 4. In ten patients of group 1, vessel sharpness using full width at half maximum (FWHM) analysis was determined. Image quality was assessed by two independent, blinded readers. Interobserver agreements for attenuation and noise were excellent (r = 0.88/0.85, p < 0.01). In group 1, ADMIRE level 4 images were most often selected (84 %, 21/25) as preferred data set; at this level noise reduction was 40 % compared to FBP. Vessel borders showed increasing sharpness (FWHM) at increasing ADMIRE levels (p < 0.05). Image quality in group 2 was similar to that of group 1 at ADMIRE levels 2-3. Radiation dose in group 2 (0.3 ± 0.1 mSv) was significantly lower than in group 1 (0.5 ± 0.3 mSv; p < 0.05). In a selected population, ADMIRE can be used for optimizing high-pitch CCTA to an effective dose of 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  3. Guide to beamline radiation shielding design at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is concerned with the general requirements for radiation shielding common to most Advanced Photon Source (APS) users. These include shielding specifications for hutches, transport, stops, and shutters for both white and monochromatic beams. For brevity, only the results of calculations are given in most cases. So-called open-quotes special situationsclose quotes are not covered. These include beamlines with white beam mirrors for low-pass energy filters (open-quotes pink beamsclose quotes), extremely wide band-pass monochromators (multilayers), or novel insertion devices. These topics are dependent on beamline layout and, as such, are not easily generalized. Also, many examples are given for open-quotes typicalclose quotes hutches or other beamline components. If a user has components that differ greatly from those described, particular care should be taken in following these guidelines. Users with questions on specific special situations should address them to the APS User Technical Interface. Also, this document does not cover specifics on hutch, transport, shutter, and stop designs. Issues such as how to join hutch panels, floor-wall interfaces, cable feed-throughs, and how to integrate shielding into transport are covered in the APS Beamline Standard Components Handbook. It is a open-quotes living documentclose quotes and as such reflects the improvements in component design that are ongoing. This document has the following content. First, the design criteria will be given. This includes descriptions of some of the pertinent DOE regulations and policies, as well as brief discussions of abnormal situations, interlocks, local shielding, and storage ring parameters. Then, the various sources of radiation on the experimental floor are discussed, and the methods used to calculate the shielding are explained (along with some sample calculations). Finally, the shielding recommendations for different situations are given and discussed

  4. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  5. Dose escalation with stereotactic body radiation therapy boost for locally advanced non small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low survival outcomes have been reported for the treatment of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) with the standard of care treatment of concurrent chemoradiation (cCRT). We present our experience of dose escalation using stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) following conventional cCRT for patients with LA-NSCLC. Sixteen patients with a median age of 67.5 treated with fractionated SBRT from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Nine (56%) of the patients had stage IIIB, 6 (38%) has stage IIIA, and 1 (6%) had recurrent disease. Majority of the patients (63%) presented with N2 disease. All patients had a PET CT for treatment planning. Patients received conventional cCRT to a median dose of 50.40 Gy (range 45–60) followed by an SBRT boost with an average dose of 25 Gy (range 20–30) given over 5 fractions. With a median follow-up of 14 months (range, 1–14 months), 1-year overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), local control (LC), regional control (RC), and distant control (DC) rates were, 78%, 42%, 76%, 79%, and 71%, respectively. Median times to disease progression and regional failure were 10 months and 18 months, respectively. On univariate analysis, advanced age and nodal status were worse prognostic factors of PFS (p < 0.05). Four patients developed radiation pneumonitis and one developed hemoptysis. Treatment was interrupted in one patient who required hospitalization due to arrhythmias and pneumonia. Risk adaptive dose escalation with SBRT following external beam radiotherapy is possible and generally tolerated treatment option for patients with LA-NSCLC

  6. The combination therapy with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rare, usually diagnosed at the considerably advanced stage and thereby difficult for surgery. For such cases, the therapy in the title is conducted in authors' hospital, of which outcome is described herein. Stage III-IVB cases of 25 patients underwent the therapy (1996-2005). Chemotherapy was by cisplatin (CDDP)+5 fluorouracil (FU), or Epirubicin (FARM)+Mitomycin C (MMC)+5FU. Radiation therapy was performed on the vascular invasion and metastatic lymphaden and if possible, on the primary site, at total 39-50 Gy in a fractionated manner, by internal irradiation at 15 Gy (2 cases), and on bone metastasis at 25 Gy (1 case). Efficacy was evaluated by the Criteria 2004 by the Liver Cancer Study Group in Japan. Evaluation 6 months after therapy was partial response (PR) in 9 cases, standard deviation (SD) in 2, progressive disease (PD) in 13, data unavailable in 1: the efficacy rate was 36% (9/25). One-year survival was 52.5%, 2-year 43.7%, and 3-year 28.1%. The predicting prognosis factor found was significantly good in female and in cases without remote metastases and/or metastatic lymphadens around aorta. Thus the therapy was valuable to try and cooperative, multi-center study was thought necessary in future. (R.T.)

  7. A Cs2LiYCl6:Ce-based advanced radiation monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) scintillator has gained recent interest because of its ability to perform simultaneous gamma spectroscopy and thermal neutron detection. Discrimination between the two incident particle types owes to the fundamentally unique emission waveforms, a consequence of the interaction and subsequent scintillation mechanisms within the crystal. Due to this dual-mode detector capability, CLYC was selected for the development of an Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD), a compact handheld instrument for radioisotope identification and localization. ARMD consists of four 1 in.-right cylindrical CLYC crystals, custom readout electronics including a suitable multi-window application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), battery pack, proprietary software, and Android-based tablet for high-level analysis and display. We herein describe the motivation of the work and engineering design of the unit, and we explain the software embedded in the core module and for radioisotope analysis. We report an operational range of tens of keV to 8.5 MeV with approximately 5.3% gamma energy resolution at 662 keV, thermal neutron detection efficiency of 10%, battery lifetime of up to 10 h, manageable rates of 20 kHz; further, we describe in greater detail time to identify specific gamma source setups

  8. A Cs2LiYCl6:Ce-based advanced radiation monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Dallmann, N.; Baginski, M. J.; Best, D. J.; Smith, M. B.; Graham, S. A.; Dathy, C.; Frank, J. M.; McClish, M.

    2015-06-01

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) scintillator has gained recent interest because of its ability to perform simultaneous gamma spectroscopy and thermal neutron detection. Discrimination between the two incident particle types owes to the fundamentally unique emission waveforms, a consequence of the interaction and subsequent scintillation mechanisms within the crystal. Due to this dual-mode detector capability, CLYC was selected for the development of an Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD), a compact handheld instrument for radioisotope identification and localization. ARMD consists of four 1 in.-right cylindrical CLYC crystals, custom readout electronics including a suitable multi-window application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), battery pack, proprietary software, and Android-based tablet for high-level analysis and display. We herein describe the motivation of the work and engineering design of the unit, and we explain the software embedded in the core module and for radioisotope analysis. We report an operational range of tens of keV to 8.5 MeV with approximately 5.3% gamma energy resolution at 662 keV, thermal neutron detection efficiency of 10%, battery lifetime of up to 10 h, manageable rates of 20 kHz; further, we describe in greater detail time to identify specific gamma source setups.

  9. Corrosion and radiation response of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels for Generation IV application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many Generation IV systems, ferritic-martensitic steels are considered candidates for core internals, cladding, or pressure vessels. The radiation response to proton and heavy ion irradiation and the corrosion response in supercritical water and lead-bismuth eutectic of two advanced steels, specifically HCM12A (Grade 122) and a 9Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel are reported in this work. The HCM12A appears to harden in a similar manner to T91. In the 9Cr ODS alloy, the oxides particles shrink slightly under high heavy ion irradiation, but this loss in size is accompanied by an increase in density such that any loss of hardening appears to be negligible. When exposed to SCW, the 9Cr ODs alloy has a thinner and less porous oxide than HCM12A. Although the inner oxide layers of HCM12A exposed in SCW and LBE have some similarity, the outer magnetite layer has smaller and equiaxed grains when exposed to LBE as opposed to the large columnar grains when exposed in SCW. (author)

  10. Treatment-related toxicities with Fluosol-DA 20% infusion during radiation in advanced head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, B.H.; Janjan, N.A.; Byhardt, R.W.; Toohill, R.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Fluosol-DA 20%, a synthetic perfluorocarbon emulsion first developed as a blood substitute, is currently being investigated as a radiation sensitizer. Theoretically, an oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon emulsion combined with oxygen inhalation might be able to increase tumor response by decreasing the relative proportion of hypoxic tumor cells. Twenty-one patients with advanced head and neck malignancies receiving primary radiation therapy were evaluated for treatment-related toxicity. Mucosal reactions and weight loss during treatment in the group of patients who received the perfluorocarbon emulsion and the group who did not were comparable. Late sequelae appeared comparable. No patient in either group who completed radiation therapy required an interruption of the treatment course. We conclude that Fluosol-DA 20% is a tolerated adjunct to primary radiation therapy. Further study is needed to determine whether the agent will improve local/regional tumor control.

  11. Treatment-related toxicities with Fluosol-DA 20% infusion during radiation in advanced head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluosol-DA 20%, a synthetic perfluorocarbon emulsion first developed as a blood substitute, is currently being investigated as a radiation sensitizer. Theoretically, an oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon emulsion combined with oxygen inhalation might be able to increase tumor response by decreasing the relative proportion of hypoxic tumor cells. Twenty-one patients with advanced head and neck malignancies receiving primary radiation therapy were evaluated for treatment-related toxicity. Mucosal reactions and weight loss during treatment in the group of patients who received the perfluorocarbon emulsion and the group who did not were comparable. Late sequelae appeared comparable. No patient in either group who completed radiation therapy required an interruption of the treatment course. We conclude that Fluosol-DA 20% is a tolerated adjunct to primary radiation therapy. Further study is needed to determine whether the agent will improve local/regional tumor control

  12. Fast multi-modality image matching

    OpenAIRE

    Apicella, Anthony; Kippenhan, Jonathan Shane; Nagel, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    Automated image matching has important applications, not only in the fields of machine vision and general pattern recognition, but also in modern diagnostic and therapeutic medical imaging. Image matching, including the recognition of objects within images as well as the combination of images that represent the same object or process using different descriptive parameters, is particularly important when complementary physiological and anatomical images, obtained with different imaging modalit...

  13. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  14. RATB Multi-modal sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Edel; Alan F. SMEATON; O''Connor, Noel E.; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Water management is an important part of monitoring the natural environment and includes monitoring water quality of both coastal and inland marine locations. This covers the detection of pollution and monitoring the development of harmful algal blooms as well as coastal features and wave patterns. For many years water managers relied on field measurements for coastal monitoring and water quality evaluation. This type of sampling is quite limited on both temporal and spatial scales and is in...

  15. Multi-modal pain measurements in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Worley, A.; Fabrizi, L.; Boyd, S; Slater, R

    2012-01-01

    A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen...

