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Sample records for advanced mud hammer

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the

  2. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  3. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  4. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  5. Hammered Dulcimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David

    The hammered dulcimer, a direct ancestor of the clavichord and the pianoforte, is a folk instrument that developed from eleventh-century antecedents such as the psaltery. They are trapezoidal in shape, with a long base of 40-45 in. and height of 15-18 in. Two bridges, treble and bass, each support 11-16 courses of strings, which are struck with light wooden hammers. The treble bridge divides the strings into a musical fifth, which facilitates the fast playing of diatonic melodies. Historically, the instrument was used as a rhythmic back-up for fiddles and other lead instruments, but since being popularized in the 1970s folk revival, it has become a solo or lead instrument in ensembles. The hammered dulcimer shares many acoustic properties with the piano except that the dulcimer is smaller and undamped, and the lighter, harder hammers give a more percussive sound. A hammered dulcimer player can also play double strokes and can alter instrument timbre by changing strike location. Current instruments are lightweight, 13-30 lb, and reasonably stable, but temperature and humidity changes cause tuning problems which are related to the linear scaling that is intrinsic to the trapezoidal design.

  6. Water hammer research in networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anželika Jurkienė; Mindaugas Rimeika

    2015-01-01

    Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps...

  7. Water hammer research in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anželika Jurkienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of water hammer, its consequences and possible protection measures are rarely topics, however the problem is significant. Water hammer can form in water supply and pressurized sewage networks, for various reasons. The article presents short theory of water hammer and methodology for calculation of specific parameters. Research of water hammer was performed in real water supply and sewer networks of country. Simulation of water hammer was carried out by turning on and off water pumps in pumping station. Successful measurement of water hammer depends on accuracy of the measurement equipment, therefore during the research surge wave fluctuations were measured with especially high resolution pressure meters. Detailed analysis of water hammer and selection of protecting equipment hydraulic model of water supply network was created. Protection against water hammer helps to avoid breaking of the water network and extend operation time.

  8. Marvelous Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  9. Therapeutic muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mioara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined by the "International Society of Medical Hydrology" muds (peloids are "substances formed under natural conditions under the influence of geological processes and in a state finely divided and mixed with water, that are used in medical practice in general or local baths.

  10. Therapeutic muds

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrascu Mioara; Munteanu Constantin

    2011-01-01

    As defined by the "International Society of Medical Hydrology" muds (peloids) are "substances formed under natural conditions under the influence of geological processes and in a state finely divided and mixed with water, that are used in medical practice in general or local baths.

  11. Hammering towards QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin C. Blanchette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the emerging methods to automate reasoning over large libraries developed with formal proof assistants. We call these methods hammers. They give the authors of formal proofs a strong "one-stroke" tool for discharging difficult lemmas without the need for careful and detailed manual programming of proof search.The main ingredients underlying this approach are efficient automatic theorem provers that can cope with hundreds of axioms, suitable translations of richer logics to their formalisms, heuristic and learning methods that select relevant facts from large libraries, and methods that reconstruct the automatically found proofs inside the proof assistants.We outline the history of these methods, explain the main issues and techniques, and show their strength on several large benchmarks. We also discuss the relation of this technology to the QED Manifesto and consider its implications for QED-style efforts.

  12. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  13. Working with the "Iron Hammer"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CUTTING short her education and abandoning an annual income of several hundred thousand US dollars, Lang Ping, known to fans as the "Iron Hammer", returned from the United States to coach China’s National Women’s Volleyball Team. This news caused an enormous sensation comparable to the stir she used to raise when she won, together with her teammates, championship for

  14. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  15. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  16. Multyphase fluid hammer : modeling, experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This ow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior. The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo uid hammer effects threateni...

  17. Multiphase fluid hammer: modeling, experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This flow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior.The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo fluid hammer effects threatening the s...

  18. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Lohrasbi; R. Attarnejad

    2008-01-01

    Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water n...

  19. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  20. Water Hammer Analysis by Characteristic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Lohrasbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in the velocity of fluid in closed conduits generate large pressure, which are transmitted through the system with the speed of sound. When the fluid medium is a liquid the pressure surges and related phenomena are described as water hammer. Water hammer is caused by normal operation of the system, such as valve opening or closure, pump starts and stoppages and by abnormal condition, such as power failure. Problem statement: Water hammer causes the additional pressure in water networks. This pressure maybe defects on pipes and connections. The likely effects of water hammer must be taken into account in the structural design of pipelines and in the design of operating procedures for pumps, valves, etc. Approach: The physical phenomena of water hammer and the mathematical model which provides the basis for design computations are described. Most water hammer analysis involves computer solution by the method of characteristics. In this study water hammer is modelled with this method and effect of valve opening and closure will be surveyed with a program that is used for this purpose and with a numerical example. Results: The more rapid the closure of the valve, the more rapid is the change in momentum and hence, greater is the additional pressure developed. Conclusions/Recommendations: For preventing of water hammer defects, is recommended that valves should be open or closed slowly. Also with using the method of characteristics, we can modelled all pipe networks, and see the affects of water hammer.

  1. Effects of handle angle and work orientation on hammering: I. Wrist motion and hammering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmarklin, R W; Marras, W S

    1989-08-01

    This research investigated the range of wrist motion characteristics associated with the ergonomic principle of "bending the tool and not the wrist" as applied to the hammer. It is thought that bending the tool reduces angular wrist motion, which has been shown in the literature to be a risk factor in hand/wrist disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tenosynovitis. Hammer handles angled at 0 (straight), 20, and 40 deg were investigated in this study. For novices, hammer handles bent at 20 and 40 deg resulted in less total ulnar deviation than straight hammers. However, there was a trade-off in beginning and ending positions of the wrist in that the angled hammers reduced ulnar deviation at the impact position but increased radial deviation at the starting position of a hammer stroke. Handle angle did not significantly affect hammering performance. Wrist motion was affected minimally by hammering orientation, but hammering performance was significantly worse in the wall orientation compared with the bench orientation. This research suggests that for novice users, hammers with handles bent in the range of 20 to 40 deg could possibly decrease the incidence of hand/wrist disorders caused by hammering.

  2. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  3. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  4. Study of drilling muds on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier in directional drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-fu He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to some drawbacks of conventional drilling methods and drilling tools, the application of hydraulic hammers with a fluidic amplifier have been extensively popularized since its emergence in recent years. However, the performance life of a fluidic amplifier is still unsatisfactory in oil and gas wells drilling, especially the heavy wear or erosion of the fluidic amplifier leads to the reduction of service life time of hydraulic hammers, which is derived from the incision of drilling muds with high speed and pressure. In order to investigate the influence of drilling muds, such as particle size, solid content and jet velocity, on the antierosion property of a fluidic amplifier, several groups of drilling muds with different performance parameters have been utilized to numerical simulation on basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Simulation results have shown that the jet nozzle of fluidic amplifiers is primarily abraded, afterwards are the lateral plates and the wedge of the fluidic amplifier, which shows extraordinary agreement with the actual cases of fluidic amplifier in drilling process. It can be concluded that particle size, solid content and jet velocity have a great influence on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier, and the erosion rate linearly varies with the particle size of drilling muds, nevertheless exponentially varies with solid content and jet velocity of drilling muds. As to improve the service life time of a fluidic amplifier, the mud purification system or low solid clay-free mud system is suggested in the operation of directional well drilling

  5. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Wee Choon; Lim Kheng Aik; Lim Eng Aik; Teoh Thean Hin

    2012-01-01

    This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. Th...

  6. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  7. RESEARCH ON THE ENERGY ECONOMIZATION OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research on the driving principle and economization of energy of electro-hydraulic hammer is discussed. By means of the Balance chart of energy, the method and formulas to calculate every level efficiency and the total efficiency of steam drived hammer are formed. With the aid of actual data of plants, the actual efficiency of steam drived hammer is got. The working principle and the driving system of electro-hydraulic hammer are introduced. The procedure of energy transfer of this hammer is analyzed. The utilization ratio of energy of this type of hammer is got. It is shown that the efficiency of electro-hydraulic hammer is 7 times as much as that of steam drived hammer.

  8. Thermal Mud Molecular Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Odabasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mud (peloids, which are frequently used for thermal therapy purposes consist of organic and inorganic (minerals compounds in general. Organic structure is formed after a variety of chemical processes occurring in decades and comprise of a very complex structure. Stagnant water environment, herbal diversity, microorganism multiplicity and time are crucial players to form the structure. Data regarding description of organic compounds are very limited. Nowadays, it was clearly understood that a variety of compounds those are neglected in daily practice are found in thermal mud after GC-MS and similar methods are being frequently used. Those compounds which are biologically active are humic compounds, carboxylic acids, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. By comprising the thermal mud, these different compound groups which are related to divers areas from cosmetology to inflammation, make the thermal mud very meaningful in the treatment of human disease. In this review, it was tried to put forward the effects of several molecule groups those consisting of the thermal mud structure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 257-264

  9. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  10. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  11. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  12. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hariri Asli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW based on the Geography Information System (GIS for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  13. Water Hammer Modelling and Simulation by GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Hariri Asli, K.; Haghi,A. K.; Hariri Asli, H.; E. Sabermaash Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    This work defined an Eulerian-based computational model compared with regression of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables for water hammer surge wave in transmission pipeline. The work also mentioned control of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW) based on the Geography Information System (GIS) for water transmission pipeline. The experimental results of laboratory model and the field test results showed the validity of prediction achieved by computational model.

  14. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  15. Water Hammer Model of Shock Absorber Throttle Slice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi-jie; GU Liang; LEI Sheng-guang; GUAN Ji-fu

    2008-01-01

    In allusion to easy invalidation of damping valve in vehicle shock absorber caused by the impact from the road surface, the importance of the study of damping valve water hammer pressure is presented. The physical model of damping valve with the circle throttle slice is established. The time for the throttle slice deformation is studied by using the finite software, and the laws that how the structure parameters affect the deformation time are obtained. Combining the theory of water hammer, the water hammer initial and boundary condition of the damping valve is deduced, and the water hammer model of throttle slice is established. The analysis of simulation results indicates that the water hammer pressure amplitude and the amount of water hammer oscillation period can be reduced and the dependability of the valve can be enhanced by modifying the structure parameters and aperture width between slice and valve body.

  16. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

  17. Failure analysis of crush hammers based on damage fracture energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-ping; ZHOU Hong-yi; BAI Zhan-wei; YIN Yi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    To prolong the life-span of crush hammers in the pyrite concentrate workplace of Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Nantong Mining Ltd., we used a progressive damage constitutive model based on the ductile and shear damage fracture energy to analyze the hammer wear failure caused by the impact and abrasion on the hammer surface by pyrite, and carried out simulation analysis with the explicit algorithm on hammer leftovers from the plant during the process of coarser pyrite comminution. The simulation results are consistent with hammer wear failure caused by pyrite impact. Then we proposed corrective measures to prolong hammer life-span. Results of the production test in the Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant showed that non-clearance hammers can avoid wear erosion, and adding steel bonded tungsten carbides F3002 prolonged the hammer life-span. The effect of austenitic manganese steel work-hardening was not prominent. Therefore, the hammer failure was mainly caused by superficial abrasion instead of fatigue cracks appearing when grains acted on the hardening layer.

  18. Study on liquid-liquid bimetal composite casting hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shoufan; Zhou Haitao; ZhuYongchang; Wang Junfa; Yao Jia; Li Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Crusher hammers for the mineral processing industry must meet the demands of both high wear resistance at the hammer head and high impact toughness at the hammer handle. The crusher hammers made of Hadfield steel have typical y low service life of less than 40 hours. To solve the problem, a kind of bimetal crusher hammers made of high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low al oy steel (LAS) has been successful y developed by using liquid-liquid composite casting. The microstructure and composite interface bonding was analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the composite interface is metal urgical y bonded with a zigzag shape across the boundary and without unbound region or void. After heat treatment, the composite hammers have shown excellent properties. The hardness of HCCI is at least 63 HRC and its αk is greater than 3.5 J•cm-2; the hardness of LAS is greater than 35 HRC and its αk is no less than 80 J•cm-2. Diffusion of elements takes place at the interface and forms a transition region. The micro hardness increases from LAS to the interface and then to HCCI. Wear comparison was made separately between the bimetal composite hammer and a Hadfield steel hammer in two quarries of Jilin province and Liaoning province. The results showed that the liquid-liquid bimetal composite hammers did not have the fal ing off of hammer head or impact fracture phenomenon, and their service life was 3.75 times as long as that of the Hadfield steel hammers.

  19. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  20. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin, E-mail: pauzi@nm.gov.my; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri [NDT Group, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin [Material Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin [Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains, Ipoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  1. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  2. The Mud Center: Recapturing Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Becky J.; Bullard, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Montana child development center's creation of an area in which children could enjoy messy, creative, sensory experiences playing with mud and a wide variety of outdoor props. Discusses how mud play contributed to young children's emerging interests and provided opportunities for expressing creativity, enhancing fine motor skills, and…

  3. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  4. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  5. Study on diagonal hammer of three kind metals composite casting with block protecting handle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hammer crusher is widely used in cement, ceramic, mining and electricityother industries, hammer head is one of important parts in crusher, its abrasion performance directly affects the service life of hammer crusher and economic cost. According to bimetalcomposite hammer head is often appear “Hammer handle wear and tear”,“Composite difficult” and the set of casting alloy block hammer head set piece of “come off” phenomenon, which design a set piece type bimetal composite casting straight diagonal hammer, make full use of high chromium cast iron wear resistance and the toughness of low alloy steel. Design a protect block structure reasonably that solve the hammer when the actual production of composite interface is difficult to control and “the problem of hammer head wear” for use. Solve the problem of hammer head wear actively, achieve “energy saving, emission reduction and environmental protection”.

  6. Closed Die Hammer Forging of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenna Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the production of Inconel 718 (IN-718 hemispherical domes by closed die hammer forging is proposed. Different combination of operations employed for production are as follows: (i preforging + final forging + air cooling, (ii preforging + final forging + controlled cooling, (iii direct forging + controlled cooling, and (iv direct forging + air cooling. Last three combinations yielded a crack free hemispherical dome. The forged hemispherical domes were solution annealed at 980°C for 1 h and air cooled. The grain size of the domes at all locations was finer than ASTM No 4. Mechanical properties of the forged dome in solution treated and aged condition (STA were better than feedstock used.

  7. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

  8. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  9. Moving HammerCloud to CERN's private cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Barrand, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    HammerCloud is a testing framework for the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Currently deployed on about 20 hand-managed machines, it was desirable to move it to the Agile Infrastructure, CERN's OpenStack-based private cloud.

  10. Modelling water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines: short brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, K.; Firkowski, M.; Zarzycki, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The model of water hammer in viscoelastic pipelines is analyzed. An appropriate mathematical model of water hammer in polymer pipelines is presented. An additional term has been added to continuity equation to describe the retarded deformation of the pipe wall. The mechanical behavior of viscoelastic material is described by generalized Kelvin-Voigt model. The comparison of numerical simulation and experimental data from well known papers is presented. Short discussion about obtained results are given.

  11. Pump-stopping water hammer simulation based on RELAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W. S.; Jiang, J.; Li, D. D.; Lan, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2013-12-01

    RELAP5 was originally designed to analyze complex thermal-hydraulic interactions that occur during either postulated large or small loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs. However, as development continued, the code was expanded to include many of the transient scenarios that might occur in thermal-hydraulic systems. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increase. This phenomenon is called water hammer. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the system when the pressure surges become considerably high. If this happens and when the pressure exceeds the critical pressure that the pipe or the fittings along the pipeline can burden, it will result in the failure of the whole pipeline integrity. The purpose of this article is to introduce the RELAP5 to the simulation and analysis of water hammer situations. Based on the knowledge of the RELAP5 code manuals and some relative documents, the authors utilize RELAP5 to set up an example of water-supply system via an impeller pump to simulate the phenomena of the pump-stopping water hammer. By the simulation of the sample case and the subsequent analysis of the results that the code has provided, we can have a better understand of the knowledge of water hammer as well as the quality of the RELAP5 code when it's used in the water-hammer fields. In the meantime, By comparing the results of the RELAP5 based model with that of other fluid-transient analysis software say, PIPENET. The authors make some conclusions about the peculiarity of RELAP5 when transplanted into water-hammer research and offer several modelling tips when use the code to simulate a water-hammer related case.

  12. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment results. The OBM treatment process involves the separation of hazardous fluid (such as diesel or mineral oil from solids Due to the lean quality of the OBM, the dust separation process in the cyclone caused blockage in the cyclone. This paper suggests a remedial way by means of installation of a hammer stick in the cyclone dust collector to overcome cyclone blockage. The analysis is performed to compare the pressure drop and the dust collection efficiency in the cyclone with and without the hammer stick. The post-installation experimental results showed that hammer stick can improve the cyclone dust collection efficiency without blockage of the cyclone.

  13. Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J., E-mail: yajun@scut.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.

  14. Treatise on water hammer in hydropower standards and guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Karney, B.; Pejović, S.; Mazij, J.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews critical water hammer parameters as they are presented in official hydropower standards and guidelines. A particular emphasize is given to a number of IEC standards and guidelines that are used worldwide. The paper critically assesses water hammer control strategies including operational scenarios (closing and opening laws), surge control devices (surge tank, pressure regulating valve, flywheel, etc.), redesign of the water conveyance system components (tunnel, penstock), or limitation of operating conditions (limited operating range) that are variably covered in standards and guidelines. Little information is given on industrial water hammer models and solutions elsewhere. These are briefly introduced and discussed in the light of capability (simple versus complex systems), availability of expertise (in house and/or commercial) and uncertainty. The paper concludes with an interesting water hammer case study referencing the rules and recommendations from existing hydropower standards and guidelines in a view of effective water hammer control. Recommendations are given for further work on development of a special guideline on water hammer (hydraulic transients) in hydropower plants.

  15. Influences on water-hammer wave shape: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, T.; Bombardieri, C.; Manfletti, C.

    2016-09-01

    Water-hammer phenomena are of strong interest in a number of different industrial fields, amongst which the space industry. Here the priming of feedlines during start-up of an engine as well as the rapid closing of valves upon shutdown may lead to pressure peaks symptomatic of a water-hammer wave. Test benches used to conduct tests on future as well as current engines are also sensitive to water-hammer waves traveling along their feedlines. To enhance the understanding of water-hammer, we investigated different configurations and their influence on the wave shape in the frequency domain. The configurations feature a coiled pipe setup with a support structure and without a support structure. Two other phenomena will be presented. We found a beat phenomenon which is likely to be the so called Poisson-coupling beat. Finally we will show that the second water-hammer peak can reach pressures a lot higher than the first peak by additive interference of the primary and secondary water-hammer wave.

  16. Stable sonoluminescence within a water hammer tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Avik; Georghiou, Theo; Phillipson, Tacye E; Walton, Alan J

    2004-06-01

    The sonoluminescence (SL) from the collapse of a single gas bubble within a liquid can be produced repetitively using an acoustic resonator. An alternative technique using a water hammer tube, producing SL from bubbles of greater size, is described here. A sealed vertical tube partly filled with a liquid and a gas at low pressure is subjected to vertical vibrations. The oscillation of the pressure within the liquid column, due to inertial forces, excites cavitation bubbles to grow and collapse. Rotation is used to confine the bubbles to the axis of the tube. Bright SL emissions were observed in a number of liquids. Repetitive emission was produced from bubbles in condensed phosphoric acid. Bubbles of 0.4 mm ambient radius (containing 2x 10(14) xenon atoms) were excited by vibration at 35 Hz. Approximately 10(12) photons were emitted per collapse in the range 400-700 nm (over four orders of magnitude greater than the brightest SL reported previously), corresponding to a 1% efficiency of the conversion of mechanical energy into light.

  17. Prevention and treatment technologies of railway tunnel water inrush and mud gushing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Pengfei Li; Siming Tian

    2013-01-01

    Water inrush and mud gushing are one of the biggest hazards in tunnel construction. Unfavorable geo-logical sections can be observed in almost all railway tunnels under construction or to be constructed, and vary in extent. Furthermore, due to the different heights of mountains and the lengths of tunnels, the locations of the unfavorable geological sections cannot be fully determined before construction, which increases the risk of water inrush and mud gushing. Based on numerous cases of water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels, the paper tries to classify water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels in view of the conditions of the surrounding rocks and meteorological factors associated with tunnel excavation. In addition, the causes of water inrush and mud gushing in combination of macro-and micro-mechanisms are summarized, and site-specific treatment method is put forward. The treatment methods include choosing a method of advance geological forecast according to risk degrees of different sec-tions in the tunnel, determining the items of predictions, and choosing the appropriate methods, i.e. draining-oriented method, blocking-oriented method or draining-and-blocking method. The treatment technologies of railway water inrush and mud gushing are also summarized, including energy relief and pressure relief technology, advance grouting technology, and advance jet grouting technology associated with their key technical features and applicable conditions. The results in terms of treatment methods can provide reference to the prevention and treatment of tunnel water inrush and mud gushing.

  18. Development and application of simulation technique for hydrokinetic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianye ZHU; Qingyan WANG; Kun YIN; Siyi WANG

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation is an important method for hydrokinetic hammer design. Various kinds of simulation measures with their technical characters and applications being taken during the computer aided design are enumerated. Computer simulation supports plenty of valuable references to the designer. Each type of simulation process is used to explore the exact aspect of the performance of hydrokinetic hammer and each type of simulation method has its own excellences and deficiencies. Thus the integrative simulation methods based on modern computational technology are brought forward to obtain the perfect capability of the whole product. Along with the development of computer hardware and software, various kinds of platforms have been provided to different simulation methods that can be carried out with distinct working flows. The jet flow element is the core part of the hydrokinetic hammer. We can build the ideal simulation model of it by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology. On the other hand, to set up the digital model of piston and hammer, the best way is to build the virtual prototype using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical system. As a result of the argumentation, we think the technique of Virtual Prototype and CFD are the prime way to process the combined computer simulation for hydrokinetic hammer.

  19. A new production technique for wear resistant ring-hammers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shifeng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a great number of laboratory experiments, a new technique has been developed for producing wear resistant ring-hammers. In this technology, lost foam casting with iron sand was combined to make mold; a special alloy was used to inoculate the molten steel, and proper heat treatment was used to further improve mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers. The influence of this new production technology on the microstructure and mechanical properties of wear resistant ring-hammers was studied. Results show that iron sand molding, having the inherent characteristic of sand molding, changes the type of metallic compounds, refines crystal grains and increases the fineness of microstructure. Practical experience verified that the properties of the ring-hammers produced with this new technique are as follows: tensile strength (Rm 720 MPa, impact toughness (ak > 210 J•cm-2 and hardness > 200 HB. After water quenching from 1,080℃ (holding for 4 h and tempering at 320℃ for 3 h, the best wear resistance is obtained, and the wear resistance is 1.6 times higher than that of common high manganese ring-hammers.

  20. Reconstruction of piano hammer force from string velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    A method is presented for reconstructing piano hammer forces through appropriate filtering of the measured string velocity. The filter design is based on the analysis of the pulses generated by the hammer blow and propagating along the string. In the five lowest octaves, the hammer force is reconstructed by considering two waves only: the incoming wave from the hammer and its first reflection at the front end. For the higher notes, four- or eight-wave schemes must be considered. The theory is validated on simulated string velocities by comparing imposed and reconstructed forces. The simulations are based on a nonlinear damped stiff string model previously developed by Chabassier, Chaigne, and Joly [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(1), 648-665 (2013)]. The influence of absorption, dispersion, and amplitude of the string waves on the quality of the reconstruction is discussed. Finally, the method is applied to real piano strings. The measured string velocity is compared to the simulated velocity excited by the reconstructed force, showing a high degree of accuracy. A number of simulations are compared to simulated strings excited by a force derived from measurements of mass and acceleration of the hammer head. One application to an historic piano is also presented.

  1. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  2. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities, characteristics, use, and testing of drilling mud and the related drilling procedures shall be designed and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614...

  3. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  4. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2013-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  5. The use of titanium alloys for details of downhole hammers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelyukh, A. I.; Repin, A. A.; Alekseev, S. E.; Martyushev, N. V.; Drozdov, Yu Yu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of cementation technology of titanium alloy Ti-Al-Mn on its wear resistance is studied. It is established that after lubrication a friction pair with mineral oil the wear resistance of the cemented titanium alloy is comparable to wear resistance of the tempered steel 12HN3A, and in water medium surpasses it by 1.5 times. Decrease in the tendency to seizure with steel is the main reason for increase of wear resistance of titanium alloy. Industrial tests of the ASH43 hammer have shown that the use of titanium alloys for the manufacture of hammer strikers allows to increase impact capacity by 1.5 times and to increase drilling rate by 30 % compared to hammers with steel strikers.

  6. Rheological measurements on artifical muds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of three artificial muds was determined using a rotational viscometer. First some characteristics of the viscometer used were rneasured. For want of an appropriate calibration tluid, the viscosity of demineralized water was determined. The result agreed very well with what

  7. REPLACEMENT OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS IN HAMMER TOE DEFORMITY

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosyan, A. S.; N. V. Zagorodniy; V. G. Protsko; E. M. Sultanov; Z. K. Khamokov; B. G. Butaev; N. G. Zakharyan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to assess the results of Hammertoe Implant Procedure (HIP) in the treatment of hammer toes deformation. 28 operations were carried out in 16 patients aged 26 to 58 years with stage II-III (according to the classification of MI Kuslik) of hammer toes from September 2009 to March 2011. In 50% of them surgeries were performed on one foot, in the second half - on two feet. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.4 months, range 6-21. Results: evaluation of the results was carried out by scal...

  8. Attenuating water hammer pressure by means of gas storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The basic equations for computing the volume of gas storage tank were derived from the principles of attenuating water hammer pressure. Verifications using experiments indicate that the proposed equation can provide a fare precision in the predictions. By using the model of solid-liquid two-phase flow, the gas storage tank, pressure-relief valves and slow-closure reverse-control valves were compared with practical engineering problems, and the functions of gas storage tank in attenuating water hammer pressure were further investigated.

  9. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  10. Mud Flow - Slow and Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, C. C.; Liu, K.-F.; Yuhi, M.

    Heavy and persistent rainfalls in mountainous areas can loosen the hillslope and induce mud flows which can move stones, boulders and even trees, with destructive power on their path. In China where 70% of the land surface is covered by mountains, debris flows due to landslides or rainfalls affect over 18.6% of the nation. Over 10,000 debris flow ravines have been identified; hundreds of lives are lost every year [1]. While accurate assessment is still pending, mud flows caused by Hurr icane Mitch in 1998 have incurred devastating floods in Central America. In Honduras alone more than 6000 people perished. Half of the nation's infrastructures were damaged. Mud flows can also be the result of volcanic eruption. Near the volcano, lava and pyroclastic flows dominate. Further downstream solid particles become smaller and can mix with river or lake water, rainfall, melting snow or ice, or eroded soil, resulting in hyperconcentrated mud mixed with rocks. The muddy debris can travel at high speeds over tens of miles down the hill slopes and devastate entire communities. In 1985 the catastrophic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia resulted in mud flows which took the life of 23,000 inhabitants in the town of Amero [2]. During the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Phillipnes in 1991, one cubic mile of volcanic ash and rock fragments fell on the mountain slopes. Seasonal rain in the following months washed down much of the loose deposits, causing damage to 100,000 villages. These catastrophes have been vividly recorded in the film documentary by Lyons [3].

  11. Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.

  12. HAMMER COURSEWARE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARDNER, P.R.

    2006-04-28

    HAMMER Courseware Management System (HAMMERCMS) is the official name of the system Fluor Hanford, Inc., uses to facilitate development of, deliver, and track training presented in some electronic form (mainly, web-based training) to Hanford Site employees, subcontractors, and vendors.