  16. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society: advances in radiation technology for societal benefits - abstract and souvenir book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics covered in this symposium are advances in cancer treatment and health care, new radiopharmaceuticals, novel applications, radiation processing, technology of electron beam accelerators, radiation technology in industry and hydrology and radiation protection and public perception. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Combined modality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-modality treatment consisting of cisplatin, VP-16, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy given concomitantly with external beam radiation was used to treat 64 patients with locally advanced Stage III non-small cell lung carcinoma. This regimen was used in a preoperative fashion for four cycles in patients considered surgically resectable and with curative intent for six cycles in the remainder of patients. The clinical response rate for the entire group was 84% and the overall local control rate was 74%. The median survival was 13 months with a median follow-up for live patients of 19 months. The actuarial 3-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 30% and 23%, respectively. Histologic complete response was 39% and appeared to predict for survival. The 3-year actuarial survival and disease-free survival rates for 23 resected patients were 69% and 45%, respectively, with the complete histologic responders having a disease-free survival of 78%. The pattern of first recurrence did not appear to differ by histology or presence of lymph nodes in this subset of patients. The actuarial 3-year survival and disease-free survival rates for inoperable patients receiving six cycles of treatment were 18% and 23%, respectively. The local control was 67% with the majority of these patients having Stage IIIB disease. The Mountain International staging system appeared to predict for operability, local recurrence, and survival. This concomitant treatment regimen is feasible, with the major toxicities being leukopenia, nausea, and vomiting

  18. An assessment of the effects of radiation on permanent magnet material in the ALS [Advanced Light Source] insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons that are lost from the beam during normal operation of a synchrotron radiation source and during a beam dump at the end of a run produce both ionizing radiation and neutrons. This radiation has the potential for damaging sensitive materials, in particular those that need to be very close to the beam. The wigglers and undulators for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL will use magnetic materials such as the very high performance neodymium-iron-boron, which will be as close as 1 cm away from the electron beam during operation. This material, which is preferred because of its high remanence, is known to be more sensitive to radiation than some other magnetic materials. Simple energy loss estimates and the EGS4 code were used to estimate the radiation levels in the ALS insertion devices in the regions of the magnetic materials. The radiation levels were estimated for both aluminum and stainless steel vacuum chambers to determine if one would provide significantly better shielding. We conclude that Nd-Fe-B can be used in the ALS insertion devices and that there is little difference in the radiation levels for aluminum and stainless vacuum vessels. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. Indications for the clinical use of deep local and regional hyperthermia in conjunction with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From September 1981 through April 1986, 51 patients with eccentrically-located or deep-seated tumors underwent 173 hyperthermia treatments to 54 separate local-regional fields. 78% of the tumors were in the pelvis and were relatively large. Patients had, in general, received extensive prior treatment including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Regarding the results the following conclusions are drawn: The clinical use of deep local and regional hyperthermia as an adjunct to radiation therapy should be considered in situations in which a) the probability of palliation or local-regional control is low by currently available standard treatment modalities and b) hyperthermia can be safely administered to the tumor site. With the currently commercially available hyperthermia applicators, it would appear that potentially effective deep local and regional heating may be obtainable in pelvic tumors. Such treatment may be indicated as an adjunct to radiation therapy in the treatment of locally advanced or recurrent deep-seated pelvic malignancies including cancers of the colorectum, prostate, urinary bladder, and uterine cervix and corpus. As better equipment is developed, the treatment of pancreatic cancer with multi-modality regimens including hyperthermia should be considered. Hyperthermia may also be of value in the treatment of unresectable soft-tissue sarcomas and bone tumors and may be useful with preoperative radiation therapy in tumors of these sites. The roles and indications for the use of interstitial hyperthermia remain to the better defined. However, the combination of interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial brachytherapy treatment may be valuable in the management of advanced gynecologic, head and neck, breast, and malignant brain tumors. (orig./MG)

  20. Simultaneous radiation plus cis-platinum/5-fluorouracil infusion in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports twenty patients with advanced untreated head and neck cancer (curative) and five with recurrence (palliative) treated with three 2-week courses of radiation (1,500 rad/10 treatments), cis-platinum, and a 5-day 5-fluorouracil infusion. A fourth 2-week course of radiation (2,000 rad/10 treatments) brought the final tumor dose to 6,500 rad. Nineteen (95%) of the curative patients and four (80%) of the palliative patients experienced complete or partial response. There have been 12 recurrences (nine local, two distant, and one local + distant). Most patients experienced toxicity, including nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and mucositis. In this study, chemoradiotherapy was effective in achieving local/regional control in advanced head and neck cancer

  1. Advanced Nongray Radiation Module in the LOCI Framework for Combustion CFD Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this STTR, an innovative, efficient and high fidelity computational tool to predict radiative heat transfer will be implemented in the LOCI framework. Radiative...

  2. Radiation biology – An important science for an advanced nuclear nation like South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of radiation biology (radiobiology) is under threat in South Africa because of underdevelopment in the discipline, despite the fact that South Africa has been a user of radiation since radioactivity and X-rays were discovered. The widespread use of radiation in medicine, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and other sophisticated nuclear facilities in South Africa makes it imperative that the interaction of radiation with biological systems is understood. For example, r...

  3. Report of the 2nd RCM on nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions for which, due to their characteristics, radiation techniques are uniquely suited. Accordingly, many of the IAEA Member States (MS) have interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. In seeking new knowledge to advance the field and tackle this specific problem, to collaborate to enhance the quality of the scientific research and improve their efficiency and effectiveness, MS had requested the support of the IAEA for such collaboration. Based on these requests, and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant's meeting on Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes, held on 10-14 December 2007, the present CRP was formulated and started in 2009. The first RCM was held in 30 March – 3 April 2009, in Vienna, where the work plan for both individual participants and collaborations were discussed and accepted, as reported in the Meeting Report published as IAEA Working Material (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/iachem/working_materials.html). The second RCM was held on 15-19 November 2010, Paris, France, and was attended by 17 participants (chief scientific investigators or team members) and one cost-free observer from Brazil. The participants presented their research achievements since the first RCM, centred on the main expected outputs of this CRP: a. Methodologies to prepare and characterize nanogels; nanoparticles and nanoporous membranes, as well as to synthesize and modify nanoparticle surfaces by attaching organic ligands by radiation; b. Methodologies to radiation synthesize

  4. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  5. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  6. Long-term results of accelerated radiation treatment for advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This report presents long-term follow-up data from a prospective but unrandomized trial of a continuous 3.5-week course of accelerated radiation treatment (ART) used as primary treatment for patients with loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: Ninety-three patients in three centres in New Zealand and Australia were treated with ART (59.40 Gy in 33 fractions over 24-25 days). Their disease originated from three anatomical regions (oral cavity, 35 patients; pharynx, 31 patients; larynx, 27 patients). Seventy-nine of these patients had stage III or IV cancers. Results: Follow-up ranged from 68 to 203 months (median 139 months). Loco-regional (LR) failure occurred in 52 patients leading to a 10-year actuarial expectation of LR control of 38%. The actuarial expectation of LR control at 10 years was highly dependent on stage and for stage III, IVA and IVB patients it was 57±8.1%, 32±1.7% and 7±0.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis could not confirm an independent impact of primary site or histological differentiation on LR failure. Two patients died of acute toxicity of treatment and six patients developed grade 3/4 late complications affecting soft tissues only, yielding an actuarial expectation of complications of this severity at 5 years of 9%. No cases of osteoradionecrosis or myelitis were observed. Conclusion: This ART, which has proved easy to use at a number of large and small centres, has produced encouraging long-term LR control at a cost of limited soft tissue morbidity. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using 'predictive process control'. Real-time verification of process parameters 'on-the-run' allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points

  8. Conceptualisation of the characteristics of advanced practitioners in the medical radiation professions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to ...

  9. Radiation dose reduction in CT of the brain: can advanced noise filtering compensate for loss of image quality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) of the brain is performed with high local doses due to high demands on low contrast resolution. Advanced algorithms for noise reduction might be able to preserve critical image information when reducing radiation dose. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of advanced noise filtering on image quality in brain CT acquired with reduced radiation dose. Material and Methods: Thirty patients referred for non-enhanced CT of the brain were examined with two helical protocols: normal dose (ND, CTDIvol 57 mGy) and low dose (LD, CTDIvol 40 mGy) implying a 30% radiation dose reduction. Images from the LD examinations were also post processed with a noise reduction software with non-linear filters (SharpView CT), creating filtered low dose images (FLD) for each patient. The three image stacks for each patient were presented side by side in randomized order. Five radiologists, blinded for dose level and filtering, ranked these three axial image stacks (ND, LD, FLD) as best to poorest (1 to 3) regarding three image quality criteria. Measurements of mean Hounsfield units (HU) and standard deviation (SD) of the HU were calculated for large region of interest in the centrum semiovale as a measure for noise. Results: Ranking results in pooled data showed that the advanced noise filtering significantly improved the image quality in FLD as compared to LD images for all tested criteria. No significant differences in image quality were found between ND examinations and FLD. However, there was a notable inter-reader spread of the ranking. SD values were 15% higher for LD as compared to ND and FLD. Conclusion: The advanced noise filtering clearly improves image quality of CT examinations of the brain. This effect can be used to significantly lower radiation dose.

  10. Radiation with cisplatin or carboplatin for locally advanced cervix cancer: the experience of a tertiary cancer centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definitive treatment with concurrent cisplatin and radiation is the standard of care for locally advanced cervix cancer. The optimal management of patients with a contraindication to cisplatin has not been established. We conducted a retrospective audit of concurrent chemotherapy in a cohort of patients with locally advanced cervix cancer. All patients with locally advanced cervix cancer treated with definitive radiation were entered into a prospective database. Information regarding their demographics, stage, histology, recurrence and survival were recorded. Pharmacy records were reviewed to determine concurrent chemotherapy use. A total of 442 patients were included in the audit. Two hundred sixty-nine patients received cisplatin, 59 received carboplatin and 114 received no concurrent chemotherapy. Overall survival was significantly improved with the use of concurrent cisplatin compared with radiation alone (adjusted hazard ratio 0.53, P=0.001), as was disease-free survival and rate of distant failure. The use of carboplatin was not associated with any significant benefit in terms of overall survival or disease-free survival. The results of this audit are consistent with the known significant survival benefit with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy. However, there did not appear to be any significant benefit with carboplatin although there were potential confounding factors. The available evidence in the literature would favour the use of non-platinum chemotherapy rather than carboplatin in patients with contraindications to cisplatin.

  11. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  12. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H2O2 removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities

  13. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities.

  14. Research advances in multi-modality medical image registration and fusion methods and their clinical application%多模医学图像配准和融合方法及其临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾恒乐; 聂生东

    2016-01-01

    多模医学图像处理是当前图像处理中的研究热点,对于临床诊断和治疗都有着重要的意义。不同模态的图像提供了患者的不同信息,解剖图像(如CT、MRI)提供了人体解剖形态结构的信息,功能图像(如SPECT、PET)提供了人体内放射性浓度分布的功能信息,这些不同信息需要通过合成得到信息更为全面的融合图像。而要得到有用的融合图像,不同模态的图像需经配准处理。这里综述了几种应用于医学领域的图像配准和融合技术,指出了不同技术的各自优缺点,同时也对近期各种处理技术在临床应用中的研究做了介绍。%Multi⁃modality medical image processing has become a hot topic for research in the field of image processing and plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and treatment. Images with different modalities provide different information on patients. Anatomical images ( such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging ) provide information on anatomical morphology and the structure of human body, and functional images ( such as single⁃photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) provide the functional information on the distribution of radioactive concentration within human body. Such information needs to be fused to obtain comprehensive fusion images, and the images with different modalities need to be registered to obtain useful fusion images. This article reviews several image registration and fusion techniques used in the medical field, points out their advantages and shortcomings, and introduces the application of various processing techniques in clinical practice.

  15. Advanced angular interpolation in the vector radiative transfer for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the iteration of source function (IOSF) philosophy to the successive order of scattering method for solving the vector radiative transfer equation in the coupled atmosphere and ocean system. A major class of radiative transfer solvers only provides the radiation field at discrete viewing zenith angles. The radiation field at other angles is found by interpolation. The iteration of source matrix method integrates the product of the radiation field and source matrix at quadrature points to obtain the radiation field at arbitrary viewing angles. The resultant solution includes the radiation contributions from all scattering orders higher than one. The analytical single scattering solution is then added to find the total radiation field. The proposed scheme includes the benefits of both the IOSF interpolation and the analytical single scattering solution. Boundary conditions for a flat air–sea interface are fully considered. A test case of a coupled atmosphere and ocean system shows that this combined method improves the polarized radiation field greatly in comparison with the regular polynomial interpolation method. -- Highlights: ► The iteration of source matrix method is applied to vector radiative transfer. ► The Stokes parameters at arbitrary viewing angles are obtained. ► Special focus is on coupled atmosphere and ocean systems. ► The analytical single scattering solution is used to increase accuracy.