  13. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  14. HammerCloud. Developments and operations in the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Boehler, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in the years 2010-2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS experiment Grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centres to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise validation and integration of the new ATLAS workload and data management systems JEDI and Rucio or the development and tests of new storage access protocols like HTTP/WebDAV using Davix and aria2c. Results of the continuous monitoring of site performances in functional and site stress tests are displayed in newly developed views on the HammerCloud webpages for site and VO administrators. We report on the development, optimisation and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  15. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  16. Experimental research of drilling mud influence on mud motor mechanical rubber components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Ulyanova, S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of drilling mud influence on engineering parameters of mud motor mechanical rubber components. It is believed to be urgent due to increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and, consequently, the issue of increasing their exploitation is becoming current. The development test results of elastomer IRP-1226 dependent on the mud type (alkaline, hydrocarbon or salt- saturated ones) and the temperature are shown in the paper. It is proved that the type of drilling mud and the temperature in bottom-hole zone have an influence on wear of mud motors elastomers.

  17. 锤式破碎机锤头有限元模型仿真%Finite Model Simulation of Hammer Head of Hammer-type Crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李懿

    2011-01-01

    当锤头对矿石的打击力正好发生在锤头的碰撞中心(或称打击中心)时,就可以完全消除锤头销孔与销轴之间的碰撞反力,降低锤头磨损,提高破碎机效率。利用锤头销孔所受碰撞反力的计算公式,建立锤头的有限元模型,通过对锤面上不同点打击力加载,得出了锤面上各点的所受应力,依据结果优化锤头结构尺寸。%When the hitting force of hammer head on ore is just at the collision center of the hammer head(or hitting center),the collision counterforce of hammer pin hole and shaft can be completely eliminated,thus reducing hammer wearing and enhancing crusher efficiency.Through the calculation formula of collision counterforce on hammer pin hole,the article establishes the finite model of hammer,and obtains the stress on each point of the hammer surface through loading hitting force on different points of the hammer surface.The hammer structure size is optimized according to the result.

  18. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  19. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    9]. These features are explained qualitatively by the card- house structure theory, such as the inhibition of bubble migration and coalescence...builds upon that for previous ONR-supported research on the card- house structure theory of mud sediments, which we review briefly. That research...breakthrough aggregated card- house structure developed by Pierce and Carey [1]. The first key step in the approach is formulating a hypothesized physics

  20. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  1. Experimental research of drilling mud influence on mud motor mechanical rubber components

    OpenAIRE

    Epikhin, Anton Vladimirovich; Ushakov, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of drilling mud influence on engineering parameters of mud motor mechanical rubber components. It is believed to be urgent due to increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and, consequently, the issue of increasing their exploitation is becoming current. The development test results of elastomer IRP-1226 dependent on the mud type (alkaline, hydrocarbon or salt-saturated ones) and the temperature are shown in the paper. It ...

  2. Preliminary analysis of red mud spill based on aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Burai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest industrial spills in Europe occurred in the village of Kolontár (Hungary on October 4, 2010. The primary objective of the hyperspectral remote sensing mission was to monitor that is necessary in order to estimate the environmental damage, the precise size of the polluted area, the rating of substance concentration in the mud, and the overall condition of the flooded district as soon as possible. The secondary objective was to provide geodetic data necessary for the high-resolution visual information from the data of an additional Lidar survey, and for the coherent modeling of the event. For quick assessment and remediation purposes, it was deemed important to estimate the thickness of the red mud, particularly the areas where it was deposited in a thick layer. The results showed that some of the existing tools can be easily modified and implemented to get the most out of the available advanced remote sensing data.

  3. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  4. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jun Xuan; Feng Mao; Jie-Zhi Wu

    2012-01-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter,with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates),and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized.To this end,we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al.(J.Hydrodynamics,B2,51,1995)to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity,and obtain its solution by Green's function method.The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and,by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient,experimentally measured turbulent flow data.Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  5. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cigna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively on day 20, a new thrombosis of the ulnar artery occurred. Conclusion. Hypothenar hammer syndrome is caused by repetitive trauma to the heel of the hand. The alterations of the vessel due to its chronic inflammation caused an acute compression of the ulnar nerve at the Guyon's canal and, in our case, do not allow a permanent revascularisation of the ulnar artery.

  6. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  7. Constitutive Equation of Superalloy In718 in Hammer Forging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A constitutive equation reflecting the flow behavior ofSuperalloy In718 during the counter-blow hammer forging process was developed in terms of the relationship of flow stress and hot-deformation parameters, such as strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. A new simplified approach for the complex multi-pass stress-strain curves has been attempted. The simulation curves calculated by constitutive equation are consistent with the experimental data.

  8. A hammer in perpetual motion / The keyboard is the world

    OpenAIRE

    Chokroun, David

    2011-01-01

    Documentation of a hybrid performance-lecture featuring the music and ideas of "Larry Brown," a fictional composer and Marxist, presented at Simon Fraser University on Jan. 15-16, 2011. The score of "Brown's" piano work A Hammer in Perpetual Motion is reproduced in its entirety. The musical work incorporates musical and biographical references to African-American singer and activist Paul Robeson and the Chilean communist singer-composer Victor Jara. The accompanying text, The Keyboard is the ...

  9. Therapeutic Management of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome Causing Ulnar Nerve Entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The hypothenar hammer syndrome is a rare traumatic vascular disease of the hand. Method and Materials. We report the case of a 43-years-old man with a painful tumefaction of the left hypothenar region. The ulnar artery appeared thrombosed clinically and radiologically. The patient underwent surgery to resolve the ulnar nerve compression and revascularise the artery. Results. The symptoms disappeared immediately after surgery. The arterial flow was reestablished. Postoperatively ...

  10. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  11. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  12. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  13. Language Learning and MUDs: and Overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Macarro Asensio.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the potential of MUDs in Language Learning Acquisition. At the same time, it intends to serve as an introduction to these nonprofit virtual environments so that those who have never been in a MUD could be able to discover and explore these virtual text worlds in the future. It starts with a brief definition and history of these computer environments, together with some comments and ideas found in previous studies. The article continues to enumerate the several features that make MUDs ideal spaces for language learning, ending with an introductory guide to use a specific MUD, NannyMUD. It also includes extra information to access this and other similar worlds.

  14. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  15. HAMMER FY 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcginnis, K.A.

    1996-09-23

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Program is a Congressionally funded National Program line item which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate new approaches to health and safety training and to use occupational health medical surveillance and risk analysis information to enhance the HAMMER training programs. Hanford is the pilot for this program with the HAMMER user facility as the major component.

  16. TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOR OF MUD-PRESSURE PULSE ALONG WELL BORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan

    2007-01-01

    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  17. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  18. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions.

  19. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  20. Axial Vibration Analysis of the Mud Recovery Line on Deepwater Riserless Mud Recovery Drilling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 陈国明; 许亮斌; 殷志明

    2014-01-01

    The series connection of multistage pumping module is the common concept of deepwater riserless mud recovery drilling system. In this system, the influence of the mass of pumping module on the vibration of mud recovery line cannot be ignored, and the lumped mass method has been utilized to discretize the mud recovery line. Based on the analysis of different boundary conditions, the paper establishes the axial forced vibration model of the mud recovery line considering the seawater damping, and the vibration model analysis provides the universal solution to the vibration model. An example of the two-stage pumping system has been used to analyze the dynamic response of mud recovery line under different excited frequencies. This paper has the important directive significance for the application of riserless mud recovery drilling technology in deepwater surface drilling.

  1. REPLACEMENT OF PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS IN HAMMER TOE DEFORMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Petrosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of Hammertoe Implant Procedure (HIP in the treatment of hammer toes deformation. 28 operations were carried out in 16 patients aged 26 to 58 years with stage II-III (according to the classification of MI Kuslik of hammer toes from September 2009 to March 2011. In 50% of them surgeries were performed on one foot, in the second half - on two feet. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.4 months, range 6-21. Results: evaluation of the results was carried out by scale of AOFAS. A significant improvement was noted after HIP: in average score before surgery - 47, in the postoperative period - 92. In evaluating the average preoperative pain score was 24.3, postoperative - 36.0 (complete absence of pain is estimated to be 40 points. Improving the function of the foot with an average of 19 before surgery after surgery reached 41 points, while the position of the fingers (the alignment of the foot and toes is changed from the average value of 2.4 to 12.4 after surgery. Conclusion. Analysis of results showed the effectiveness of the HIP method in the treatment of hammertoe 2-3 fingers. HIP has allowed to achieve good functional and cosmetic results in early and the follow-up postoperative period. In our view, HIP with complex deformations forefoot can be used as an adjunct to other types of reconstructive surgery on the anterior part of the foot, and cases with recurrent strains hammer toes after surgery, HIP can be operation of choice.

  2. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia induced hydrocephalus: the water-hammer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaso Zisimopoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  3. Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia Induced Hydrocephalus: the Water-Hammer Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisimopoulou, Vaso; Ntouniadaki, Aikaterini; Aggelidakis, Panagiotis; Siatouni, Anna; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Tavernarakis, Antonios

    2015-04-24

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  4. Analysis of working postures in hammering tasks on building construction sites using the computerized OWAS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M; Karwowski, W; Vilkki, M

    1993-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were to identify the most problematic postures in hammering tasks performed at building construction sites through application of the computerized OWAS method, and to develop recommendations for improvement of working method and workplaces. Eighteen construction workers, with mean age of 41.6, from three construction companies participated in the field study. The hammering tasks observed during the two-month period included roof boarding, concrete form preparation, clamping support braces, assembling roof frames, roof joisting, shelter form preparation, and fixing fork clamps. Three different types of hammer, including a small Fiskar's hammer, a Fiskar's construction hammer, and a Rocket hammer, were used by the workers. Of all the observations, poor working postures were observed most frequently in roof joisting (12.4% of all observations within the task), followed by concrete form preparation (8.6%), and construction of frames for the roof (7.5%). Overall, out of 593 different postures analysed, a total of 7.8% of postures adopted by the workers during various hammering tasks were classified into OWAS categories III or IV, indicating that these postures should be corrected either soon or immediately. The computerized OWAS method for postural data analysis proved to be a very useful way to reduce postural load of dynamic hammering tasks, and allowed for efficient application of the original OWAS method.

  5. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  6. HAMMER FY 1999 multi-year work plan WBS 1.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callender, P.A.

    1998-09-30

    As a federal training center HAMMER`s [HAzardous Materials Management and Emergency Response] mission is to host, broker, and provide training with partners, involving hands-on use of realistic props and settings, in order to save lives and reduce injuries, increase worker productivity, and serve as a catalyst for a regional training industry.

  7. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  8. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation.

  9. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  10. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  11. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  13. Hammer events, neutrino energies, and nucleon-nucleon correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation measurements depend on a difference between the rate of neutrino-nucleus interactions at different neutrino energies or different distances from the source. Knowledge of the neutrino energy spectrum and neutrino-detector interactions are crucial for these experiments. Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (SRC) affect properties of nuclei. The ArgoNeut liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (lArTPC) observed neutrino-argon scattering events with two protons back-to-back in the final state ("hammer" events) which they associated with SRC pairs. The MicroBoone lArTPC will measure far more of these events. We simulate hammer events using two simple models. We use the well-known electron-nucleon cross section to calculate e-argon interactions where the e- scatters from a proton, ejecting a pi+, and the pi+ is then absorbed on a moving deuteron-like $np$ pair. We also use a model where the electron excites a nucleon to a Delta, which then deexcites by interacting with a second nucle...

  14. Water hammer reduces fouling during natural water ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broens, F; Menne, D; Pothof, I; Blankert, B; Roesink, H D W; Futselaar, H; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M

    2012-03-15

    Today's ultrafiltration processes use permeate flow reversal to remove fouling deposits on the feed side of ultrafiltration membranes. We report an as effective method: the opening and rapid closing of a valve on the permeate side of an ultrafiltration module. The sudden valve closure generates pressure fluctuations due to fluid inertia and is commonly known as "water hammer". Surface water was filtrated in hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes with a small (5%) crossflow. Filtration experiments above sustainable flux levels (>125 l (m2h)(-1)) show that a periodic closure of a valve on the permeate side improves filtration performance as a consequence of reduced fouling. It was shown that this effect depends on flux and actuation frequency of the valve. The time period that the valve was closed proved to have no effect on filtration performance. The pressure fluctuations generated by the sudden stop in fluid motion due to the valve closure are responsible for the effect of fouling reduction. High frequency recording of the dynamic pressure evolution shows water hammer related pressure fluctuations to occur in the order of 0.1 bar. The pressure fluctuations were higher at higher fluxes (higher velocities) which is in agreement with the theory. They were also more effective at higher fluxes with respect to fouling mitigation.

  15. A sedimentological approach for an optimal resolution of drilling mud losses; Approche sedimentologique pour une resolution optimale des problemes de pertes de boues de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kherfellah, N.; Ait Salem, H. [Sonatrach, Centre de Recherche et Developpement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Bekkour, K. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides et des Solides, UMR ULP-CNRS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Benhadid, S. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Institut de Physique, Lab. de Rheologie, El Alia (Algeria)

    2002-07-01

    In spite of the geological knowledge accumulated on more than 800 uninterruptedly cored wells during the forty last years, the drilling of the 81/2'' diameter phase of Hassi-Messaoud oil field (Algeria) remains delicate because of excavation and drilling mud losses problems. The main objective of this work was to study the problem of drilling mud losses by the use of a sedimentological approach and to localize the producing levels of the subjacent Cambrian. For that purpose, the fast and slow drilling advance zones in the Triassic sedimentary sequences were localized in order to establish distribution maps. Thus, it was highlighted: - that the fast advance zones correspond to the sectors without mud losses (argillaceous facies of the flood plain), whereas the zones with slow advance correspond to the significant mud losses sectors (sandy facies of the fluviatile bars); - that under the fast advance zones of the Triassic series, potential hydrocarbon reservoirs are located. (authors)

  16. Imaging mud fluid conduits of the Gunshuiping mud volcano with Electric Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ling-Rong; Lin, Ting-Li; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted the resistivity survey at the Gunshuiping mud volcano and produced a 3D model in order to delineate the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. The Gunshuiping mud volcano is located in a 175-m × 90-m plateau in Southwest of Taiwan. There are three main mud-volcano craters: craters 1, 2 and 3. Crater 3 is active and the others are inactive. We conducted thirteen survey lines using the Wenner configuration to obtain the resistivity profile images. The lengths of the lines are about 155 m and 60 m, which can resolve the resistivity image down to 30 m and 10 m in depth, respectively. The results appeared that there is a vertical structure under the crater 3, and we suggest that it is the mud-fluid conduit. There is a chamber at depth between 3 and 14 m, and we interpret it is the temporary storage of mud fluid during the erupting process. Beneath the craters 1 and 2, there is a near-surface, horizontal conduit connecting the craters 1 and 2. At depth between 15 and 25 m, the vertical conduit beneath the crater 3 and the horizontal conduit beneath the craters 1 and 2 are connected. The resistivity images clearly delineate the conduit underneath the craters and suggest that the crater 3 is the main erupting conduit, which is consistent with the surface features, in the Gunshuiping mud volcano system.

  17. PyHammer: An Automatic and Visual Suite for Spectral Typing Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesseli, Aurora; West, Andrew A.; Harrison, Brandon; Veyette, Mark; Feldman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a computing product (dubbed "PyHammer"), which can automatically assign estimates of spectral type, metallicity and radial velocity, and/or be used to visually classify stellar spectra. PyHammer uses empirical templates with known spectral types and metallicities as comparisons to automatically determine the spectral type and an estimate of the metallicity of a star by measuring prominent line indices and performing a weighted least squares minimization. The PyHammer GUI allows the user to visually compare their spectra to the templates and determine the spectral type and metallicity. We have created the templates used by PyHammer by co-adding individual spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey's Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The templates cover spectral types O5 through L3, are binned by metallicity from -2.0 dex through +1.0 dex, and are separated into main sequence (dwarf) stars and giant stars. This code is based on the “Hammer” spectral typing facility (Covey et al. 2007) and has been updated to include metallicity information, radial velocity calculations, improved automatic estimates, and now is in python (instead of IDL). PyHammer is publicly available to the community on GitHub (github.com/BU-hammerTeam/PyHammer).

  18. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Fang, H. Y.; Luo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers.

  19. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. (Rhoene-Poulenc Inc. (France))

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  20. CFD Analysis of the Anti-Surge Effects by Water Hammering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-oh; Jeong, Hyo-min; Chung, Han-shik; Lee, Sin-il; Lee, Kwang-sung

    2015-09-01

    Water hammering occurs due to the surge effect that comes from operating the pump, sudden stop during the operating due to a blackout and rapid open and close of the valve. By the water hammering of the pipeline and the pump, the valve are damaged. In this paper, transient analysis is conducted by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The purpose of this paper is to provide the research data about the change of the pressure and flow in the pipe that caused by the water hammering.

  1. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow's viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  2. Application of a Numerical Model of Solid-Liquid Hammer in Pipeline Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiPengcheng; WuBaosheng; ZhouJianjun; HanWenliang

    2004-01-01

    The water hammer in pipelines for the transportation of plumbum and Zn mining tailing, supplied by centrifugal pumps, was studied by a numerical model of water hammer for pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flows. The simulation results were in good agreement with earlier experiments. The simulation result of air tanks installed on pipelines proved that the installation of air tanks is the most effective measure to reduce the water hammer associated with return flow caused by rapid closing of check valves. Other effective measures include the use of longer check-valve closure time or installation of the relief valves on the lower segments of the pipelines.

  3. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 董曾南; 柴宏恩; 韩军

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow’s viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  4. OREST - The hammer-origen burnup program system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U. (Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit mbH Forschungsgelande, 8046 Garching bei Munchen (DE))

    1988-08-01

    Reliable prediction of the characteristics of irradiated light water reactor fuels (e.g., afterheat power, neutron and gamma radiation sources, final uranium and plutonium contents) is needed for many aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Two main problems must be solved: the simulation of all isotopic nuclear reactions and the simulation of neutron fluxes setting the reactions in motion. In state-of-the-art computer techniques, a combination of specialized codes for lattice cell and burnup calculations is preferred to solve these cross-linked problems in time or burnup step approximation. In the program system OREST, developed for official and commercial tasks in the Federal Republic of Germany nuclear fuel cycle, the well-known codes HAMMER and ORIGEN and directly coupled with a fuel rod temperature module.

  5. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Francesco Giovanni; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimiz...

  6. A numerical water-hammer model using Scilab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rodríguez Calderón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A water hammer can produce severe consequences regarding pipe integrity; simulation thus becomes an es-sential requirement for ensuring proper water distribution system design and operation. This article thus tries to demonstrate the importance of numerical methods in resolving such problems. A Scilab code allowing pressure propagation to be represented using the characteristics’ method applied to a case of classic literature was thus developed for numerically simulating this phenomenon. This method uses a finite difference scheme for resolving mass and momentum equations. The article presents equations governing the problem from the numerical point of view, the phenomenon’s behaviour is analysed and results obtained by the numerical approach (calculating finite differences are compared to those obtained with Scilab and the theoretical solution.

  7. Computation of water hammer protection of modernized pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Pumping station supplies water for irrigation. Maximal capacity 2 × 1.2m3·s-1 became insufficient, thus it was upgraded to 2 × 2m3·s-1. Paper is focused on design of protection against water hammer in case of sudden pumps trip. Numerical simulation of the most dangerous case (when pumps are giving the maximal flow rate) showed that existing air vessels were not able to protect the system and it would be necessary to add new vessels. Special care was paid to influence of their connection to the main pipeline, because the resistance of the connection has a significant impact on the scale of pressure pulsations. Finally, the pump trip was performed to verify if the system worked correctly. The test showed that pressure pulsations are lower (better) than computation predicted. This discrepancy was further analysed.

  8. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  9. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  10. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  11. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  12. Novel Highly Efficient Compact Rotary-Hammering Planetary Sampler Actuated by a Single Piezoelectric Actuator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We had two objectives in this task: 1. Develop effective single low-mass, low-power piezoelectric drive that can actuate rotary-hammer samplers through walls. 2....

  13. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  14. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, F. J.; Zou, Z. C.; Li, X. N.; Zhang, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled.

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually correspond

  16. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  17. Failure Mechanisms and Structural Optimization of Shredder Hammer for Metal Scraps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xianyan; HU Zhili; TAO Yijun; QIN Xunpeng; HUA Lin

    2016-01-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  18. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  19. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  20. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1993-01-01

    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts fo

  1. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  2. Drilling Tests in Loose Formation with Air DTH Hammer%空气潜孔锤在松散地层中的钻进试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢予北; 王建华; 陈莹; 罗园; 程存平; 申云飞; 杜朝波

    2014-01-01

    Air DTH hammer drilling is a preferred technology in bed rock area, which by tradition is suitable for hard rock drilling(in hard, brittle and broken formations);while for loose formations, conventional mud rotary drilling or percussive drilling should be used.Based on the test on typical unconsolidated formation drilling, it is proved that normal drilling can al-so be realized in loose overburden layer by air DTH hammer with advantages of high efficiency, low cost and small labor in-tensity, the highest drilling efficiency is up to 87m/h and 72m/h in clay and moist clay drilling respectively.This result pro-vides an effective method to hole opening or the first spud section drilling for the exploration of shale gas, geothermal energy, coal seam gas and underground water in overlaying layers and solves the water shortage for drilling fluid in water scarce areas or serious leakage formations and avoids the difficulties in the complicated processes of conventional mud rotary drilling.%空气潜孔锤钻探工艺在基岩地区已是首选的一种技术。传统观念认为空气潜孔锤钻进工艺适用于坚硬岩石(硬、脆、碎地层),在松散地层中则需要常规泥浆回转钻进或冲击钻进。通过典型松散地层的试验证明:空气潜孔锤在松散覆盖地层中可以实现正常的钻进,并且具有效率高、成本低、劳动强度小等优点,在粘土和潮湿粘土地层中钻进效率最高可达87和72 m/h。为解决页岩气、地热、煤层气、地下水等能源资源勘探时上覆地层的开孔或一开钻进提供了行之有效的方法,同时,也解决了缺水地区或严重漏失地层钻井液用水困难和传统开孔或一开泥浆回转钻探工艺复杂等问题。

  3. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  4. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Yanfei Kou; Jieming Yang; Ziming Kou

    2016-01-01

    Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve) is proposed in this paper. The mathematic mode...

  5. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali A M Gad; Hassan I Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks’ simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is fed from a boundary head reservoir and loaded by either distributed or concentrated boundary water demands. According to both hydraulic and hydraulic plus water quality equivalence, three simplification levels are performed. The effect of demands’ concentration on the transient flow is checked. The transient flow is initialized by either concentrated or distributed boundary demands which are suddenly shut-off or released. WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands’ concentration simplifications increase the transient pressure and flow rate. However, hydraulic plus water quality equivalence simplification produces an adverse effect. Therefore, simplifications of the networks should be done carefully. Also, it was found that pump shut-off gives the same trend of valve shut-off or release.

  6. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  7. Morphodynamic rotation of an embayed sandy beach in a mud-dominated setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine; Millet, Bertrand; Fleury, Jules; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The morphodynamics of beaches between bedrock headlands along the muddy French Guiana coast in South America are controlled by rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River. As they migrate alongshore, these mud banks generate changes in shore-incident wave angles, resulting in reversals in longshore drift. A poor appreciation of the problems caused by this process has resulted in the past in damages to the highly urbanized sea-fronts on these beaches, including erosion and flooding. This work enhances our understanding of this rather unusual type of mud-induced rotation based on surveys of the 4 km-long Montjoly beach near Cayenne, in French Guiana, in the course of an approaching mud bank between October 2013 and October 2014. Our method was based on innovative high-resolution topographic surveys from airborne Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry over the beach in October 2013, March 2014 and October 2014. We produced digital surface models (DSM) with a resolution of 10 cm/pixel and an accuracy less than 10 cm from RTK-GPS measurements. We further measured incident wave heights from pressure sensors and conducted a bathymetric survey of the nearshore zone in October 2014. We also modelled high-tide wave propagation over the bathymetry using the REF/DIF v2.5 model. The results show the transfer of sand from the northern part of beach to the south between October 2013 and March 2014. The October 2013 DSM shows a reflective beach in the north indicative of erosion, with a narrow 50 m-wide upper beach. The southern sector was smoother and up to 90 m-wide. Between October 2013 and March 2014, the beach rotated under the influence of a mud bank, with a 30-m retreat of the berm in the north and an advance of 40 m in the south. We quantified a loss of ≈66,000 m³ of sand in the north and a gain of ≈22,000 m³ in the south over this six-month period. The October 2014 DSM shows minor morphological changes, thus

  8. An Analysis of the Impact of Valve Closure Time on the Course of Water Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodura, Apoloniusz

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of transient flow in pressure pipelines is very important for the designing and describing of pressure networks. The water hammer is the most common example of transient flow in pressure pipelines. During this phenomenon, the transformation of kinetic energy into pressure energy causes significant changes in pressure, which can lead to serious problems in the management of pressure networks. The phenomenon is very complex, and a large number of different factors influence its course. In the case of a water hammer caused by valve closing, the characteristic of gate closure is one of the most important factors. However, this factor is rarely investigated. In this paper, the results of physical experiments with water hammer in steel and PE pipelines are described and analyzed. For each water hammer, characteristics of pressure change and valve closing were recorded. The measurements were compared with the results of calculations perfomed by common methods used by engineers - Michaud's equation and Wood and Jones's method. The comparison revealed very significant differences between the results of calculations and the results of experiments. In addition, it was shown that, the characteristic of butterfly valve closure has a significant influence on water hammer, which should be taken into account in analyzing this phenomenon. Comparison of the results of experiments with the results of calculations? may lead to new, improved calculation methods and to new methods to describe transient flow.

  9. Analisa Pengaruh Water Hammer Terhadap Nilai Strees Pipa Pada Sistem Loading-Offloading PT.DABN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Adi Siswanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jalur pipa (pipeline merupakan media yang  digunakan sebagai alat transportasi fluida (cair atau gas, mixed of liquid, solid dan fluid-solid mixture. Ada beberapa tahap penting dalam siklus suatu jalur perpipaan yang digunakan sebagai alat transportasi minyak atau gas: desain, konstruksi, operasional dan pemeliharaan, dan terakhir perbaikan. Operasional merupakn proses kemungkinan terbesar terjadinya kegagalan pada suatu jalur perpipaan. Salah satu kegagalan yang mungkin terjadi adalah fenomena water hammaer. Water hammer adalah sebuah fenomena terjadinhya kenaiakan tekanan yang disebabkan oleh terhenti atau dihentikannya aliran di dalam pipa secara mendadak. Hal ini bisa disebabkan oleh operasional penutupan katup yang dilakukan secara tiba-tiba. Pada paper ini akan dijelaskan kajian mengenai pengaruh kenaikan tekanan yang terjadi karena adanya fenomena water hammer terhadap nilai tegangan jalur perpipaan di sisi discharge. Dari hasil perhitungan diketahui bahwa kenaikan tekanan akibat fenomena water hammer sangat mempengaruhi naiknya nilai tegangan pada pipa. Hasil analisa menunjukan bahwa tegangan yang terjadi ketika fenomena water hammer masih dapat diterima, tetapi kenaikan tekanan ketika terjadi fenomena water hammer melebihi dari batas yang diizinkan sehingga perlu dilakukan prosedur penutupan katup yang sesuai untuk menjaga agar pada saat dioperasionalkan pipa dalam kondisi aman.

  10. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-05

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with red mud can be completely utilized.

  11. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  12. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  13. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  14. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  15. Suspended Sediment Transport and Fluid Mud Dynamics in Tidal Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Cohesive sediments transport has been systematically studied for more than a century from field studies, laboratory experiments, and mathematical models. During the past decades, the accumulation of flocculated cohesive sediments and the formation of weakly consolidated mud deposits, including fluid mud, gained increased attention. Despite extensive research efforts, the governing processes of fluid mud formation are far from being fully understood. The primary objective of this study is to i...

  16. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) (``Hand Tools'') from the People's... & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  17. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable.

  18. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, MingJie; Wang, Guanyu; Yang, Zhengpeng; Huang, Shanxiu; Guo, Weijie; Shen, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  19. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  20. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  1. Water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows in hydraulic hoisting for ocean mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 王光谦; 吴保生; 刘少军; 邹伟生

    2002-01-01

    The particles of polymetallic nodules in hydraulic hoisting flows that are used for mining in deep sea are rather coarse, therefore their flow velocity is smaller than that of the surrounding water. The characteristics of solid-liquid flows such as their density, concentration, elastic modulus and resistance were discussed. The wave propagation speed and the continuity and momentum equations of water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows were theoretically derived, and a water hammer model for such flows was developed.

  2. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  3. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  4. Estructuras mudéjares aragonesas

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás Gualis, Gonzalo M. (, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    Algunas de las estructuras más singulares de la arquitectura mudéjar aragonesa, datadas entre los siglos XIII y XVI, de las que unas, como la tipología de iglesia-fortaleza, son de origen cristiano, mientras otras, como las estructuras de determinadas torres-campanario y de los cimborrios de las catedrales son de raigambre islámica. Sin embargo tanto en las estructuras de origen cristiano como en las de origen islámico se detectan transformaciones fundamentales respecto de los modelo...

  5. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  6. Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch(Ipomoea Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WamiEmenikeNyeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the search for suitable local alternatives as additives in the manufacture of drilling muds which is an essential entity in the exploration of oil and gas, some vital considerations must be put in place such as cost and environmental effect. This study focuses on the suitability of locally processed potato starch as a viscosifier and fluid loss agent in drilling mud. Comparative analysis of properties obtained from the prepared potato starch mud and that formulated from Polyanionic cellulose (PAC were carried out. Results from this investigation showed that rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point of the potato starch mud increased when the content of both viscosifiers were equal at 1.0g/ 316.4ml of water. Plastic viscosity also increased by 13.6% when potato starch concentration increased by 50%. Also, a combination of PAC and potato starch at a ratio of 1:1 to 0.5:1.5 gave a fluid loss of 7.1 - 7.7 ml which were very close to that of the standard mud at 6.8ml. the pH, mud weight and specific gravity of the formulated mud samples ranged from 7.0 - 9.0, 7.0 - 9.1 and 0.83 - 1.09 respectively, which were all in line with the standard mud specifications.

  7. Adsorption of dichromate ions on the red mud surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, M. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Artamonova, I. V.; Rusakova, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of using a red mud (waste of alumina production) as a sorbent of dichromate ions from aqueous solutions is studied. A method for the activation of red mud by hydrochloric acid is proposed. The dependences of the amount adsorbed of dichromate ions on the pH and initial concentration of aqueous solutions are studied.

  8. Consolidation theory and rheology of mud: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of project Strength evolution of soft consolidating mud layers, financially supported by the Netherlands Foundation of Technology, a literature survey on consolidation theory and rheological modelling of mud was carried out. A consolidation theory, focused on the Gibson equation (Gi

  9. Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2006-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.

  10. Research on mud pulse signal data processing in MWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bing; Li, De Sheng; Lin, En Huai; Ji, Miao Miao

    2012-12-01

    Wireless measure while drilling (MWD) transmits data by using mud pulse signal ; the ground decoding system collects the mud pulse signal and then decodes and displays the parameters under the down-hole according to the designed encoding rules and the correct detection and recognition of the ground decoding system towards the received mud pulse signal is one kind of the key technology of MWD. This paper introduces digit of Manchester encoding that transmits data and the format of the wireless transmission of data under the down-hole and develops a set of ground decoding systems. The ground decoding algorithm uses FIR (Finite impulse response) digital filtering to make de-noising on the mud pulse signal, then adopts the related base value modulating algorithm to eliminate the pump pulse base value of the denoised mud pulse signal, finally analyzes the mud pulse signal waveform shape of the selected Manchester encoding in three bits cycles, and applies the pattern similarity recognition algorithm to the mud pulse signal recognition. The field experiment results show that the developed device can make correctly extraction and recognition for the mud pulse signal with simple and practical decoding process and meet the requirements of engineering application.

  11. Mud and cement for horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurdo, C.; Georges, C.; Martin, M.

    1986-01-01

    High-angle and horizontal well bores raise many questions concerning the characteristics of mud and cement. This paper is a summary of the authors' knowledge and work on these two subjects. For all research carried out, large or full-scale laboratory test plants were used. Cutting transport is not only a problem in horizontal conditions but hole angles of 25 to 65/sup 0/ can be even more critical when parameters such as mud rheological properties and velocities are not optimized. Drilling a long horizontal drain creates a dynamic annulus pressure unbalance. This can lead to a loss and kick situation. Two test benches were thus used to obtain a good understanding of the inefficiency of conventional plugging methods and of the difficulties of gas migration control in subhorizontal well bores. High concentrations of LCM, high rheological properties of fluids and low flow rates increase the changes of solving the first problem. The results of the second bench demonstrate the difficulties of annulus gas evacution for angles varying from 90 to 100 degrees, or from over-gauged sections in horizontal holes.

  12. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene over red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, S; Sastre, H; Díez, F V

    2001-01-29

    Hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene was investigated using red mud (RM, a by-product in the production of alumina by the Bayer process) as the catalyst. Use of RM as a hydrodechlorination catalyst is of interest from an industrial point of view because its cost is much lower than that of commercial catalysts. Hydrodechlorination reactions were carried out in a continuous fixed bed reactor. The influence of catalyst sulfiding, temperature (50-350 degrees C), pressure (2-10MPa), hydrogen flow rate and the presence of solvents (hexane, heptane, benzene and toluene) on the reaction was studied. Sulfided red mud is active as a hydrodechlorination catalyst, conversion of tetrachloroethylene increases as the pressure and temperature increase. The solvents did not influence the conversion, nor were side reactions involving the solvent observed. The kinetics of the reaction was studied at 350 degrees C and 10MPa, conditions for which mass transfer limitations were negligible. A good fit of a Langmuir-Hinselwood model to the experimental data was obtained.

  13. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Brice

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  14. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  15. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  16. Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for Water Hammer Flows in Pumping Supply Systems with Air Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Sun; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Tae Uk Jang

    2015-01-01

    To solve water hammer problems in pipeline systems, many numerical simulation approaches have been developed. This paper improves a flux vector splitting ( FVS) scheme whose grid is the same as the fixed⁃grid MOC scheme. The proposed FVS scheme is used to analyze water hammer problems caused by a pump abrupt shutdown in a pumping system with an air vessel. This paper also proposes a pump⁃valve⁃vessel model combining a pump⁃valve model with an air vessel model. The results show that the data obtained by the FVS scheme are similar to the ones obtained by the fixed⁃grid method of characteristics ( MOC ) . And the results using the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model are almost the same as the ones using both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model. Therefore, it is effective that the proposed FVS scheme is used to solve water hammer problems and the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model replaces both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model to simulate water hammer flows in the pumping system with the air vessel.

  17. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis.

  18. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  19. Durability of Bricks Coated with Red mud Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Basavanagowda, S. N.; Aswath, M. U.; Ranganath, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present study is undertaken to assess the durability of concrete blocks coated with red mud - fly ash based geopolymer paste. Concrete blocks of size 200 x 200 x 100mm were coated with geopolymer paste synthesized by varying the percentages of red mud and fly ash. Uncoated concrete blocks were also tested for the durability for comparison. In thermal resistance test, the blocks were subjected to 600°C for an hour whereas in acid resistance test, they were kept in 5% sulphuric acid solution for 4 weeks. The specimens were thereafter studied for surface degradation, strength loss and weight loss. Pastes with red mud percentage greater than 50% developed lot of shrinkage cracks. The blocks coated with 30% and 50% red mud paste showed better durability than the other blocks. The use of blocks coated with red mud - fly ash geopolymer paste improves the aesthetics, eliminates the use of plaster and improves the durability of the structure.

  20. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  1. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  2. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  3. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  4. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  5. Analysis Methods and Protection Measures of Water Hammer%水击分析方法及保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立婉; 高永强; 万宇飞

    2014-01-01

    Reliable water hammer protection measures are of great significance to close-line transportation safety. In this paper, the water hammer analysis method and its research status at home and abroad were summarized; meanwhile the water hammer protection measures were listed.%可靠的水击安全保护措施对密闭输送管道的安全性具有重要意义。对水击分析方法以及国内外研究现状进行概述,同时总结了管道输送过程中的水击保护措施。

  6. The red mud accident in ajka (hungary): plant toxicity and trace metal bioavailability in red mud contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Vassilieva, Elvira; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, André; Smolders, Erik

    2011-02-15

    The red mud accident of October 4, 2010, in Ajka (Hungary) contaminated a vast area with caustic, saline red mud (pH 12) that contains several toxic trace metals above soil limits. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Red mud radioactivity (e.g., (238)U) is about 10-fold above soil background and previous assessments revealed that radiation risk is limited to indoor radon. The plant toxicity and trace metal availability was tested with mixtures of this red mud and a local noncontaminated soil up to a 16% dry weight fraction. Increasing red mud applications increased soil pH to maximally 8.3 and soil solution EC to 12 dS m(-1). Shoot yield of barley seedlings was affected by 25% at 5% red mud in soil and above. Red mud increased shoot Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni concentrations; however, none of these exceed toxic limits reported elsewhere. Moreover, NaOH amended reference treatments showed similar yield reductions and similar changes in shoot composition. Foliar diagnostics suggest that Na (>1% in affected plants) is the prime cause of growth effects in red mud and in corresponding NaOH amended soils. Shoot Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by increasing applications or were unaffected. Leaching amended soils (3 pore volumes) did not completely remove the Na injury, likely because soil structure was deteriorated. The foliar composition and the NaOH reference experiment allow concluding that the Na salinity, not the trace metal contamination, is the main concern for this red mud in soil.

  7. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  8. Study on Influence of Mud Pollution on Formation Fracture Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mud pollution may change the mechanical properties of rock during oil and gas drilling process, which affects the prediction of fracture pressure, leads to the failure of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to study influence of mud pollution on formation fracture pressure to improve the forecasting accuracy. The mud pollution has influences on the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio of rock by the mud pollution experiment, the core microstructure is observed around the mud pollution. Based on the experiment and research, the effects of mud pollution on the fracturing pressure are studied by finite element software system ANSYS, the factors such as pollution depth, perforation length and Poisson’s ratio of polluted area are taken into account. The result of the experiment indicated that the modulus of elasticity of rock is reduced and the Poisson’s ratio of rock is increased by the mud pollution. Through computing and analyzing, it can be concluded that increases in pollution depth and Poisson’s ratio can lead to a vast increase in formation fracturing pressure. A calculation example is presented and the results show that the results of this research can provide valuable guidance to the designers of hydraulic fracturing treatment.

  9. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II.

  10. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  11. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianchi A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  12. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Fasson, A.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  13. Invert muds : cost and disposal roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garritty, N. [Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Since its inception, Engineered Drilling Solutions Incorporated (EDSI) has been focused on increasing drilling performance, increasing customer satisfaction, and decreasing drilling costs. Drilling fluid accounts for only 5 per cent of the cost to drill a well. It is necessary to look at how drilling fluid affects other aspects of drilling costs. Historically, the two main barriers to drilling with invert drilling fluids have been cost and disposal. EDSI's goal was to create an economical invert drilling fluid and develop an innovative way to dispose of the cuttings created while drilling it. This presentation discussed the costs and disposal roadblocks of invert muds. It provided a brief history of oil muds and the need for a new solution to the problem. Invert issues were identified. The presentation also discussed the removal of damaging components from the system and replacement of these materials with non-damaging alternatives which have allowed for the creation of a novel oil based drilling fluid formulation. The presentation discussed the development of 4G which was prepared with the use of a patent pending process using a colloid mill. The device achieved high levels of shear and, as a result, the fluid could be prepared to the consistency of paint. The 4G formulation was modified to 4GM in order to have a fluid that provided shear thinning at the bit for faster drilling, but that would gel up to provide for great hole cleaning. Shear thinning fluid also results in less fluid being lost over the shale shakers. 4GM was shown to enhance organophilic clay performance; significantly decrease maintenance; and decrease losses over the shaker. EDSI has also patented a solution that combines recycled tires and invert drill cuttings to create a product that replaces a portion of traditional aggregate in roads in order to offset the stresses on gravel road infrastructure as well as eliminating the waste going into landfills. figs.

  14. Analysis of research present situation of mud invasion%泥浆侵入研究现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊年; 孙建孟; 迟秀荣; 吴淑琴; 李俊国

    2012-01-01

    The invasion of mud and filtrate is a complicate physical process in the well drilling process. The affecting factors of mud invasion is uncertain when the exploration area and the engineering conditions of well sites are changed. Therefore,it is very diffcult to obtain true formation resistivity and to evaluate accurately the reservoir. This article reviews the research present situation of mud invasion at home and aboard on the affecting factors, the log responses, the calculation of invasion radius and the correction methods of mud invasion. Based on the analysis of mud invasion mechanism, we expect to find some hints for bettter understanding the laws of invasion and morr suitable correction methods, and to guide more accurate reservoir evaluattion. The future study should combine rock physical experiments to further investigate the dynamic mud invasion mechanism and come out more precise and more universal applicable numerical method that can conduct forward and inversion study. Then, the logging resistivity could be effectively and in real-time manner corrected. In addition, the research and development of high performance low invasion mud system, advanced logging with drilling method and emphasizing the influence of rigsite engineering factors are very important to both the study focusing on reduction of mud invasion and the study of low resistivity oil &gas formations under the complex well structure condition.%泥浆及其滤液侵入油气储层是一个复杂的物理过程,其影响因素因区块情况和井场工程因素的不同又有许多不确定性,很难得到地层真电阻率,影响储层测井评价的精确度.本文以泥浆侵入机理的分析为基础,结合国内外对泥浆侵入的研究情况,从泥浆侵入影响因素、泥浆侵入对测井响应的影响、侵入半径的计算和侵入校正方法等方面,对泥浆侵入的研究状况进行了综合评述,以期找出其规律性,为进一步探索更好的泥浆侵入校正

  15. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  16. Development and validation of the water hammer program DYVRO Mod.3; Entwicklung und Validierung des Druckstossprogramms DYVRO Mod. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas; Ronneberger, Rolf [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Altstadt, Eberhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung (IFS)

    2008-07-01

    Water hammer events in piping systems develop in case of a sudden opening or closure of armatures, changes or pump rotation speeds or as consequence of pipe breaks. The propagation speed of pressure waves depend on the properties of the fluid (compressibility, density) and the mechanical properties (Young modulus, Poisson ratio) and geometry of the piping system. Water hammer effects induce very often damage of the piping and the pipe mountings. The TUeV Nord Sys Tec GmBH and Co KG has developed and qualified the water hammer program DYVRO for two-phase fluids. The contribution covers the improved version of the program DYVRO Mod3. The validation of the calculation procedure includes the Simpson experiment and experiments at the cold water hammer test facility CWHTF in Rossendorf with and without vapor lock.

  17. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang ZHANG; Ming-fei MIAO; Ji-ming MA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock,and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock.Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure.The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics.There is agreement between them.The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  18. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang ZHANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock, and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock. Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure. The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics. There is agreement between them. The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  19. Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based mud in HPHT fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abduo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-Based mud (WBM and Oil-Based mud (OBM are the most common drilling fluids currently used and both have several characteristics that qualify them for High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT purposes. This paper compares the different characteristics of WBM containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and OBM to help decide the most suitable mud type for HPHT drilling by considering mud properties through several laboratory tests to generate some engineering guidelines. The tests were formulated at temperatures from 120 °F up to 500 °F and pressures from 14.7 psi to 25,000 psi. The comparison will mainly consider the rheological properties of the two mud types and will also take into account the environmental feasibility of using them. The results showing that the Water-Based offers a more environmental friendly choice yet some of additives that are used to enhance its performance at (HPHT conditions, such as (MWCNTs, thus it is necessary to develop new formulas for (HPHT Water-Based muds that could act like Oil-Based mud but cause less harm to the environment.

  20. 管道水击压力的影响因素%Influence factors of water hammer pressure in pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳玲

    2015-01-01

    本文综合分析了流速变化和阀门的不同关闭特性对管道水击压力的影响,从而为水击防护措施提供了一定的理论依据。%This paper reviews the influence of flow-rate change and valve closing characteristics on water hammer pressure in pipeline to provide a theoretical basis for water hammer protection.

  1. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  2. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the "gold standard" imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  3. A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.

  4. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  5. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz, E-mail: abdelaziz.khlaifat@me.weatherford.com [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Al-Khashman, Omar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an, P.O. Box 20 (Jordan); Qutob, Hani [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  6. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  7. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January- April, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  8. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  9. Prediction Method of Safety Mud Density in Depleted Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun-Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, many oilfields were placed in the middle and late development period and the reservoir pressure depleted usually, resulting in more serious differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage both in the reservoir and cap rock. In view of this situation, a systematic prediction method of safety mud density in depleted oilfields was established. The influence of reservoir depletion on stress and strength in reservoir and cap formation were both studied and taken into the prediction of safety mud density. The research showed that the risk of differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage in reservoir and cap formation were both increased and they were the main prevention object in depleted oilfields drilling. The research results were used to guide the practice drilling work, the whole progress gone smoothly.

  10. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: Jan- April, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January - April, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  17. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuarine morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten; van Kessel, Thijs; Wongsoredjo, Samor; Bergsma, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sandy river estuaries have great economic and ecologic values, but a better understanding is required about the effect of mud on large-scale morphodynamics to optimise maintenance strategies. Very few studies actually include sand-mud interaction effects on morphodynamics on decadal and centennial timescales due to model limitations and lack of spatially and temporally dense data of mud in the bed. Here we study effects of cohesive sediment supply on equilibrium estuary shape, bar-channel patterns and dynamics, during formation from idealised initial conditions over a time scale of centuries and millennia. On the basis of related modelling and experimentation of river and delta patterns we hypothesise that mud will settle into mud flats flanking the estuary that resist erosion and thus self-confine and narrow the estuary and reduce braiding index and channel-bar mobility. We applied the process-based numerical model Delft3D in depth-averaged mode starting from idealised convergent estuaries. Mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for the cohesive regime, and Engelund-Hansen for the non-cohesive regime depending on the fraction of mud. This was subjected to a range of different mud inputs from the river or from the sea and a range of river discharge and tidal amplitudes. Our modelling results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the sides of the estuary. Higher mud concentration at the river inflow leads to narrower and shorter estuaries. Channels within the estuary also become narrower due to increased cohesion in the channel banks. This trend is confirmed in preliminary experiments. However, channels do not increase in depth; this is in contrast with what is observed in rivers and we do not yet fully understand this. Migration rates of channels and bars and bar splitting and merging also reduce with increasing mud concentration. For higher discharge channel

  19. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara M. Brice; Kevin F. Ness; Doug Rosemond

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method that would facilitate immediate feedback on linear hammer speed during training. Methods:Three-dimensional hammer head positional data were measured and used to calculate linear speed (calculated speed) and cable force. These data were used to develop two linear regression models (shifted and non-shifted) that would allow prediction of hammer speed from measured cable force data (predicted speed). The accuracy of the two models was assessed by comparing the predicted and calculated speeds. Averages of the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the predicted and calculated speeds for each throw of each participant were used to assess the level of accuracy of the predicted speeds. Results:Both regression models had high CMC values (0.96 and 0.97) and relatively low RMS values (1.27 m/s and 1.05 m/s) for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. In addition, the average percentage differences between the predicted and calculated speeds were 6.6%and 4.7%for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. The RMS differences between release speeds attained via the two regression models and those attained via three-dimensional positional data were also computed. The RMS differences between the predicted and calculated release speeds were 0.69 m/s and 0.46 m/s for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. Conclusion:This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  20. Water hammer, flow induced vibration and safety/relief valve loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valandani, P.; Uffer, R.; Sexton, D.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation performed to determine current and recommended practices regarding the consideration of water hammer, flow-induced vibration and safety-relief valve loads in the design of nuclear power plant piping systems. Current practices were determined by a survey of industry experts. Recommended practices were determined by evaluating factors such as load magnitude and frequency content, system susceptibility to load occurrence and safety effects of postulated piping damage.

  1. Fatigue behaviour of welded joints treated by high frequency hammer peening: Part 1 , experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; LIEURADE, Henri Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an industrially applicable...

  2. Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Joints Treated by High Frequency Hammer Peening: Part I , Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; Lieurade, Henri-Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    International audience; High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an...

  3. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    , where mud banks have appeared some time or the other in the past. Recently, these have dwindled to appear only at a few locations with deviant changes in characteristics. Though a large number of studies were undertaken for unravelling... on the seaward edge of the mud banks makes it distinct from the rough seas all around and can be clearly seen. Under the infl uence of changing coastal circulation, they tend to migrate slowly during its evolution laterally along the coast...

  4. Evaluating Performance of Water Hammer Control Equipment using Hytran Software in Hasanlu Dam Pumping Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nazari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady flows start from a steady state and end the other steady state condition. In water lines unsteady flows occur mainly due to the closure of valves, sudden pumps stops or sudden pumps starts. To prevent these losses, the major ways which can be used are pressure valves, air tanks and surge tanks. All various methods of controlling water hammer pursue a common goal, and that is to balance pressure from water hammer to adjust the pressure in an acceptable range in the network. In this paper, unsteady hydraulic flow control methods include protective measures such as the use of check valve and installation of air valves, air chambers and surge tanks are investigated and compared. And so that the1400 mm existing pipe line of Hasanlu dam pump station, can be simulated using Hytran software, and then minimum and maximum pressure due to the different choking in the throat connecting the main route was evaluated. The results presented that the use of check valve with built-in soft starter in the present case study reduces the positive and negative pressure caused by the water hammer phenomenon as possible value.

  5. Research on Pipeline Water Hammer%输油管道瞬变水击研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昭洋

    2015-01-01

    Based on the reasons of generating the water hammer in the pipeline running, effects of the water hammer on the upstream and downstream flow were respectively analyzed from the aspects of wave supercharging and wave decompressing. Several measures to reduce water hammer pressure hazards were outlined, such as regulating valve protection, pressure protection system and enhancing the ability of automatic control system protection. So it is very important to take effective line pressure protection system for the safe operation of the pipeline.%针对输油管道瞬变水击产生的原因,从所产生的增压波和减压波分别对上下游流动的影响两方面分析了水击对输油管路带来的危害,并结合调节阀保护、压力保护系统与增强自动控制系统保护能力等简述了减小水击压力对管道危害的几种措施,得出采取有效的管路压力保护系统对输油管道安全运行具有重要意义。

  6. THEORETICAL,NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WATER HAMMER IN PIPE SYSTEM WITH COLUMN SURGE CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ze-xuan; Tan Soon Keat

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of governing equations for water hammer based on the elastic column theory was proposed and adopted to analyse water hammer phenomenon in the pipe system with a vertical column surge chamber and water level fluctuation in the surge chamber during pressure transient. The wrongness existing in the classical governing equations for water hammer was analysed. A typical reservoir-valve pipe system was chosen as an example to verify the new governing equations numerically and experimentally. The finite difference method based on the method of characteristics was used to solve numerically the nonlinear characteristic equations. The temporal evolutions of transient volume flux and head and of water level fluctuation for various surge chamber configurations were worked out, assuming that the air in the surge chamber are compressible. The relevant experiment was conducted to verify the new governing equations and numerical method. The numerical and experimental results show that the new governing equations are valid and the conventional assumption that the pressure head at the base of a surge chamber equals that of the static head above it during pressure transient is not always valid. The surge chamber generally reises the period of transient pressure wave in pipe system, reduces the maximum pressure envelope and lifts the minimum envelope substantially. The water level fluctuation in the surge chamber was numerically and experimentally observed. Increasing the size of the surge chamber and/or decreasing the initial air pressure in the surge chamber enhance the effectiveness of the surge chamber in suppressing pressure wave.

  7. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  8. Large historical eruptions at subaerial mud volcanoes, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Active mud volcanoes in the northern Apennines, Italy, currently have gentle eruptions. There are, however, historical accounts of violent eruptions and outbursts. Evidence for large past eruptions is also recorded by large decimeter rock clasts preserved in erupted mud. We measured the rheological properties of mud currently being erupted in order to evaluate the conditions needed to transport such large clasts to the surface. The mud is well-characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with yield stresses between 4 and 8 Pa. Yield stresses of this magnitude can support the weight of particles with diameters up to several mm. At present, particles larger than this size are not being carried to the surface. The transport of larger clasts to the surface requires ascent speeds greater than their settling speed in the mud. We use a model for the settling of particles and rheological parameters from laboratory measurements to show that the eruption of large clasts requires ascent velocities > 1 m s−1, at least three orders of magnitude greater than during the present, comparatively quiescent, activity. After regional earthquakes on 20 May and 29 May 2012, discharge also increased at locations where the stress changes produced by the earthquakes would have unclamped feeder dikes below the mud volcanoes. The magnitude of increased discharge, however, is less than that inferred from the large clasts. Both historical accounts and erupted deposits are consistent in recording episodic large eruptions.

  9. Radiological restrictions of using red mud as building material additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hannian; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shirong

    2012-09-01

    Red mud remains as residue from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical composition of red mud varies widely with respect to the types of bauxite ore and processing parameters. Red mud samples from Guizhou, China, were investigated using a X-ray fluorescence spectroscope, a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and a electron probe micro-analyzer. The results showed that red mud consisted of eight main chemical components--CaO, Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), Na(2)O, K(2)O and MgO--and dozens of trace elements, including natural radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometric analysis showed that the values of internal exposure index I (Ra) and external exposure index I (γ) of Guizhou red mud were 1.1-2.4 and 2.3-3.5 respectively. Thus, it should not be used as a main building material indiscriminately. The amount of red mud from Guizhou when it is used for main building materials in China should be less than 28-44%.

  10. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  11. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

    2013-06-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling

  12. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  13. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior of Arc-Sprayed and Hammer-Peened Coatings Using Tungsten Carbide Cored Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Hagen, L.; Schröder, P.

    2016-12-01

    Due to their outstanding properties, WC-W2C iron-based cermet coatings are widely used in the field of wear protection. Regarding commonly used WC-W2C reinforced coating systems, it has been reported that their tribological behavior is mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Although the manufacturing route for arc-sprayed WC-W2C cermet coatings is in an advanced state, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the performance of cored wires with tungsten carbides as filling material and their related coating properties when post-treatment processes are used such as machine hammer peening (MHP). A major objective was to characterize WC-W2C FeCMnSi coatings, deposited with different carbide grain size fractions as a filling using cored wires, with respect to their tribological behavior. Moreover, deposits derived from cored wires with a different amount of hard phases are investigated. According to this, polished MHP surfaces are compared to as-sprayed and polished samples by means of metallographic investigations. With the use of ball-on-disk and dry rubber wheel tests, dry sliding and rolling wear effects on a microscopic level are scrutinized. It has been shown that the MHP process leads to a densification of the microstructure formation. For dry sliding experiments, the MHP coatings obtain lower wear resistances, but lower coefficients of friction than the conventional coatings. In view of abrasion tests, the MHP coatings possess an improved wear resistance. Strain hardening effects at the subsurface area were revealed by the mechanical response using nanoindentation. However, the MHP process has caused a cracking of embedded carbides, which favor breakouts, leading to advanced third-body wear.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  15. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  16. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.

    2012-12-01

    Contraction cracks can form captivating patterns, such as the artistic craquelure sometimes found in pottery glazes, to the cracks in dried mud, or the polygonal networks covering the polar regions of Earth and Mars. Two types are frequently encountered: those with irregular rectilinear patterns, such as that formed by an homogeneous slurry when dried (or cooled) uniformly, and more regular hexagonal patterns, such as those typified by columnar joints. Once cracks start to form in a thin contracting layer, they will sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of cracks, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In this manner they relieve the stresses perpendicular to the pre-existing crack. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120°. In this presentation it will be shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and that a rectilinear, T-junction dominated pattern will develop into to a hexagonal pattern, with Y-junctions, if allowed to. Such an evolution can be explained as the result of three conditions: (1) if cracks advance through space, or heal and recur, that the previous positions of a crack tip acts as a line of weakness, guiding the next iteration of cracking; (2) that the order of opening of cracks can change in each iteration; and (3) that crack tips curve to maximise the local strain energy release rate. The ordering of crack patterns are seen in a number of systems: columnar joints in starch and lava; desiccation cracks in clays that are repeatedly wetted and dried; cracks in eroding gypsum-cemented sand layers; and the cracks in permafrost known as polygonal terrain. These patterns will each be briefly explored, in turn, and shown to obey the above principles of crack pattern evolution.