  16. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Tasks 7A/7B. Advanced outage management and radiation exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives of Tasks 7A and 7B were to develop and demonstrate computer based systems to assist plant management and staff in utilizing information more effectively to reduce occupational exposures received as a result of refueling outages, and to shorten the duration of the outage. The Advanced Outage Management (AOM) Tool (Task 7A) is an automated outage planning system specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclear plant outage management. The primary objective of the AOM tool is to provide a computerized system that can manipulate the information typically associated with outage planning and scheduling to furnish reports and schedules that more accurately project the future course of the outage. The Radiation Exposure Control (REC) Tool (Task 7B) is a computerized personnel radiation exposure accounting and management system designed to enable nuclear plant management to project and monitor total personnel radiation exposure on a real-time basis. The two systems were designed to operate on the same computer system and interface through a common database that enables information sharing between plant organizations not typically interfaced. This interfacing provides outage planners with a means of incorporating occupational radiation exposure as a factor for making decisions on the course of an outage

  17. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; Singh, Sudhir; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Park, Chul Hong; Srilatha, B.; Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Ohchul

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture for Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz.; Identification and functional analysis of AtTDX (chaperone and peroxidase activities); Functional analysis of radiation(gamma ray, electron beam, and proton beam) induced chaperon protein activities (AtTDX); Determine the action mechanism of yPrx2; Development of transgenic plant with bas I gene from Arabidopsis; Development of transgenic plant with EoP gene from centipedegrass; Identification of radiation induced multi functional compounds from Aloe; Determination of the effects of radiation on removing undesirable color and physiological activities (Schizandra chinensis baillon, centipedegrass); Determine the action mechanism of transgenic plant with 2-Cys Prx for heat stress resistance; Determination of the effects of centipedegrass extracts on anti-cancer activities; Functional analysis of centipedegrass extracts (anti-virus effects)

  18. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture for Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz.; Identification and functional analysis of AtTDX (chaperone and peroxidase activities); Functional analysis of radiation(gamma ray, electron beam, and proton beam) induced chaperon protein activities (AtTDX); Determine the action mechanism of yPrx2; Development of transgenic plant with bas I gene from Arabidopsis; Development of transgenic plant with EoP gene from centipedegrass; Identification of radiation induced multi functional compounds from Aloe; Determination of the effects of radiation on removing undesirable color and physiological activities (Schizandra chinensis baillon, centipedegrass); Determine the action mechanism of transgenic plant with 2-Cys Prx for heat stress resistance; Determination of the effects of centipedegrass extracts on anti-cancer activities; Functional analysis of centipedegrass extracts (anti-virus effects)

  19. A Multicenter Phase II Trial of S-1 With Concurrent Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Masafumi, E-mail: masikeda@east.ncc.go.jp [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Ioka, Tatsuya [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yonemoto, Naohiro [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Nagase, Michitaka [Department of Clinical Oncology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Yamao, Kenji [Department of Gastroenterology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Miyakawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Sapporo Kosei General Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ishii, Hiroshi [Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Division, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Furuse, Junji [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Keiko [Kyoto Unit Center, Japan Environment and Children' s Study, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Sato, Tosiya [Department of Biostatistics, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Kyoto (Japan); Okusaka, Takuji [Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of S-1 and concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Locally advanced PC patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma, who had no previous therapy were enrolled. Radiation therapy was delivered through 3 or more fields at a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions over 5.5 weeks. S-1 was administered orally at a dose of 80 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily on the day of irradiation during radiation therapy. After a 2- to 8-week break, patients received a maintenance dose of S-1 (80 mg/m{sup 2}/day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day rest period) was then administered until the appearance of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary efficacy endpoint was survival, and the secondary efficacy endpoints were progression-free survival, response rate, and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) response; the safety endpoint was toxicity. Results: Of the 60 evaluable patients, 16 patients achieved a partial response (27%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-40%). The median progression-free survival period, overall survival period, and 1-year survival rate of the evaluable patients were 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.9-11.6 months), 16.2 months (95% CI, 13.5-21.3 months), and 72% (95%CI, 59%-82%), respectively. Of the 42 patients with a pretreatment serum CA19-9 level of {>=}100 U/ml, 34 (81%) patients showed a decrease of greater than 50%. Leukopenia (6 patients, 10%) and anorexia (4 patients, 7%) were the major grade 3-4 toxicities with chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: The effect of S-1 with concurrent radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced PC was found to be very favorable, with only mild toxicity.

  20. Challenges to radiative divertor/mantle operations in advanced, steady-state scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Managing the heat exhaust problem is well recognized to be a major challenge in transforming present successes in magnetic confinement fusion experiments to demonstration of cost-effective, steady-state power generation from fusion [1][2]. One approach is to convert plasma thermal energy, normally directed to isolated surfaces, to isotropic photon emission, distributing exhaust power over a large surface area. Successful demonstrations of this technique on existing short pulse devices are shown, along with the inherent limitations; the collapse of core confinement with excessive radiation from the bulk plasma and restrictions to dissipation in the divertor volume. Feedback control of impurity seeding is discussed, showing recent examples from tokamaks [3]. For steady-state devices, additional constraints on divertor scenarios are driven by long-term plasma material interaction effects, with fuel recycling, net erosion limits and surface morphology changes forcing detached plasma operation where both heat and particle fluxes are substantially reduced. The instability of these detachment layers in standard X-point divertors with impurity seeding is outlined. Achieving these steady-state, high performance scenarios also restricts the divertor solution by requiring it be compatible with current-drive actuators and enhanced core confinement regimes. While ITER will operate with impurity seeding in a conventional tokamak geometry [4], it is not clear that this concept will reliably scale to a reactor and has been identified as a major risk factor in the development of fusion power [2]. Alternatives concepts are discussed, including the snowflake [5] and super-X divertor [6], along with their respective proof of principle experiments. The complications in convincingly scaling these concepts to a reactor are outlined, including challenges in validating numerical simulations of advanced, dissipative divertors. References: [1] Greenwald, M

  1. Localization accuracy from automatic and semi-automatic rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets during image-guided radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Scott P.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate localization accuracy resulting from rigid registration of locally-advanced lung cancer targets using fully automatic and semi-automatic protocols for image-guided radiation therapy.

  2. EDITORIAL Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment Complexity of advanced radiation therapy necessitates multidisciplinary inquiry into dose reconstruction and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne

    2010-07-01

    The availability of low-cost, high-performance computing is rapidly transforming the landscape of cancer research. Computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role and have become the third major method of scientific inquiry, supplementing traditional methods of observation and theory. This evolution began in the 1940s when high-performance computing techniques were developed for military applications, including radiation transport calculations. These same basic methods are still widely utilized in a broad spectrum of computational problems in medicine, including radiation cancer therapy (Rogers 2006, Spezi 2010) and radiologic diagnostic imaging (Doi 2006, Kalender 2006). Supercomputing is also now being used to study the genetics and genomics of cancer (Geurts van Kessel 2010), with application to gene sequencing (Mardis 2008), genome-wide association studies (Pearson and Manolio 2008), biomolecular dynamics (Sanbonmatsu and Tung 2007) and systems biology (Wolkenhauer et al 2010). The extensive and growing body of literature is evidence of a remarkable expansion of activity and enormous boost to cancer research from the application of high-performance computing. Early successes were facilitated by inexpensive computing resources and advances in modeling algorithms. Many contemporary models require extensive approximations and phenomenological approaches. In fact, many critical problems remain computationally intractable; the underlying physical and biological processes are simply too complex to model with contemporary theory and computing capacity. In the future, a vast stream of new insights will flow from studies that use increasingly exact models and first-principles approaches. Hence, in the war on cancer the present status of computational research could be summarized as the beginning of the beginning. For these reasons, there is a vital need for scientists and clinicians to periodically discuss progress and future plans regarding

  3. Advances in dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yang Yu,1 Hui Guan,1 Yuanli Dong,1 Ligang Xing,2 Xiaolin Li2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, University of Jinan, Jinan, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: To summarize the research progress about the dosimetry and biological predictors of radiation-induced esophagitis.Methods: We performed a systematic literature review addressing radiation esophagitis in the treatment of lung cancer published between January 2009 and May 2015 in the PubMed full-text database index systems.Results: Twenty-eight eligible documents were included in the final analysis. Many clinical factors were related to the risk of radiation esophagitis, such as elder patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the intense radiotherapy regimen (hyperfractionated radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiotherapy. The parameters including Dmax, Dmean, V20, V30, V50, and V55 may be valuable in predicting the occurrence of radiation esophagitis in patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are also associated with radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Dosimetry and biological factors of radiation-induced esophagitis provide clinical information to decrease its occurrence and grade during radiotherapy. More prospective studies are warranted to confirm their prediction efficacy. Keywords: lung cancer, esophagitis, radiation injuries, predictors

  4. Development of advanced materials for spallation neutron sources and radiation damage simulation based on multi-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status review of the JSPS Grant Team to develop advanced materials for the spallation neutron sources and modeling of radiation damage. One of the advanced materials is a toughness enhanced, fine-grained tungsten material (W-TiC) having four-times larger fracture toughness than ordinary tungsten and appreciable RT ductility in the recrystallized state. The other is an intergranular crack (IGC)-resistant austenitic stainless steel which was processed by the grain-boundary engineering (GBE). The experimental results are devoted to corrosion in a lead–bismuth eutectic, arrest of corrosion of weld-decay, radiation damage and creep rupture as well as new technique of GBE using a laser and annealing procedure. New technique seems to be applicable to large or complicated-shaped components. A series of the multi-scale models is built up from nuclear reaction between incident particles and medium nuclei to material property change due to radiation damage. Sample calculation is made on 3 mm-thick nickel bombarded by 3 GeV protons.

  5. Advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods are available for the solution of radiative heat transfer problems in participating media. Among these, the discrete ordinates method (DOM) and the finite volume method (FVM) are among the most widely used ones. They provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational requirements, and they are relatively easy to integrate in CFD codes. This paper surveys recent advances on these numerical methods. Developments concerning the grid structure (e.g., new formulations for axisymmetrical geometries, body-fitted structured and unstructured meshes, embedded boundaries, multi-block grids, local grid refinement), the spatial discretization scheme, and the angular discretization scheme are described. Progress related to the solution accuracy, solution algorithm, alternative formulations, such as the modified DOM and FVM, even-parity formulation, discrete-ordinates interpolation method and method of lines, and parallelization strategies is addressed. The application to non-gray media, variable refractive index media, and transient problems is also reviewed. - Highlights: • We survey recent advances in the discrete ordinates and finite volume methods. • Developments in spatial and angular discretization schemes are described. • Progress in solution algorithms and parallelization methods is reviewed. • Advances in the transient solution of the radiative transfer equation are appraised. • Non-gray media and variable refractive index media are briefly addressed