  17. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON MUD BED-GENERATION AND IMPACTING A WALL ALONG A SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper mud was treated as the Bingham fluid. In staggered grids, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for non-Newtonian fluid was solved by the MAC method. Numerical simulations were conducted on mud bed-generating phenomenon and mud impacting a wall along a slope. The distributions of free surface, pressure and velocity of mud and water were obtained. The results indicate that the computed layer thickness of mud bed almost equals the theoretically predicted value. Because of the differences in constitutive relationship, the distributions of free surface are different for water and mud. The distortion of water free surface is much more complicated.

  18. Estimation of bioavailability of metals from drilling mud barite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M

    2008-04-01

    Drilling mud and associated drill cuttings are the largest volume wastes associated with drilling of oil and gas wells and often are discharged to the ocean from offshore drilling platforms. Barite (BaSO4) often is added as a weighting agent to drilling muds to counteract pressure in the geologic formations being drilled, preventing a blowout. Some commercial drilling mud barites contain elevated (compared to marine sediments) concentrations of several metals. The metals, if bioavailable, may harm the local marine ecosystem. The bioavailable fraction of metals is the fraction that dissolves from the nearly insoluble, solid barite into seawater or sediment porewater. Barite-seawater and barite-porewater distribution coefficients (Kd) were calculated for determining the predicted environmental concentration (PEC; the bioavailable fraction) of metals from drilling mud barite in the water column and sediments, respectively. Values for Kdbarite-seawater and Kdbarite-porewater were calculated for barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in different grades of barite. Log Kdbarite-seawater values were higher (solubility was lower) for metals in the produced water plume than log Kdbarite-porewater values for metals in sediments. The most soluble metals were cadmium and zinc and the least soluble were mercury and copper. Log Kd values can be used with data on concentrations of metals in barite and of barite in the drilling mud-cuttings plume and in bottom sediments to calculate PECseawater and PECsediment.

  19. Radiological aspects of red mud disaster in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Sas, Zoltán; Jobbágy, Viktor; Csordás, Anita; Szeiler, Gábor; Somlai, János

    2013-08-01

    One of the most severe industrial catastrophes happened in Kolontár, Hungary, on 4 October 2010. Red mud (bauxite residue) broke through the eroded wall of the red mud reservoir pond "Number X" and flooded the surrounding area. This led to the instant death of 10 people and the injury of more than 100 people. Red mud is enriched in radium and thorium isotopes; therefore, there is a chance that this flooding will increase radionuclide concentrations of soils and also in air. In this study we have examined the site to assess the realistic radiological risks. For the risk assessment the following parameters were determined: gamma dose rate, radon concentration, radionuclide concentration of red mud and air dust concentration. It was found that the radiation dose exposure resulting from red mud contamination was < 0.045 mSv y-1 (excluding radon), which can be considered negligible when compared to the average annual effective dose from natural sources (2.4 mSv y-1).

  20. Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

    2011-01-30

    The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction.

  1. Neutralization of red mud using CO2 sequestration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramesh Chandra; Patel, Raj Kishore; Ray, Bankim Chandra

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of neutralization of red mud (RM) using carbon dioxide gas sequestration cycle at ambient conditions. The neutralized red mud (NRM) was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR and auto titration method. X-ray diffraction pattern of NRM was revealed that the intensity of gibbsite was increased prominently and formed ilmenite due to dissolution of minerals. EDX analysis was showed that the %(w/w) of Na, C, O, Si were higher in the carbonated filtrate as compared to the RM and NRM. The permanently sequestered CO(2)%(w/w) per 10 g of red mud were approximately 26.33, approximately 58.01, approximately 55.37, and approximately 54.42 in NRM and first, second, third cycles of carbonated filtrate, respectively. The pH of red mud was decreased from approximately 11.8 to approximately 8.45 and alkalinity was decreased from approximately 10,789 to approximately 178 mg/L. The acid neutralizing capacity of NRM was approximately 0.23 mol H(+)/kg of red mud. The specific advantages of these cyclic processes are that, large amount of CO(2) can be captured as compared to single step.

  2. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  3. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Kluck, Marius; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2009-07-01

    Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions.

  4. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  5. Improving the early-warning of a mud-debris flow using radar rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Soojun; Lee, Jiho

    2016-04-01

    The timely and accurate warning of mud-debris flows including landslide hazards is very important to protect life and property. The rainfall estimation uncertainty makes it difficult to issue accurate warning. Traditionally rain gauges have been the main source of surface rainfall measurements. The rain gauges provide an accurate point rainfall estimates, but their spatial resolution is limited by the low-density of a gauge network. The errors associated with interpolation schemes to fill in the missing data over the ungauged sites can introduce significant error due to the long distance between the rain gauge stations and the hazard site (ungauged sites), particularly over rough terrain. The radar system can provide rainfall information at higher temporal and spatial resolutions than was previously possible from rain gauge measurements. While radar provides accurate spatial and temporal resolution of the rainfall field at significant heights above the surface of the earth, numerous measurement errors can result in an inaccurate rainfall depth at the ground. This study attempts to improve mud-debris flow early-warnings through accurate rainfall depth estimation by applying an innovative artificial neural network method. The first scenario uses the nearest rainfall observing site from an ungauged hazard site. The second uses the radar rainfall data and improves the rainfall estimation compared to the first scenario. The third scenario integrates the above two scenarios using both radar and observed rainfall at the sites around the ungauged hazard site, and improves the rainfall estimation by the largest margin. This methodology is applied to the Seoul metropolitan area. The proposed methodology can be applied to improve the confidence in the early-warning of the mud-debris flow hazard in other areas. Acknowledgment This research was supported by a grant (13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and

  6. [Adam hammer (1818 - 1878) - remarks on a forgotten pioneer of ether anaesthesia in obstetrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerig, M; Streckfuss, W

    2004-05-01

    Adam Hammer, born in 1818, and working as a doctor for the poor since 1847 in Mannheim, was the first person in the German speaking world to use ether for pain relief during labor on February 18th 1847. He took part in the abortive April 1848 Revolution in Mannheim - a pinnacle of German liberalism and later of political radicalism, which attented to abolish the Monarchy and introduce a democratic Republic. After the revolution was put down, Hammer emigrated to the United States and settled down in St. Louis, Missouri. Remaining politically active, he joined the Republican Party, founded in 1854 and served as a military surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Even before the war, he was engaged in efforts to improve the level of medical training in America and was involved with the foundation of High Schools which offered training courses along the lines of German universities. His ideas and innovations were not introduced immediately, but had a significant impact on medical training methology later on in the US. During a visit in Europe in 1876, he was the first to diagnose a coronary thombosis as the cause of a heart attack on a live patient. The diagnosis was later confirmed by post-morten autopsy on the patient. In 1877 he returned to Germany and died one year later. The biography of Adam Hammer mirrows that of many other German-Americans whose emigration proved to be a gain for America but a loss for Germany. This story was destinated to be repeated in terrible circumstances some decades later.

  7. Changes of biogeochemical activities before and after significant mud displacement at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Yoerger, D.; Camilli, R.; German, C.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.; de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (72°N, 14° 43' E, 1250 m water depth) was studied for a period of a year by the Long-term Observatory On Mud-volcano Eruptions (LOOME) in 2009-2010, to investigate temporal variations of mud volcanism and consequences for biogeochemical processes. The HMMV is a highly active methane cold seep ecosystem characterized by high rates of methane efflux. It hosts different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on changes in community composition and biogeochemical activity such as methane emission, total benthic oxygen uptake, microbial methane and sulfate consumption before and after a major mud displacement recorded by LOOME. The sensor-enabled long-term observations of the HMMV habitats were combined with short-term analyses before and after the displacement events by ROVs QUEST (MARUM) and GENESIS (University of Gent), the AUV Sentry (WHOI) equipped with a multibeam and subbottom profiler, CTD and photographic unit as well as with a mass spectrometer. We found shifts in the distribution patterns of chemosynthetic communities and also substantial changes in their activity, consistent with changes in temperature gradients. This study was sponsored by the EU-Projects HERMIONE "Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European Seas", and ESONET "European Seas Observatory Network" (Demonstration Mission LOOME "Long term observations on mud volcano eruptions").

  8. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. WAVE ATTENUATION OVER MUD BED: A PSEUDO-PLASTIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qing-he; Onyx W.H. Wai; Joseph H. W. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A two-layer model, with the upper layer being the perfect fluid and the lower layer being the pseudo-plastic fluid describing water wave attenuation over mud bed, was established. A simplified method based on the principle of equivalent work was applied to solve the boundary value problems. The computational results of the model show that the two-layer perfect fluid model and the perfect-viscous fluid model are all special cases of the present model. The complex nonlinear properties of wave attenuation over mud bed, can be explained by the present model, e.g., the wave dissipation rate decreases with the wave height in certain cases, while the small wave propagates over mud bed with less energy dissipation and large wave attenuates rapidly in other cases. Other factors influencing the wave attenuation were also discussed.

  10. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  11. Radiological investigation of the effects of red mud disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, T; Sas, Z; Somlai, J; Jobbágy, V; Szeiler, G

    2012-11-01

    On 4 October 2010, the gate of a red mud waste dump of a Hungarian alumina factory was damaged and ∼800.000 m(3) of alkaline red mud flooded the vicinity of the dumps. Red mud samples were collected from the contaminated area and they were investigated from the radiological point of view. The activity concentrations were as follows: (232)Th: 264 (194-337) Bq kg(-1), (238)U: 265 (197-332) Bq kg(-1), (226)Ra: 180 (143-237) Bq kg(-1), (40)K: 283 (228-360) Bq kg(-1). As a function of the moisture content (0-28 %), the obtained radon emanation coefficients were relatively high (7.6-20 %) and, consequently, the radon exhalation also increased.

  12. 基于ACS800变频器的泥浆泵软泵控制技术%Based on the ACS800 Inverter Soft Mud Pump Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李崇博

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure the cuttings in the drilling through out of the mud circulating system, the drilling operationwill be equipped with mud pump in the drilling operation, some large rigs are typically configured with 2~3 sets of mud pump. In the drilling process, when multiple drilling pumps are running simultaneously, the irregularity of the pistons of each pump body causes the problem of manifold resonance, water hammer jump, MWD signal deviation and formation collapse. Mud pump operation at the same time, the piston of the mud pump movement, but there is no rule, the movement cause resonance mud line even beat, and exerted a great potential safety hazard, high pressure manifold to solve this problem, we draw out soft pump solution, which uses the pump sensor to obtain the piston position, ACS800 inverter custom programming function designed to control the inverter output of the soft-pump control technology. Finally, it can achieve the entire manifold pressure fluctuations, and reduce the drilling process Impact.%为保证钻井作业中的岩屑通过泥浆循环系统带出,钻井作业中都会配有泥浆泵,大型钻机一般都会配置2~3台泥浆泵。在钻井过程中多台钻井泵同时运行时,由于各个泵体的活塞无规律运动易引起管汇共振、水龙带跳动、随钻信号偏差和地层坍塌等问题。为解决这一问题,提出通过泵冲传感器采集活塞位置,ACS800变频器自定义编程功能设计专用程序控制变频器输出的软泵控制技术,从而实现整个管汇的压力波动平稳,减小对钻井过程的影响。

  13. Experimental Study of Air Vessel Behavior for Energy Storage or System Protection in Water Hammer Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental assessment of an air pocket (AP, confined in a compressed air vessel (CAV, has been investigated under several different water hammer (WH events to better define the use of protection devices or compressed air energy storage (CAES systems. This research focuses on the size of an AP within an air vessel and tries to describe how it affects important parameters of the system, i.e., the pressure in the pipe, stored pressure, flow velocity, displaced volume of water and water level in the CAV. Results present a specific range of air pockets based on a dimensionless parameter extractable for other real systems.

  14. Hammer head beam solution for beam-to-column joints in seismic resistant building frames

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on an innovative stiffened extended end-plate joint, used to connect I-shaped beams to partially-encased composite wide flange columns. In the joint, T-shaped hammer heads cut from the same I-profiles than the beams are used, instead of using traditional haunches. At the joint level, the column web is strengthened by two lateral plates welded to the column flanges; these plates also reinforce the column flanges. This type of joint is proposed to use in the seism...

  15. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  16. ANALYSIS OF STATE-CHANGING WATER HAMMER IN A LONG PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-ming; WANG Zheng-jun; YANG Ke

    2004-01-01

    Pressure wave propagation along a pipe attached with an active pressure-controlling system at an end was described by an unsteady state-changing motion of the pressure wave fronts, in order to study the interaction among successive waves caused by successive controlling spillovers with the consideration of liquid compressibility due to high head. A model for water hammer propagation was established by using the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The influence of the wave interactions on the pressure suppression was analyzed. Testing verifications were conducted with a 2575m length and 776m head penstock in hydro-power station. The computed results are in good agrement with the tested ones.

  17. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage.

  18. A new approach for evaluating water hammer including the initial state of pressurization of the installation and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaless

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903 and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A novel approach is proposed including the initial state of pressurization into the governing equations and hence simplifying the calculus of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a critical reading of the deduction of the equations is done pointing out conceptual inconsistencies and proposing corrections.

  19. 喷灌系统水锤及其防护%Water Hammer and It's Prevention in Sprinkling Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 冯卫民

    2001-01-01

    This paper expounds some sorts of water hammer in sprinklingirrigation system, base theory and method for water hammer analysis, and boundary condition of spray nozzle and complicate pipe network. Through example, this paper point out that when we design a sprinkling irrigation system, we must analyze water hammer in pipe network and adopt rational preventional measure according to actual situation.%本文阐述了喷灌系统水锤的分类及其数值模拟的基本理论和方法,介绍了几种适用的水锤防护技术。结合实例说明:在喷灌系统的设计阶段必须进行水锤的数值模拟和定量分析,并根据实际情况选择合理的水锤防护措施。

  20. A Bingham-Plastic Model for Fluid Mud Transport Under Waves and Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春嵘; 吴博; 呼和敖德

    2014-01-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  1. Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, A D; Wakeel, R A; Mann, T A; Main, R A; Aldridge, R D

    1989-11-01

    Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud, we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitize with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethylenetetramine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.

  2. Efficiency evaluation of mud applications of laser doppler of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimova, S. K.; Kondratenko, E. I.; Alykova, O. M.; Lomtieva, N. A.; Alykova, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of the microcirculation’s change of the face skin of the women under the influence of the sulfur silt mud application of the lake Karantinnoe of Astrakhan region was studied. The age particularities of vasorelaxation’s peloid action on the microcirculation of the face skin was installed. Peloid promotes the influx of arterial blood, the improvement of the tissue’s feeding and the reduction of the stagnant events. The prolonged action of the sulfur silt mud application reveals at more mature age.

  3. Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Chuxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2007-07-19

    Red mud can be derived from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination red mud (BPBCRM) differs markedly from those of the pure Bayer Process red mud (PBPRM). In this study, red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method was characterized. The results show that pH of the red mud decreased with increasing duration of storage time. Na dominated among the soluble cations, but the concentration of soluble Na decreased with increasing duration of storage time as a result of leaching. Cation exchange capacity also decreased with increasing duration of storage time, probably due to a decrease in pH causing a reduction in negatively charged sites on the red mud particles. Ca was the predominant exchangeable cation in the fresh red mud but the concentration of exchangeable Ca markedly decreased in the old red mud, which was dominated by exchangeable Na. The degree of crystallization and thermal stability of the red mud increased with increasing duration of storage. The acid neutralizing capacity of red mud obtained from this study was about 10 mol kg(-1), which is much greater than the reported values for the pure Bayer Process red mud. Column filtering experiment indicates that the red mud also had a very strong capacity to remove Cu, Zn and Cd from the filtering solution. It is conservatively estimated that the simultaneous removal rates of Cd, Zn and Cu by red mud are over 22,250 mg kg(-1), 22,500 mg kg(-1) and 25,000 mg kg(-1), respectively. The affinity of these metals to the red mud was in the following decreasing order: Cu>Zn>Cd. In general, the fresh red mud retained more heavy metals than the old red mud did.

  4. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  5. An Integrated Approach to Study Mud Banks of Alleppey Kerala using the Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Maurya, P.; Desa, E.S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Lamani, V.; Manoharan, V.; Naik, N.; Thottam, T.J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; deAraujo, B.A.

    have a muddy bottom and suspended muddy sediments in the water column. The mere existence of mud in an area is not enough to form mud banks. However the mud of the right texture needs to get consolidated at the right depth where wave action could churn...

  6. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  7. Studi Numerik Variasi Pemilihan Gas Accumulator Untuk Pencegahan Water Hammer Pada Sistem Perpipaan Sepanjang 1 Kilometer dan Debit Aliran 800 GPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindika Bagus Pradana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem jaringan perpipaan sangat penting dalam menunjang produksi pada bidang industri. Jaringan perpipaan mengalami beberapa fenomena seperti distribusi fluida dan water hammer. Water hammer sering terjadi di daerah discharge pompa saat pengoperasian dan gagalnya beroperasinya pompa. Water hammer dapat merusak jaringan perpipaan. Fenomena water hammer dapat terjadi hampir di setiap sistem instalasi perpipaan. Fenomena ini mempunyai dampak buruk apabila sistem perpipaan tersebut tidak memperhatikan akibat dari water hammer. Fenomena dalam sistem perpipaan mempunyai dampak negatif dengan selang waktu tertentu, water hammer adalah fenomena dimana dampak yang ditimbulkan terjadi seketika itu juga. Penanggulangan yang tidak tepat terhadap dampak tersebut dapat mengakibatkan instalasi tersebut harus dimatikan (shutdown. Pada simulasi ini digunakan sistem instalasi perpipaan dengan panjang 1 kilometer dan debit aliran 800 gpm.Pada sistem instalasi ini memiliki rangkaian pompa tunggal yang dilengkapi dengan gas accumulator di sisi discharge pompa. Ketika terjadi perubahan flow rate yang menyebabkan pompa beroprasi atau gagal beroprasi akan menimbulkan fenomena water hammer.Penelitian dilakukan secara numerik menggunakan software AFT Impulse 4.0. Water hammer dapat diminimalisi dengan memasang gas accumulator pada daerah dekat discharge pompa. Variasi gas accumulator adalah gas accumulator merk NOK tipe AT 175-20 dengan volume maksimum 20 liter, tipe AT 210-60 dengan volume maksimum 60 liter dan tipe AT 230-120 dengan volume maksimum 100 liter. Hasil yang didapatkan pada simulasi menunjukan pada jarak 4 meter dari rumah pompa masing-masing P max dan P min  untuk sistem perpipaan dengan simulasi proses trip pompa tanpa proteksi water hammer adalah 1729 Kpa dan 381 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 20 liter adalah 1228 Kpa dan 927 Kpa, untuk sistem perpipaan dengan gas accumulator volume setting 60 liter adalah 1161 Kpa

  8. Performance Study of a Fluidic Hammer Controlled by an Output-Fed Bistable Fluidic Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a no-moving-component output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator to control fluid flows into a parallel path has been recognized for a considerable time, but as yet it is not so widely adopted as its obvious benefits would deserve. This may be attributed to the encountered problems associated with its jet behavior, complicated by its loading characteristics. In order to investigate a typical case for the application of the output-fed fluidic oscillator, this paper elaborates on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation method for studying the performance of a fluidic hammer controlled by an output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator. Given that couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the fluidic oscillator and the impact body, dynamic mesh technique and a user-defined function written in C programming language were used to update the mesh in the simulations. In terms of the evaluation of performance, the focus is on the single-impact energy and output power of the fluidic hammer in this study, to investigate the effect of different parameters of the impact body on them. Experimental tests based on the noncontact measuring method were conducted to verify the simulation results, by which the accuracy and reliability of this CFD simulation method was proved.

  9. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  10. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster , D; Medrano Llamas, R; Legger , F; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, G; Ubeda Garca , M

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion p...

  11. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

    2012-02-15

    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  12. Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousbia-Salah Anis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .

  13. Analysis on shock wave speed of water hammer of lifting pipes for deep-sea mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-jin; Yang, Ning; Wang, Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes. In this work, the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods, and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation. As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed, the experiment results about the pressure-time history, discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that: as its concentrations rose up, the maximum transient pressure went down, so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually, the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less, and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased. These results have highly coincided with simulation results. The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences, such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  14. Analysis on Shock Wave Speed of Water Hammer of Lifting Pipes for Deep-Sea Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-jin; YANG Ning; WANG Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes.In this work,the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods,and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation.As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed,the experiment results about the pressure-time history,discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that:as its concentrations rose up,the maximum transient pressure went down,so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually,the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less,and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased.These results have highly coincided with simulation results.The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences,such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  15. Study of Concrete Quality Assessment of Structural Elements Using Rebound Hammer Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Gehlot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Structures are assemblies of load carrying members capable of safely transferring the superimposed loads to the foundations. Their main and most looked after property is the strength of the material that they are made of. Concrete, as we all know, is an integral material used for construction purposes. The concept of nondestructive testing (NDT is to obtain material properties of in place specimens without the destruction of neither the specimen nor the structure from which it is taken. However, one problem that has been prevalent within the concrete industry for years is that the true properties of an in-place specimen have never been tested without leaving a certain degree of damage on the structure. . The investigation reported here is to present study of Calibration Graphs for Non Destructive Testing Equipment, the Rebound Hammer and to study the quality of the concrete in existing structures. These Rebound Hammer Test were then used to test the quality of the concrete of the various structural elements (columns & beams of single storied newly under constructed building of TPO office of MBM Engineering College Jodhpur. The use of this method produces results that lie close to the true values when compared with other methods A correlation between rebound number and strength of concrete structure is established, which can be used as well for strength estimation of concrete structures. The method can be extended to test existing structures by taking direct measurements on concrete elements

  16. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain valu

  17. Mechanisms of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dell Linux cluster , and a TeamHPC Beowulf cluster . With the development of this high-performance numerical tool, we are expecting to obtain a...and finite-difference scheme. A clustered grid is used in the vertical direction to fully resolve the bottom boundary layer and the mud-water

  18. Assessment of pollutants sequestration in flowing waters using Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red Mud, a waste product of bauxite refinement, has already been reported as a non-conventional adsorbent of heavy metals and some other important nutrients, such as phosphorus. Its use has been explored since it is a low cost solid adsorbent with a strong binding capacity. Although there were equil...

  19. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  20. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  1. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  2. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  3. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  4. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  5. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Ruirui Xin; Chengcheng Li; Chunli Xu; Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis.The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated.It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200℃.Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste,significantly reducing its environmental effects,but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  6. Hammer toe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exercises may be helpful. You can try gentle stretching exercises if the toe is not already in ... have difficulty walking or fitting into shoes comfortably Prevention Avoid wearing shoes that are too short or ...

  7. 76 FR 24856 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ..., and Picks & Mattocks) From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset... & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks & Mattocks) from the People's Republic of China..., track tools and wedges; (3) picks and mattocks; and (4) axes, adzes and similar hewing tools. Hand...

  8. The Prediction of Performance of Olympic Athletes in Discus, Hammer, Javelin, and Shotput from Measures of Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, G. Robert; And Others

    1979-01-01

    For each of four subsamples of Olympic-quality athletes--14 discus, 8 hammer, 11 javelin, and 12 shotput measures of 19 personality constructs yielded only two statistically significant validity coefficients (out of 76 possible significant indices) in the prediction of average length of throw. (Author/JKS)

  9. 水锤的模拟综合法及防患措施%Simulation and Precaution of Water Hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳耀琦

    2015-01-01

    以某项目原油长输管线为研究对象,结合数解综合法公式估算的快捷性和AFT Impulse软件计算的精确性。首先用经验数据代入公式快速估算出水锤的最大压升,并利用工程经验快速辨识和筛选可能发生较严重水锤事故的管线,然后利用水锤软件进行精确模拟和计算,并制定合理的水锤防患措施。%With one long oil transportation pipeline as studying objective, the swiftness of the equation from numerical synthesis method and the accuracy of Impulse software for simulation of water hammer were estimated. First, empirical data was input to the equation to estimate the maximum pressure rise of water hammer. With engineering experiences the pipeline in which the most serious water hammer may occur was then fast classiifed. Finally, water hammer was simulated and calculated by using software, and the proper protection methods were determined.

  10. Growth patterns and dynamics of mud cracks at different diagenetic stages and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-yu ZHAO; Yan-ru GUO; Yan WANG; Hong LIU; Qing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth stages, spatial structures, quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters, growth patterns and influencing factors of mud cracks by field survey, core observation and SEM analysis. The study shows that:(1) Mud crack growth can go through three stages, i.e. the syndiagenetic stage, the burial diagenetic stage (including early diagenetic stage, middle-late diagenetic stage) and the epidiagenetic stage. (2) Quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters allow a great significance to describe the spatial structure, the regional distribution and the growth environment of mud cracks. (3) Mud crack growth has three models, such as the unilateral growth model including the linear growth pattern, the curvilinear growth pattern and the bifurcation growth pattern, the multilateral growth model including the intersectional growth pattern, the join growth pattern and the dispersed growth pattern, and the mixed growth model including the combination of any patterns listed above. (4) Modern mud crack growth usually undergoes four stages. Sand beds in sand-mud rhythmic strata can play a lubricative role on crack growth and provide enough sandy deposits for filling cracks. (5) Mud crack growth usually produces bifurcation and bifurcation angles which are mostly 120° or 90° that are related to sediment heterogeneity and released energy. (6) Factors affecting mud crack growth cover many aspects: clay content and salinity can control the number of mud cracks in different areas;terrain can control mud crack morphology;and different sedimentary cycles can control the growth patterns and filling models of mud cracks.

  11. Effects of Polymeric Flocculants on Settlement of Bayer Red Mud Generated from Chinese Diaspore Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨瑜; 胡慧萍; 张丽娟; 陈启元

    2008-01-01

    A systematic investigation on the interaction between Bayer red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite and commercial sodium polyacrylate (SPA) or polyacrylamide (PAM) was performed by red mud settling tests, conductivity-pH titration and Ubbelodhe viscosimetric measurement. The results indicate that the treatment with red mud by SPA gives a lower red mud settling rate and lower supematant turbidity than the treatment with red mud by PAM. There is an optimum polymer dosage of 300 g/t (based on the weight of dry red mud) when red mud slurry is treated by SPA or PAM, so "bridging" adsorption is one of the main interactions between red mud and SPA or PAM. With the increase of NaOH concentration, the hydrolysis degree of PAM dissolved in NaOH solution increases and its molecular weight almost does not change, but the settling rote of red mud treated by it drops rapidly. The settling rate of red mud treated by PAM dissolved in 10 g/L NaOH solution is 0.61 m/h while by PAM dissolved in distilled water it is 1.31 m/h, because the adsorption ability of the hydrolyzed PAM onto red mud surface declines primarily due to the formation of-CONH2~-COO-~-CONH2 intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  12. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced.

  13. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud.

  14. 蜂窝型双金属复合锤头铸造工艺%Casting Technology of Honeycomb-type Bimetallic Composite Hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a type of honeycomb-type bimetallic hammer was developed. The hammer was made by taking high manganese steel as the hammer body and high chromium cast iron as the wear-rods, and using a special insert-cast process to inserting the wear rods into the end of the hammer. The wear rods and the hammer body have a solid combination and strong impact, improving its life of hammer, reducing the use cost ofhammer.%针对反击式破碎机专用锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种蜂窝型双金属复合型锤头.该锺头以高锰钢作锤体,高铬铸铁作耐磨棒,并采用特殊镶铸工艺,将耐磨棒弥散分布于锤头端部.锤头内耐磨棒与基体结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,大幅度提高了锤头使用寿命,从而降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  15. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebunilo P. O.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer mill. The new hammer mill, which is a partially closed system while in operation and utilizes suction power, virtually eliminates environmental pollution usually associated with the operation of conventional hammer mills and can be used to mill commonly occurring Nigerian grains like millet, sorghum, maize, cowpeas, guinea-corn and soya beans into flour and also for pulverizing locally occurring solid minerals like clays into powder. This would diversify storage options for the grains, deepen and widen the available food choices for all Nigerians and enhance food security and rural development.

  16. Geochemical characterization of the Nirano Mud Volcano Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Ricci, Tullio; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    Mud volcanoes, among fluid venting structures, are the most important phenomena related to natural seepage from the Earth's surface. The occurrence of mud volcanoes is controlled by several factors, such as tectonic activity and continuous hydrocarbon accumulation in a reservoir. Mud volcanoes in Italy occur along the external compressive margin of the Apennine chain. These mud volcanoes are usually small and unspectacular, when compared to other world examples. They rarely exhibit the periodic explosions, which is often related to important seismic activity. The Nirano Mud Volcano Field (NMVF) is located in the western sector of the Modena Apennine margin (Italy), which belongs to the Northern Apennines. The NMVF occurs over the crest of a thrust anticline associated with the main Pede-Apennine thrust and represents a good example of an onshore relationship between a mud volcano caldera structure and active thrust deformation, even if the fluid pathways are still not well understood at depth. The mud volcanoes are distributed along an area of about 10 ha, inside of the wider Natural Reserve, and are situated at the bottom of a wide sub-circular depression. The NMVF is currently formed by four main vents composed of a number of individual active cones (or gryphons) defining structural alignments trending ENE-WSW. A geochemical soil gas survey of 230 CO2 and CH4 fluxes and 150 CO2, CH4, Rn, He, H2 concentration measurements has been carried out inside the NMVF. Moreover, the fluid emissions from 4 active cones located in different sectors of NMVF have been sampled for chemical and isotopical analysis of water and free gas. The distribution of pathfinder elements as 222Rn, He e H2 has been studied in order to identify potential faults and/or fractures related to preferential migration pathways and the possible interactions between reservoir and surface. Soil gas data highlight two zones characterized by higher values, localized in the WSW and ENE of the NMVF area. In

  17. Application of image processing technology to problems in manuscript encapsulation. [Codex Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, D. L.; Korsmo, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    The long term effects of encapsulation individual sheets of the Codex Hammer were investigated. The manuscript was simulated with similar sheets of paper which were photographed under repeatable raking light conditions to enhance their surface texture, encapsulated in plexiglas, cycled in an environmental test chamber, and rephotographed at selected intervals. The film images were digitized, contrast enhanced, geometrically registered, and apodized. An FFT analysis of a control sheet and two experimental sheets indicates no micro-burnishing, but reveals that the ""mesoscale'' deformations with sizes 8mm are degrading monotonically, which is of no concern. Difference image analysis indicates that the sheets were increasingly stressed with time and that the plexiglas did not provide a sufficient environmental barrier under the simulation conditions. The relationship of these results to the Codex itself is to be determined.

  18. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Medrano Llamas, R; Sciacca, G; Van der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 80 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate si...

  19. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site...

  20. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  1. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  2. A numerical analysis on the effect of inlet parameters for condensation induced water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Priyankan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Chakravarty, Aranyak [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); School of Nuclear Studies & Application, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Koushik, E-mail: kghosh@mech.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sen, Swarnendu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Dutta, Anu; Goyal, Priyanshu [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Condensation induced water hammer phenomenon is analysed with RELAP5/Mod 3.4. • Effect of various inlet conditions on the occurrence of CIWH are investigated. • Pressure peak amplitude and location has strong dependency on water subcooling. • Superheated steam does not have significant impact on pressure amplitude. • Presence of dry saturated steam is the necessary condition for CIWH. - Abstract: Direct contact condensation (DCC) is almost an inevitable phenomenon during accidental condition for all LWRs. Rapid condensation caused by the direct contact of steam and subcooled water can lead to condensation induced water hammer (CIWH). The present work explores the underlying physics of CIWH phenomenon in a horizontal pipe under different inlet conditions such as inlet water temperature, pressure difference between steam and water section, steam superheating, steam quality and duration of valve opening using RELAP5/Mod 3.4. This work emphasises on the prediction of pressure peak magnitude in conjunction with its location of occurrence under different parametric conditions. The stratified to slug flow transition is presented in terms of the ‘flow regime map’ which is identified as the primary cause for pressure wave generation. The strongest pressure wave amplitude due to CIWH is found to be 116.6 bar for ΔP = 10 bar. Observation reveals that peak pressure location shifts towards the subcooled water injection point for higher inlet water temperature. For the lowest inlet water temperature (T{sub in} = 20 °C), the peak pressure is found at a distance of 47.5 cm away from the water inlet whereas, for the high water temperature (T{sub in} = 120 °C), peak pressure is observed at 6.25 cm away from the injection point. It is also observed that the duration of valve opening significantly affects the location of peak pressure occurrence. This study also reveals that the presence of superheated or wet steam could possibly avoid the occurrence of

  3. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful

  4. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackowski, Marcin; Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  5. Application and Development of MMH Mud in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Duo

    1995-01-01

    @@ At present, the application range of MMH is extending and the techniques of MMH drilling fluid is in rapid development and continuos improvement, a variety of MMH drilling fluid systems are using in more than ten Chinese oilfields. A number of oil wells drilled with MMH drilling fluid was registered over 150 in that 30 over 3 000m deep wells, 33 directional wells and 11 horizontal wells of different depth. DH1-4-7 well in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang with5 970 m deep was the deepest well drilled with MMH mud. Through vast drilling experiences in areas with complicated geological and engineering difficulties and with variable target depth, a series of MMH mud formulas suitable for different underground and technological circumstances were figured out.

  6. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  7. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lackowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  8. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  9. Mechanisms of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    surface a corrugated appearance (Figure 12). Through careful analysis of these tests, it has been concluded that the waves are the result of a resonant...square meter per month. Analysis of X-radiographs from this field program has contributed to development of new theory relating hydrodynamics of...Shear near the base of the mobile fluid mud layer mixes coarser underlying rippled sediment with overlying finer sediment, producing laminations

  10. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical...

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  12. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  13. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  14. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  15. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    and flocculation because of freshwater influx would keep the mud in suspension. 1.4. Wave convergence and waveemud interactions From the studies on viscoelasticity and rheological characteris- tics of Alappuzha mud, Faas (1995) and Li and Parchure (1998) suggested....8‰ and �18.5 to �14.5‰, respectively. The d18O of shallow groundwater varied from �3.5 to �3.1‰ while d2H varied from �19.4 to �15.2‰. The d18O and d2H of deep groundwater varied from �1.5 to �2.0‰ and �9.2 to �6.2‰, respectively. The d2H versus d18O plot...

  16. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. D.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, Z.; Yi, W. S.; Lan, G.

    2013-12-01

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system.

  17. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  18. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (red mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  19. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  20. The impalement of water drops impinging onto hydrophobic/superhydrophobic graphite surfaces: the role of dynamic pressure, hammer pressure and liquid penetration time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittoni, Paola G.; Lin, Ya-Chi; Lin, Shi-Yow

    2014-05-01

    Droplet impingement experiments at low Weber numbers were conducted by digitizing silhouettes of impacting water drops onto unlike graphite substrates, typified by different advancing water contact angles (θa): 140 and 160°. The relaxation of wetting diameter, dynamic contact angle, and drop shapes were measured. The purpose was to carefully investigate the phenomenology and possible causes of the failure of the superhydrophobicity. During impact and spreading phases, all the drops impinging onto both graphite substrates showed a similar behavior. Then, after an initial free recoil, drops impinging at lower impact velocities onto graphite substrates characterized by θa = 140° clearly exhibited time intervals in which the wetting diameter appeared to be almost constant. The duration of this pinned phase was observed decreasing with increasing the impact height and almost completely disappearing for drops impinging at higher impact velocities. This behavior has never been reported before, and, contrariwise, water droplets impinging at lower impact velocities onto hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been generally observed more freely retracting, and ultimately rebounding, compared to drops impacting at higher velocities. In the present study, this latter behavior was recorded just for drops impinging onto graphite surfaces characterized by θa = 160°. A theoretical description of the experimental results was proposed, specifically investigating the role of dynamic pressure, hammer pressure and liquid penetration time during the impact, spreading and recoil stages.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotioma M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

  2. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes.

  3. Effect of ferroalloy gas purification rate on kinetics of red mud carbonization

    OpenAIRE

    Кириченко, Олексій Геннадійович

    2013-01-01

    The process of iron carburization by CO-containing gases of ferroalloy furnaces using as catalyst materials red mud from alumina production.Red mud from alumina production and waste gases ferroalloy furnaces after appropriate training are quite suitable for the decomposition reaction of carbon monoxide. Ferroalloy gas sulfur compounds have toxic effect on the catalytic ability of the red mud. The most effective absorber catalyst poisons in the experiments was a solution of potassium permangan...

  4. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  5. Development of Combined Hammer Used in Counterattack-type Crusher%反击式破碎机组合型锤头的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a combination-type hammer used in the counterattack-type crusher was developed. The hammer handle is made of alloy steel material, and the wear-resistant blocks is made of high chromium cast iron, the hammer handle and hammer head is connected with a special structure of profiled tapered dovetail. The connecting surface of the hammer is solid, its impact resistances is strong, and the wear-resistant blocks can be replaced, so its serve life improves, its integrated cost significantly reduces.%针对反击式破碎机中锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种应用于反击式破碎机的组合型锤头.该锤头以合金钢材料做锤柄,高铬铸铁做耐磨块,采用特殊的异形燕尾槽结构连接锤柄与锤头.锤头连接面结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,而且耐磨块可更换,不仅提高了锤头一次性使用寿命,同时大幅度降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  6. 石油管道水击压力数值模拟研究%Numerical Simulation of Water Hammer Pressure of Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄腾龙; 李清斌; 潘振; 陈保东; 金春旭; 李丹; 郑舟

    2013-01-01

    作为有压管路中最常见的不稳定流动现象,水击是运动的流体突然停止流动而产生的。针对水击现象,本文分析说明了产生水击的原因和危害,提出了减小水击的措施,通过使用特征线法求解水击问题,并编制相应的计算程序,与理想水击过程进行对比,阐明了计算结果的科学性和合理性。%As the most common unstable flow in the pressure pipeline, the water hammer is caused by sudden stop of the fluid flow in the movement. In this paper, aiming at the phenomenon of the water hammer, causes and harms of the water hammer were analyzed, the measures to reduce the water hammer were put forward. The water hammer problem was solved by using the method of characteristic line, and the corresponding program was compiled. Compared with the ideal water hammer process, the scientificalness and rationality of the results were proven.

  7. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  8. Mud aprons in front of Svalbard surge moraines: Evidence of subglacial deforming layers or proglacial glaciotectonics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lene; Benn, Douglas I.; Hormes, Anne; Ottesen, Dag

    2009-10-01

    Large debris-flow units commonly occur on the distal sides of subaqueous end moraines deposited by surges of Svalbard tidewater glaciers, but have rarely been described in terrestrial settings. Some researchers have argued that these kinds of debris flows reflect processes unique to the subaqueous environment, such as the extrusion of subglacial deforming layers or extensive failure of oversteepened moraine fronts. In this paper, we describe terrestrial and subaqueous parts of a single late Holocene moraine system deposited by a major surge of the tidewater glacier Paulabreen in west Spitsbergen. The ice-marginal landforms on land closely resemble the corresponding landforms on the seabed as evidenced by geomorphic mapping and geophysical profiles from both environments. Both onland and offshore, extensive areas of hummocky moraine occur on the proximal side of the maximum glacier position, and large mud aprons (interpreted as debris flows) occur on the distal side. We show that the debris-flow sediments were pushed in front of the advancing glacier as a continuously failing, mobile push moraine. We propose that the mud aprons are end members of a proglacial landforms continuum that has thrust-block moraines as the opposite end member. Two clusters of dates (~ 8000 YBP and ~ 700 YBP) have previously been interpreted to indicate two separate surges responsible for the moraine formation. New dates suggest that the early cluster indicates a local extinction of the abounded species Chlamys islandica. Other changes corresponding to the widespread 8.2 ka event within the fjord, may suggest that the extinction of the C. islandica corresponds to that time.

  9. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  10. Plugging wellbore fractures : limit equilibrium of a Bingham drilling mud cake in a tensile crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagash, D.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The proper selection of drilling muds is important in order to successfully drill hydrocarbon wells in which wellbore mud pressure remains low enough to prevent circulation loss and high enough to support the uncased wellbore against the shear failure. This paper presented a mathematical model to study invasion of mud cake into a drilling-induced planar fracture at the edge of a wellbore perpendicular to the minimum in situ principal stress. The model assumed a planar edge-crack geometry loaded by the wellbore hoop stress, variable mud pressure along the invaded region adjacent to the wellbore, and uniform pore-fluid pressure along the rest of the crack. The invading mud was assumed to freely displaces the pore-fluid in the crack without mixing with it. The case corresponding to a sufficiently permeable formation was considered. This solution provides a means to evaluate whether or not the mud cake could effectively plug the fracture, thereby prevent fracture propagation and associated uncontrollable loss of wellbore drilling mud. The toughness or tensile strength is evaluated based on criterion for initiation of crack propagation, which may lead to uncontrollable loss of mud circulation in a well. The study provided information on the breakdown pressure as a function of the rock ambient stress, ambient pore pressure, pre-existing crack length, and mud cake properties. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  12. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    OpenAIRE

    Yingqun Ma; Chuxia Lin; Chunhua Si

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, t...

  13. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani A.; Nazarfakhari M.; Pourasad Y.; Mesgari Abbasi S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste) in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suit...

  14. Numerical Modeling of Water Wave Interaction with A Soft Mud Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐鹏; 王石青; 侯一筠

    2004-01-01

    A vertical 2-D numerical model is presented for simulating the interaction between water waves and a soft mud bed.Taking into account nonlinear rheology, a semi-empirical rheological model is applied to this water-mud model, reflecting the combined viseo-elasto-plastic properties of soft mud under such oscillatory external forces as water waves. In order to increase the resolution of the flow in the neighborhood of both sides of the inter-surface, a logarithmic grid in the vertical direction is employed for numerical treatment. Model verifications are given through comparisons between the calculated and the measured mud mass transport velocities as well as wave height changes.

  15. Evaluation of Corn Cob Cellulose and its Suitability for Drilling Mud Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Properties of mud formulated with variable concentrations of cellulose processed from corn cob have been studied. The results obtained were compared with that of a standard mud formulated from Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC. These results have shown that the pH, mud density, specific gravity of the mud formulated from corn cob cellulose are higher than that of the standard mud, but rheology of the prepared mud was lower than that of the standard mud. The results show that cellulose processed from corn cob can significantly reduce fluid loss in a water based drilling mud, suggesting cellulose as a good fluid loss control agent. It is confirmed that polymer can be used as fluid loss control agent in the mud system. The water loss analysis showed that the drilling fluid formulated from local material has a lower fluid loss of between 5.2-5.8 mls as compared to 6.6 mls for PAC. This also confirms that cellulose processed from corn cobs are preferred fluid loss control agents thanPolyanionic Cellulose (PAC.

  16. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Norazlina Subani; Norsarahaida Amin

    2015-01-01

    Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order m...

  17. Research of Water Hammer Based on Flowmaster%利用Flowmaster对水锤现象的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付锴; 马立; 李洪凤

    2015-01-01

    For the possibility of water hammer phenomenon may produce in pipeline, we propose the selection of one-dimensional fluid analysis software Flowmaster to model the practical problems and conduct a transient analysis, when pipeline water hammer happens, the pipeline’s pressure and the cavity occurs periodically change, and It has a impact on the downstream end device towards the water hammer phenomenon. Three amendments have been put forward to suppress the water hammer phenomenon, that is, coupled with the exhaust valve, accumulator tank chamber and the regulated water tank, the obtained simulation results show that the last two programs are more conducive to the stability of the pipeline.%针对管路可能产生的水锤现象,提出选用一维流体分析软件Flowmaster对实际问题进行模型建立和瞬态分析,得到了管路在发生水锤现象时管内压力和空腔的波动变换,并且得到了该水锤现象对下游末端设备的压力影响。通过提出三种修正方式对可能产生的水锤现象进行抑制,即加上排气阀,蓄压腔和稳压水箱,模拟结果显示后两种方案得到的结果更有利于管路的稳定。

  18. Aberrant course of a communicating branch of the ulnar nerve to the median nerve contributing to hypothenar Hammer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Winston T; Bullocks, Jamal M; Norris, Morgan E

    2007-06-01

    This presentation represents a unique anatomic predisposition to the development of hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS). In this case, a communicating branch of the ulnar nerve to the median common digital nerve of the ring finger was identified crossing volar to the superficial palmar arch. This relationship caused thrombosis of the superficial palmar arch proximal to this crossing nerve branch. The aberrant course of this nerve created a structural anomaly contributing to HHS, which ultimately mandated surgical intervention.

  19. Application of MUD/MOO/VR in Foreign Language Teaching and Its Prospect%MUD/MOO/VR的外语教学应用及前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋志娟

    2004-01-01

    建构主义是近年来在教育研究领域最常被引用的基本理论.MUD/MOO/VR这种网络应用形式很好地符合了建构主义的学习要求,有着广阔的教育应用前景.通过分析MUD/MOO/VR技术与外语教学的结合点,介绍几个外语教学MUD实例之后,提出MUD/MOO/VR技术在外语教学应用中的发展方向.

  20. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  1. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh, E-mail: jiinshuh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chung-Ho [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Sracek, Ondra [OPV s.r.o. (Groundwater Protection Ltd.), Bělohorská 31, 169 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Li, Zhaohui [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Bundschuh, Jochen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying and National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba (Australia); Yang, Huai-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Yen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Study represents geochemical characteristics and their spatial variability among six mud volcanoes of southern Taiwan. ► Anoxic mud volcanic fluids containing high NaCl imply connate water as the possible source. ► δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids is associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction. ► High As content in mud and its sequential extraction showed mostly adsorbed As on organic and sulphidic phases. ► Organic matter specially humic acid showed redox dependence and it may play an important role in binding and mobility of arsenic. -- Abstract: The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of

  2. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieć M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The erosion curves based on weight loss were measured.

  3. Paraformaldehyde-resistant starch-fermenting bacteria in "starch-base" drilling mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYERS, G E

    1962-09-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde.

  4. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  5. Weighty Issues in Small Star Masses...Like Your Favorite Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.

    1999-12-01

    The masses for objects smaller than the Sun are discussed, with particular attention paid to the most populous members of the galaxy, the red dwarfs. Both empirical and theoretical evaluations of current data for low mass stars will be reviewed, as well as the interplay between eclipsing, spectroscopic and astrometric (e.g. visual and interferometric) multiple star research. In addition, the transition region between stars and brown dwarfs is just beginning to be explored for mass determinations using observing techniques from both the ground and space, and the current status of results will be outlined. New results on the mass-luminosity relation (mass versus Mv to be specific) are presented in the form of a tool for researchers studying any aspect of stellar astronomy. The effects of metallicity and age, two parameters which directly affect luminosities on the main sequence and hence any relation derived using only a two parameter fit, are discussed. This tool should reside in every stellar astronomer's toolbox and should be used like a favorite hammer, because it is needed in order for us to build a sturdy understanding of stellar astrophysics.

  6. Theoretical study of steam condensation induced water hammer phenomena in horizontal pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, Imre Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; ELI-HU Nonprofit Kft., Szeged (Hungary); Pocsai, Mihaly Andras [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; Pecs Univ. (Hungary). Inst. of Physics; Guba, Attila [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Imre, Attila Rikard [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Dept. of Energy Engineering

    2015-11-15

    Steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena are investigated and new theoretical results are presented. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to RELAP5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermohydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and in the Rosa facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In our present study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow rates for various pipe geometries where CIWH can happen. Such a reliable database would be a great help for future reactor constructions and scheming.

  7. Numerical analyses of a water pool under loadings caused by a condensation induced water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Calonius, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Poikolainen, J.; Saarenheimo, A. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of a rapidly condensing steam bubble in a water pool have been performed by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Star-CD. The condensing bubble was modelled by using a mass sink in a single-phase calculation. The pressure load on the wall of the pool was determined and transferred to the structural analyses code ABAQUS. The analyses were done for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The structural integrity of the pool during steam experiments was investigated by assuming as a test load the rapid condensation of a steam bubble with a diameter of 20 cm. The mass sink for modelling the collapse of the bubble was deter-mined from the potential theory of incompressible fluid. The rapid condensation of the bubble within 25 ms initiated a strong condensation water hammer. The maximum amplitude of the pressure load on the pool wall was approximately 300 kPa. The loads caused by the high compression waves lasted only about 0.4 ms. The loadings caused by larger bubbles or more rapid collapse could not be calculated with the present method. (au)

  8. The training principles of the Greek record holder in the women’s hammer throw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEOPHILOS PILIANIDIS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study was to evaluate the long term training periodization of the Greek record holder in women’s hammer throw. The training parameters which were recorded and assessed in relation to the athlete' s best throwing performance were: the strength training, the running and jumping exercises, the specific throws with implements of various weights and the imitation drills. The evaluation of the athlete's longitudinal planning showed that after 5 years of intensive training the throwing performance of the athlete was maximized. In addition, the training seasons 2003-2005 of the studied athlete were characterized by the high volume of the biomotor elements of strength, speed and throwing skills. The assessment of the interaction between the training means and the throwing performance showed that the athlete's improvement was strongly related to the upper-body strength and the lower-body explosive power. Furthermore, the imitation drills and the specific throws with implements contributed to the athlete' s throwing development. In summary, this training report presents the performance progress of a world-class athlete emphasizing that the coach must be focused firstly on building-up the female thrower's strength and then to bridge the gap between the explosive power and technique.

  9. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Sciacca, Gianfranco; van der Ster, Dan

    2012-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  10. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  11. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  12. Vibration analysis of fluid -structure interaction in water hammer based on transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; TANG Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the problem that the effect of conduit structure on water hammer has been ignored in the classical theory,the Poisson coupling between the fluid and the pipeline was stu-died and a fourteen-equation mathematical model of fluid -structure interaction (FSI)was developed. Then,the transfer matrix method (TMM)was used to calculate the modal frequency,modal shape and frequency response.The results were compared with that in experiment to verify the correctness of the TMMand the results show that the fluid -structure coupling has a greater impact on the modal frequen-cies than the modal shape.Finally,the influence on the response spectrum of different damping ratios was studied and the results show that the natural frequency under different damping ratios has changed little but there is a big difference for the pressure spectrum.With the decreasing of damping ratio,the damping of the system on frequency spectrum is more and more significant and the dispersion and dissi-pation is more and more apparent.Therefore the appropriate damping ratio should be selected to mini-mize the effects of the vibration of the FSI.The results provide references for the theory research of FSI in the transient process.

  13. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  14. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  15. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  16. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  17. Novel applications of red mud as coagulant, adsorbent and catalyst for environmentally benign processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Ang, H M; Tadé, M O

    2008-08-01

    Red mud (RM) is a by-product of bauxite processing via the Bayer process. Its disposal remains an issue of great importance with significant environmental concerns. In the past decades, a lot of research has been done to utilize red mud for environmental-benign applications such as a building material additive and for metal recovery. In recent years, red mud has also been explored for gas cleaning and wastewater treatment. In this paper, we review varying novel applications of red mud as a coagulant and adsorbent for water and gas treatment as well as catalyst for some industrial processes. The environmental compatibility of red mud is discussed. Some directions of future research are also proposed. Red mud presents a promising application in water treatment for removal of toxic heavy metal and metalloid ions, inorganic anions such as nitrate, fluoride, and phosphate, as well as organics including dyes, phenolic compounds and bacteria. In addition, red mud can also be employed as catalysts for hydrogenation, hydrodechlorination and hydrocarbon oxidation. Moreover, leaching and eco-toxicological tests indicate that red mud does not present high toxicity to the environment before or after reuse.

  18. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; AnilKumar, A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Chivas, A.R.; Sekar, B.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    and Wilber R J 1993 Great Bahama Bank aragonitic muds: mostly inorgani- cally precipitated, mostly exported; J. Sedim. Petrol. 63 589–595. Mitterer R M 1972 Biogeochemistry of aragonite mud and ooids; Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36 1407–1422. Morse J W...

  19. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, P.T. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R. [MEC Analytical Systems, Inc., Carlsbad, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast, settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone`s ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps.

  20. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  1. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  2. A Numerical Study on Wave-Mud Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dao-hua; NG Chiu-on

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a numerical study on the interaction of progressive waves propagating in a body of water overlying a layer of viscous fluid mud on the bottom, with emphasis placed on the induced oscillatory motion of the water-mud interface. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with the complete set of viscous boundary conditions are solved numerically by a finite difference method that is based on a time-dependent boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate system, for the simulation of wave motion in the two-layer viscous fluid system. Waves of moderate wavelength are generated in the upper water layer by a numerical flap-type wavemaker. The dynamic pressure due to the surface wave is transmitted downward onto the lower layer, generating wave motion on the interface. On mimicking some reported experimental conditions, the ratio of interfacial to surface wave amplitudes is evaluated and the results are found to compare more favorably with the experimental data than the prediction by a linear theory.

  3. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Monique Gagnon

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster, to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs. Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs: an ester (E, an isomerized olefin (IO and linear alpha olefin (LAO. Condition factor (CF, liver somatic index (LSI, hepatic detoxification (EROD activity, biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70 were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  4. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  5. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM.

  6. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  7. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  8. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  9. Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-07-01

    Acute toxicities and sublethal effects were determined in several investigations for 11 types of drilling muds obtained from offshore drilling sites in the Gulf of Mexico, which the Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association supplied to the Environmental Protection Agency. All were used muds that had been recycled during drilling. Those containing the highest amounts of No. 2 diesel fuel oil were the most acutely toxic to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), and sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma) and elicited the greatest sublethal responses in corals (Acropora cervicornis). A lignosulfonate mud was the most toxic, followed by a lime mud containing 3.98 mg diesel/g. The present study was initiated to determine the impact of the lime mud with its diesel oil component on field colonization by macrobenthos.

  10. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  11. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suitable adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time of solution and adsorbent was investigated. The result shows that red mud as solid waste and low-cost adsorbent can be successfully used for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution.