  6. Report of the 1st RCM on ''Nanoscale radiation engineering of advanced materials for potential biomedical applications''. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are critical needs for advanced materials in the area of biomaterial engineering, primarily in generating biomaterials of enhanced specific functionalities, improved biocompatibility, and minimal natural rejection but with enhanced interfacial adhesion. These can be achieved by introduction of proper functionalities at the nanoscale dimensions and radiation techniques are uniquely suited for such a task, due to their favorable characteristics, and in most cases, not possible by other methods of synthesis. Accordingly, many of the developing and developed Member States have an interest in creating advanced materials for various health-care applications using a wide array of radiation sources and their broad expertise. The proposal for this CRP was formulated based on the requests and information received from the member states and the conclusions and recommendations of the Consultant’s meeting on “Advanced Materials on the Nano-scale Synthesized by Radiation-Induced Processes”, held on 10-14 December 2007, in Vienna. Based on these conclusions, this CRP aims to support MS to develop methodologies for the use of radiation in the synthesis, modification, and characterization of nanomaterials - nanogels, nanoparticles, nanovehicles, nanoporous membranes, and surfaces with enhanced biocompatibility for potential biomedical applications, such as cell-sheet engineering and artificial tissue construction; diagnostics and imaging; and drug delivery. Additionally, this CRP facilitates networking between radiation technologists and biomedical scientists for the development of such applications. The CRP generated a huge interest, but due to funding constrains, many good proposals had to be rejected. The first RCM of the CRP was convened in Vienna on 30 March - 03 April 2009. It was attended by 14 representatives and two observers. The participants presented and discussed the status of the field, the needs for further research, and various application possibilities

  7. Computer-based image analysis in radiological diagnostics and image-guided therapy 3D-Reconstruction, contrast medium dynamics, surface analysis, radiation therapy and multi-modal image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, J

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with substantial subjects of postprocessing and analysis of radiological image data, a particular emphasis was put on pulmonary themes. For a multitude of purposes the developed methods and procedures can directly be transferred to other non-pulmonary applications. The work presented here is structured in 14 chapters, each describing a selected complex of research. The chapter order reflects the sequence of the processing steps starting from artefact reduction, segmentation, visualization, analysis, therapy planning and image fusion up to multimedia archiving. In particular, this includes virtual endoscopy with three different scene viewers (Chap. 6), visualizations of the lung disease bronchiectasis (Chap. 7), surface structure analysis of pulmonary tumors (Chap. 8), quantification of contrast medium dynamics from temporal 2D and 3D image sequences (Chap. 9) as well as multimodality image fusion of arbitrary tomographical data using several visualization techniques (Chap. 12). Thus, the softw...

  8. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  9. Advances in radiation modeling in ALEGRA :a final report for LDRD-67120, efficient implicit mulitgroup radiation calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Kurecka, Christopher J. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); McClarren, Ryan (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

    2005-11-01

    The original LDRD proposal was to use a nonlinear diffusion solver to compute estimates for the material temperature that could then be used in a Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) calculation. At the end of the first year of the project, it was determined that this was not going to be effective, partially due to the concept, and partially due to the fact that the radiation diffusion package was not as efficient as it could be. The second, and final year, of the project focused on improving the robustness and computational efficiency of the radiation diffusion package in ALEGRA. To this end, several new multigroup diffusion methods have been developed and implemented in ALEGRA. While these methods have been implemented, their effectiveness of reducing overall simulation run time has not been fully tested. Additionally a comprehensive suite of verification problems has been developed for the diffusion package to ensure that it has been implemented correctly. This process took considerable time, but exposed significant bugs in both the previous and new diffusion packages, the linear solve packages, and even the NEVADA Framework's parser. In order to manage this large suite of problem, a new tool called Tampa has been developed. It is a general tool for automating the process of running and analyzing many simulations. Ryan McClarren, at the University of Michigan has been developing a Spherical Harmonics capability for unstructured meshes. While still in the early phases of development, this promises to bridge the gap in accuracy between a full transport solution using IMC and the diffusion approximation.

  10. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams, from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV, will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science, biology, atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux, broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Locally advanced breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: A case report of successful treatment with radiation and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fleighton Estes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a rare phenomenon. A typical presentation is an effusion associated with a breast implant. Less commonly, disease can become more advanced locoregionally or distantly. The optimal treatment schema is a topic of debate: localized ALCL can potentially be cured with implant removal alone, while other cases in the literature, including those that are more advanced, have been treated with varying combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy. This is a case report of breast implant ALCL with pathologically proven lymph node involvement, the fifth such patient reported. Our patient experienced a favorable outcome with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  12. Radiation therapy of patients with locally advanced forms of upper airway cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These research devoted to the planning and radiation therapy problems and intended for patients with malignant neoplasms of upper airways. Devices ''Rocus AM'', ''Teratron-95'', linear accelerators ''Mevatron-KD-2'' and ''Clinac2100'' was applied toward the patients.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Radiation Nanosensors and Nanosensory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yannakopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    This collection of selected review papers focuses on topics such as digital radiation sensors and nanosensory systems for nanotechnology applications and integrated X-ray/PET/CT detectors; nanophosphors and nanocrystal quantum dots as X-ray radiation sensors; the luminescence efficiency of CdSe/ZnS QD and UV-induced luminescence efficiency distribution; investigations devoted to the quantum and multi-parametrical nature of disasters and the modeling thereof using quantum search and quantum query algorithms; sum-frequency-generation, IR fourier and raman spectroscopy methods; as well as investigations into the vibrational modes of viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms aimed at creating optical biosensory systems. This is followed by a review of radiation resistant semiconductor sensors and magnetic measurement instrumentation for magnetic diagnostics of high-tech fission and fusion set-ups and accelerators; the evaluation of the use of neutron-radiation, 10B-enriched semiconducting materials as thin-fi...

  14. Advanced Nongray Radiation Module in the LOCI Framework for Combustion CFD Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiative heat fluxes are important in the design of launch vehicles for Project Constellation. In this Phase II STTR, CFDRC and its partner Mississippi State...

  15. Radiation/Temperature Hardened Advanced Readout Array with Dynamic Power Modes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has an interest in the development of advanced instruments and components for Lunar and planetary science missions. Instrumentation is needed for the...

  16. Twenty ninth IARP national conference on recent advances in radiation dosimetry: souvenir/book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topical theme of the conference covers a wide spectrum from radioecology, nuclear fuel cycle, naturally occurring radioactive materials industry to medical and air crew dosimetry. Recent developments in multidisciplinary areas of low dose effects, occupational radiation protection, environmental monitoring, high energy dosimetry, high dose dosimetry, neutron dosimetry, neutron monitors for pulsed radiation fields, time dependent energy deposition at nanometer scale and nanodosimetry have also been covered. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Development of advanced diagnostic technology to study initial radiation effects on biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand radiation damages on biological specimens, it is important to investigate from molecular level to cell level in size and femto-second to hours in time. Three key techniques such as molecular simulation, ultra-fast spectroscopy, and single shot x-ray microscopy has been developed. Combining those techniques, total image of radiation damaging process from molecular level to cell level are going to be established. (author)

  18. CURENT ADVANCES AND STRETEGIES FOR REDUCING THE SIDE EFFECTS OF RADIATION THERAPIES USED FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer originates from the abnormal expression or activation of positive regulators and functional suppression of negative regulators. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 84 million people will die of cancer between 2005 and 2015 without intervention. Research suggests that one-third of cancer deaths can be avoided through prevention. Major cancer treatment modalities are surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment method and is used for approximately 50% of all cancer patients with varying success. Therapy uses high-energy waves or particles to destroy cancer cells. It can be used basically for three main reasons: to achieve high radiation dose into tumors; minimizing dose into surrounding normal tissues; to avoid complications as far as possible. The recent advances in this treatment method have led to the improvement in cancer death statistics. It can also be combined with surgery or chemotherapy for better results. This review covers general applications, various side effects/agents and factors affecting to get rid of these effects and strategies to improve radiation therapy.

  19. Clinical investigation of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel with concurrent radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively chemotherapy of weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel with concurrent radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between January 2000 and March 2008, 38 patients were treated by chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel once a week, repeated for 6 weeks, with thoracic radiation therapy of 1 or 2 times a day on weekdays. After concurrent chemoradiotherapy, we planned consolidation chemotherapy of carboplatin (area under the curve (AUC) 5-6) and weekly paclitaxel (70-80 mg/m2) on day 1, 8 and 15, when possible. The enrolled patients were 31 men and 7 women, with the median age of 59 years (39-76 years), stage IIIA/IIIB: 10/28, Ad/Sq/AdSq/Un: 17/17/2/2. The response rate of this chemoradiotherapy was 78.9%. The median survival time and time to progression were 24.7 months and 8.1 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities during concomitant chemoradiotherapy were leukocytopenia (5.2%) and neutropenia (5.2%). Grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicities were esophagitis (2.6%) and pneumonitis (5.2%). There was a therapy-associated death by radiation pneumonitis. Carboplatin and paclitaxel with concurrent radiation therapy for a patient with stage III NSCLC showed a good response with relatively mild side effects. We reached the conclusion that concurrent chemoradiotherapy would be a useful choice for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer on the practical clinic. (author)

  20. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orman, Amber [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Koru-Sengul, Tulay [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Miao, Feng [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Panoff, Joseph E., E-mail: jpanoff@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall survival was 87.7%, progression-free survival was 80.5%, and local control was 87.8%. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.84; P=.035). Toxicity was seen in 68.3% of eyes, including 24.3% with isolated acute dermatitis. Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy.

  1. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall survival was 87.7%, progression-free survival was 80.5%, and local control was 87.8%. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.84; P=.035). Toxicity was seen in 68.3% of eyes, including 24.3% with isolated acute dermatitis. Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy

  2. Advanced radiation detector development: Advanced semiconductor detector development: Development of a oom-temperature, gamma ray detector using gallium arsenide to develop an electrode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced detector development project at the University of Michigan has completed the first full year of its current funding. Our general goals are the development of radiation detectors and spectrometers that are capable of portable room temperature operation. Over the past 12 months, we have worked primarily in the development of semiconductor spectrometers with open-quotes single carrierclose quotes response that offer the promise of room temperature operation and good energy resolution in gamma ray spectroscopy. We have also begun a small scale effort at investigating the properties of a small non-spectroscopic detector system with directional characteristics that will allow identification of the approximate direction in which gamma rays are incident. These activities have made use of the extensive clean room facilities at the University of Michigan for semiconductor device fabrication, and also the radiation measurement capabilities provided in our laboratory in the Phoenix Building on the North Campus. In addition to our laboratory based activities, Professor Knoll has also been a participant in several Department of Energy review activities held in the Forrestal Building and at the Germantown site. The most recent of these has been service on a DOE review panel chaired by Dr. Hap Lamonds that is reviewing the detector development programs supported through the Office of Arms Control and International Security

  3. The Treatment Responses in Cases of Radiation Therapy to Portal Vein Thrombosis in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the response to radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and determine the factors favoring its efficacy. Methods and Materials: Patients with HCC and PVT referred for radiation therapy between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had undergone treatment to primary HCC before radiation or had extrahepatic metastasis were excluded. A radiation dose of 60 Gy with 2 to 3Gy per fraction was prescribed. Clinical features before therapy were investigated, and the most significant imaging change after radiotherapy was regarded as the treatment response. Survival times were compared and the hazard ratios of independent variables were determined. Results: The treatment response rate of the 326 patients included in the study was 25.2% (n = 82). The median survival times were 13.3, 11.6, 9.0, 4.5, and 2.1 months for complete response, partial response, vascular transformation, no response, and the lost follow-up patients, respectively. Statistically significant differences in survival were not found among responder groups (p = 0.224-0.916) but were found between responders and nonresponders (p = 0.002). The most significant independent variables associated with survival (p < 0.001) were performance status and radiation dose. Minor independent factors were ascites, alfa-fetoprotein, albumin, and HBsAg (p = 0.009-0.038). In patients with favorable performance status, those with no more than one minor risk factor had a superior prognosis after radiation therapy (p = 0.013). This result was verified by a review of similar patients in 2006. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for selected HCC patients with PVT