  12. 水下重锤夯击能及夯击效果试验研究%Water hammer tamping energy and the experimental study on compaction effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏乐; 石崇; 梁邦炎

    2016-01-01

    重锤夯实是水下抛石基床密实工艺中的重要方法.根据流体动力学,本文建立夯锤在水中运动的计算模型,然后通过室内缩比尺试验,得到了夯锤水下绕流阻力系数经验取值;最后探讨了不同夯锤几何、不同落距对夯实效果的影响.结果表明:圆台型夯锤与圆柱形夯锤相比,由于有倒角,在水中的绕流阻力系数可以小至1.0;同一夯击能作用下不同锤型对抛石基床的夯实效果相差在5%之内;同一夯锤不同落距作用下,落距越大,抛石基床沉降量越大,夯击应力越大,但抛石基床沉降率存在一个极限值.%Heavy tamping method is a kind of important method of rubble bed tamping in the construc-tion, the heavy hammer tamping energy is an important indicator of impact compaction hammer effect, the hammer tamping energy can be influenced by hammer type, flow resistence, drop distance and other effects. Therefore, on the basis of fluid dynamics. First of all, establish the calculation model of the hammer in water movement, analyse the hammer flow resistance in the process of hammer in water movement, and then through the indoor shrinkage scale test, analyse the water movement law of the cylindrical and cone hammer ,obtain the experiential tamping hammer water flow coefficient value. Finally, analyse of the different geometric rammer, different distance to the effect of compaction effect. The results show that a cone type tamping hammer and cylindrical rammer compared. Because of the chamfer of a cone type hammmer, flow resistence coefficient is smaller in water and the value is about 1. 0. under the action of the same tamping energy, different types of hammer has difference in 5% on the rubble mound foundation compaction effect. with a hammer in different falling distance, the greater the falling distance is,the greater the amount of settlement of riprap foundation bed is, the bigger the compaction stress is. but rubble mound foundation settlement

  13. Study on Treatment Countermeasures against Water and Mud Gushing in Manpo Station%某轨道交通1号线雅蛮区间隧道岩溶突泥突水处治对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发达; 周火锋; 方伟立; 张鹏帅; 吴贤国

    2016-01-01

    以某轨道交通1号线雅蛮区间左线ZDK19+200处开挖支护施工时发生突水突泥事件为工程背景,分析了岩溶突泥突水的成因,完成对溶洞淤泥清理、一次涌泥处理、二次涌泥处理以及掌子面加固等措施;对右线地质进行补勘,提前处理隐藏的岩溶,对突泥突水引发的周边构造物裂缝和沉降问题进行加固处理;在此基础上,结合本次工程事故与前人对岩溶隧道的研究,对处理溶岩突泥突水问题提出可行性建议。%Based on the project to treat water and mud gushing in Manpo station of Guiyang, the cause of water and mud gushing is analyzed and measures are implemented of cleaning up sludge, primary treatment of gushing mud, second treatment of gushing mud and consolidation of tunnel face. In order to prevent such accident from happening, geological conditions of the right line are surveyed, and, the hidden karst is handled in advance. Then, cracks and settlement of surrounding structure caused by water and mud gushing are treated and reinforced. Combined with the engineering accident and early researches on karst tunnel, suggestions to handle water and mud gushing are put forward.

  14. Water-hammer pressure waves interaction at cross-section changes in series in viscoelastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meniconi, S.; Brunone, B.; Ferrante, M.

    2012-08-01

    In view of scarcity of both experimental data and numerical models concerning transient behavior of cross-section area changes in pressurized liquid flow, the paper presents laboratory data and numerical simulation of the interaction of a surge wave with a partial blockage by a valve, a single pipe contraction or expansion and a series of pipe contraction/expansion in close proximity.With regard to a single change of cross-section area, laboratory data point out the completely different behavior with respect to one of the partially closed in-line valves with the same area ratio. In fact, for the former the pressure wave interaction is not regulated by the steady-state local head loss. With regard to partial blockages, transient tests have shown that the smaller the length, the more intense the overlapping of pressure waves due to the expansion and contraction in series.Numerically, the need for taking into account both the viscoelasticity and unsteady friction is demonstrated, since the classical water-hammer theory does not simulate the relevant damping of pressure peaks and gives rise to a time shifting between numerical and laboratory data. The transient behavior of a single local head loss has been checked by considering tests carried out in a system with a partially closed in-line valve. As a result, the reliability of the quasi steady-state approach for local head loss simulation has been demonstrated in viscoelastic pipes. The model parameters obtained on the basis of transients carried out in single pipe systems have then been used to simulate transients in the more complex pipe systems. These numerical experiments show the great importance of the length of the small-bore pipe with respect to one of the large-bore pipes. Precisely, until a gradually flow establishes in the small-bore pipe, the smaller such a length, the better the quality of the numerical simulation.

  15. 水锤及水锤压力波在水系中传播的分析与试验%Apparatus Inducing Water-hammer and the Analysis and Experiment of the Water-hammer Pressure Wave Propagation in the Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春敏; 张景松

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper a pulsating water-hammer apparatus that drives by low-pressure water and takes advantage of the tremendous energy generated by water-hammer is introduced. The structure and working process to the pulsating water-hammer apparatus is elaborated. The movement of the plunger assembly when the hammering occurs and the generating and propagation mechanism of the impacting pressure wave are analyzed. The results show the water-hammer pressure that induced by this appara-tus includes water-hammer static pressure and impact pressure,and the experiments verify that the theoretical analysis is correct.%详细介绍了脉动水锤装置的结构及其工作过程,对锤击时柱塞组件的运动以及冲击压力波产生和传播机理进行了分析,分析表明这种水锤装置能够产生的水锤压力包括水锤静压力和冲击压力,并通过试验验证了理论分析的正确性。

  16. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  17. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  18. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  19. On the Use of the Water Hammer Equations with Time Dependent Friction during a Valve Closure, for Discharge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Dunca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for in site discharge estimation in pressured pipes. The method consists in using the water hammer equations solved with the method of characteristics with an unsteady friction factor model. The differential pressure head variation measured during a complete valve closure is used to derive the initial flow rate, similarly to the pressure-time (Gibson method. The method is validated with a numerical experiment, and tested with experimental laboratory measurements. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the discharge estimation error by 0.6% compared to the standard pressure-time (Gibson method for the flow rate investigation.

  20. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fradet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR. This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling.

  1. Ultra-Deepwater Riserless Mud Circulation with Dual Gradient Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Myers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling deep holes in very deep water presents the offshore drilling community with major wellbore stability challenges that are typically mitigated through the circulation of dense drilling mud to prevent hole collapse and to remove drilling debris (“cuttings”. This is normally accomplished through the application of a riser system (Fig. 1; however, riser lengths ; are presently limited to use in water depths of around 3047 m. In the scientific ocean drilling realm, we have been very successful in drilling relatively shallow holes (<1500 m in water depths greater than 3657 m, a range we call “hyper-deep”. Drilling in these extreme water depths requires the use of the “riserless” drilling technique (Fig. 1A which is not constrained by the length limitations of a riser system (“riser”.

  2. Numerical simulation analysis of water-hammer pressure of rocket engine%火箭发动机水击压力数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘英元; 陈海峰

    2012-01-01

    依据水击理论,以某液体火箭发动机为例,采用特征线法建立推进剂供应系统一维流动数学模型,实现了关机水击数值模拟。实例计算分析了测压导管对水击过程的影响。%Taking one liquid rocket engine as example, the characteristic method is adopted to es- tablish a one-dimension mathematical model of the propellant feeding system on the basis of water-hammer pressure theory. The numerical simulation of water-hammer pressure as the engine is shut down. The effect of the manometry conduit on the water-hammer process is computed and analyzed with the example.

  3. Cubic Spline - wavelet Finite Element Method for Solving the Water Hammer Equation%基于MATLAB的一类输运问题的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽男; 张馥菊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of water hammer equations, it is in this paper the cubic spline wavelet finite element method to solve the water hammer equation. This method meets the requirements of complex pipeline, but also with the characteristics of the cubic spline wavelet function to improve the accuracy, opened a new way and theoretical basis for the solution of the water hammer equations.%利用差分方法对一类输运问题在一维和二维空间中进行数值分析,得到相应数值解,并将数值解与解析解进行比较,且进一步分析了数值方法的有效性.

  4. 基于MATLAB的长距离输水管道水锤防护%Long pipelines and water hammer protection based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来钱; 付强伟

    2012-01-01

    利用特征线方法的基本原理,将水锤基本微分方程转化为便于计算机运算的有限差分方程式,并利用C++语言编制计算机程序。通过MATLAB的图形显示功能对水锤暂态过程数值模拟的试验数据进行研究,采取较优的水锤防护措施。%Using the basic principles of characteristics method, the basic differential equations of water hammer was into easy computing finite difference equations, and using the C + + language computer program. MATL- BA graphics function of water hammer transient numerical simulation of experimental data, to take the better measures of protection against water hammer.

  5. Occurrence and Protection of Water Hammer in Stream Pipeline%蒸汽输送管道的水击及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马博

    2016-01-01

    工业蒸汽输送管道中,水击问题始终困扰蒸汽系统运行维护人员.文章分析了蒸汽输送系统水击发生的机理及危害,并介绍如何通过有效的系统设计和布置,良好的操作实践来避免输送系统产生严重的水击事故.%In industrial steam piping, phenomenon of water hammer often makes engineers disturbed. In this article, the mechanism and harms of water hammer occurred in steam transportation system were analyzed. The methods with effective sysmematic design and arrangement and good practical operation to avoid serious accident induced from water hammer were introduced.

  6. Thermal decomposition behaviour of polyacrylamidomethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride in red mud separation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide references for selecting highly efficient red mud flocculants,the behaviour of polyacrylamidomethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (PATAC) in red mud separation process was investigated.PATAC was employed as a flocculant for red mud separation from the caustic aluminate liquor at 95 ℃.The used red mud was generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite in Bayer process of alumina production.And the changes of PATAC before or after being treated in caustic solution at 95 ℃ were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis.The results show that PATAC fails in effectively flocculating red mud and PATAC is readily converted to a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PATAH) in caustic solution.PATAH can be decomposed to a new polymer (HPATAH) even at 95 ℃.Furthermore,there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond formed in the HPATAH polymer chain with two functional groups of -CH2-OH and -CONH2.Therefore,the poor flocculation property of PATAC for red mud separation can be attributed to the thermal decomposition of PATAC in the caustic red mud slurry at 95 ℃ and the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the polymer chain of HPATAH during the thermal decomposition,which causes the absorbable functional groups of PATAC to decrease greatly.

  7. Removal of Phosphate Using Red Mud: An Environmentally Hazardous Waste By-Product of Alumina Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkumar S. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2–200 μ studied, the samples treated with 1 M HCl for 2 h were found better for the selective adsorption of phosphate in comparison with untreated and heat treated RM samples. The presence of phosphate in the aqueous samples collected after adsorption studies with red mud was determined by standard spectrophotometric procedure using ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid in nitrate medium at λmax 880 nm. The studies reported significant adsorption of phosphate on acid treated red mud in comparison with adsorption of phosphate on untreated and heat treated red mud, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate on raw red mud and activated red mud was further investigated with respect to stirring time, pH of the solution, dose of adsorbent, and varying phosphate concentration. Acid treated RM is observed as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions.

  8. In-Situ Observation of Fluid Mud in the North Passage of Yangtze Estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-fa(李九发); WAN Xin-ning(万新宁); HE Qing(何青); YING Ming(应铭); SHI Lian-qiang(时连强); S.M.Hutchinson

    2004-01-01

    Observations of fluid mud were made in the lower North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary in February 2000, on 10 ~11 August 2000, on 30~ 31 August 2000 (after two strong typhoons), on 21 ~ 24 August 2000 (neap tide) and on 3 ~6 September 2000 (mean tide) respectively. In situ data show that the fluid mud in this area consists of fine cohesive sediment (median size 7.23μm). The formation and movement of fluid mud varied during the neap-spring and flood-ebb tidal cycle. Observations suggest that fluid mud phenomena in this area may be categorised in a three-fold manner as slack water, storm and saltwedge features. The thickness of the fluid mud layer of slack water during the neap tide ranged from 0.2 to 0.96 m, whereas during the mean tide, the thickness ranged from 0.17 to 0.73 m, and the thickness of the fluid mud layer was larger during slack water than at the flood peak. Shoals cover an area of 800 km2 with a water depth smaller than 5 m. Erosion of these extensive intertidal mudflats due to storm action provides an abundant sediment source. This is particularly significant in this estuary when the tidal level is lower than 5 m. The lower North Passage is a typical zone of saltwater wedging, so the saltwedge fluid mud has the most extensive spatial range in the estuary.

  9. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  10. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  11. Effect of formulation variables on the physical properties and stability of Dead Sea mud masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Sawsan; Hamed, Saja; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2015-01-01

    The physical stability of Dead Sea mud mask formulations under different conditions and their rheological properties were evaluated as a function of the type and level of thickeners, level of the humectant, incorporation of ethanol, and mode of mud treatment. Formulations were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, pH, moisture content, spreadability, extrudability, separation, rate of drying at 32 degrees C, and rheological properties. Prepared mud formulations and over-the-shelf products showed viscoplastic shear thinning behavior; satisfactory rheological behavior was observed with formulations containing a total concentration of thickeners less than 10% (w/w). Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models were found the most suitable to describe the rheological data of the prepared formulations. Thickener incorporation decreased phase separation and improved formulation stability. Bentonite incorporation in the mud prevented color changes during stability studies while glycerin improved spreadability. Addition of 5% (w/w) ethanol improved mud extrudability, slightly increased percent separation, accelerated drying at 32 degrees C, and decreased viscosity and yield stress values. Different mud treatment techniques did not cause a clear behavioral change in the final mud preparation. B10G and K5B5G were labeled as "best formulas" based on having satisfactory physical and aesthetic criteria investigated in this study, while other formulations failed in one or more of the tests we have performed.

  12. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  13. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  14. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  15. Effect of electro-acupuncture, massage, mud, and sauna therapies in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Geetha B.; Mooventhan, A.; Anagha, N.

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2007, came to our hospital in July 2014 with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints, especially over small joints, which was associated with stiffness (more in morning), deformities of fingers and toes, with disturbed sleep and poor quality of life (QOL) for the past 7 years. She received a combination of electro acupuncture (14 sessions), massage (18 sessions), mud (18 sessions), and sauna (3 sessions) (EMMS) therapies for 30-min, 45-min, 30-min, and 15-min per session, respectively for 3 weeks. During and postintervention assessment showed reduction in visual analog scale score for pain, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. It also showed an increase in the scores of 10-Meter Walk Test, isometric hand-grip test, and short form-36 version-2 health survey. This result suggest that, the EMMS therapy might be considered as an effective treatments in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and stress with improvement in physical functions, quality of sleep and QOL in patient with RA. EMMS therapies were tolerated and no side effects were reported by the patient. Though the results are encouraging, further studies are required with larger sample size and advanced inflammatory markers. PMID:26834431

  16. Effect of electro-acupuncture, massage, mud, and sauna therapies in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha B Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in 2007, came to our hospital in July 2014 with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints, especially over small joints, which was associated with stiffness (more in morning, deformities of fingers and toes, with disturbed sleep and poor quality of life (QOL for the past 7 years. She received a combination of electro acupuncture (14 sessions, massage (18 sessions, mud (18 sessions, and sauna (3 sessions (EMMS therapies for 30-min, 45-min, 30-min, and 15-min per session, respectively for 3 weeks. During and postintervention assessment showed reduction in visual analog scale score for pain, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. It also showed an increase in the scores of 10-Meter Walk Test, isometric hand-grip test, and short form-36 version-2 health survey. This result suggest that, the EMMS therapy might be considered as an effective treatments in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and stress with improvement in physical functions, quality of sleep and QOL in patient with RA. EMMS therapies were tolerated and no side effects were reported by the patient. Though the results are encouraging, further studies are required with larger sample size and advanced inflammatory markers.

  17. Effect of electro-acupuncture, massage, mud, and sauna therapies in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Geetha B; Mooventhan, A; Anagha, N

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2007, came to our hospital in July 2014 with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints, especially over small joints, which was associated with stiffness (more in morning), deformities of fingers and toes, with disturbed sleep and poor quality of life (QOL) for the past 7 years. She received a combination of electro acupuncture (14 sessions), massage (18 sessions), mud (18 sessions), and sauna (3 sessions) (EMMS) therapies for 30-min, 45-min, 30-min, and 15-min per session, respectively for 3 weeks. During and postintervention assessment showed reduction in visual analog scale score for pain, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. It also showed an increase in the scores of 10-Meter Walk Test, isometric hand-grip test, and short form-36 version-2 health survey. This result suggest that, the EMMS therapy might be considered as an effective treatments in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and stress with improvement in physical functions, quality of sleep and QOL in patient with RA. EMMS therapies were tolerated and no side effects were reported by the patient. Though the results are encouraging, further studies are required with larger sample size and advanced inflammatory markers.

  18. 大吨位蒸(空)模锻锤改造技术%Modification technology of large tonnage steam (air) drop hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建虎; 曹文胜; 杨丹锋; 辛宏斌; 谢建国; 黄继忠

    2012-01-01

    The working principle of all hydraulic electric-liquid hammer is introduced. The innovation technology is described, offered hy China National Heavy Machinery Research Institute Co. , Ltd. lo First Tractor Co. , Ltd. , and needed for changing the large tonnage steam (air) drop hammer into an all hydraulic electric-liquid hammer whose hydrolic system adopts a heavy-calibre special service valve set, hammer rod and hammer head adopt the spherical hinge linkage, hammer return stroke is designed as a double-limit buffer unit to avoid the shatter crack of the pipeline, and partial pipeline uses hose. The modified equipment works well, and has low failure rate and high reliability. Its energy saving rate is 90%.%介绍了全液压电液锤的工作原理,以及中国重型机械研究院有限公司为第一拖拉机股份有限公司将大吨位蒸(空)模锻锤改造成全液压电液锤项目中所采用的创新技术:液压系统采用专利技术的大口径专用阀组,锤杆与锤头采用球铰活动联接,锤头回程设计为双限位缓冲装置,为避免管道被震裂,部分管路采用软管联接等.改造后的设备使用情况良好,故障率低,可靠性高,节能率90%以上.

  19. An Analysis of Water Hammer Sensitivity in Double-pump Water Supply Systems%双泵给水系统水锤敏感度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟实; 王鑫; 幸奠川; 王明鹤

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the model of a specific parallel two-pump water supply system, the numerical simulation and quan- titative analysis of water hammer of this water supply system are carried out, with emphasis on sensitivity analysis of water hammer. The research results show that the effect of flow on water hammers is significant, with the initial flow rate increasing, fluctuations of pressure increases significantly. As the moment of inertia of centrifugal increases, the water hammer effect will be weakened. In the case of constant water supply, the increase of diameter of the pipeline will ease water hammer pressure. In addition, the ways of the control valve closes will have a significant impact on the water hammer effect.%建立双泵并联给水系统,对本给水系统水锤过程进行了数值模拟以及定量分析,重点进行双泵给水系统水锤作用敏感度分析。结果表明:初始流量对水锤作用效果影响明显,随着初始流量增大,输水管道后压差波动明显增强;离心泵转动惯量增加,停泵水锤作用效果将减弱;输水流量不变情况下,输水管道管径增加将缓解水锤压力;另外,改变调节阀关闭方式也将对水锤效果产生明显影响。

  20. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP OF POLYELECTROLYTES AND ITS APPLICATION IN STABILIZING DRILLING-MUD IN PRESENCE OF SALTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuomei; ZHANG Xuexin; XIE Zhiming; HUANG Yuhui

    1990-01-01

    A new polyelectrolyte (SPU) has been prepared. It can depress the water-loss of drilling-mud much more effective than the commonly used acrylic polyelectrolytes even in 30% NaCl solution.SPU has phenyl group in the backbone with -SO3- in the side chain while the acrylic polyelectrolytes have C- C and -COO- respectively. there exists an intrinsic relationship between the structure of polymer and its tolerance to salts. It has been found: 1 ) The adsorption amount of polymer on clay is related closely to the flexibility of polymer chain. 2) The salt-tolerance of -SO3-is superior to -COO-. 3) Both SPU-mud and HPAN-mud are plastic fluids. The dependence of yield point on salts relates to the molecular weight of polymer and hydration of ionogenic group,which is quite different for SPU-mud and HPAN-mud. 4) The extent of raising zeta-potential of base-mud by SPU is greater than by HPAN, but the extent of dropping zeta-potential of SPU-mud by NaCl is smaller than HPAN-mud. According to these results we suppose the salt-tolerance of SPU-mud is attributed mainly to hydration of -SO3- and that of HPAN-mud mainly to network structure formed in the drilling-mud.

  1. Effect of lime on some physical properties of mud as an alternative refractory material for lining of furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic industries, lime or calcium oxide (CaO has been used successfully to improve the permeability of materials made from clay. This paper presents the outcome of research into the possible use of mud mixed with lime to improve the quality of mud bricks for use in lining of furnaces in the foundry. Results of the tests show that mud generally consist mainly of very fine clay and silt particles sizes less than 300 µm. It was also found that the addition of lime in mud improves the permeability with an average conductivity of 1.15 mm/s. The addition of lime also reduces the resistance of the mud to thermal resistance as the samples indicated cracks at high temperatures. The compressive strength and setting time of the mud- lime brick was found to increase progressively. The addition of lime to mud can therefore be recommended for low temperature furnace lining.

  2. Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this program has been to measure the response of commercially important marine bivalve molluscs to low levels of drilling muds. Because these materials are composed of several major components whose proportions vary between wells and with depth for a single well, the approach of this study has been to test the major components individually and then to test a representative synthetic mud and finally a used drilling mud from an offshore platform. In all but one of these tests the target organism has been the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.

  3. On the well-posedness of a mathematical model describing water-mud interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model describing the two-phase interaction between water and mud in a water canal when the width of the canal is small compared to its depth. The mud is treated as a non-Netwonian fluid and the interface between the mud and fluid is allowed to move under the influence of gravity and surface tension. We reduce the mathematical formulation, for small boundary and initial data, to a fully nonlocal and nonlinear problem and prove its local well-posedness by using abstract parabolic theory.

  4. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  5. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  6. Lime-mud layers in high-energy tidal channels: a record of hurricane deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Dill, R.F.; Major, R.

    1993-01-01

    During or immediately following the transit of Hurricane Andrew (August 23-24, 1992) across the northern part of the Great Bahama Bank, thin laminated beds of carbonate mud were deposited in high-energy subtidal channels (4 m depth) through the ooid shoals of south Cat Cay and Joulters Cays. Thicker, more cohesive (and therefore older) mud beds and angular mud fragments associated with ooids from Joulters Cays have similar characteristics but lack fresh plant fragments. We infer that these older beds were similarly deposited and thus record the passage of previous hurricanes or tropical storms. -from Authors

  7. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system%矿山排水系统设计阶段水锤的预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东燕

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore, the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident.%介绍矿山排水系统水锤事故发生的机制及种类,通过计算停泵水锤的水锤压头,可直观地显示出水锤可能产生的危害程度,有针对性地提出在设计阶段为减少水锤事故发生应采取的预防措施.

  8. Offshore wind turbine foundations. Development of a special vibratory hammer with enhanced function; Gruendung von Offshore Windenergieanlagen. Entwicklung einer speziellen Vibrationsramme mit erweiterter Funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Johannes; Ulrich, Dirk [ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik GmbH, Alsfeld (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    To ensure that steel jacket foundations for offshore wind turbines are securely anchored, they are fixed to the seabed by means of ''pins''. The pins consist of pipe piles weighing up to 140 metric tons, and are driven into the seabed by a vibratory hammer and then anchored by impact driving. ThyssenKrupp Tiefbautechnik has modified a vibratory hammer so that it can pick up the piles horizontally directly from the working ship or pontoon and then vibrate them vertically into the ground. This significantly reduces installation times and foundation costs. (orig.)

  9. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  10. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  11. CFD Simulation of Liquid-solid Multiphase Flow in Mud Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation was performed to analyze the mixing phenomena associated with multi-phase flow in a mud mixing system. For the validation of CFD simulation, firstly a liquid-solid multiphase flow inside horizontal pipe was simulated and compared with the experiments and other numerical simulations. And then, the multiphase flow simulation was carried out for the mud mixer in the drilling handling system in order to understand mixing phenomena and predict the mixing efficiency. For the modeling and simulation, a commercial software, STAR-CCM+, based on a finite-volume method (FVM was adopted. The simulation results for liquid-solid flow inside the pipe shows a good agreement with the experimental data. With the same multiphase model, the simulation for mud mixer is performed under the generalized boundary condition and then pressure drop through the mud mixer will be discussed.

  12. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January, February, March, April 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  13. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January, February, March, April 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. [Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota: February through to April, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1942 The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Recovery of Ferric Oxide from Bayer Red Mud by Reduction Roasting-Magnetic Separation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanjie; ZUO Kesheng; YANG Guang; SHANG Zhe; ZHANG Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A great amount of red mud generated from alumina production by Bayer process was considered as a low-grade iron ore with a grade of 5wt% to 30wt% iron. We adopted the reduction roasting-magnetic separation process to recover ferric oxide from red mud. The red mud samples were processed by reduction roasting, grinding and magnetic separating respectively. The effects of different parameters on the recovery rate of iron were studied in detail. The optimum techqical parameters were proposed with 700℃ roasting for 20 min, as 50wt% carbon and 4wt% additive were added. The experimental results indicated that the iron recovery and the grade of total iron were 91% and 60%, respectively. A novel process is applicable to recover ferric oxide from the red mud waste ifnes.

  18. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  19. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  20. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  2. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  3. Surface charge properties of red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun-yu; HU Hui-ping; ZHANG Li-juan; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Acid/basic potentiometric titration can be used to quantify the red mud surface charge properties. The amount of surface active -OH groups and surface charge density on the red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite were evaluated from the acid/basic potentiometric titration data in 0.1 mol/L or 0.5 molL NaCI solution. The results show that the adsorption of sodium polyacrylate(SPA) on the red mud surface causes the increase of the surface active -OH groups, which makes the point of zero charge(PZC) shift to a lower pH value. However, the adsorption of polyacrylamide(PAM) causes little change. As the concentration of NaCl solution increases, the surface charge becomes more positive in acidic solution and more negative in alkaline solution, which can be attributed to the presence of a porous surface gel coating on the red mud particles.

  4. Hydration kinetics of cementitious materials composed of red mud and coal gangue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hong-xu; Liu, Xiao-ming

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic reaction mechanism of cementitious materials composed of red mud and coal gangue (RGC), the hydration kinetics of these cementitious materials at 20°C was investigated on the basis of the Krstulović-Dabić model. An isothermal calorimeter was used to characterize the hydration heat evolution. The results show that the hydration of RGC is controlled by the processes of nucleation and crystal growth (NG), interaction at phase boundaries (I), and diffusion (D) in order, and the pozzolanic reactions of slag and compound-activated red mud-coal gangue are mainly controlled by the I process. Slag accelerates the clinker hydration during NG process, whereas the compound-activated red mud-coal gangue retards the hydration of RGC and the time required for I process increases with increasing dosage of red mud-coal gangue in RGC.

  5. Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parulekar, A

    The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water...

  6. THE BIOCIDE TRIBUTYLTIN ALTERS TESTOSTERONE ESTERIFICATION IN MUD SNAILS (ILYANASSA OBSOLETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biocide Tributyltin Alters Testosterone Esterification in Mud Snails (Ilyanassa obsoleta)Meredith P. Gooding and Gerald A. LeBlanc Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633Tributyltin (TBT...

  7. Strength Development and Microstructure of Hardened Cement Paste Blended with Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhihua; ZHANG Yanna; XU Zhongzi

    2009-01-01

    Red mud was activated to be a mineral admixture for Portland cement by means of heating at different elevated temperatures from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. Results show that heating was ef-fective, among which thermal activation of red mud at 600 ℃ was most effective. Chemical analysis suggested that cement added with 600 ℃ thermally activated red mud yielded more calcium ion dur-ing the early stage of hydration and less at later stage in liquid phase of cement water suspension sys-tem, more combined water and less calcium hydroxide in its hardened cement paste. MIP measure-ment and SEM observation proved that the hardened cement paste had a similar total porosity and a less portion of large size pores hence a denser microstructure compared with that added with original red mud.

  8. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  9. Laboratory Investigation of Rivers State Clay Samples for Drilling Mud Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling fluids are an integral part of any oil and gas industry, providing the ease to which wells are drilled to access subsurface reservoir fluids. Certain rheology and mineralogical properties of the clay material used for drilling mud preparation must be critically investigated since clay deposits in different location exhibits different characteristics. Clay samples were collected from three different geographical locations namely; Egbamini (Emolga, Afam Street (Port Harcourt and Oboboru (onelga local government areas in Rivers state. Their rheological and wall building properties were measured in the laboratory to determine their suitability for drilling mud formulation. Results showed that in their respective native states, they proved unsuitable for drilling mud preparation when compared to standard Bentonite because they were observed to show responses far below the required API standards for mud formulation.