  4. Are we justified for concomitant chemo-radiation in advanced stage cancer cervix?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the survival rates have achieved a plateau of 30-45% at five years. Over the last decade there have been studies on the use of chemo-radiotherapy in carcinoma cervix. Over 19 randomized trials have been published addressing the issue of chemo-radiotherapy. However, heterogeneous data, poor randomization, inadequate number of patients, sub-optimal radiotherapy, non-uniform use of chemotherapeutic drugs, its sequencing and poor documentation have not yet provided the evidence to substantially alter the practice. The Cochrane and Canadian meta-analyses have to a large extent tried to address the role of concomitant chemo-radiation, but carcinoma cervix stage III accounted for only 30?35%. Moreover, evaluation with optimal radiation schedules and comparison of late toxicities still remain unanswered. What is more important is that the cisplatin is relatively inexpensive and is available worldwide. This means that cisplatin-based chemo-radiation is affordable in the developing countries where carcinoma cervix still forms the major cancer. However, the role of chemo-radiation in carcinoma cervix stage IIIB in developing countries including India still remains unexplored. With an aim to evaluate the role and benefit of chemo-radiation in- patients with cervical cancer we proposed this randomized study

  5. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H2O2 in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  6. Palliative treatment of advanced cancer using multiple nonconfluent pencil beam radiation. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the era of orthovoltage radiation, multiple nonconfluent pencil beam radiation (GRID) therapy was utilized to minimize superficial normal tissue damage while delivering tumorcidal doses at specified depths in tissues. The success of GRID therapy was based on the fact that small volumes of tissues could tolerate high doses of radiation. Since the development of megavoltage radiation and skin sparing, GRID therapy has been abandoned. In a pilot study, the authors adapted the principles of GRID therapy to megavoltage photon beams to treat patients with massive tumors or recurrent tumors after tolerance doses of radiation. Twenty-two patients have been entered in the study. All patients were symptomatic and had exhaustive conventional surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy approaches to treatment. A 50:50 GRID (open to closed areas) was utilized, and a prescribed dose of 1000 to 1500 cGy to the open areas was given using a single photon field. In four patients, a second GRID treated was delivered at a split course interval of 4 weeks. The follow-up in these patients ranges from 1 month to 18 months. The results of treatment have been remarkable with 20 of 22 patients achieving dramatic relief of severe symptoms, and several patients showing significant objective regression. No acute effects have been observed, including those patients having large volumes of the abdomen irradiated. No unusual skin or subcutaneous early or late damage has been observed in follow-up

  7. High dose rate sup 60 Co-RALS intraluminal radiation therapy for advanced biliary tract cancer with obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Toshiaki; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Iwata, Kazuro; Ohishi, Hajime; Uchida, Hideo (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    High-dose-rate intraluminal irradiation with a {sup 60}Co remote afterloading system, using our newly developed applicator, was performed in 15 cases of advanced biliary tract cancer (2 gallbladder cancers, 13 cholangiocarcinomas). The applicator which was thin with an outer diameter of 14 Fr had a double lumen which included a small lumen for a guide wire for easy exchange to a drainage tube. Therefore, the irradiation procedure could be easily finished in a short time within little distress to the patient. The tumor marker CA1 19-9 was useful in assessing the therapeutic effect and follow-up observation after treatment. The average tube-free period and survival time were 5.9 months and 8.3 months, respectively. Histopathological examination of the cases autopsied showed that the combination of intraluminal (30 Gy) and external (30 Gy) irradiation offered good local control of the cancer that was within 1 cm from the source. Cholangiocarcinoma with relatively short length of obstruction, stage III or stage IV when the cancer infiltration was localized around the bile duct, achieved a comparatively long survival time. It was suggested that the combined use of high-dose-rate intraluminal radiotherapy, with precisely delivered radical radiation to tumors localized in the bile duct wall, and external radiotherapy delivered as additional radiation to the surrounding bile duct would provide radiotherapeutic advantage and contribute to survival after treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer. (author).

  8. The Advanced Photon Source: Using Synchrotron Radiation to Study Actinide Containing Samples Relevant to Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of advanced nuclear reactors as a national source of reliable energy awaits materials research on fuels, reactor components under extreme environments and options for waste treatment and storage. The third generation synchrotrons such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) provide a high flux of coherent, variable energy X rays that can be used to probe in situ a wide range of chemical, physical and materials problems of relevance to nuclear energy production. Synchrotron radiation from such a source is particularly suited to the study of radioactive samples because of its tunability, penetration and intensity. Together, these features provide the opportunity to work with small, encapsulated samples, a necessary requirement because of the inherently hazardous heavy metal, highly radioactive materials. Complicating the practical advantages of synchrotron radiation to the study of nuclear energy systems is the need for risk mitigation when bringing such materials into a user facility. The APS has used a risk based approach to the problem. As part of Argonne National Laboratory, which has a long history in nuclear energy, the APS has taken advantage of the broader Laboratory infrastructure to reach out and accommodate experiments on radioactive samples and the broad nuclear energy community. (author)

  9. Radiation effects at a high power accelerator and applications to advanced energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many materials are exposed to atom-displacing radiation at high-power accelerators such as the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Beam current densities in the 800-MeV proton beam vary from 12.5 mA cm-2 (8 x 1016 p/cm2s) on graphite targets to 20-μA cm-2 (1.3 x 1014 p/cm2s) on metal-alloy windows. High-level radiation damage results from these particle fluxes. As a consequence of secondary-particle generation in targets and windows and low-level beam losses that lead to particle interactions with structural material, various components are exposed to low-level proton fluxes, gamma radiation, and neutron fluxes of 106--1010 n/cm2s. These include vacuum seals and vacuum chambers of stainless steel and aluminum alloys, solid-state devices for control, diagnostic, and data acquisition electronics, closed-loop cooling-water systems, and insulators. Properties of these materials are degraded by the radiation exposure. Studies of LAMPF and other accelerators, however, have produced solutions to materials problems, allowing the machines to operate for acceptable times without failure. Nevertheless, additional improvements are being investigated in order to further improve operational reliability and safety. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Advanced data readout technique for Multianode Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube applicable in radiation imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the best performing PSPMT tubes from Hamamatsu and Burle are designed with a pad-matrix anode layout. However, for obtaining a high resolution, a small-sized anode photomultiplier tubes are preferable; these tubes may have 64, 256 or 1024 anodes per tube. If the tubes are used in array to get a larger area detector, the number of analog channels may range from hundreds to thousands. Multichannel analog readout requires special electronics ICs, ASICs etc., which are attached to multichannel DAQ system. As a result, the data file and data processing time will be increased. Therefore, this readout could not be performed in a small project. Usually, most of radiation imaging applications allow the use of analog data processing in front-end electronics, significantly reducing the number of the detector's output lines to data acquisition without reducing the image quality. The idea of pad-matrix decoupling circuit with gain correction was invented and intensively tested in JLab. Several versions of PSPMT readout electronics were produced and studied. All developments were done and optimized specifically for radiation imaging projects. They covered high resolution SPECT, high speed PET, fast neutron imaging, and single tube and multi tube array systems. This paper presents and discusses the summary of the observed results in readout electronics evaluation with different PSPMTs and radiation imaging systems, as well as the advantages and limitations of the developed approach to radiation imaging detectors readout.

  11. Neutron radiation therapy: application of advanced technology to the treatment of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Maughan, R L; Kota, C; Burmeister, J; Porter, A T; Forman, J D; Blosser, H G; Blosser, E; Blosser, G

    1999-01-01

    The design and construction of a unique superconducting cyclotron for use in fast neutron radiation therapy is described. The clinical results obtained in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate with this accelerator are presented. Future use of the boron neutron capture reaction as a means of enhancing fast neutron therapy in the treatment of patients with brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme) is also discussed.

  12. Ion beam characterization of advanced luminescent materials for application in radiation effects microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, J.V., E-mail: jvbrans@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Hattar, K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Rossi, P. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Department of Physics of the University of Padua and INFN, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padua (Italy); Vizkelethy, G.; Powell, C.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Hernandez-Sanchez, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1349, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1349 (United States); Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The ion photon emission microscope (IPEM) is a technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to study radiation effects in integrated circuits with high energy, heavy ions, such as those produced by the 88' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In this method, an ion-luminescent film is used to produce photons from the point of ion impact. The photons emitted due to an ion impact are imaged on a position-sensitive detector to determine the location of a single event effect (SEE). Due to stringent resolution, intensity, wavelength, decay time, and radiation tolerance demands, an engineered material with very specific properties is required to act as the luminescent film. The requirements for this material are extensive. It must produce a high enough induced luminescent intensity so at least one photon is detected per ion hit. The emission wavelength must match the sensitivity of the detector used, and the luminescent decay time must be short enough to limit accidental coincidences. In addition, the material must be easy to handle and its luminescent properties must be tolerant to radiation damage. Materials studied for this application include plastic scintillators, GaN and GaN/InGaN quantum well structures, and lanthanide-activated ceramic phosphors. Results from characterization studies on these materials will be presented; including photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, ion beam induced luminescence, luminescent decay times, and radiation damage. Results indicate that the ceramic phosphors are currently proving to be the ideal material for IPEM investigations.

  13. Recent advances in low temperature studies on reactivity of radiation produced species in condensed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of low-temperature trapping as alternative to pulse methods are well recognized for determination of the structre of radiation produced intermediates. Now it is turning out that studies on reactivity of species trapped in vitrified systems may be more than complementary to those by pulse techniques at the ambient temperature. (author) 9 refs.; 2 figs

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in locally advanced prostate cancer: secondary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 8610

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is a key element in solid-tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. VEGF is among the most potent angiogenic factor thus far detected. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential of VEGF (also known as VEGF-A) as a prognostic and predictive biomarker among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. The analysis was performed using patients enrolled on RTOG 8610, a phase III randomized control trial of radiation therapy alone (Arm 1) versus short-term neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation and radiation therapy (Arm 2) in men with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Tissue samples were obtained from the RTOG tissue repository. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed, and paraffin blocks were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF expression and graded by Intensity score (0–3). Cox or Fine and Gray’s proportional hazards models were used. Sufficient pathologic material was available from 103 (23%) of the 456 analyzable patients enrolled in the RTOG 8610 study. There were no statistically significant differences in the pre-treatment characteristics between the patient groups with and without VEGF intensity data. Median follow-up for all surviving patients with VEGF intensity data is 12.2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between the intensity of VEGF expression and overall survival, distant metastasis, local progression, disease-free survival, or biochemical failure. VEGF expression was also not statistically significantly associated with any of the endpoints when analyzed by treatment arm. This study revealed no statistically significant prognostic or predictive value of VEGF expression for locally advanced prostate cancer. This analysis is among one of the largest sample bases with long-term follow-up in a well-characterized patient population. There is an urgent need to establish multidisciplinary initiatives for coordinating further research in the area of

  15. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy

  16. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhongli [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhang, Wencheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Xiao, Zefen, E-mail: xiaozefen@sina.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tan, Wen, E-mail: tanwen@cicams.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis (Beijing Key Laboratory for Carcinogenesis and Cancer Prevention), Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  17. Platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer; A retrospective analysis of 39 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountzilas, G.; Danilidis, J.; Kosmidis, P.; Srihar, K.S.; Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Nicolaou, A.; Makrantonakis, P.; Banis, K.; Dimitriadis, A.; Sombolos, K.; Zaramboukas, T.; Themelis, C.; Vritsios, A.; Tourkantonis, A. (Ahepa Univ. Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece) Metaxa Cancer Hospital, Piraeaus (Greece) Miami School of Medicine and VA Hospital, FL (United States). Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center)

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed of 39 patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the last five years at our departments. There were 26 men and 13 women with median age 55 (24-75) years. Histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 6 patients and undifferentiated carcinoma in the remaining 33 patients. Induction chemotherapy consisted of either regimen A (cisplating 100 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m{sup 2} days 2-6 as continuous infusion, bleomycin 15 mg days 15 and 29 i.m., mitomycin 4 mg/m{sup 2} day 22 and hydroxyurea 1000 mg/m{sup 2} daily days 23-27) or regimen B (carboplatin 300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, 5-FU 1000 mg/m{sup 2} days 1-5 as continuous infusion and methotrexate 1.2 g/m{sup 2} day 14 with leucovorin rescue). After completion of induction chemotherapy 13 patients (33%) had complete remission (CR) and 19 (49%) partial remission (PR). The CR rate was increased after radiation therapy to 72%. Survival rates were 88% at 12 and 78% at 24 months. Median time to progression was 29.5 months. In conclusion, induction chemotherapy with a platinum-based regimen followed by radiation therapy achieved a high rate of local control. If the treatment also prolongs survival must, however, be studied by randomized trials. (orig.).

  18. Hereditary effects of radiation: new advances from the Scientific annex of UNSCEAR 2001 Report to the General Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an overview of the advances in the estimation of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. Insights gained into the molecular aspects of naturally occurring human genetic diseases, used together with mouse-data on radiation-induced mutations are allowing the framework for risk estimation to be restructured. The five important changes that are introduced include: revision of the baseline frequency of Mendelian diseases; the use of human data on spontaneous mutation rates and mouse data on induced mutation rates for Doubling Dose (DD) calculation; the development of the Mutation Component (MC) concept for predicting the impact of an increase in mutation rate on disease frequency for the different classes of genetic diseases; the introduction in the risk equation of the Potential Recoverability Correction Factor ( PRCF ) to bridge the gap between the rates of induced mutations determined in mouse studies and the risks of inducible genetic diseases in human live birth; the introduction of the concept that radiation-induced genetic damage in humans is more likely to be manifest as multisystem developmental abnormalities rather than a single-gene diseases in the progeny of irradiated parents. (author)

  19. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. PMID:23548030

  20. Nutritional supplement during the treatment with ionizing radiations in patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition in the patient with advanced cancer favors immunosuppression and implies a low Karnofsky index, poor tolerance and response to the onco specific curative or palliative treatments, high susceptibility to infections and, as a result, a decline of the quality of life. Patients with head and neck tumors in advanced stages (III-IV) are one of the groups of high risk for malnutrition due to the reduction of the intake of nutrients, anorexia, alterations of the deglutition mechanism, and mechanical obstruction of the upper digestive tract, among other causes.Numerous studies show the convenience of the nutritional supplement in these patients during the onco specific treatment. A prospective study that included 15 patients with head and neck neoplasia in advanced stages, and with clinical signs of malnutrition, was conducted in order to evaluate the necessary calorie-energy supplement. All of them were administered an oral nutritional supplement (Adn-22 %) during the radiation treatment to assess the possibility of improving their tolerance and response to the treatment. Of the 15 studied cases, 13 presented complications in connection with the treatment, but most them were mild, and they did not affect in a significant way the time of duration and the total dose of treatment. There was a favorable response in relation to the tumor

  1. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions

  2. High-dose spatially-fractionated radiation (GRID): a new paradigm in the management of advanced cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: With the advent of megavoltage radiation, the concept of spatially-fractionated (SFR) radiation has been abandoned for the last several decades; yet, historically, it has been proven to be safe and effective in delivering large cumulative doses (> 100 Gy) of radiation in the treatment of cancer. SFR radiation has been adapted to megavoltage beams using a specially constructed grid. This study evaluates the toxicity and effectiveness of this approach in treatment of advanced and bulky cancers. Methods and Materials: From January 1995 through March 1998, 71 patients with advanced bulky tumors (tumor sizes > 8 cm) were treated with SFR high-dose external beam megavoltage radiation using a GRID technique. Sixteen patients received GRID treatments to multiple sites and a total of 87 sites were irradiated. A 50:50 GRID (open to closed area) was utilized, and a single dose of 1,000-2,000 cGy (median 1,500 cGy) to Dmax was delivered utilizing 6 MV photons. Sixty-three patients received high-dose GRID therapy for palliation (pain, mass, bleeding, or dyspnea). In 8 patients, GRID therapy was given as part of a definitive treatment combined with conventionally-fractionated external beam irradiation (dose range 5,000-7,000 cGy) followed by subsequent surgery. Forty-seven patients were treated with GRID radiation followed by additional fractionated external beam irradiation, and 14 patients were treated with GRID alone. Thirty-one treatments were delivered to the abdomen and pelvis, 30 to the head and neck region, 15 to the thorax, and 11 to the extremities. Results: For palliative treatments, a 78% response rate was observed for pain, including a complete response (CR) of 19.5%, and a partial response (PR) of 58.5% in these large bulky tumors. A 72.5% response rate was observed for mass effect (CR 14.6%, PR 52.9%). The response rate observed for bleeding was 100% (50% CR, 50% PR) and for dyspnea, a 60% PR rate only. A relatively higher response rate (CR 23.3%, PR 60

  3. Planned preoperative radiation therapy vs. definitive radiotherapy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazem, I.; van den Broek, P.

    1984-10-01

    In the period 1970-1980 inclusive, 191 patients with T3T4 laryngeal carcinoma (glottic: 63 and supraglottic: 128) received either definitive radiation therapy (RT) (60-65 Gy in 6-7 weeks) or planned preoperative radiation therapy (25 Gy in 5 equal daily fractions of 5 Gy) followed by laryngectomy with or without neck dissection (RT + S). Selection for RT vs. RT + S was based on medical operability and/or patient's refusal to undergo surgery. All patients are evaluable with minimum of 2 years observation. Crude 5 and 10-year survival probability for 32 patients with glottic localization who received RT is 55% and 38% vs. 65% and 65% respectively for 31 treated with RT + S. For 52 patients with supraglottic site who received RT, the 5 and 10-year survival is 44% and 44% vs. 82% and 60% for 76 patients treated with RT + S.

  4. Planned preoperative radiation therapy vs. definitive radiotherapy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period 1970-1980 inclusive, 191 patients with T3T4 laryngeal carcinoma (glottic: 63 and supraglottic: 128) received either definitive radiation therapy (RT) (60-65 Gy in 6-7 weeks) or planned preoperative radiation therapy (25 Gy in 5 equal daily fractions of 5 Gy) followed by laryngectomy with or without neck dissection (RT + S). Selection for RT vs. RT + S was based on medical operability and/or patient's refusal to undergo surgery. All patients are evaluable with minimum of 2 years observation. Crude 5 and 10-year survival probability for 32 patients with glottic localization who received RT is 55% and 38% vs. 65% and 65% respectively for 31 treated with RT + S. For 52 patients with supraglottic site who received RT, the 5 and 10-year survival is 44% and 44% vs. 82% and 60% for 76 patients treated with RT + S

  5. Radiation therapy planning with photons and protons for early and advanced breast cancer: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Antony J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative radiation therapy substantially decreases local relapse and moderately reduces breast cancer mortality, but can be associated with increased late mortality due to cardiovascular morbidity and secondary malignancies. Sophistication of breast irradiation techniques, including conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy, has been shown to markedly reduce cardiac and lung irradiation. The delivery of more conformal treatment can also be achieved with particle beam therapy using protons. Protons have superior dose distributional qualities compared to photons, as dose deposition occurs in a modulated narrow zone, called the Bragg peak. As a result, further dose optimization in breast cancer treatment can be reasonably expected with protons. In this review, we outline the potential indications and benefits of breast cancer radiotherapy with protons. Comparative planning studies and preliminary clinical data are detailed and future developments are considered.

  6. Decontamination of used pesticide packaging using advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chloropyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The radiation-induced degradation of chloropyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma-radiolysis. Packaging of high density polyethylene tree layer co extruded, named COEX, and water samples contaminated with chloropyrifos, were irradiated using both, a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5,000 Ci total activity, Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chloropyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chloropyrifos from the plastic packaging in all studied cases. (author)

  7. Advanced colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 68-year-old woman with a history of irradiation for uterine cervical cancer was admitted to our institute, because of abdominal distension. Barium enema examination and total colonoscopy revealed narrowing, irregular mucosa and an ulcerating tumor in the sigmoid colon and a flat elevation in the transverse colon. Biopsy specimens from these tumors contained adenocarcinoma. Histological examination of the resected colon revealed the tumor in the sigmoid colon to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma invading the subserosa and that in the transverse colon to be an intramucosal adenocarcinoma. There were also areas of low or high grade dysplasia in the sigmoid colon. Histological findings compatible with radiation colitis were found in the sigmoid colon. These clinicopathologic features suggested a diagnosis of colonic cancer associated with radiation colitis. (author)

  8. The importance of combined radiation and endocrine therapy in locally advanced prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip J Gray; William U Shipley

    2012-01-01

    The management of all stages of prostate cancer has become an increasingly complex task as new treatment paradigms are tested and the results of large randomized studies become available.Despite these advances,prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of eancer death and the seventh overall cause of death in men in the United States.1 The advent of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the 1980s resulted in a significant downward stage migration such that many men now present with the earliest and most curable form of the disease.2,3 Despite this fact,high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer remains a common and complex problem facing clinicians across the world.

  9. Result of radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancers using partial attenuation filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Choi, Tae Jin [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    dose escalation and development of multi-modality treatment to improve local control and survival rate in advanced sino-nasal cancer.

  10. Advances in 4D Radiation Therapy for Managing Respiration: Part I – 4D Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Rosu, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for managing respiration during imaging and planning of radiation therapy are reviewed, concentrating on free-breathing (4D) approaches. First, we focus on detailing the historical development and basic operational principles of currently-available “first generation” 4D imaging modalities: 4D computed tomography, 4D cone beam computed tomography, 4D magnetic resonance imaging, and 4D positron emission tomography. Features and limitations of these first generation systems are descri...

  11. Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nickheslat; Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Izanloo; Ali Fatehizadeh; Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The ef...

  12. Integrated program systems for radiation damage, activation, and transmutation studies of advanced nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the developed integrated software systems representing a tool designed to accelerate the scientific and engineering research in the field of innovative nuclear energy systems, as it pertains to material activation, transmutation and radiation damage. Such systems can be used in the educational process, in the relevant courses. Developed software can also be useful to specialists working in related subject areas and are unable to delve into the details associated with the certain software tools usage features. (author)

  13. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  14. Study of herbicide ametryne degradation in HDPE packaging using the advanced oxidation process by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of the project with the objective to evaluate pesticides degradation for decontamination of commercial polymeric packaging of high density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture. The herbicide used to this study was the herbicide ametryne (commercial name, Gesapax 500), due to its great use, mainly on field crops and on corn. Ametryne is commercialized since 1975, and, depending on the pesticide formulation and type of application, residues may be detectable in water, soil and on the surfaces for months or years. In order to evaluate the efficiency of radiation processing on removal the pesticides contamination, HDPE packaging were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch system. The samples were irradiated with water, in various absorbed doses. Ametryne was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC Shimadzu 17A), after extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:1 v/v) solution. The calibration curve was obtained with a regression coefficient of 0.986, and the relative standard deviation was lower than 10%. The radiation processing yield was evaluated by the rate of ametryne degradation and by the destruction G-value (Gd). The electron beam irradiation processing, showed high efficiency in destroying ametryne in the HDPE packaging when the samples were irradiated in presence of small quantities of water. (author)

  15. Non-targeted effects of radiation exposure: recent advances and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target theory of radiation-induced effects has been challenged by numerous studies, which indicate that in addition to biological effects resulting from direct DNA damage within the cell, a variety of non-DNA targeted effects (NTE) may make important contributions to the overall outcome. Ionising radiation induces complex, global cellular responses, such as genomic instability (GI) in both irradiated and never-irradiated 'bystander' cells that receive molecular signals produced by irradiated cells. GI is a well-known feature of many cancers, increasing the probability of cells to acquire the 'hallmarks of cancer' during the development of tumours. Although epidemiological data include contributions of both direct and NTE, they lack (i) statistical power at low dose where differences in dose response for NTE and direct effects are likely to be more important and (ii) heterogeneity of non-targeted responses due to genetic variability between individuals. In this article, NTE focussing on GI and bystander effects were critically examined, the specific principles of NTE were discussed and the potential influence on human health risk assessment from low-dose radiation was considered. (authors)