  10. Narrative report Mud Lake Refuge, Minnesota Period: February 1st to April 30th, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Long-term follow-up of hypothenar hammer syndrome: a series of 47 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Hervé, Fabien; Primard, Etienne; Cailleux, Nicole; Levesque, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon, occurring mainly in subjects who use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer; the hook of the hamate strikes the superficial palmar branch of the ulnar artery in the Guyon space, leading to occlusion and/or aneurysm of the ulnar artery. In patients with HHS, such injuries of the palmar ulnar artery may lead to severe vascular insufficiency in the hand with occlusion of digital artery. To date, only a few series have analyzed the long-term outcome of patients with HHS. This prompted us to conduct the current retrospective study to 1) evaluate the prevalence of HHS in patients with Raynaud phenomenon and 2) assess the short-term and long-term outcome in patients with HHS. From 1990 to 2006, 4148 consecutive patients were referred to the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Rouen medical center for evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon using nailfold capillaroscopy. HHS was diagnosed in 47 of these 4148 patients (1.13% of cases).Forty-three patients (91.5%) had occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma. The more common occupations were factory worker (21.3%), mason (12.8%), carpenter (10.6%), and metal worker (10.6%); the mean duration of occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma at HHS diagnosis was 21 years. One patient (2.1%) had recreational exposure (aikido training) to repetitive trauma of the palmar ulnar artery, and 3 other patients (6.4%) developed HHS related to a single direct injury to the hypothenar area. Clinical manifestations were more often unilateral (87.2%) involving the dominant hand (93%). HHS complications included digital ischemic symptoms (ischemia: n = 21, necrosis: n = 20) and irritation of the sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (n = 11). In HHS patients, angiography demonstrated occlusion of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (59.6%), aneurysm of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (40.4%), and embolic

  12. Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianmin; Huang, Runqiu; Jiao, Jiu J.; Chen, Kouping

    2007-09-01

    Coastal reclamation has been carried out along the coastal areas near Shenzhen, China in a large scale since 1980s by dumping fill materials over the marine mud at the sea bottom. Usually the area to be reclaimed is drained first and some of the mud is air-dried for a few weeks before it is buried by fill. After reclamation, the terrestrial groundwater, which is relatively acidic and with high dissolved oxygen, gradually displaces the seawater, which is alkaline with high salinity. The changes in the burial conditions of mud and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field survey confirms that the pH and salinity of the groundwater in the reclamation site are much lower than the seawater. Chemical analyses of mud and groundwater samples collected from the reclamation sites reclaimed in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time, but the heavy metals in the groundwater are increased. The release of heavy metals into pore water due to reactivation of heavy metals in the mud is of environmental concern. To understand why some of the heavy metals can be released from the mud more easily than others, a sequential extraction method was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in the mud samples. Heavy metals can be presented in five chemical forms: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. Ni and Pb were mainly associated with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction and carbonate fraction; Zn was mainly associated with organic fraction and Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Cd were associated with organic fraction and carbonate fraction, respectively. If the residual fraction can be considered as an inert phase of the metal that cannot be mobilized, it is the other four forms of heavy metal that cause the noticeable changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the mud. On the basis of the

  13. Mud pulse logging while drilling telemetry system: design, development, and demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinnler, R.F.; Stone, F.A.

    1978-07-01

    Mud pulse telemetry is a method of transmitting information from the vicinity of the drill bit to the surface drilling platform while drilling. Information can be conveyed through a flowing column of drilling mud by the presence or absence of pressure pulses arranged in a binary code. Pressure in the flowing mud column is periodically modulated at a point downhole by mechanical means, and the resulting periodic pressure pulses appearing at the surface end of the mud column are detected by a pressure transducer conveniently located in the standpipe. Although the concept of mud-pulse telemetry is not new, only recently have sophisticated systems embodying mud-powered turbine generators and solid-state electronics been developed to the point of being able to withstand the hostile downhole environment. After ten years of active technology development and over $10 million of R and D expenditures, Teleco has demonstrated through field tests carried out in the Gulf of Mexico during 1977, that equipment reliability necessary for commercial operation is essentially at hand. Three generations of prototype systems were tested under actual drilling conditions during 1968 through 1977. Using eight new production systems, Teleco began a Pilot Service Demonstration in August 1977, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy and six major oil companies. Each system consisting of a sensor assembly and mud pulse telemetry transmitter measures borehole azimuth, inclination, and tool facing. Accurate directional measurements have been provided from kick-off through to target depth with minimum interruption to the drilling operation. Tool face information has been used to successfully kick-off directional wells using both mud motor and jet deflection techniques. Equipment reliability, as indicated by recent test runs of 254 and 272 hours of drilling with two separate systems, without failure, is approaching the level needed for commercial service.

  14. Recycling of red muds with the extraction of metals and special additions to cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoveev, D. V.; Diubanov, V. G.; Shutova, A. V.; Ziniaeva, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase reduction of iron oxides from red mud is experimentally studied. It is shown that, in addition to a metal, a slag suitable for utilization in the construction industry can be produced as a result of pyrometallurgical processing of red mud. Portland cement is shown to be produced from this slag with mineral additions and a high-aluminate expansion addition to cement.

  15. Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied by fractionation and speciation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) is mostly produced from bauxite ore, which contains up to 70% of Al(2)O(3) (alumina). Before alumina is refined to aluminum metal, it is purified by hot alkaline extraction. As a waste by-product red mud is formed. Due to its high alkalinity and large quantities, it represents a severe disposal problem. In Kidričevo (Slovenia), red mud was washed with water before disposal, and after drying, covered with soil. In Ajka (Hungary), the red mud slurry was collected directly in a containment structure, which burst caused a major accident in October 2010. In the present work the environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud from Kidričevo and Ajka were evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure and speciation analysis. The predominant red mud fraction was the insoluble residue; nevertheless, environmental concern was focused on the highly mobile water-soluble fraction of Al and Cr. Al in the water-soluble Ajka mud fraction was present exclusively in form of toxic [Al(OH)(4)](-), while Cr existed in its toxic hexavalent form. Comparative assessment to red mud from Kidričevo (Slovenia) with a lower alkalinity (pH 9) with that from Ajka demonstrated significantly lower Al solubility and the presence of only trace amounts of Cr(VI), confirming that disposal of neutralized mud is environmentally much more acceptable and carries a smaller risk of ecological accidents. Since during the Ajka accident huge amounts of biologically available Al and moderate Cr(VI) concentrations were released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, monitoring of Al and Cr(VI) set free during remedial actions at the contaminated site is essential. Particular care should be taken to minimize the risk of release of soluble Al species and Cr(VI) into water supplies and surface waters.

  16. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  17. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  18. Management of fluid mud in estuaries, bays, and lakes. II: Measurement, modeling, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, W.H.; Teeter, A.; Schoellhamer, D.; Friedrichs, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hayter, E.; Shrestha, P.; Rodriguez, H.; Sheremet, A.; Kirby, R.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques for measurement, modeling, and management of fluid mud are available, but research is needed to improve them. Fluid mud can be difficult to detect, measure, or sample, which has led to new instruments and new ways of using existing instruments. Multifrequency acoustic fathometers sense neither density nor viscosity and are, therefore, unreliable in measuring fluid mud. Nuclear density probes, towed sleds, seismic, and drop probes equipped with density meters offer the potential for accurate measurements. Numerical modeling of fluid mud requires solving governing equations for flow velocity, density, pressure, salinity, water surface, plus sediment submodels. A number of such models exist in one-, two-, and three-dimensional form, but they rely on empirical relationships that require substantial site-specific validation to observations. Management of fluid mud techniques can be classified as those that accomplish: Source control, formation control, and removal. Nautical depth, a fourth category, defines the channel bottom as a specific fluid mud density or alternative parameter as safe for navigation. Source control includes watershed management measures to keep fine sediment out of waterways and in-water measures such as structures and traps. Formation control methods include streamlined channels and structures plus other measures to reduce flocculation and structures that train currents. Removal methods include the traditional dredging and transport of dredged material plus agitation that contributes to formation control and/or nautical depth. Conditioning of fluid mud by dredging and aerating offers the possibility of improved navigability. Two examples-the Atchafalaya Bar Channel and Savannah Harbor-illustrate the use of measurements and management of fluid mud. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  19. Data processing techniques for a wireless data transmission application via mud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qingjie; Zhang Baojun; Wang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The data measured by well bottom sensors can be transmitted to the surface through the drilling mud during oil drilling operations. This article introduces a data processing scheme for a wireless data transmission application via mud. The detailed signal processing procedure is given, and several data processing techniques used are discussed, mainly including data encoding and signal integrating method, signal filtering, data storage and manage method, peak detection, signal recognit...

  20. Experimental Analysis on Characteristics of Water Hammer in Reciprocating Pump Loss of Normal Speed%往复式泵失速水击特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚斌; 刘扬; 韩洪升; 周济人; 钟开伟

    2013-01-01

    为了研究往复式泵失速产生水击的特性,通过试验装置采集并分析了阀门速开速关和阀门速关工况下试验管道上11个断面自水击发生至其衰减结束整个过程中的压力变化.结果表明,阀门速开速关工况下,水击压力相对较小,衰减时间短,水击锤击数较高,高水击锤击数断面比率较大,其沿程衰减速度慢;阀门速关工况下,水击压力相对较大,衰减时间长,水击锤击数沿程衰减速度快,水击锤击数较少.关注阀门速关水击的同时,也要重视往复式泵失速引起的高水击锤击数水击现象.%In order to study the characteristics of water hammer on reciprocating pump loss of its normal speed,the pressures of eleven cross-sections were acquired and their changes were analyzed under two kinds of operating conditions.The rusults indicated that:when the valves were quickly opened and closed,water hammer pressure,the rate and time of decay were lower,and the water hammer hammering number on each cross-section was relatively large; when the valves were closed quickly,water hammer pressure was higher,the rate of decay was faster on water hammer hammering number,decay time was long and water hammer hammering number was smaller.High frequency hammer fatigue and potential damage caused by large water hammer hammering number should be also concerned except that paying attention to the damage on pipes caused by high water hammer pressure.

  1. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  2. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; A Anil Kumar; S W A Naqvi; Allan R Chivas; B Sekar; Pratima M Kessarkar

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment types were found in five gravity cores collected from water depths between 56 m and 121 m along the northwestern continental margin of India: lime muds were abundant in the lower section while siliciclastic sediments dominated the upper section. Lime mud-dominated sediments in shelf cores contained 60%–75% carbonate, 0.3%–0.6% Sr and terrigenous minerals, whereas those at the shelf break were found to have < 90% carbonate, 0.6%–0.8% Sr and traces of terrigenous minerals. Aragonite needles showing blunt edges, jointed needles and needles wrapped in smooth aragonite cement were found to be common. Stable (O and C) isotopes of lime mud indicate a potentially freshwater contribution for shelf cores and purely marine contribution for those at the shelf break. Calibrated radiocarbon ages of the lime muds ranged from 17.6–11.9 ka in different cores. The results reported here suggest that the lime muds in the shallow shelf are probably reworked from the Gulf of Kachchh, whereas those at the shelf break were biodetrital, initially formed on the carbonate platform during low stands of sea level and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene.

  3. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, Esmaeil; Bi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·gVS−1, digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·gVS−1) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition.

  4. Model and method of permeability evaluation based on mud invasion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Hu, Xiang-Yun; Meng, Qing-Xin; Hu, Xu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of permeability in reservoir assessment is a complex problem. Thus, it is difficult to perform direct evaluation permeability with conventional well-logging methods. Considering that reservoir permeability significantly affects mud invasion during drilling, we derive a mathematical model to assess the reservoir permeability based on mud invasion. A numerical model is first used to simulate the process of mud invasion and mud cake growth. Then, based on Darcy's law, an approximation is derived to associate the depth of mud invasion with reservoir permeability. A mathematical model is constructed to evaluate the reservoir permeability as a function of the mud invasion depth in time-lapse logging. Sensitivity analyses of the reservoir porosity, permeability, and water saturation are performed, and the results suggest that the proposed model and method are well suited for oil layers or oil-water layers of low porosity and low permeability. Numerical simulations using field logging and coring data suggest that the evaluated and assumed permeability data agree, validating the proposed model and method.

  5. Capping hazardous red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite for plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2014-01-01

    A nearly three-year microcosm experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of capping red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite in sustaining the growth of a grass species. This 'sandwich-structured' design allowed self-sustaining growth of the plants under rain-fed conditions no matter whether the underlying red mud was neutralized or not. During the initial stage, the plants grew better when the red mud was not neutralized with MgCl2 probably due to pH rise in the root zone. Neutralization of red mud led to salinization and pH decrease in the root zone. However, the difference in plant growth performance between these scenarios became less remarkable over time due to gradual improvement of soil conditions in the neutralized scenarios. Continuous leaching of soluble salts and alkali by rainwater extended the root zone to the red mud layer. As a result of vegetative production, soil organic matter rapidly accumulated. This, combined with increase in pH and decrease in salinity, markedly facilitated microbial activities and consequently improved the supply of nutrients. This study provides abasis for field-scale experimental design that will have implications for effectively establishing vegetative cover in red mud disposal sites to control dust hazards.

  6. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogundade, A. I.; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  7. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud.

  8. Potential use of natural red mud as pozzolan for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process, is considered hazardous due to its high pH, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004, and worldwide generation of this waste exceeds 117 million tons/year. In this work, non-calcined red mud was used, thus requiring less energy and time and reducing costs, which is the ideal condition for reusing wastes. Mortars containing 30 wt. (% of cement substituted by red mud showed higher strength of hardened products. The pozzolanic activity index was evaluated based on physical and mechanical parameters (Brazilian NBR 5751 and NBR 5752 standards and on a chemical analysis (European EN 196-5 standard. A comparison of the reference mixture (without red mud and the results obtained with red mud confirm the potential of non-calcined red mud for use a as pozzolanic additive in cementitious materials. The setting time (according to the MERCOSUL NM 65 standard tends to increase but workability remains almost unchanged.

  9. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron.

  10. Adsorption removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by active red mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Red mud is the waste of alumina industry and has high TiO2 and Fe2O3 content which are active components for the adsorption of anion pollutants. In this study, the uptake of phosphate by red mud activated by heat treatment and acid-heat treatment was investigated.The factors influencing the adsorption were also investigated. The result showed that the red mud sample treated using acid-heat method at 80℃ with 0.25 mol/L HCl for 2 h achieved the highest phosphate removal. For the heat-activated red mud, the sample heated at 700℃ for 2 h preformed better than the other heat treatment. Phosphate removal by the activated red mud was significantly pH dependent, and pH 7 was the optimal pH for phosphate removal. The adsorption fits Langmuir isotherm model well and the maximum adsorption capacities of the acid-heat activated red mud and the heat activated samples were 202.9 mgP/g and 155.2 mgP/g, respectively.

  11. Adsorption removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by active red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-jun; Li, Yan-zhong; Luan, Zhao-kun; Chen, Zhao-yang; Zhang, Zhong-guo; Jia, Zhi-ping

    2007-01-01

    Red mud is the waste of alumina industry and has high TiO2 and Fe2O3 content which are active components for the adsorption of anion pollutants. In this study, the uptake of phosphate by red mud activated by heat treatment and acid-heat treatment was investigated. The factors influencing the adsorption were also investigated. The result showed that the red mud sample treated using acid-heat method at 80 degrees C with 0.25 mol/L HCl for 2 h achieved the highest phosphate removal. For the heat-activated red mud, the sample heated at 700 degrees C for 2 h preformed better than the other heat treatment. Phosphate removal by the activated red mud was significantly pH dependent, and pH 7 was the optimal pH for phosphate removal. The adsorption fits Langmuir isotherm model well and the maximum adsorption capacities of the acid-heat activated red mud and the heat activated samples were 202.9 mgP/g and 155.2 mgP/g, respectively.

  12. 多元低合金耐磨锤头制造工艺%Manufacturing Process for Complex Low-alloyed Wear-resisting Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正伟; 李永堂; 曹建新; 贾璐

    2013-01-01

    锤头的耐磨性和工作寿命直接影响着破碎机的工作效率和生产成本,因此锤头要求有良好的力学性能、冲击韧性和耐磨性。在分析了锤头工况和失效机理的基础上,设计了多元低合金耐磨锤头材料的化学成分,提出了铸造工艺和热处理工艺,进行了工业试验,并对试件进行了检测分析,获得了满意的结果。%The operation efficiency and production cost of crusher were directly affected by the performance and service life of hammers .Therefore ,hammers were requested to have good mechanical properties ,impact toughness and abrasive resistance .Based on the analysis of working condition of the hammers and the failure mechanism ,the chemical composition of multi-element low-alloy wear-resistant material for hammers was designed ,the program of casting process and heat treatment process were proposed ,the industrial test was carried out ,and the satisfactory results were obtained .

  13. CFD simulation of reverse water-hammer induced by collapse of draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during runaway process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Yongguang; Xia, Linsheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports the preliminary progress in the CFD simulation of the reverse water-hammer induced by the collapse of a draft-tube cavity in a model pump-turbine during the runaway process. Firstly, the Fluent customized 1D-3D coupling model for hydraulic transients and the Schnerr & Sauer cavitation model for cavity development are introduced. Then, the methods are validated by simulating the benchmark reverse water-hammer in a long pipe caused by a valve instant closure. The simulated head history at the valve agrees well with the measured data in literature. After that, the more complicated reverse water-hammer in the draft-tube of a runaway model pump-turbine, which is installed in a model pumped-storage power plant, is simulated. The dynamic processes of a vapor cavity, from generation, expansion, shrink to collapse, are shown. After the cavity collapsed, a sudden increase of pressure can be evidently observed. The process is featured by a locally expending and collapsing vapor cavity that is around the runner cone, which is different from the conventional recognition of violent water- column separation. This work reveals the possibility for simulating the reverse water-hammer phenomenon in turbines by 3D CFD.

  14. 击弦乐器乐声特性与演奏手法的关系%Relationship between hammered string instrument musical sound characteristic and playing skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静锋; 王旸; 龙姝明

    2012-01-01

    给定初值条件,解弦振动波动定解问题,计算演奏手法变化引起的击弦乐器振动驻波能谱结构变化.探索击弦乐器乐声的音调、音色与弦振动驻波能谱结构的关系.用Mathematica编程模拟击弦乐器弦振动乐声,用听觉体验和频谱分析研究击弦乐器音调、音色与演奏手法的关系.%Given initial conditions, string vibration wave problem was solved. By changing playing techniques, calculation of the change caused by hammered string instrument vibration energy spectrum. Explore the relationship of the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and string vibration energy spectrum was exploved. Mathematics programming was used to simulate the hammered string instrument music. By auditory experience and spectrum analysis, the relationship between the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and playing techniques was studied.

  15. ANALYSIS OF WATER-HAMMER WAVE SPEED IN WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION%油包水型乳化液水击波速的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤明; 吴峰平; 陈彬; 潘诗浪; 张渊博; 王立存

    2011-01-01

    水击驻波场处理油包水型乳化液是一门新兴工艺,稳定驻波场的存在是破乳的关键,而水击压力波波速在驻波场形成中起着重要的作用。因此,为了更精确的求解水击波速,从W/O型乳化液两相流产生水击现象的特点出发,根据流体力学的连续性原理,推导其水击波波速的表达式,并与经典单相流水击波波速公式进行对比,通过MATLAB仿真分析与对比验证,表明此水击波速公式既适用于单相流水击波速的计算,也适用于两相流水击波速的求解,且W/O型乳化液中含水量越大,其波速就越大。%The application of standing wave field occurred by water-hammer in water-in-oil emulsion is a new technology.And the existence of stable standing wave field is the key to demulsification.The velocity of water-hammer pressure wave plays an important role in the formation of standing wave field.Therefore,in order to solve the water-hammer wave speed more accurately,embarked from the characteristicses of water-hammer produced in W/O emulsion which is the two-phase flow,according to the principle of continuous fluid,the expression of water-hammer wave speed is inferred and is compared with that of classical water-hammer wave speed in single-phase flow.The simulations with MATLAB software and the verifications by contrast indicate that this formula is not only suitable for the water-hammer of single-phase flow,but also the two-phase flow.And the more water it contents in the W/O emulsion,the higher wave speed.

  16. Excimer laser cleaning of mud stained paper and parchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte, J. P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of excimer lasers when processing materials, its the emission of a radiation with wavelength in the ultraviolet region. This characteristic allows an extremely accurate and very well defined shape of material removal as well as total absence of heat affected zone and alterations in the material structure. In excimer laser paper and parchment cleaning, the mud is removed by breaking the physicalchemical bonding between this last one and the material to be cleaned not affecting neither its structure nor the chromatic pigment existing in some samples.

    A principal vantagem dos lasers de excímeros, no processamento de materiais, é a emissão de um feixe luminoso com comprimento de onda compreendido na região do ultravioleta, permitindo urna remoçao do material com precisão muito elevada e excelente definição de bordos, ausência de zona térmicamente afectada e ausência de alterações da estrutura. Na limpeza dos papéis e pergaminhos a lama é removida por quebra das ligações fisico-químicas entre a lama e o papel não se afectando a estrutura deste, assim como não se afectaram os pigmentos cromáticos existentes em algumas amostras.

  17. Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.

  18. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  19. Red Mud and Li-Ion Batteries: A Magnetic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-08-23

    Exceptional Li-ion battery performance is presented with the oxide component of the anode was extracted from red mud by simple magnetic separation and applied directly without any further processing. The extracted material has γ-Fe2 O3 as the major phase with inter-dispersed phases of Ti, Al, and Si oxides. In a half-cell assembly, the phase displayed a reversible capacity (∼697 mA h g(-1) ) with excellent stability upon cycling. Interestingly, the stability is rendered by the multiphase constitution of the material with the presence of other electrochemically inactive metal oxides, such as Al2 O3 , SiO2 , and Fe2 TiO4 , which could accommodate the strain and facilitate release during the charge-discharge processes in the electrochemically active maghemite component. We fabricated the full-cell assembly with eco-friendly cathode LiMn2 O4 by adjusting the mass loading. Prior to full-cell assembly, an electrochemical pre-lithiation was enforced to overcome the irreversible capacity loss obtained from the anode. The full-cell delivered a capacity of ∼100 mA h g(-1) (based on cathode loading) with capacity retention of ∼61 % after 2000 cycles under ambient conditions.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  1. 便携式液压打桩机现状分析%Status Analysis of Portable Hydraulic Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步恩; 余俊锋; 彭博

    2015-01-01

    In the flood rescue process,traditional bundle and throw wicker rock pillows, firewood pile revetment, rock?loft and other emergency technologies in emergency and rescue play significant roles. These methods require a lot of wood pipes to fasten the wicker pillows and willow branches;In highway construction project, the construction and maintenance of fences also need large amount of steel piles. So it can concluded that in a variety of rescue methods, piling is an in dispensable process.In the piling work of flood rescue,dike reinforcement before and after the flood sea?son, rivers, lakes, ponds and embankment maintenance and highway construction and maintenance, the machine in?stead of human piling operation is a technological revolution.Based on the status and principle research and review of domestic portable hammer,the technical level of domestic portable hydraulic hammers is clarified, for the view of the current shortcomings, it lies the theoretical basis for the design and development of new portable hydraulic hammers.%防洪抢险过程中,传统捆抛柳石枕、桩柴护岸、柳石楼厢等抢险技术发挥着巨大无比的作用,在这些应急抢险方法中,需要大量木桩以便固定柳枕和厢埽.在公路建设工程中,两边护栏的建设维护也需要大量钢管桩.由此可见,打桩是各种抢护方法中不可缺少的一道工序.而在抗洪抢险,汛期前后的堤防加固,维护江、湖、河、塘等堤岸以及公路建设维护的打桩作业中,由机械劳动代替人力打桩作业是一次技术性革命.本文通过对国内各类便携式打桩机现状、原理进行研究总结,明确国内便携式液压打桩机技术水平及存在的缺陷,为设计研发新型便携式液压打桩机奠定理论基础.

  2. Precision Numerical Simulation of Water Hammer Considered Windward%考虑迎风性的高精度水击数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳思源; 刘韩生; 董瑜

    2015-01-01

    It is crucial to simulate the process of water hammer because of its serious harm to the normal operation of running hydro. Numerical method to simulate water hammer phenomenon is a hot research currently. In this paper a TVD scheme considered the windward applying in numerically the water hammer couple was used to solve the water hammer equations to simulate water hammer pressure in a simple pipeline. A comparison with Lax-Friedrichs, MacCormark the TVD scheme not considered windward and analytical solutions shows that the TVD scheme considered the windward has the advantages of high resolution, high accuracy and low dissipation. The TVD scheme considered the windward is more repressive and less dissipative than that of the TVD scheme.%水击问题会对水利枢纽的正常运行造成严重危害,模拟其过程至关重要。考虑TVD格式及水流的迎风性,应用于水击方程组中,模拟简单管道中的水击压力变化。并与Lax-Friedrichs( LF)、MacCormark( MC)、未考虑迎风性的TVD格式及解析解进行对比。结果表明:基于迎风性的TVD格式具有高分辨率、高精度、低耗散性等优点,相比于未考虑迎风性的TVD格式,其有更强的压制性,耗散性更弱。

  3. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the thousands !)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Oehler, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 km2. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  4. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  5. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  6. Observation and modeling of the storm-induced fluid mud dynamics in a muddy-estuarine navigational channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuanyang; Roelvink, Dano; Li, Weihua; Qi, Dingman; Gu, Fengfeng

    2014-07-01

    Observations of storm-induced fluid mud dynamics have been conducted at the North Passage deepwater navigational channel (DNC) of the Yangtze Estuary in October to December 2010, during the occurrence of a cold-air front. The measurement data reveal that just after the critical wind wave event, a large amount of fine sediment was trapped in a state of fluid mud along the channel. The observed thickness of the fluid mud was up to about 1-5 m, which caused some significant economic and safety problems for shipping traffic in the Yangtze Delta area. The mechanisms and transport processes of the storm-induced fluid mud are analyzed and presented from the angles of both process-oriented and engineering-oriented methods. With the help of hydrodynamics and wave modeling, it could be inferred that the behavior of the storm-induced fluid mud event mainly depends on the overall hydrodynamic regimes and the exchanges of sediment, which is released by storm-wave agitation from adjacent tidal flats. These sediments are accumulated as fluid mud, and subsequently oscillate and persist at those locations with weaker longitudinal residuals in the river- and tide-dominated estuary. In addition, the downslope transport of fluid mud is also thought to have stimulated and worsened the fluid mud event observed in this study. Our modeling results and observations demonstrate that: (1) the transport of fluid mud is an advective phenomenon determining the central position of fluid mud layer along the channel, and it's also a tidal energy influenced phenomenon controlling the erosion and accumulation of fluid mud; and (2) both suspended particulate matter availability and local residual flow regime are of critical importance in determining the trapping probability of sediment and the occurrence of fluid mud.

  7. Red mud as an efficient, stable, and costfree catalyst for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Alper; Kurtoğlu, Samira Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Red mud, one of the mostly produced industrial wastes, was converted into a catalyst with exceptionally high and stable performance for hydrogen production from ammonia. Results showed that iron species produced after reduction of the HCl digested red mud were converted into epsilon-Fe2N during the induction period of ammonia decomposition reaction at 700 degrees C. The catalytic performance measurements indicated that the modified red mud catalyst provides a record high hydrogen production r...