  16. Advances in nuclear data and all-particle transport for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast neutrons have been used to treat over 15,000 cancer patients worldwide and proton therapy is rapidly emerging as a treatment of choice for tumors around critical anatomical structures. Neutron therapy requires evaluated data to ∼70 MeV while proton therapy requires data to ∼250 MeV. Collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the medical physics community has revealed limitations in nuclear cross section evaluations and radiation transport capabilities that have prevented neutron and proton radiation therapy centers from using Monte Carlo calculations to accurately predict dose in patients. These evaluations require energy- and angle-dependent cross sections for secondary neutrons, charged-particles and recoil nuclei. We are expanding the LLNL nuclear databases to higher energies for biologically important elements and have developed a three-dimensional, all-particle Monte Carlo radiation transport code that uses computer-assisted-tomography (CT) images as the input mesh. This code, called PEREGRINE calculates dose distributions in the human body and can be used as a tool to determine the dependence of dose on details of the evaluated nuclear data. In this paper, we will review the status of the nuclear data required for neutron and proton therapy, describe the capabilities of the PEREGRINE package, and show the effects of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distribution

  17. Prospective study of cetuximab and gemcitabine in combination with radiation therapy: feasibility and efficacy in locally advanced pancreatic head cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-chemotherapy is one of the steps of multidisciplinary management in locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the disease pathway. The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the feasibility and the efficacy of radiotherapy in combination with gemcitabine and EGFR targeting therapy for patients with locally advanced disease. From November 2008 through January 2012, 34 patients were included in this study. In all cases an accurate pre-treatment staging including CT scan, Endoscopic Ultra-Sonography (EUS), 18F - fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET-CT and laparoscopy with peritoneal washing was performed. External beam radiation was delivered with a total dose of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction). Patients were treated using 3D- conformal radiotherapy, and the clinical target volume was the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes. Gemcitabine 300 mg/m2 and Cetuximab were given weekly during radiation therapy. Ten patients (29.4 %) were excluded from the protocol because of the evidence of metastatic disease at the pre-treatment staging. Three patients refused radiochemotherapy. Twenty-one patients completed the therapy protocol. During the combined therapy grade 3–4 toxicities observed were only haematological (leukopenia 47,6 %, trombocytopenia 4.8 %, elevated gamma-GT 23.8 %, elevated alkaline phosphatase 4,8 %). Non-haematological toxicity grade 3–4 was never reported. Post-treatment workup showed partial response in five patients (24 %), stable disease in 11 patients (52 %) and disease progression in 5 patients (24 %). Two-year Local Control was 49 % (median, 18.6 months), 2-year Metastases Free Survival was 24 % (median, 10.8 months). One and two-year Overall Survival were 66 % and 28 % respectively, with a median survival time of 15.3 months. The combination of cetuximab and gemcitabine with concurrent radiation therapy provides a feasible and well tolerated treatment for locally

  18. Radiation behavior of high-entropy alloys for advanced reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first task, we have demonstrated the radiation damage and the recrystallization behaviors in multicomponent alloys through molecular-dynamics simulations. It is found that by alloying with atoms of different sizes, the atomic-level strain increases, and the propensity of the radiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition increases as the defects cluster in the cascade body. Recrystallization of the radiation induced supercooled or glass regions show that by tuning the composition and the equilibrium temperature, the multicomponent alloys can be healed. The crystalline-amorphous-crystalline transitions predict the potential high radiation resistance in multicomponent alloys. In the second task, three types of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were fabricated from AlCoCrFeNi and AlCuCrFeNi quinary alloys. Hardness and reduced contact modulus were measured using nanoindentation tests. Heavy ion irradiation were performed using 10 MeV gold and 5 MeV nickel to study radiation effects. Al0.5CrCuFeNi2 shows phase separation upon the presence of copper. Both hardness and contact modulus exhibit the same trend as increasing the applied load, and it indicates that excessive free volume may alter the growth rate of the plastic zone. The as-cast Al0.1CoCrFeNi specimen undergone the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process and steady cooling rate which mitigate the quenching effect. The swelling behavior was characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the swelling rate is approximately 0.02% dpa. Selected area diffraction (SAD) patters show irradiation-induced amorphization throughout the ion projected range. Within the peak damage region, an amorpous ring is observed, and a mixture of amorphous/ crystalline structure at deeper depth is found. The Al0.3CoCrFeNi HEAs shows good radiation resistance up to 60 peak dpa. No voids or dislocations are observed. The crystal structures remain face-centered-cubic (FCC) before and after 5 MeV Ni irradiation. Higher dpa

  19. Advanced Treatment of Wastewater from UASB Reactor by Microfiltration Membrane Associated With Disinfection by Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Aguiar Battistelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The low efficiency of UASB bioreactors, regarding the removal of nutrient, organic matter and pathogens, makes it necessary to carry out a post treatment, in order to improve the quality of the effluent. Accordingly, this research has examined the use of microfiltration associated to the disinfection by the ultraviolet radiation, as an option to this post treatment. For so, were collected samples of UASB reactors’ effluent, in order to carry out some tests on a pilot microfiltration system, using in one of the samples pre-coagulation with vegetable tannin. After, all the microfiltrated samples were inserted in a UV reactor, applying different radiation doses, ranging from 43.8 to 194.9 mWs.cm-2, to simulate the disinfection. The system used showed good results in terms of turbidity removal, apparent color, true color, phosphorus, nitrogen, total solids, total suspended solids and COD, reaching in the best operating condition, the following values: 1.90 uT, 15 uC, 10 uC, 0.94 mg/L, 17.64 mg/L, 123 mg/L, 0 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively, which represent the following removal percentages: 91.3%, 93.6%, 82.0%, 55.1%, 26.3%, 35% and 86.1%. The inactivation obtained for E. coli, total coliforms, colifagos and Clostridium perfrigens was satisfactory, achieving a higher inactivation than the detection limit of the method used, when submitted to the highests tested radiation doses. The average permeate flux ranged from 55.2 to 133.6 L.m-2.h-1.

  20. A Advanced Boundary Element Formulation for Acoustic Radiation and Scattering in Three Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenarko, Benjamin

    A computational method is presented for determining acoustic fields produced by arbitrary shaped three-dimensional bodies. The formulation includes both radiation and scattering problems. In particular an isoparametric element formulation is introduced in which both the surface geometry and the acoustic variables on the surface of the body are represented by second order shape functions within the local coordinate system. A general result for the surface velocity potential and the exterior field is derived. This result is applicable to non-smooth bodies, i.e. it includes the case where the surface may have a non-unique normal (e.g. at the edge of a cube). Test cases are shown involving spherical, cylindrical and cubical geometry for both radiation and scattering problems. The present formulation is also extended to include half-space problems in which the effect of the reflected wave from an infinite plane is taken into account. By selecting an appropriate Green's function, the surface integral over the plane is nullified; thus all the computational efforts can be performed only on the radiating or scattering body at issue and thereby greatly simplify the solution. A special formulation involving axisymmetric bodies and boundary conditions is also presented. For this special case, the surface integrals are reduced to line integrals and an integral over the angle of revolution. The integration over the angle is performed partly analytically in terms of elliptic integrals and partly numerically using simple Gaussian quadrature formula. Since the rest of the integrals involve only line integrals along the generator of the body, any discretization scheme can be easily obtained to achieve a desired degree of accuracy in evaluating these integrals.

  1. Advances in the medical management of the severe cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cutaneous radiation syndrome is a dose dependant complex pathological syndrome which follows a brief localized exposure and characterized by erythema, swelling, moist desquamation, ulceration and necrosis (25-30 Gy). Highly penetrating gamma radiation induces severe dose dependent lesions involving skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and occasionally, bony structures. The classical treatment of this syndrome includes the debridement of devitalized tissues, the application of bacteriostatic agents coated in non-adherent dressings, opiate-based drugs and in some cases the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. For ulceration and necrosis treatment, the classical surgery is ulcerectomy, necrectomy and amputation for the distal extremity injuries. For the profound et large necrosis, the lesion should be excised and the wound bed covered with a good quality, full-thickness skin graft. Unfortunately the delayed of appearance of this syndrome results often in non specialized medical treatment. Furthermore, because of the chronic evolution (months or years) the management of the cutaneous radiation syndrome has not been considered as a priority for the medical management. Recent accident like the Georgian accident demonstrated that new techniques such as artificial skin graft could change significantly patient prognosis. This technique is routinely used for thermal burn in specialized burn units. We realized the first application of this methodology in the field of radiopathology. An important factor of this technique is that in the case of recurrence of radionecrosis. Often observed, using this technique further grafting may be employed. However the success of this procedure depends on an effective control of the infection. These has sadly been illustrated in the last accident case in Peru where it was impossible to perform the artificial skin graft due to the persistence of a non-eradicated local infection. Whether this particular approach has a

  2. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within ± 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry

  3. ARTIST: advanced radiation-tolerant information and sensor system for teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ARTIST integrates a stereoscopic camera and a rangefinder as sensor package into a high-precision pan-and-tilt head and represents the recorded data in a clear and comprehensive way for telemanipulation and control tasks as well as for remote driving. The sensors as well as the pan-and-tilt head are radiation-tolerant so they can be used in nuclear environments. The pan-and-tilt head and work station are completely configured and developed with the emphasis on multisensor integration, real-time video processing and graphical position representation. An efficient man-machine-interface appropriate software is included. (author)

  4. Stereotactic Ablative Radiosurgery for Locally-Advanced or Recurrent Skull Base Malignancies with Prior External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Mann Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR is an attractive modality to treat malignancies invading the skull base as it can deliver a highly conformal dose with minimal toxicity. However, variation exists in the prescribed dose and fractionation. The purpose of our study is to examine the local control, survival and toxicities in SABR for the treatment of malignant skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A total of 31 patients and 40 locally-advanced or recurrent head and neck malignancies involving the skull base treated with a common SABR regimen which delivers a radiation dose of 44 Gy in 5 fractions from January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The local control rate (LC, progression-free survival rate (PFS, overall survival rate (OS and toxicities were reported.Results: The median follow-up time of all patients was 11.4 months (range: 0.6-67.2 months. The median tumor volume was 27 cm3 (range: 2.4-205 cm3. All patients received prior EBRT with a median radiation dose of 64 Gy (range: 24-75.6 Gy delivered in 12 to 42 fractions. 20 patients had surgeries prior to SABR. 19 patients received chemotherapy. Specifically, 8 patients received concurrent cetuximab (ErbituxTM with SABR. The median time-to-progression (TTP was 3.3 months (range: 0-16.9 months. For the 29 patients (93.5% who died, the median time from the end of first SABR to death was 10.3 months (range: 0.5-41.4 months. The estimated 1-year overall survival (OS rate was 35%. The estimated 2-year OS rate was 12%. Treatment was well-tolerated without grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicities.Conclusions: SABR has been shown to achieve low toxicities in locally-advanced or recurrent, previously irradiated head and neck malignancies invading the skull base.