  8. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Treatment of Hammer Toe%微创治疗锤状趾畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思桥; 马顺前; 高战鳌; 顾始伟; 周文; 贾晓龙; 夏涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results after minimally invasive surgery in treatment of hammer toe. Methods The clinical data of 218 patients (344 toes)with hammer toe who received the minimally invasive surgery between January 2012 and January 2016 were reviewed.There were 8 males and 210 females with an average age of 59. 80 years.215 patients (309 toes)suffered from hammer toe in second toe;29 patients (31 toes)in third toe;4 patients (4 toes)in fourth toe.215 patients (338 toes)suffered from hallux valgus at the same time.ACFAS Scoring Scale for forefoot was (41.3±10.71)before surgery.Results All patients were followed for 6~30 months.ACFAS Scoring Scale for forefoot is 88.6±5.29 after surgery.The difference had statistical significance before and after surgery (P=0.000). 90.83% patients had excellent results,7.79% good,and 1.38% bad.Conclusion Hammer toe can be corrected with less trauma,faster recovery,less complications,and more satisfaction by flexibly using a variety of minimally invasive sur-gery.%目的:评价微创手术治疗锤状趾畸形的临床疗效。方法回顾分析了西安市第一医院骨科自2012年1月至2016年1月所行218例(344趾)使用微创手术技术治疗锤状趾畸形病例,其中男性8例(16趾),女性210例(328趾);平均年龄59.80岁;第2趾发病215例(309趾),第3趾发病29例(31趾),第4趾发病4例(4趾);合并拇外翻畸形215例(338趾)。这些病例均采用微创手术技术治疗。术前美国足踝外科医生学会(American college of foot and ankle surgeons,ACFAS)前足评分平均为(41.3±10.71)分。结果全部病例均获随访,随访时间6~30个月;术后ACFAS前足评分平均为(88.6±5.29)分,进行两样本t 检验发现术前术后评分之间差异有统计学意义(P=0.000)。术后疗效评价:优198例(318趾),占90.83%;良17例(21趾),占7.79%;差3例(5趾),占1

  9. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  10. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  11. A contribution to water hammer analysis in pumped-storage power plants; Ein Beitrag zur Druckstossberechnung von Pumpspeicheranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Stefan; Jaberg, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    2013-03-01

    The operation of pumped-storage power plants induces a highly transient fluid flow in the penstock of high head water power plants. In the planning phase a reliable prediction of the transient plant behaviour in unsteady load cases such as e.g. machine start or switching load cases is necessary. Numerical simulation methods provide a tool to calculate the occurring pressure pulsations or mass oscillations as well as for the optimization of the transient behaviour. Commercial software-packages for water hammer simulations usually do not provide numerical models for a realistic calculation of complex components like surge tanks, turbines or emergency closing valves in a high head water power plant. But especially these components need to be modelled correctly in order to get a significant and reliable solution. This article shows the practice ofthe development of a custom-designed numerical model on the example of a pump turbine. (orig.)

  12. Ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments downstream of the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebercz, Orsolya; Mayes, William M; Ánton, Aron Dániel; Feigl, Viktória; Jarvis, Adam P; Gruiz, Katalin

    2012-08-01

    An integrated assessment of biological activity and ecotoxicity of fluvial sediments in the Marcal river catchment (3078 km(2)), western Hungary, is presented following the accidental spill of bauxite processing residue (red mud) in Ajka. Red mud contaminated sediments are characterised by elevated pH, elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. As, Co, Cr, V), high exchangeable Na, and induce an adverse effect on test species across a range of trophic levels. While background contamination of the river system is highlighted by adverse effects on some test species at sites unaffected by red mud, the most pronounced toxic effects apparent in Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition, Lemna minor bioassay and Sinapis alba root and shoot growth occur at red mud depositional hotspots in the lower Torna Creek and upper Marcal. Heterocypris incongruens bioassays show no clear patterns, although the most red mud-rich sites do exert an adverse effect. Red mud does however appear to induce an increase in the density of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial communities when compared with unaffected sediments and reference sites. Given the volume of material released in the spill, it is encouraging that the signal of the red mud on aquatic biota is visible at a relatively small number of sites. Gypsum-affected samples appear to induce an adverse effect in some bioassays (Sinapis alba and Heterocypris incongruens), which may be a feature of fine grain size, limited nutrient supply and greater availability of trace contaminants in the channel reaches that are subject to intense gypsum dosing. Implications for monitoring and management of the spill are discussed.

  13. Wave climate, sediment supply and the depth of the sand-mud transition: A global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D.A.; Hill, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    The influences of wave climate and sediment supply on the depths of sand-mud transitions (hSMT) are investigated. Depths of sand-mud transitions (SMT) are based on published granulometric data from surface samples gathered from 14 sites in different wave-dominated coastal environments with fluvial input, including high energy (Columbia, Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Copper, and Nepean rivers), moderate energy (Ebro, Nile, Santa Clara, Tseng-wen and Kao-ping rivers), and low energy (Po, Pescara and Tronto rivers) regimes. Geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mud percent are compiled from samples along shore-normal transects, and significant correlation is found between these two textural descriptors. Nominally, the SMT is defined as the transition from GMD > 63????m to 25% mud. This dual definition is applied to the 14 systems, and hSMT is tabulated for each system. Correlation is found between hSMT and the depth at which wave-induced bottom shear stress equals the critical erosion shear stress of the largest mud particles and also between hSMT and significant wave height. Lack of correlation between hSMT and sediment load of nearby rivers indicates either that the influence of sediment supply on depth of the sand-mud transition is small or is not adequately represented in this study. Shelf width and slope do not correlate with residuals from a formalized linear relationship between hSMT and significant wave height. The relationship between hSMT and wave climate is useful for calibration of numerical models of erosion and deposition in wave-dominated coastal environments, for prediction of seabed properties in remote or inaccessible areas, and for reconstruction of paleodepth based on facies changes from sand to mud in ancient rocks. ?? 2008.

  14. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution.

  15. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2012-12-01

    The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988). A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy) pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups) had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C. nicoyenis.

  16. Frictional Constitutive Parameters for Serpentine Mud from South Chamorro Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Ishii, T.

    2005-12-01

    The lack of great earthquakes in Izu-Ogasawara and Mariana subduction zones may be associated with low-temperature serpentinite (M. Kasahara, 2003). We have thus started experimental studies on fault constitutive properties of serpentinite gouge, using a biaxial frictional testing machine at Kyoto University. Many conically-shaped serpentine seamounts are developed behind those subduction zones. They are consisted mainly of serpentinite mud with clasts of mantle rocks and high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Previous studies imply that the serpentinite is likely to have formed at depths around 30km. We have used serpentine mud, consisted mainly of chrysotile, in the drill core from South Chamorro Seamount (ODP Leg195). Double shear frictional experiments have been conducted on about 0.3 mm thick gouge at 30 MPa normal stress, at room temperature and under wet conditions (but without pore pressure). A series of velocity-step tests were performed in velocity range from 0.015 to 150 μm/s. Rate-and-state constitutive laws were fit to experimental data, by solving specimen-apparatus interaction numerically searching for the optimum constitutive parameters. Determination of stiffness of the apparatus is essential for accurate estimate of constitutive parameters. Careful measurements have revealed that the total stiffness (9.00×107 N/m) fluctuates by up to about 10 % probably owing to loose alignment of machine elements. This induces errors in constitutive parameters depending on dc}. If dc is in the order of 10 μm or larger, the error in b value is in the order of percent or less. But if the dc is around 1 μm, it becomes tens of percents or larger. The absolute value of frictional coefficient is around 0.2, very low and consistent with that of pure chrysotile (Moore et al., 1997). a- σb value is about 0.005 for velocity steps at 0.015-0.15 μm/s, decreases with increasing slip rate down to about -0.01 for the velocity steps at 15-150 μm/s. It changes from positive to

  17. Monitoring and characterisation of sand-mud sedimentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Alan J. S.; Ibikunle, Olugbenga; McCarter, W. John; Starrs, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Estuaries and tidal inlets are often characterised by the presence of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. Knowledge of the sedimentation behaviour of sand-mud mixtures is therefore crucial to the understanding and prediction of the time-dependent structure (i.e. mixed or segregated), composition and erodibility of sediment bed deposits developing within these environments. In the current study, a series of settling column tests are conducted to investigate the hindered settling and initial bed consolidation phases of a range of sand-clay mixtures to determine the parametric conditions under which bed segregation occurs. A new, non-invasive, electrical resistivity measurement technique is employed to capture both temporal and spatial changes in the density, porosity and composition of the evolving sand-clay bed deposits, complimented by time-lapsed images of the sedimentation process within the column. The results show that the formation of segregated (sand-clay) bed layers with bed deposits is largely controlled by the initial fractional composition (i.e. relative sand and clay concentrations). Specifically, mixtures with low clay contents are shown to form well-defined (sand-clay) layer segregation within the resulting deposits, while higher clay contents result in more transitional segregation patterns or no layer segregation (for very high clay concentrations). The physical mechanisms under which these different segregation types can be generated are illustrated through predictions from an existing polydisperse hindered settling model. This model indicates that the degree of bed segregation, and time scale over which this occurs, correlates well with the difference in predicted hindered settling characteristics and upward displacements associated with the sand and clay fractions, respectively. In this regard, the new experimental dataset provides validation for the polydisperse model (for the first time), with the combined data and model predictions

  18. Bacillus vini sp. nov. isolated from alcohol fermentation pit mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kedong; Chen, Xiaorong; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Zhao, Bingqiang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM0415(T), was isolated from an alcohol fermentation pit mud sample collected from Sichuan Luzhou-flavour liquor enterprise in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-10 % (w/v) (optimum: 1.0 %), 10-50 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 3.0-10.0 (optimum: 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T), with 98.4 and 97.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0415(T) and the two reference strains were 33.3 ± 1.2 and 42.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK7 and MK8. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0415(T) (=ACCC 06413(T) = JCM 19841(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vini sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. Seasonal variability of antioxidant biomarkers in mud crabs (Scylla serrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Chainy, G B N

    2013-01-01

    Studies on oxidative stress (OS) in crustacea are widely used as ecotoxicological indices to assess the environment risk produced by the impact of several stressor and pollutants. In the present study, effects of seasonality on OS physiology markers such as antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), small antioxidant molecules (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione), oxidative stress indices (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and hydrogen peroxide) and total antioxidant capacity in hepatopancreas, gills and abdominal muscle of adult mud crab Scylla serrata, sampled from Chilika lagoon of India, were determined in winter, summer and rainy seasons. Results indicate that variations in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with relation to season were not only tissue specific but also were gender specific. The levels of OS parameters were higher in hepatopancreas in comparison to gills and abdominal muscle of the crabs in all seasons. OS indices in tissues of the crabs were mainly higher in summer season when temperature and salinity of the lagoon were high with low oxygen content. Although OS was lower in winter season and moderate in rainy season in tissues of male crabs, it was higher in gills and hepatopancreas of females in rainy season. Correlation analyses between hydrological parameters of the lagoon (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen content) and OS physiology parameters in tissues of crabs suggest that abiotic factors influence the levels of antioxidant enzymes and, thereby the OS status in a tissue and sex specific manner. Collectively, the results of the present work suggest that further investigation is warranted before using OS parameters in S. serrata as biomarkers to monitor estuarine environment as these are influenced by gender, tissue and season.

  20. Gases in Taiwan mud volcanoes: Chemical composition, methane carbon isotopes, and gas fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Hung-Chun [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); You, Chen-Feng, E-mail: cfy20@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chih-Hsien [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH{sub 4} emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH{sub 4} were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH{sub 4} (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + Ar, 1-5%) and CO{sub 2} (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH{sub 4} concentration (CH{sub 4} > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO{sub 2} up to 85%, and much lower CH{sub 4} content (<37%). High CH{sub 4} content (>90%) with low CO{sub 2} (<0.2%) are detected in the mud volcano gases collected in eastern Taiwan. It is suggestive that these gases are mostly of thermogenic origin based on C{sub 1} (methane)/C{sub 2} (ethane) + C{sub 3} (propane) and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH{sub 4} concentration variations, <2%, were detected in four on-site short term field-monitoring experiments, at Yue-shi-jie A, B, Kun-shui-ping and Lo-shan A. Preliminary estimation of CH{sub 4} emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH{sub 4} could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH{sub 4} emissions in Taiwan.

  1. Logging identification of the Longmaxi mud shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional gas reservoirs, shale gas reservoirs are not sensitive to petrophysical properties, making it much difficult to identify this kind of reservoirs with well logging technologies. Therefore, through a comparison of the logging curves of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, it is found that the mud shale on conventional log curves generally features high gamma ray, high uranium, low thorium, low kalium, relative high resistivity, high interval transit time, low neutron, low density and low photoelectric absorption cross section index, while on elements logging curves, it features an increase of silicon content and a decrease of aluminum and iron content. Based on the logging response characteristics of mud shale, the logging curves most sensitive to shale, gamma ray, neutron and density logging were selected and overlaid to identify mud shale effectively. On the basis of qualitative identification, the density logging value can identify the non-organic-rich mud shale from organic-rich mud shale, because the former has a density of 2.61–2.70 g/cm3, while the latter has a density of less than 2.61 g/cm3. The identification results agree well with the results of field gas content test, TOC experiment, and gas logging, so this study can provide reference for the logging interpretation.

  2. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Natálya I; Santos, Patrícia S C; de Souza, Talita E; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Castro, Cínthia S

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400°C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe2O3 is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe(2+) species present in Fe3O4, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction.

  3. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  4. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushil, S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Alabdulrahman, A.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Petroleum and Petrochemical Research Institute (PAPRI), PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Balakrishnan, M. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Batra, V.S., E-mail: vidyasb@teri.res.in [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Blackley, R.A. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Clapp, J.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Monaghan, A.; Pulford, I.D. [WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rico, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalisis, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio E, CU, Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58060 (Mexico); Zhou, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe{sub 3}C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  5. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Ma, Chenyan; Ma, Yibing; Zhang, Shuzhen; Lv, Jitao; Cui, Mingqi

    2011-05-01

    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd LIII-edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance.

  6. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushil, S; Alabdulrahman, A M; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Blackley, R A; Clapp, J; Hargreaves, J S J; Monaghan, A; Pulford, I D; Rico, J L; Zhou, W

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe(3)C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  7. [Performance of phosphorus removal by simulated riparian zone enhanced with red mud treating reclaimed water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Qin, Jing; Wang, Chao

    2011-04-01

    The effect of red mud and the role of plants on the phosphorus removal of the reclaimed water were studied by lab-scale simulated riparian zone, which made well use of sintered red mud with well adsorption capacity for phosphorous due to its high contents of Ca, Al and Fe oxides. The results show that the suitable ratio range of adding red mud is 2.5%-5.0%, and correspondingly, the removal of phosphorus is as high as 82%-76%, resulting in 0.22-0. 29 mg/L of effluent TP concentration and 74%-75% of SRP/TP. When the percentage of adding red mud is 2.5%, comparing with the system without plants, the performance of the system with plants improves by 4%, reaching to 86% and 0. 17 mg/L of effluent TP concentration. Obviously, red mud can be directly used in the riparian zone to enhance the phosphorus removal as a new and cheap material.

  8. Dependence of radon emanation of red mud bauxite processing wastes on heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, V; Somlai, J; Kovács, J; Szeiler, G; Kovács, T

    2009-12-30

    Natural radioactivity content, radon emanation and some other physical characteristics of red mud were investigated, so that to identify the possibilities of the safe utilization of such material as a building material additive. Based on the radionuclide concentration, red mud is not permitted to be used directly as a building material, however, mixing of a maximum 20% red mud and 80% clay meets the requirements. The main aim of this work was to determine the dependence of the emanation factor of red mud firing temperature and some other parameters. The relevant experimental procedure was carried out in two different ways: without any additional material, and by adding a known amount of sawdust (5-35 wt%) then firing the sample at a given temperature (100-1000 degrees C). The average emanation factor of the untreated dry red mud was estimated to 20%, which decreased to about 5% at a certain heat treatment. Even lower values were found using semi-reductive atmosphere. It has been concluded that all emanation measurements results correlate well to the firing temperature, the specific surface and the pore volume.

  9. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples.

  10. The red mud accident in Ajka (Hungary): characterization and potential health effects of fugitive dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelencsér, András; Kováts, Nóra; Turóczi, Beatrix; Rostási, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Imre, Kornélia; Nyirő-Kósa, Ilona; Csákberényi-Malasics, Dorottya; Tóth, Ádám; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Nagy, Attila; Nagy, Szabolcs; Ács, András; Kovács, Anikó; Ferincz, Árpád; Hartyáni, Zsuzsanna; Pósfai, Mihály

    2011-02-15

    As a result of a tragic industrial accident, a highly alkaline red mud sludge inundated settlements and agricultural areas near Ajka, Hungary on October 4, 2010. One of the major concerns about the aftermaths of the accident is the potential health effects of vast amounts of fugitive dust from red mud sediment. Thus, we studied the chemical and physical properties of particles of red mud and its respirable fugitive dust, and performed toxicity measurements. Under unfavorable meteorological conditions dry red mud sediment could emit very high amounts of respirable alkaline particles into the air. The number size distribution of fugitive dust peaks above 1 μm aerodynamic diameter; therefore, its inhalation is unlikely to affect the deep regions of the lungs. No significant mineralogical or elemental fractionation was observed between the sediment and dust, with the major minerals being hematite, cancrinite, calcite, and hydrogarnet. Although the high resuspension potential and alkalinity might pose some problems such as the irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, based on its size distribution and composition red mud dust appears to be less hazardous to human health than urban particulate matter.

  11. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-15

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 degrees C for 110min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process.

  12. Mud invasion and array laterolog responses in horizontal well based on numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanjiao; Sun, Jianmeng; Gao, Jianshen; Cui, Jiangman

    2017-02-01

    The initial formation fluid distribution and resistivity around the well will be changed while the mud-filtrate invades the permeable formation. In this paper, a simulation model of the formation is established to study the sensitivity analysis of the mud invasion and array laterolog responses in horizontal wells. According to the dynamic evolution law of water saturation distribution and the characteristics of array laterolog responses, we found that the fluid properties and formation petrophysics have a significant influence on the mud invasion profile. Combined with numerical simulation results and theoretical analysis, some conclusions are drawn that invasion characteristics exist in obvious differences in different permeable formations, filtrate flow forms symmetrical geometry in relative low permeability formation, and it generates quite complex asymmetric invasion geometries around the well in a highly permeable formation. Similarly, the research results show that the characteristics of the array laterolog responses and the differences of apparent resistivity with different investigation depths are influenced by the change of geometrical shape and saturation distribution around the well during the invasion. We can estimate the mud invasion extent according to the different characters of array laterolog. An accurate understanding of the relationship between mud invasion and array laterolog responses can provide a reliable basis for reservoir evaluation and resistivity correction in a horizontal well.

  13. Beryllium geochemistry constraints on the hydraulic behavior of mud volcanoes: the Trinidad Island case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrec-Rouelle, M.; Bourlès, D. L.; Boulègue, J.; Dia, A. N.

    2002-11-01

    To constrain Trinidad mud volcanoes hydraulic behavior, both cosmogenic 10Be ( t1/2=1.5 Myr) and 9Be concentrations have been measured in fluid and associated expelled mud. As previously evidenced [A.N. Dia, M. Castrec, J. Boulègue, P. Comeau, Trinidad Mud Volcanoes: where do the expelled fluids come from? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63 (1999) 1023-1038] from δ 18O values and Cl concentrations, 9Be concentrations in the fluids mostly reflect the mixing of two deep components: REM I and REM II. REM I (δ 18O=10.5‰, Cl≈275 mM and 9Be≈0.05 nM) has characteristics of a continental fluid while REM II (δ 18O=3‰, Cl≈350 mM and 9Be≈1 nM) results from seawater-volcanogenic derived sediment interaction. Although 10Be concentrations in the fluid samples are close to the detection limit, the distribution of both beryllium isotopes between the hydroxylamine leachable and residual phases indicates exchange reaction with fluid younger than 15 Myr. Comparison between the lowest REM I 10Be/ 9Be ratio in fluid recorded by the hydroxylamine leachable phase (TD5 mud sample) and the 10Be/ 9Be ratio representative of meteoric contribution in the recharge area (TD8 fluid sample) yields a circulation rate of REM I fluid in the Trinidad mud volcanoes of several 10 -1 m/yr.

  14. Dry Sliding Wear behaviour of Aluminium-Red mud- Tungsten Carbide Hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi Chinta, Neelima; Selvaraj, N.; Mahesh, V.

    2016-09-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste obtained during the processing of alumina by Bayer's process. An attempt has been made to utilize the solid waste by using it as the reinforcement material in metal matrix composites. Red mud received from NALCO has been subjected for sieve analysis and milled to 42 nanometers using high energy ball mill. Red mud is used as a reinforcement material in Pure Aluminium matrix composite at 2%, 4%, and 6% weight at 100 microns level as well as 42 nano meters along with 4%Tungsten carbide by weight. Micro and Nano structured red mud powders, Tungsten carbide powder and Aluminium is mixed in a V-Blender, compacted at a pressure of 40 bar and samples are prepared by conventional sintering with vacuum as medium. In this current work, dry sliding wear characteristics at normal and heat treatment conditions are investigated with optimal combination of Aluminium, Tungsten carbide and different weight fractions of micro and nano structured red mud powder.

  15. Particle characteristics and rheological constitutive relations of high concentration red mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing; QU Yuan-yuan; HU Wei-wei; CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WU Miao

    2008-01-01

    Red mud has relatively small solid particles (d50=13.02 μm) and will flow in paste form under high pressure during pipeline transport. Red mud belongs to a two-phase flow of materials with high viscosity and a high concentration of non-sedimentation, homogeneous solid-liquids. It is difficult to test its rheological properties under atmospheric pressure. Measurements such as rotational viscometry can not reflect the real state of the material when it is flowing in a pipe. Tested rheological parameters are somewhat higher than the actual values. In our investigation, grain shape, distinctive modality and grain size distribution of red mud were tested. Based on the principle of tube measurement, rheological experiments on red mud at different concentrations were carried out by using our independently developed tube-type pressure rheology test facility, and obtained constitutive equations. We conclude that red mud behaves as non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic fluid in pipe flows. Its consistency and power-law indices vary considerably with different concentrations.

  16. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF UNSTEADY FLOW BEHAVIOR IN DEEPWATER CONTROLLED MUD-CAP DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Li

    Full Text Available Abstract A new mathematical model was developed in this study to simulate the unsteady flow in controlled mud-cap drilling systems. The model can predict the time-dependent flow inside the drill string and annulus after a circulation break. This model consists of the continuity and momentum equations solved using the explicit Euler method. The model considers both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing inside the drill string and annular space. The model predicts the transient flow velocity of mud, the equilibrium time, and the change in the bottom hole pressure (BHP during the unsteady flow. The model was verified using data from U-tube flow experiments reported in the literature. The result shows that the model is accurate, with a maximum average error of 3.56% for the velocity prediction. Together with the measured data, the computed transient flow behavior can be used to better detect well kick and a loss of circulation after the mud pump is shut down. The model sensitivity analysis show that the water depth, mud density and drill string size are the three major factors affecting the fluctuation of the BHP after a circulation break. These factors should be carefully examined in well design and drilling operations to minimize BHP fluctuation and well kick. This study provides the fundamentals for designing a safe system in controlled mud-cap drilling operati.

  17. Study on Effect of Water Hammer in Space Pipe with CFD%空间管道的水锤效应的CFD研究方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席志德; 马建中; 孙磊

    2012-01-01

    The typical water hammer theory is introduced at first, and the shortcoming of typical water hammer to calculate water hammer in the space pipe is analyzed, and then the CFD method to study the effect of water hammer in space pipe is applied. If the coupling effect of the structure and the fluid is not considered, the fluid govern equation in the space pipe can use the basic fluid control equation. The result can be obtained by CFD technology, when the govern equation and the fluid state equation and the initial condition, boundary condition is obtained. The numerical effect numerical dissipation and the frequency dissipation is avoid when the case include wave process. The CFD is applied to simulate the model in related reference, and discuss the effect of the discrete format and the grid. Finally the progress of the water hammer in the pipe is discussed. The method in this paper can be used in more complex pipe system to simulate the water hammer effect.%分析经典水锤理论在计算空间管道的缺陷,介绍计算流体力学( CFD)计算空间管道中水锤的方法.如果不考虑结构和流场的耦合效应,可以用流场的基本方程作为计算空间管道水锤的控制方程,加上状态方程、初始条件及边界条件就可以借助于CFD技术求解空间管道的水锤效应.CFD计算具有波动特性的问题时,需要注意数值耗散和数值频散这2个数值效应.本研究对相关文献的实例进行CFD水锤的计算,讨论不同阶的离散格式和网格对管道水锤计算结果的影响,以及管道内水锤波产生及传播的过程.

  18. Mechanism of Demulsification of Emulsified Oil by Water Hammer Harmonic%乳化油液水击谐波破乳技术的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阁; 陈彬; 张贤明; 黄朗

    2011-01-01

    Based on the mechanism of water hammer harmonic demulsification, a mechanics equilibrium equation for dispersed droplets was established, and the demulsification experiment under water hammer harmonic was carried out. Causes and characteristics of the dispersed droplet gathering in the water hammer harmonic field due to the water hammer harmonic vibration force were investigated. The demulsification mechanism was studied based on gathering, deformation, collision and coalescence of the dispersed droplets. The movement law of the dispersed droplets in the waterhammer harmonic field was acquired. The experimental results showed that the dispersed dropletsaggregated in a certain wavelength range under action of the water hammer harmonic and frequency ofthe water hammer harmonic influenced the aggregation; along with increases of the dispersed dropletsize and the density, the gathering of the dispersed droplets was enhanced, which benefited thedemulsification.%对水击谐波破乳的机理进行了分析,在此基础上建立了分散相液滴的力学平衡方程,并进行了水击谐波破乳实验.分析和讨论了在水击谐波场中分散相液滴由于受到水击谐波强迫振动力而相互聚集的原因和特点,从分散相液滴的聚集、变形、碰撞和聚结等几个阶段探讨了水击谐波破乳的机理,得到分散相液滴在水击谐波场作用下的运动规律.实验结果表明,在水击谐波场中分散相液滴在一定波长范围相互聚集,水击谐波的频率对分散相液滴聚集有一定的影响;随分散相液滴粒径和密度的增大,分散相液滴聚集能力增强,有利于破乳.

  19. 航天器推进系统水击及其抑制方法%Research of water hammer and its suppression methods for spacecraft propulsion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏政; 彭小辉; 程玉强; 吴建军

    2012-01-01

    针对航天器推进系统充填和关机过程水击这一动力学问题,基于已建立的航天器推进系统仿真模型,开展了某型推进系统的仿真研究,并重点分析了节流孔、弯管对推进剂供应管路水击的抑制作用.研究结果表明:①在推进系统充填和关机过程中,其不同位置均出现了明显的水击现象,充填过程水击频率较低,而关机过程水击频率较高,关机过程的水击峰值压力显著高于充填过程;②节流孔可显著削弱充填过程中的压力和流量振荡,关机过程的水击需要由较小的节流孔才能有效抑制;③弯管可明显削弱充填过程中的压力和流量振荡,对流量振荡的抑制效果尤为显著,但弯管对关机过程水击的抑制效果不明显.%In order to investigate the water hammer dynamics of spacecraft propulsion system during the priming and shutdown processes,dynamic simulation of a certain unified propulsion system(UPS) was conducted firstly based on UPS simulator modeled previously.Then the water hammer suppression effect of orifice and bent pipe on the propellant supply pipeline was analyzed thoroughly.Results show that water hammer phenomena occur obviously in almost the whole propulsion system during the priming and shutdown processes.However,the frequency and the peak pressure of water hammer during the priming process are both lower than that of the shutdown process,especially the peak pressure.The results also show that both the orifice and the bent pipe can suppress the oscillation of pressure and flow rate significantly during the priming processes,but only orifice with small diameter can suppress the water hammer effectively during the shutdown process.Moreover,in contrast to their weak suppression of water hammer during the shutdown process,bent pipe can suppress the oscillation of flow rate especially effective in the priming process.

  20. 1000 MW 火电机组水击现象分析及预防处置措施%Water Hammer Analysis,Prevention and Handle in 1 000 MW Coal Combustion Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳海; 张才稳; 王广庭; 许涛; 卢双龙

    2015-01-01

    火力发电机组装机容量越大,发生水击时的危害就越大,一旦发生就可能造成设备的严重损害。结合水击发生的机理,分析了1000MW火力发电机组可能发生水击的重点部位,并结合运行实际,提出了水击的预防与应急处置措施。%The capability of coal combustion unit is larger ,the damage caused by water hammer is greater .Once it happens , may lead to serious damage to equipments .Combined with the mechanism of water hammer ,this paper analyzes the possible position of water hammer in 1 000MW coal combustion unit .It also brings forward the prevention and handle measurement of water hammer .