  5. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Lian Wang; Zhongxing Liao; Helen Liu; Jaffer Ajani; Stephen Swisher; James D Cox; Ritsuko Komaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the dosimetry, efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 7 patients who were definitively treated with IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive IMRT radiation and concurrent chemotherapy were not included in this analysis. IMRT plans were evaluated to assess the tumor coverage and normal tissue avoidance. Treatment response was evaluated and toxicities were assessed.RESULTS: Five- to nine-beam IMRT were used to deliver a total dose of 59.4-66 Gy (median: 64.8 Gy) to the primary tumor with 6-MV photons. The minimum dose received by the planning tumor volume (PTV) of the gross tumor volume boost was 91.2%-98.2% of the prescription dose (standard deviation [SD]: 3.7%-5.7%).tumor volume was 93.8%-104.8% (SD: 4.3%-11.1%)of the prescribed dose. With a median follow-up of 15 mo (range: 3-21 mo), all 6 evaluable patients achieved complete response. Of them, 2 developed local recurrences and 2 had distant metastases, 3 survived with no evidence of disease. After treatment, 2 patients developed esophageal stricture requiring frequent dilation and 1 patient developed tracheal-esophageal fistula.CONCLUSION: Concurrent IMRT and chemotherapy resulted in an excellent early response in patients with locally advanced cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer. However, local and distant recurrence and toxicity remain to be a problem. Innovative approaches are needed to improve the outcome.

  6. Submandibular gland-sparing radiation therapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliva from submandibular glands (SMG) is necessary to minimize xerostomia. It is unclear whether SMG can be safely spared in patients undergoing bilateral neck radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer without increasing the risk of marginal recurrence. We evaluated the outcomes of contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All patients with stage III/IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with bilateral neck IMRT from 2006–2012 at our institution were included. Appropriately selected patients with favorable primary tumor characteristics and no definite contralateral neck disease were treated with cSMG-sparing IMRT. Patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. 114 patients were treated. 89% had stage IV disease and 89% received definitive radiation therapy. 76 patients (67%) received cSMG sparing IMRT. With a median follow-up of 30 months, there were 10 local, 9 regional, and 10 distant recurrences. 2-year overall survival was 86% and 2-year loco-regional control was 87%. In cSMG spared patients, the mean cSMG dose was 30.7 Gy. Late grade 2+ xerostomia was significantly reduced in the cSMG spared group compared to those without SMG sparing (6 months: 23% vs. 72%, 12 months: 6% vs. 41%, 24 months: 3% vs. 36%, all p < 0.0007). There were no peri-SMG marginal recurrences in the cSMG-spared cohort. cSMG sparing IMRT did not increase marginal failures in this series of locally advanced oropharyngeal SCC patients. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in cSMG spared patients

  7. Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nickheslat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The effect of important parameters including initial phenol concentration, TiO2 catalyst dose, duration of UV radiation, pH of solution, and contact time was investigated. Results. In the dip-coat lining stage, the produced nanoparticles with anatase crystalline structure have the average particle size of 30 nm and are uniformly distributed over the tube surface. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with the descending of the solution pH and initial phenol concentration and rising of the contact time. Conclusion. Results showed that the light easily passes through four layers of coating (about 105 nm. The highest removal efficiency of phenol with photocatalytic UV/TiO2 process was 50% at initial phenol concentration of 30 mg/L, solution pH of 3, and 300 min contact time. The comparison of synthetic solution and petrochemical wastewater showed that at same conditions the phenol removal efficiency was equal.

  8. Application of Advanced Oxidation Process Using Gamma Radiation on the Biodegradation of Some Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water samples were collected from Ras Gemsa on western coast of Suez Gulf, then microbiologically and chemically analyzed. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration was detected of 340 ppm. On the other hand the biodegrading bacterial counts ( CFU ) clearly reflected the great adaptation of endogenous bacteria to use hydrocarbons as a sole source of carbon. The ratio of biodegrading bacteria to heterotrophic ones was about 3.5 %. The photooxidation process was studied using Titanium dioxide anatase powder, the results revealed that the rate of photo oxidation increase by increase of its concentration with optimum rate at 30 mg/100 ml. The biodegradation of hydrocarbons by Suez Gulf consortium was monitored with and without anatase powder, which revealed that the synergetic effect of using two techniques. The effect of radiation was studied with the biodegradation and photooxidation techniques, the maximum degradation was achieved by the triple treatment which minimize the residual hydrocarbons using radiated polluted microcosm at 6 kGy, Suez Gulf consortium and 30 mg/100 ml anatase powder in water.

  9. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) for Advanced Space Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Bowman, Cheryl; Beach, Duane

    2007-01-01

    High temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC) reinforced with high thermal conductivity (approx. 1000 W/mK) pitch-based carbon fibers are evaluated for a facesheet/fin structure of large space radiator systems. Significant weight reductions along with improved thermal performance, structural integrity and space durability toward its metallic counterparts were envisioned. Candidate commercial resin systems including Cyanate Esters, BMIs, and polyimide were selected based on thermal capabilities and processability. PMC laminates were designed to match the thermal expansion coefficient of various metal heat pipes or tubes. Large, but thin composite panels were successfully fabricated after optimizing cure conditions. Space durability of PMC with potential degradation mechanisms was assessed by simulated thermal aging tests in high vacuum, 1-3 x 10(exp -6) torr, at three temperatures, 227 C, 277 C, and 316 C for up to one year. Nanocomposites with vapor-grown carbon nano-fibers and exfoliated graphite flakes were attempted to improve thermal conductivity (TC) and microcracking resistance. Good quality nanocomposites were fabricated and evaluated for TC and durability including radiation resistance. TC was measured in both in-plan and thru-the-thickness directions, and the effects of microcracks on TC are also being evaluated. This paper will discuss the systematic experimental approaches, various performance-durability evaluations, and current subcomponent design and fabrication/manufacturing efforts.

  10. Radioresponsiveness of locally advanced breast cancer. Analysis of factors influencing the response to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresponsiveness of locally advanced breast cancer was studied in 239 patients treated with primary RT from 1977 to 1985. The response to RT was assessed on clinical and histological bases. For patients with no residual disease or heavily damaged residual disease in the breast and negative axillary lymph nodes after RT, the 5-year probability of local tumour control (LTC) was 90%. Response to RT was mainly affected by the T and N stages. Primary tumour size or RT dose had only a moderate influence on tumour response in this stage of the disease. The 5-year LTC was 37% for N3 and 43% for T4d conditions. Heavy tumour tissue damage was associated with microcapillary lesions, while the microvasculature around the florid tumour growth was in better condition. Microcapillaries have to be regarded as an important target in RT. The oxygen supply may worsen during fractionated RT as a result of vascular damage. Chronically hypoxic cells may be killed earlier than euoxic ones. Findings indicate that the radioresponsiveness of locally advanced breast cancer is more likely to be attributable to the biological nature of the disease than to chronically hypoxic cells present during RT. (author)

  11. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  12. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Beant S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Jeff F. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Krivak, Thomas C. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Laskey, Robin A.; Ross, Malcolm S.; Lesnock, Jamie L. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  13. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.

  14. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinini, M., E-mail: massimo.piccinini@enea.it; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, UTAPRAD, Technical Unit for Development and Applications of Radiations, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ambrosini, F. [University Sapienza-Roma I, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, UTTMAT, Technical Unit for Materials Technologies, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy)

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  15. Advanced performance and scalability of Si nanowire field-effect transistors analyzed using noise spectroscopy and gamma radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Vitusevich, S. A., E-mail: s.vitusevich@fz-juelich.de; Pud, S.; Offenhäusser, A. [Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Petrychuk, M. V. [Radiophysics Faculty, Shevchenko National University, Kiev (Ukraine); Danilchenko, B. A. [Institute of Physics, NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2013-11-28

    High-quality Si nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using thermal nanoimprint and chemical wet etching technologies. FET structures of different lengths demonstrate high carrier mobility with values of about 750 cm{sup 2}/Vs and low volume densities of active traps in the dielectric layers of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1}. We investigated the transport properties of these n-type channel structures using low-frequency noise spectroscopy before and after gamma radiation treatment. Before gamma irradiation, FET structures with lengths of less than 4 μm exhibited noise from contact regions with 1/(L{sup 2}) dependence for the relative 1/f noise. After gamma radiation, the spectra reflected the priority of channel noise with 1/L dependence for all samples. The transport characteristics show that the fabricated nanowire FETs improved scalability, decreased parameter scattering, and increased stability after treatment. The results demonstrate that these nanowire FETs are promising for nanoelectronic and biosensor applications due to the cost-efficient technology and advanced performance of FETs with improved stability and reliability.

  16. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 1011 to 1015 protons/cm2. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F2 and F3+ laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 103 to about 106 Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping

  17. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of combined treatment with perifosine and radiation in patients with advanced solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Perifosine is an orally applicable, membrane-targeted alkylphosphocholine analogue with antitumour activity and radiosensitising properties in preclinical models. The purpose of this phase I study was to determine the feasibility and tolerability of concurrent daily perifosine and radiation in patients with advanced cancer. Patients and methods: Starting dose of perifosine was 50 mg/day; dose escalation was in steps of 50 mg. Daily administration commenced 2 days before radiotherapy and was continued throughout the radiation treatment. At least three patients were entered at each dose level; at the 150 mg/day level 10 patients were included. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed weekly pre-dosing. Twenty-one patients were entered. Tumour types included NSCLC (n = 17), prostate, oesophageal, colon and bladder cancer. Most patients (16/21) had received prior chemotherapy; none radiotherapy. Median number of daily perifosine administrations was 31 (range 24-53). Mean radiation dose (BED1) was 59.8 Gy (range 50.7-87.5 Gy in 13-28 fractions). Results: Major drug-related toxicities according to CTC criteria were nausea in 57%, fatigue in 48%, vomiting in 38%, diarrhoea in 38% and anorexia in 19%. No bone marrow toxicity was observed. DLT (nausea/vomiting) was encountered in two of five patients at the 200 mg/day dose level. Dose-dependent steady-state plasma levels were reached after 1 week. Major radiotherapy-related acute toxicity consisted of dysphagia in 38% and pneumonitis in 29%. Conclusion: Perifosine can be safely combined with fractionated radiotherapy. A dosage of 150 mg/day, to be started at least 1 week prior to radiotherapy, is recommended for phase II evaluation

  18. Preoperative Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Vulvar Carcinoma: Analysis of Pattern of Relapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Shukla, Gaurav; Shinde, Ashwin; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Richards, Scott; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To examine clinical outcomes and relapse patterns in locally advanced vulvar carcinoma treated using preoperative chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with stage I-IV{sub A} (stage I, n=3; stage II, n=13; stage III, n=23; stage IV{sub A}, n=3) vulvar cancer were treated with chemotherapy and IMRT via a modified Gynecological Oncology Group schema using 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with twice-daily IMRT during the first and last weeks of treatment or weekly cisplatin with daily radiation therapy. Median dose of radiation was 46.4 Gy. Results: Thirty-three patients (78.6%) had surgery for resection of vulva; 13 of these patients also had inguinal lymph node dissection. Complete pathologic response was seen in 48.5% (n=16) of these patients. Of these, 15 had no recurrence at a median time of 26.5 months. Of the 17 patients with partial pathological response, 8 (47.1%) developed recurrence in the vulvar surgical site within a median of 8 (range, 5-34) months. No patient had grade ≥3 chronic gastrointestinal/genitourinary toxicity. Of those having surgery, 8 (24.2%) developed wound infections requiring debridement. Conclusions: Preoperative chemotherapy/IMRT was well tolerated, with good pathologic response and clinical outcome. The most common pattern of recurrence was local in patients with partial response, and strategies to increase pathologic response rate with increasing dose or adding different chemotherapy need to be explored to help further improve outcomes.

  19. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, will be the world's brightest synchrotron-radiation source of ultraviolet and soft x-ray photons when it opens its doors to users in April 1993. The ALS is a third-generation source that is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring, optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV, with long straight sections for insertion devices. Its naturally short pulses are ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will produce high-brightness beams from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wigglers will produce high fluxes of harder x-rays to energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Undulator radiation can excite the K shell of elements up to silicon and the L shell of elements up to krypton, and wiggler radiation can excite the L shell of nearly every element. The ALS will operate as a national user facility; interested scientists are encouraged to contact the ALS Scientific Program Coordinator to explore their scientific and technological research interests

  20. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: A high-brightness soft x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30--50 ns) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 20 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of hard x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs