WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced mud hammer

  1. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  2. INTEGRATED DRILLING SYSTEM USING MUD ACTUATED DOWN HOLE HAMMER AS PRIMARY ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John V. Fernandez; David S. Pixton

    2005-12-01

    A history and project summary of the development of an integrated drilling system using a mud-actuated down-hole hammer as its primary engine are given. The summary includes laboratory test results, including atmospheric tests of component parts and simulated borehole tests of the hammer system. Several remaining technical hurdles are enumerated. A brief explanation of commercialization potential is included. The primary conclusion for this work is that a mud actuated hammer can yield substantial improvements to drilling rate in overbalanced, hard rock formations. A secondary conclusion is that the down-hole mud actuated hammer can serve to provide other useful down-hole functions including generation of high pressure mud jets, generation of seismic and sonic signals, and generation of diagnostic information based on hammer velocity profiles.

  3. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  4. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; Nameth, P.; Okelly, K.; Phillips, H.; Rollo, J.; Rupert, E.; Sykes, H.; Vitrano, E.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  5. HAMMER code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a high-accuracy reactor benchmark analysis capability is described. This capability has been incorporated into a revised and extended version of the lattice analysis program HAMMER. Previous analyses using the HAMMER program required the introduction of correction factors obtained from more rigorous treatments of various effects such as resonance capture and neutron leakage. The present version of the program will remove the ambiguities associated with the introduction of such correction factors by optionally performing the more rigorous calculations internally or by automating the correctional procedure

  6. SPT hammer energy measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, W.D.; Salomone, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    A field measurement system and procedure which measures the energy delivered by a drill rig system was developed and successfully used to study the factors which affect delivered energy. Results are presented which indicate that the energy delivered by certain drill rig systems varies widely in engineering practice. The energy delivered to the drill stem varied with the number of turns of rope around the cathead, the fall height, drill rig type, hammer type, and operator characteristics. 17 refs.

  7. Volpentest HAMMER Federal Training Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HAMMER stands for Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response, and was named for Sam Volpentest, a long-time community leader and advocate of the Hanford...

  8. Working with the "Iron Hammer"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CUTTING short her education and abandoning an annual income of several hundred thousand US dollars, Lang Ping, known to fans as the "Iron Hammer", returned from the United States to coach China’s National Women’s Volleyball Team. This news caused an enormous sensation comparable to the stir she used to raise when she won, together with her teammates, championship for

  9. Hydraulic drilling hammers and percussive equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G.; Kralev, I.

    1986-09-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of hydraulic drilling hammers in comparison to pneumatic drilling hammers (1.5-2 times higher output, 50-80% lower energy consumption). After analysis of imported hydraulic drilling hammers (Tamrock, Roxon, Montabert, Krupp), specialists of the VMGI Mining Institute developed their own hydraulic hammer - the LPT-110. A cross section of this hammer shows 4 phases of its operation; its technical features are presented in a table. The hammer weighs 130 kg. Its impact energy ranges from 14.6-17.7 kW at 2800-5500 strokes/min and 210-330 rpm. Bit diameters used with this hammer are 36 and 102 mm.

  10. Condensation induced water hammer safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gintner, M.A.

    1997-03-10

    Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

  11. Heavy impact-destructive pneumatic hammers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, G.; Vasilev, V.; Dachev, L.; Kralev, I.; Gradishki, Kh.; Koev, S.

    1987-08-01

    Describes technical features of heavy impact-destructive pneumatic hammers, manufactured in the USSR, FRG, Japan, Belgium, France and the USA. The drawbacks and advantages of foreign pneumatic hammers were envaluated by Bulgarian specialists. Bulgarian mining and construction industries make little use of foreign heavy and pneumatic hammers. Units of the Soniet PN-1300 and PN-1700 were manufactured in 1978 by workshops of the Minstroi enterprise. The Probivna Technika laboratory developed an impact-destructive heavy pneumatic hammer - the BP-1801, which was followed by three further types - the LPT-520.1, LPT-520.2, and LPT-520.3, all of which may be attached to L.P.T. hydraulic excavators, bulldozers or loaders weighing more than 8 tons. A scheme of pneumatic hammer design is given and basic parameters are described. Hammers made in Bulgaria are of valveless construction, allowing for simplicity, mechanical effectiveness and reliability. Five prototypes were successfully tested in 1985. 2 refs.

  12. Multiphase Fluid Hammer: Modeling, Experiments and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Rodríguez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of the water hammer phenomenon generated by the discharge of a pressurized liquid into a pipeline kept under vacuum conditions. This flow configuration induces several multiphase phenomena such as cavitation and gas desorption that cannot be ignored in the water hammer behavior.The motivation of this research work comes from the liquid propulsion systems used in spacecrafts, which can undergo fluid hammer effects threatening the s...

  13. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  14. Water Hammer in Pumped Sewer Mains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    This publication is intended for engineers seeking an introduction to the problem of water hammer in pumped pressure mains. This is a subject of increasing interest because of the development of larger and more integrated sewer systems. Consideration of water hammer is essential for structural...

  15. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  16. Water hammer in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, licensees of operating reactors have reported a large number of water hammer events during commercial operation. Most of these events resulted in damage to piping supports and restraints. A few cases involved small cracks or ruptures in feedwater systems. As a result, in 1977 the NRC staff initiated a review of reported water hammer events and of the potential for occurrence of water hammer in all fluid systems that could have an impact on plant safety. The objectives of the review were to identify the causes of water hammer events that could affect reactor safety and to recommend further staff actions needed to reduce the likelihood of such events

  17. Ontogeny of tool use: how do toddlers use hammers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Dorothy; Simpson, Kathy; Cummins-Sebree, Sarah; Brakke, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Hammering with a hand tool appears early in life. Skillful hammering involves accommodating movements to properties of the hammer, orienting the hammer's head to the item to be struck, and maintaining stable posture during forceful action with the arm(s). We aimed to characterize development of these abilities in young children (12, 18, and 24 months old). Children struck at a peg with a hammer held in the hand or a hammer attached to a handle. Children struck more frequently with a hard hammer surface than a soft one, and more frequently (although less accurately) with handled hammers than with non-handled hammers. Developmental differences were evident in accuracy, number of strikes, and kinematic parameters, especially with the handled object. Children's ability to use objects for forceful and accurate percussion changed measurably over the second year, in tandem with improving postural stability and greater motion of the elbow. PMID:27120556

  18. Bulk additive system reduces mud costs and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, personnel safety and environmental acceptability are high priorities in oil and gas operations. Many advances have been made, but packaging and handling of drilling mud has not changed in 35 years. In most cases, bulk barite is available, however, drilling muds are typically built from chemicals contained in 50 to 100-lb sacks or 5-gal buckets. Materials must be physically opened by rig personnel and mixed into drilling mud. Chemical exposure liability, and lifting or housekeeping related injuries associated with large quantities of packaging pose serious occupational safety risk. Figures from OSHA (1986) indicate that of 1,492 serious injury cases in Louisiana oil and gas operations, 42% were to back and lower extremities, 3% were eye injuries and 1% were chemical burns. Although exact figures are not available, experience suggests that a significant number of injuries are related to mud product physical handling. Another problem with current mud packaging is generated waste. Mud material lost because of broken sacks, inefficient transfer and as residue is unacceptable. Most mud engineers agree that 5 to 15% of mud products are lost or damaged on typical offshore jobs, depending on weather. When material that is spilled or left in packages, probably 2 to 3%, is added, the total is significant. Reusable containers for drilling mud products and manifold system design effectively eliminate these problems

  19. RESEARCH ON THE ENERGY ECONOMIZATION OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research on the driving principle and economization of energy of electro-hydraulic hammer is discussed. By means of the Balance chart of energy, the method and formulas to calculate every level efficiency and the total efficiency of steam drived hammer are formed. With the aid of actual data of plants, the actual efficiency of steam drived hammer is got. The working principle and the driving system of electro-hydraulic hammer are introduced. The procedure of energy transfer of this hammer is analyzed. The utilization ratio of energy of this type of hammer is got. It is shown that the efficiency of electro-hydraulic hammer is 7 times as much as that of steam drived hammer.

  20. Thermal Mud Molecular Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Odabasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mud (peloids, which are frequently used for thermal therapy purposes consist of organic and inorganic (minerals compounds in general. Organic structure is formed after a variety of chemical processes occurring in decades and comprise of a very complex structure. Stagnant water environment, herbal diversity, microorganism multiplicity and time are crucial players to form the structure. Data regarding description of organic compounds are very limited. Nowadays, it was clearly understood that a variety of compounds those are neglected in daily practice are found in thermal mud after GC-MS and similar methods are being frequently used. Those compounds which are biologically active are humic compounds, carboxylic acids, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. By comprising the thermal mud, these different compound groups which are related to divers areas from cosmetology to inflammation, make the thermal mud very meaningful in the treatment of human disease. In this review, it was tried to put forward the effects of several molecule groups those consisting of the thermal mud structure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 257-264

  1. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  2. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  3. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  4. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  5. Investigation of Water Hammer Effect Through Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wee Choon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper we study the condition where the water hammer effect is occurs in pipe line. Water hammer can cause the pipe to break if the pressure is high enough. The experiment will be set-up to investigate the water hammer effect in order to avoid the water hammer effect happen. The prevention of water hammer effect will be propose and prove the prevention method is successfully reduce the water hammer effect. The prevention method using is installing the bypass pipe with non-return valve. The experiment is done by capture the vibration signal by using data acquisition device and accelerometer. The pressure signal is capture after a sudden shutoff for the valve. The signal is than analyze and convert to wave speed. The project is differentiating and compares the water hammer phenomenon with different pipe material, pipe length, inlet diameter of pipe, and pressure in pipeline. From the experiment, result shown that the lower strength material pipe, smaller inlet diameter pipe, and longer pipe will deal with lager water hammer effect. Besides, the prevention method by installing by pass pipe with non-return valve of water hammer effect is proved successfully reduce the water hammer phenomenon by 33.33% of pressure.

  6. Thermal Mud Molecular Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin Odabasi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal mud (peloids), which are frequently used for thermal therapy purposes consist of organic and inorganic (minerals) compounds in general. Organic structure is formed after a variety of chemical processes occurring in decades and comprise of a very complex structure. Stagnant water environment, herbal diversity, microorganism multiplicity and time are crucial players to form the structure. Data regarding description of organic compounds are very limited. Nowadays, it was clearly understo...

  7. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  8. Failure analysis of crush hammers based on damage fracture energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun-ping; ZHOU Hong-yi; BAI Zhan-wei; YIN Yi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    To prolong the life-span of crush hammers in the pyrite concentrate workplace of Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Nantong Mining Ltd., we used a progressive damage constitutive model based on the ductile and shear damage fracture energy to analyze the hammer wear failure caused by the impact and abrasion on the hammer surface by pyrite, and carried out simulation analysis with the explicit algorithm on hammer leftovers from the plant during the process of coarser pyrite comminution. The simulation results are consistent with hammer wear failure caused by pyrite impact. Then we proposed corrective measures to prolong hammer life-span. Results of the production test in the Ganbazi Coal Preparation Plant showed that non-clearance hammers can avoid wear erosion, and adding steel bonded tungsten carbides F3002 prolonged the hammer life-span. The effect of austenitic manganese steel work-hardening was not prominent. Therefore, the hammer failure was mainly caused by superficial abrasion instead of fatigue cracks appearing when grains acted on the hardening layer.

  9. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Florida Turbine Technologies (FTT) proposes to conduct research necessary to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model for hydrostatic bearings...

  10. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  11. Study on liquid-liquid bimetal composite casting hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Shoufan; Zhou Haitao; ZhuYongchang; Wang Junfa; Yao Jia; Li Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Crusher hammers for the mineral processing industry must meet the demands of both high wear resistance at the hammer head and high impact toughness at the hammer handle. The crusher hammers made of Hadfield steel have typical y low service life of less than 40 hours. To solve the problem, a kind of bimetal crusher hammers made of high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low al oy steel (LAS) has been successful y developed by using liquid-liquid composite casting. The microstructure and composite interface bonding was analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the composite interface is metal urgical y bonded with a zigzag shape across the boundary and without unbound region or void. After heat treatment, the composite hammers have shown excellent properties. The hardness of HCCI is at least 63 HRC and its αk is greater than 3.5 J•cm-2; the hardness of LAS is greater than 35 HRC and its αk is no less than 80 J•cm-2. Diffusion of elements takes place at the interface and forms a transition region. The micro hardness increases from LAS to the interface and then to HCCI. Wear comparison was made separately between the bimetal composite hammer and a Hadfield steel hammer in two quarries of Jilin province and Liaoning province. The results showed that the liquid-liquid bimetal composite hammers did not have the fal ing off of hammer head or impact fracture phenomenon, and their service life was 3.75 times as long as that of the Hadfield steel hammers.

  12. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin, E-mail: pauzi@nm.gov.my; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri [NDT Group, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin [Material Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UiTM, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin [Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral, Jabatan Mineral dan Geosains, Ipoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  13. Wear resistance of coke-crushing hammers

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanič, Franc

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated several methods for improving the wear resistance of the 42CrMo4 tool steel used for coke-crushing hammers. The methods embraced heat treatment for obtaining different combinations of strength and ductility of the bulk steel, and surface-engineering processes comprising TiN thin-film deposition using magnetron-sputtering, nitriding and WC/Ni weld deposit surfaced by gas metal arc (GMA) method. The wear-resistance was tested under industrial conditions. Oil quenching and...

  14. Break-Dance: An Unusual Cause of Hammer Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a young break-dancer presenting with hammer syndrome. This syndrome has been correlated with many professional and recreational activities but this is, to our knowledge, the first description of hammer syndrome caused by break-dancing. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment modalities of this rare syndrome are considered

  15. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  16. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  17. Hypothenar hammer syndrome followed by systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Hatron, P Y; Hachulla, E; Devulder, B

    2000-10-01

    We describe the first case of bilateral hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) followed by systemic sclerosis (SSc) that was associated with silica exposure (Erasmus syndrome). The patient was a woman smoothing tiles in an earthenware factory who presented with bilateral digital ischemia associated with Raynaud's phenomenon. HHS was diagnosed, based on an angiographic study showing aneurysm of the ulnar arteries and occlusions of multiple digital arteries. Pulmonary silicosis was also diagnosed on pulmonary tomodensitometry. Two years later digital swelling with acroosteolysis developed. The FANA test was positive (titer 1:640) and anticentromere antibody tests were also positive. Esophageal manometry showed dysmotility of the lower esophagus. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of SSc. PMID:11036855

  18. Testing Hammer and Stanton's Reengineering Success Diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Reengineering (BPR is no longer referenced in academic literature with the regularity that it was in the heady days of the mid-nineties but it is still in use in Australian organisations. We are also changing processes radically as new software is implemented or new electronic markets are embraced and the lessons of reengineering can be applied to these process changes. This study makes three main contributions by: (1 investigating the organisational context prior to the embarkation on projects of major change in Australia, (2 testing the validity of a diagnostic proposed by Hammer and Stanton (1995 to be used when assessing the ability of organisations to succeed at reengineering, and (3 examining the impact of the organisational environment prior to change on the outcome of reengineering projects.

  19. Voice Coil Percussive Mechanism Concept for Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Avi

    2009-01-01

    A hammer drill design of a voice coil linear actuator, spring, linear bearings, and a hammer head was proposed. The voice coil actuator moves the hammer head to produce impact to the end of the drill bit. The spring is used to store energy on the retraction and to capture the rebound energy after each impact for use in the next impact. The maximum actuator stroke is 20 mm with the hammer mass being 200 grams. This unit can create impact energy of 0.4 J with 0.8 J being the maximum. This mechanism is less complex than previous devices meant for the same task, so it has less mass and less volume. Its impact rate and energy are easily tunable without changing major hardware components. The drill can be driven by two half-bridges. Heat is removed from the voice coil via CO2 conduction.

  20. Pressurized water-reactor feedwater piping response to water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry is interested in steam-generator water hammer because it has damaged the piping and components at pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Water hammer arises when rapid steam condensation in the steam-generator feedwater inlet of a PWR causes depressurization, water-slug acceleration, and slug impact at the nearest pipe elbow. The resulting pressure pulse causes the pipe system to shake, sometimes violently. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential structural effects of steam-generator water hammer on feedwater piping. This was accomplished by finite-element computation of the response of two sections of a typical feedwater pipe system to four representative water-hammer pulses. All four pulses produced high shear and bending stresses in both sections of pipe. Maximum calculated pipe stresses varied because the sections had different characteristics and were sensitive to boundary-condition modeling

  1. Physics-Based Pneumatic Hammer Instability Model Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a physics-based pneumatic hammer instability model that accurately predicts the stability of hydrostatic bearings...

  2. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  3. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment results. The OBM treatment process involves the separation of hazardous fluid (such as diesel or mineral oil from solids Due to the lean quality of the OBM, the dust separation process in the cyclone caused blockage in the cyclone. This paper suggests a remedial way by means of installation of a hammer stick in the cyclone dust collector to overcome cyclone blockage. The analysis is performed to compare the pressure drop and the dust collection efficiency in the cyclone with and without the hammer stick. The post-installation experimental results showed that hammer stick can improve the cyclone dust collection efficiency without blockage of the cyclone.

  4. Water hammer analysis using characteristics method and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudden change in the velocity of fluid induces substantial increase or decrease of pressure which are transmitted through the system with speed equal to the speed of sound. When it comes to incompressible fluid flow, pressure surges and consequences are described with process called water hammer. Water hammer can be result of normal system operation, such as valves closure, pumps and turbines turning off, turbine regulation, as well as abnormal system operation such as electrical defect or emergency shutdown of operating elements (turbine runaway). Characteristic of water hammer is dull humming sound and can result in catastrophic component effect. Because of this, possibility of water hammer appearance in the system has to be considered during the system design and determine the normal operation conditions of elements. The main aim of this paper is to analyse and to determine conditions for water hammer appearance in hydraulic systems. Mathematical model of system is presented and solution of water hammer is made in conditions of quicker closure the valve and turbine guide vanes closure. Several solution are performed according to method of characteristics and numerical simulation with specialized software packages. Also, analysis and validation of results obtained is made. (Author)

  5. Numerical solution for dynamics of pneumatic DTH hammer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Ye-gao; BU Chang-gen; LIU Bao-lin; Lian Yin-jun

    2009-01-01

    The pneumatic down-the-hole(DTH)hammer is one of the efficient equipments used in medium hard to very hard rock drilling frield,and any change in its structure design affects all performance parameters of a pneuamtic DTH hammer directly.Yet,owing to the complexity of the dynamic interaction among the components in DTH hammer systems,until now it has been difficult to obtain reliable estimates of the design parameter affects.Thus providing an design parameter optimization and the layout of dynamics behavior of DTH hammer is of great importance.This paper documents the development and solution of a computational model for the dynamic response of a pneumatic DTH hammer.The model consists of rigid piston dynamics equation and chamber thermodynamics equations.The resulting model represented by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations were computed in Visual C++ program.The developed solutions are used to perform a parametric study to illustrate the inffluence of the piston mass and supply pressure on the impact performance of DTH hammer system.

  6. The relation between angular displacement of the hammer in the double support phase and its velocity in the hammer throw

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Ruiz, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez Dávila, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    The present study arises as a response to the historical controversy about the theoretical model of the hammer throw and performance. It starts from the fluctuations produced in the tangential velocity in the centre of gravity (CG) of the hammer in each turn, accelerating during the double support phase and reducing markedly in the single support phase. Coaches have sought to prolong the double support phase, although other studies have shown that acceleration is also possible during the sing...

  7. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  8. Prevention and treatment technologies of railway tunnel water inrush and mud gushing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Pengfei Li; Siming Tian

    2013-01-01

    Water inrush and mud gushing are one of the biggest hazards in tunnel construction. Unfavorable geo-logical sections can be observed in almost all railway tunnels under construction or to be constructed, and vary in extent. Furthermore, due to the different heights of mountains and the lengths of tunnels, the locations of the unfavorable geological sections cannot be fully determined before construction, which increases the risk of water inrush and mud gushing. Based on numerous cases of water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels, the paper tries to classify water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels in view of the conditions of the surrounding rocks and meteorological factors associated with tunnel excavation. In addition, the causes of water inrush and mud gushing in combination of macro-and micro-mechanisms are summarized, and site-specific treatment method is put forward. The treatment methods include choosing a method of advance geological forecast according to risk degrees of different sec-tions in the tunnel, determining the items of predictions, and choosing the appropriate methods, i.e. draining-oriented method, blocking-oriented method or draining-and-blocking method. The treatment technologies of railway water inrush and mud gushing are also summarized, including energy relief and pressure relief technology, advance grouting technology, and advance jet grouting technology associated with their key technical features and applicable conditions. The results in terms of treatment methods can provide reference to the prevention and treatment of tunnel water inrush and mud gushing.

  9. Simulation of water hammer experiments using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid closing or opening of a valve causes pressure transients in pipelines. The fast deceleration of the liquid results in high pressure surges upstream the valve, thus the kinetic energy is transformed into the potential energy, which leads to the temporary pressure increases. This phenomenon is called water hammer. The intensity of water hammer effects will depend upon the rate of change in the velocity or momentum. Generally water hammer can occur in any thermal-hydraulic systems and it is extremely dangerous for the thermal-hydraulic system since, if the pressure induced exceeds the pressure range of a pipe given by the manufacturer, it can lead to the failure of the pipeline integrity. Due to its potential for damage of pipes, water hammer has been a subject of study since the middle of the nineteenth century. Many theoretical and experimental investigations were performed. The experimental investigation of the water hammer tests performed at Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) [1] and Cold Water Hammer experiment performed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (CWHTF) [2] should be mentioned. The UMSICHT facility in Oberhausen was modified in order to simulate a piping system and associated supports that are typical for a nuclear power plant [3]. The Cold water hammer experiment is interesting and instructive because it covers a wide spectrum of particularities. One of them is sub-cooled water interaction with condensing steam at the closed end of the vertical pipe at room temperature and corresponding saturation pressure [4]. In the paper, the capabilities of RELAP5 code to correctly represent the water hammer phenomenon are presented. Paper presents the comparison of RELAP5 calculated and measured at UMSICHT and CWHTF test facilities pressure transient values after the fast closure (opening) of valves. The analyses of rarefaction wave travels inside the pipe and condensation of vapour bubbles in the liquid column

  10. Condensation-induced water hammer - overview and own experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A condensation induced water hammer is a severe effect that has caused damages and even fatalities worldwide. This effect is not limited to the nuclear industry only. Generally it can occur in every pipe that contains water and steam (two-phase-flow). To date many experiments were executed to study this effect and to validate existing water hammer codes. But theoretically versus measured results show a very high degree of deviation. Information about those experiments was obtained by literature review. This information is presented additionally to a test facility, which has been developed in order to generate water hammers. The test device is introduced in this paper and its main functions are briefly explained. In contrast to other experiments, water hammers at the UniBw are performed under controlled conditions. Air in water is a disruptive parameter that causes vigorous deviations between the theoretical system code and the experimental measurements. As in the test device presented in this paper, deionised water without air is used, this effect is ruled out. Furthermore the inception of a water hammer is controlled by a scientist. The experimental results will characterise the dynamic response of the test device as a function of system pressure, filling degree and sub-cooling. (author)

  11. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  12. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made

  13. Development and application of simulation technique for hydrokinetic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianye ZHU; Qingyan WANG; Kun YIN; Siyi WANG

    2007-01-01

    The computer simulation is an important method for hydrokinetic hammer design. Various kinds of simulation measures with their technical characters and applications being taken during the computer aided design are enumerated. Computer simulation supports plenty of valuable references to the designer. Each type of simulation process is used to explore the exact aspect of the performance of hydrokinetic hammer and each type of simulation method has its own excellences and deficiencies. Thus the integrative simulation methods based on modern computational technology are brought forward to obtain the perfect capability of the whole product. Along with the development of computer hardware and software, various kinds of platforms have been provided to different simulation methods that can be carried out with distinct working flows. The jet flow element is the core part of the hydrokinetic hammer. We can build the ideal simulation model of it by means of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology. On the other hand, to set up the digital model of piston and hammer, the best way is to build the virtual prototype using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical system. As a result of the argumentation, we think the technique of Virtual Prototype and CFD are the prime way to process the combined computer simulation for hydrokinetic hammer.

  14. Rheological measurements on artifical muds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of three artificial muds was determined using a rotational viscometer. First some characteristics of the viscometer used were rneasured. For want of an appropriate calibration tluid, the viscosity of demineralized water was determined. The result agreed very well with what

  15. Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.

  16. Grid site testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS Monte Carlo production system, XRootD federation (FAX) and new site stress test workflows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  17. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  18. New developments with Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD): Comparison of mechanical and electronic Schmidt-hammers - towards a conversion factor for Q- and R-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Matthews, John; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    Developed as an instrument for in situ destruction-free testing of concrete hardness in construction works, the Schmidt-hammer has subsequently been introduced and applied in various fields of geomorphology and geology. In the context of investigating Late Glacial and Holocene glacier chronologies, the Schmidt-hammer has been widely used as a relative-age dating technique. Such applications have for example successfully separated moraines formed during different glacier advance periods ('Little Ice Age'-type events). Pilot studies combined Schmidt-hammer measurements with available radiocarbon ages in order to achieve age constraints. Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) combining Schmidt-hammer and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) has recently been successfully applied in Norway and New Zealand. Schmidt-hammer tests have also been used to ensure the representativeness of boulders selected for TCND sampling. Especially in mountain regions with a high "geomorphological uncertainty" with the dating of Holocene moraines the inherited multi-proxy approach of SHD owns a considerable potential for reliable investigations of Late Glacial/Holocene glacier chronologies and their palaeoclimatic interpretation. An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers especially facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes, therefore, a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible. Prior to any considerations of using the instruments interchangeably or replacing the mechanical Schmidt-hammer in future studies with the SilverSchmidt, comparative tests under field conditions need to be undertaken

  19. Adaptation of HAMMER computer code to CYBER 170/750 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptation of HAMMER computer code to CYBER 170/750 computer is presented. The HAMMER code calculates cell parameters by multigroup transport theory and reactor parameters by few group diffusion theory. The auxiliary programs, the carried out modifications and the use of HAMMER system adapted to CYBER 170/750 computer are described. (M.C.K.)

  20. Experimental research of drilling mud influence on mud motor mechanical rubber components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Ulyanova, S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of drilling mud influence on engineering parameters of mud motor mechanical rubber components. It is believed to be urgent due to increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and, consequently, the issue of increasing their exploitation is becoming current. The development test results of elastomer IRP-1226 dependent on the mud type (alkaline, hydrocarbon or salt- saturated ones) and the temperature are shown in the paper. It is proved that the type of drilling mud and the temperature in bottom-hole zone have an influence on wear of mud motors elastomers.

  1. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  2. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  3. 锤式破碎机锤头有限元模型仿真%Finite Model Simulation of Hammer Head of Hammer-type Crusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李懿

    2011-01-01

    当锤头对矿石的打击力正好发生在锤头的碰撞中心(或称打击中心)时,就可以完全消除锤头销孔与销轴之间的碰撞反力,降低锤头磨损,提高破碎机效率。利用锤头销孔所受碰撞反力的计算公式,建立锤头的有限元模型,通过对锤面上不同点打击力加载,得出了锤面上各点的所受应力,依据结果优化锤头结构尺寸。%When the hitting force of hammer head on ore is just at the collision center of the hammer head(or hitting center),the collision counterforce of hammer pin hole and shaft can be completely eliminated,thus reducing hammer wearing and enhancing crusher efficiency.Through the calculation formula of collision counterforce on hammer pin hole,the article establishes the finite model of hammer,and obtains the stress on each point of the hammer surface through loading hitting force on different points of the hammer surface.The hammer structure size is optimized according to the result.

  4. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  5. Innovative devices for testing drilling muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are ample incentives and opportunities to improve current mud-testing equipment and to develop new instruments to measure mud properties not previously tested. This paper discusses three innovative devices for testing drilling muds: the automatic shearometer unit, the high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) dynamic filtration tester, and the filter-cake penetrometer. Each discussion includes a summary of previous technology, current API standards (if available), equipment description, and selected case studies

  6. Reagent for treating drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khariv, I.Yu.; Kornyaga, F.V.; Mukhin, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for treating drilling muds containing a polymer of acryl series and alkali solution of sodium humates or potassium humates. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the flocculating capacity of the reagent it contains as the polymer of the acryl series polyacrylamide with the following ratio of ingredients (% by mass): polyacrylamide 0.5-10.0; alkali solution of sodium or potassium humates 90.0-99.5. The alkali solution of sodium or potassium humates contains 0.1-1 0/00 of sodium or potassium humates and 4-5% alkali.

  7. 33 CFR 117.177 - Mud Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud Slough. 117.177 Section 117.177 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.177 Mud Slough. The draw of the Union...

  8. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  9. Results of testing the LPT-110 heavy hydraulic hammers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralev, I.; Georgiev, G.; Uzunov, Kh.; Mitkov, K.; Rashkeev, N.

    1988-03-01

    Outlines results of tests on five prototype Bulgarian hydraulic drill hammers - the LPT-110.1, LPT-110.2, LPT-110.3, LPT-110.4 and LPT-110.6 produced by te Probivna Tekhnika laboratory. Three aspects of performance were tested by the Mintyazhmash factory laboratory in the USSR; (1) energy of individual piston blows, (2) blow frequency (blows/min), (3) consumption of working fluid. Technical characteristics are summarized in a table for piston diameters of 58 and 72 mm, stroke length of 50 mm, drilling power from 4.80-15.75 kW, hydraulic fluid working pressure 8.9-12.7 MPa, fluid consumption 80-160 dm/min. Results are presented in three tbles and one diagram. Manufacture of these hammers by the MeGIKoo association should begin in early 1989.

  10. Water hammer prediction and control: the Green's function method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Jun Xuan; Feng Mao; Jie-Zhi Wu

    2012-01-01

    By Green's function method we show that the water hammer (WH) can be analytically predicted for both laminar and turbulent flows (for the latter,with an eddy viscosity depending solely on the space coordinates),and thus its hazardous effect can be rationally controlled and minimized.To this end,we generalize a laminar water hammer equation of Wang et al.(J.Hydrodynamics,B2,51,1995)to include arbitrary initial condition and variable viscosity,and obtain its solution by Green's function method.The predicted characteristic WH behaviors by the solutions are in excellent agreement with both direct numerical simulation of the original governing equations and,by adjusting the eddy viscosity coefficient,experimentally measured turbulent flow data.Optimal WH control principle is thereby constructed and demonstrated.

  11. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  12. Nanoscale manipulation of Ge nanowires by ion hammering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romano, Lucia [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Rudawski, Nicholas G [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Holzworth, Monta R [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Jones, Kevin S [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Choi, S G [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Nanowires generated considerable interest as nanoscale interconnects and as active components of both electronic and electromechanical devices. However, in many cases, manipulation and modification of nanowires are required to realize their full potential. It is essential, for instance, to control the orientation and positioning of nanowires in some specific applications. This work demonstrates a simple method to reversibly control the shape and the orientation of Ge nanowires by using ion beams. Initially, crystalline nanowires were partially amorphized by 30 keY Ga+-implantation. After amorphization, viscous flow and plastic deformation occurred due to the ion hammering effect, causing the nanowires to bend toward the beam direction. The bending was reversed multiple times by ion-implanting the opposite side of the nanowires, resulting in straightening of the nanowires and subsequent bending in the opposite direction. This ion hammering effect demonstrates the detailed manipulation of nanoscale structures is possible through the use of ion irradiation.

  13. Dynamic simulation of hydrokinetic hammer based on virtual prototyping technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Siyi; WANG Qingyan

    2009-01-01

    This study presented the specified steps of comprehensively analyzing the hydraulic-driven hammer system with the application of the Virtual Prototype Technology. By comparing the simulation results with experimental phenomena and data, the correctness of simulation analysis conclusion is verified. Meanwhile, by means of its perfect visualization, the internal work process which can not be seen before is simulated. The mechanism of some abnormal phenomena encountered during the experiment is explained.

  14. Constitutive Equation of Superalloy In718 in Hammer Forging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A constitutive equation reflecting the flow behavior ofSuperalloy In718 during the counter-blow hammer forging process was developed in terms of the relationship of flow stress and hot-deformation parameters, such as strain, strain rate, and deformation temperature. A new simplified approach for the complex multi-pass stress-strain curves has been attempted. The simulation curves calculated by constitutive equation are consistent with the experimental data.

  15. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  16. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  17. TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOR OF MUD-PRESSURE PULSE ALONG WELL BORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan

    2007-01-01

    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  18. HAMMER FY 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcginnis, K.A.

    1996-09-23

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Program is a Congressionally funded National Program line item which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate new approaches to health and safety training and to use occupational health medical surveillance and risk analysis information to enhance the HAMMER training programs. Hanford is the pilot for this program with the HAMMER user facility as the major component.

  19. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1 Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2 Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sulfur fixation performance of Bayer red mud and up to a maximum sulfur fixation rate of 47 wt% at adding 1 wt% magnesium oxide. (3 Dolomite enhanced the sulfur fixation performances with the sulfur fixation rate of 68 wt% in optimized condition. (4 Vermiculite dust reduced sulfur dioxide during the fixed-sulfur process of modified Bayer red mud, and the desulphurization ration could reach up to a maximum 76 wt% at 950°C. (5 An advanced three-component sulfur fixation agent was investigated, in which the optimized mass ratio of modified Bayer red mud, dolomite, and vermiculite dust was 70 : 28 : 2 in order, and its sulfur fixation efficiency has reached to a maximum 87 wt% under its 20 wt% dosage in the coal.

  20. MUD BANK SLIDING IN A DAM RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.ALEXIS; D.MAROT; P.THOMAS

    2001-01-01

    Modernization and maintenance of a dam often require emptying the reservoir, a process that can cause mud bank instabilities and environmental disturbances. In order to address the problem of mud bank collapse characterization, a study is conducted in partnership with the Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique (LNH), a subsidiary of Electricité de France (EDF). This paper presents a geotechnical modeling of submerged and emergent mud bank stability and a comparison of the model results with the measurements carried out throughout the whole reservoir.

  1. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  2. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. PMID:26675542

  3. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  4. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation.

  5. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Mud volcanism of South-Caspian depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : South-Caspian depression is presented by area of large warping with thick (more than 25 km) sedimentary series and with wide development of mud volcanism. This depression is unique according to its number of mud volcanoes and intensity of their eruptions. There are about 400 mud volcanoes in this area, which is more than than a half of all volcanoes of the planet. Among them - 220 are continental, more 170 are marine, defined by different methods in the South-Caspian aquatorium. As a result of mudvolcanic activity islands, banks, shoals and underwater ridges are formed in marine conditions. Depths of underwater volcanoes vary from few meters to 900 m as the height of cones are different too. Marine mud volcanoes in geological history of Caspian sea evolution and in its recent history had and important significance. Activity of mud volcanoes in sea conditions lead to the formation of positive elements of relief. Products of ejection take part in the formation of microrelief of surrounding areas of sea bottom influence upon its dynamics and composition of bottom sediments. The carried out comparative analysis of mud volcanism manifestation both onshore and offshore showed the basic differences and similarities in morphology of volcanoes and geology-geochemical peculiarities of eruption products. New data on tectonics of mud volcanism development has been obtained over recent years. Mud volcanoes of South-Caspian depression are studied for assessment and oil-gas content of deep-seated deposits. Geochemical method of search of oil and gas deposits in mudvolcanic areas had been worked out.

  7. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia induced hydrocephalus: the water-hammer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaso Zisimopoulou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is a clinical entity associated rarely with obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a 48-year old male with a profound dilatation of the ventricular system due to a dolichoectatic basilar artery, as appeared in imaging studies. The patient suffered from longstanding hydrocephalus and presenile dementia. The underlying mechanism for obstructive hydrocephalus due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is considered to be both a water-hammer effect and a direct compression of adjacent structures. We suggest prompt surgical intervention upon diagnosis as a first choice treatment in order to avoid further complications.

  8. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, BJ; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  9. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  10. Hammer events, neutrino energies, and nucleon-nucleon correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation measurements depend on a difference between the rate of neutrino-nucleus interactions at different neutrino energies or different distances from the source. Knowledge of the neutrino energy spectrum and neutrino-detector interactions are crucial for these experiments. Short range nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei (SRC) affect properties of nuclei. The ArgoNeut liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (lArTPC) observed neutrino-argon scattering events with two protons back-to-back in the final state ("hammer" events) which they associated with SRC pairs. The MicroBoone lArTPC will measure far more of these events. We simulate hammer events using two simple models. We use the well-known electron-nucleon cross section to calculate e-argon interactions where the e- scatters from a proton, ejecting a pi+, and the pi+ is then absorbed on a moving deuteron-like $np$ pair. We also use a model where the electron excites a nucleon to a Delta, which then deexcites by interacting with a second nucle...

  11. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for Local Site Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhler, M.; Elmsheuser, J.; Hönig, F.; Legger, F.; Mancinelli, V.; Sciacca, G.

    2015-12-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimizations of the HammerCloud web interface and gives an overview of typical use cases.

  12. Qualification of the new version of HAMMER computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (HTEC) code were tested with a great number of diferent type of experiments. This experiments covers the most important parameters in neutronic calculations, such as the cell geometry and composition. The HTEC code results have been analysed and compared with experimental data and results given by the literature and simulated by HAMMER and LEOPARD codes. The quantities used for analysis were Keff and the following integral parameters: R28 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 238U captures; D25 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 235U fission; D28 - ratio of 238U fissions to 235U fissions; C - ratio of 238U captures to 235U fissions; RC02 - ratio of epicadmium-to-subcadmium 232Th capture. The analysis shows that the results given by the code are in good agreement with the experimental data and the results given by the other codes. The calculation that have been done with the detailed ressonance profile tabulations of plutonium isotopes shows worst results than that obtained with the ressonance parameters. Almost all the simulated cases, shows that the HTEC results are closest to the experimental data than the HAMMER results, when one do not use the detailed ressonance profile tabulations of the plutonium isotopes. (Author)

  13. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  14. Evaluation of water hammer occurrence in nuclear power plants: technical findings relevant to unresolved safety issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, which includes responses to public comments, summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. This report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  15. A sedimentological approach for an optimal resolution of drilling mud losses; Approche sedimentologique pour une resolution optimale des problemes de pertes de boues de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kherfellah, N.; Ait Salem, H. [Sonatrach, Centre de Recherche et Developpement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Bekkour, K. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides et des Solides, UMR ULP-CNRS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Benhadid, S. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Institut de Physique, Lab. de Rheologie, El Alia (Algeria)

    2002-07-01

    In spite of the geological knowledge accumulated on more than 800 uninterruptedly cored wells during the forty last years, the drilling of the 81/2'' diameter phase of Hassi-Messaoud oil field (Algeria) remains delicate because of excavation and drilling mud losses problems. The main objective of this work was to study the problem of drilling mud losses by the use of a sedimentological approach and to localize the producing levels of the subjacent Cambrian. For that purpose, the fast and slow drilling advance zones in the Triassic sedimentary sequences were localized in order to establish distribution maps. Thus, it was highlighted: - that the fast advance zones correspond to the sectors without mud losses (argillaceous facies of the flood plain), whereas the zones with slow advance correspond to the significant mud losses sectors (sandy facies of the fluviatile bars); - that under the fast advance zones of the Triassic series, potential hydrocarbon reservoirs are located. (authors)

  16. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. (Rhoene-Poulenc Inc. (France))

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  17. Morphometric, acoustic and lithofacies characterization of mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean: Toward a new approach and classification to constrain the regional distribution and activity of mud volcanoes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, Mary; Sébastien, Migeon; Elia, d'Acremont; Alain, Rabaute; Silvia, Ceramicola; Daniel, Praeg; Christian, Blanpied

    2015-04-01

    On continental margins, several types of seabed features recording fluid circulation within the sediment column have already been recognized, including mud volcanoes, pockmarks, carbonates pavements and/or mounds and brine lakes. They can be associated to (a) thermogenic or biogenic fluids migrating along tectonic conduits, (b) dissociation of gas hydrates, or (c) dewatering of turbidite channels and mass-transport deposits. Although fluid-escape structures have been analyzed for the last two decades using diverse and complementary data, many questions are still debated about their morphologies/architectures, origin and formation, their temporal dynamic and the impact of the geodynamical context on their location/formation. In the Eastern Mediterranean, fluid seepages and in particular mud volcanoes, were identified in three geodynamical contexts including active margins (Calabrian accretionary prism and Mediterranean ridge) and highly-sedimented passive margin (Nil deep-sea fan). In this study, we follow a new approach allowing to (1) better quantify a broad set of morphological parameters that characterize the seabed fluid-escape structures, (2) propose an advance classification of these structures, the final goal being to test whether one or several morphological types of fluid-escape structures can be characteristic of one tectonic and sedimentological setting in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. To achieve this classification based on geophysical and geological analysis (morphometry, reflectivity, seismic r and lithofacies features), we used a broad homogenous dataset at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean, including multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, 2D/3D seismic reflection, and sediment cores description and analysis. More than 500 mud volcano-like structures were identified based on one criterion or on the association of several criteria, while 40 of them were clearly proved to be mud volcanoes by coring. These structures exhibit different

  18. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. H.; Fang, H. Y.; Luo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers.

  19. Steam condensation induced water hammer simulations for different pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present theoretical results for different kind of pipelines. We analyze the process with the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. At first, we present calculations for various pipelines in the VVER-440-312 type nuclear reactor. Our recent calculation clearly shows that the six conditions of Griffith are only necessary conditions for CIWH but not sufficient. As second results we performed calculations for various geometries and compare with the theory of Chun. (author)

  20. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Francesco Giovanni; Mancinelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, and CMS experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionality has been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This paper summarizes the different developments and optimiz...

  1. Size-reduction and sorting behavior in sieve hammer mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallnus, Harald

    Experiments were performed in a continuously operating sieve hammer mill to determine the duration of presence of the material to be ground in the size reduction machine. The test stand, analysis techniques, evaluation methods, and selection and production of samples are described. It is shown that the duration of presence of the material in the grinding space of the mill is approximately comparable to that in an ideal mixer. The type of sieve casing has an essential effect on the duration of presence. A combined model for the description of the size reduction and sorting behavior which allows the determination of the process coefficients (size reduction speed, sorting speed, mass transition coefficient) and their dependence on the different parameters, was developed.

  2. Development of a system of programs HAMMER - ORIGEN - 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a system of programs (Hamor-2) to calculate precision inventory of LWR reactors is presented. The Hamor-2 code generates with the Hammer-technion code the four (4) energy groupe effective cross section of the actinides: U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242. Hamor-2 collapses the four group energy effective cross section to one group energy effective cross section. Hamor-2 calculates with origen-2 the new concentrations for the actinides using the one group energy effective cross section. Two PWR reactors were analised. (HBR, KWO). The discrepancy between the final actinides conentration results calculated by Hamor-2 and the results of measures finded in the references were calculated. That discrepancies have been compared with the discrepancy between : the final actinide concentration results calculated by Origen-2 and some measured results finded in the references. (E.G.)

  3. Improved ATLAS HammerCloud Monitoring for local Site Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Boehler, Michael; The ATLAS collaboration; Hoenig, Friedrich; Legger, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Every day hundreds of tests are run on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb experiments in order to evaluate the performance and reliability of the different computing sites. All this activity is steered, controlled, and monitored by the HammerCloud testing infrastructure. Sites with failing functionality tests are auto-excluded from the ATLAS computing grid, therefore it is essential to provide a detailed and well organized web interface for the local site administrators such that they can easily spot and promptly solve site issues. Additional functionalities have been developed to extract and visualize the most relevant information. The site administrators can now be pointed easily to major site issues which lead to site blacklisting as well as possible minor issues that are usually not conspicuous enough to warrant the blacklisting of a specific site, but can still cause undesired effects such as a non-negligible job failure rate. This contribution summarizes the different developm...

  4. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  5. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 董曾南; 柴宏恩; 韩军

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow’s viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  6. Computing equations of water hammer in pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flow and their verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In engineering practice, single-phase water hammer models are still employed to analyze the water hammer of solid-liquid flow. According to the characteristics of solid-liquid flow, continuity equations and momentum equations of pseudo-homogeneous flows are deduced, and a pseudo-homogeneous water hammer model is thus built and verified with experiment results. The characteristics of solid-liquid flow's viscosity, resistance and wave velocity are considered in the model. Therefore, it has higher precision than a single-phase model.

  7. Application of a Numerical Model of Solid-Liquid Hammer in Pipeline Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiPengcheng; WuBaosheng; ZhouJianjun; HanWenliang

    2004-01-01

    The water hammer in pipelines for the transportation of plumbum and Zn mining tailing, supplied by centrifugal pumps, was studied by a numerical model of water hammer for pseudo-homogeneous solid-liquid flows. The simulation results were in good agreement with earlier experiments. The simulation result of air tanks installed on pipelines proved that the installation of air tanks is the most effective measure to reduce the water hammer associated with return flow caused by rapid closing of check valves. Other effective measures include the use of longer check-valve closure time or installation of the relief valves on the lower segments of the pipelines.

  8. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the...

  9. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  10. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  11. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud

  12. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually correspond

  14. About the mud volcano's roots on isotope - mineralogical data. Example of the Bahar mud volcano, Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : In this paper on the isotopic carbon composition data, stage and formation temperature of bassanite mineral determined in the products of the Baharmud volcano activity is made estimation of depth and stratigraphic location of its hearth. Mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan have been investigated for many decades, but the problem on depth location, products of their activity up to now is still debatable. The most objective estimation of the stratigraphic depth of solid products of mud volcanoes activity is made on the basis of paleontological researches. Accrding to the studiesof isotopic hydrocarbon composition of oil and organic matter of rocks and oil-rock correlation was determined that part of studied mud volcanoes bring out to the surface Pliocene-Miocene oil, others mainly Paleogene oil. Many scientists have different opinions about the stratigraphic location of hydrocarbon gases that plays a great role in mud volcanism processes.

  15. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  16. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  17. Teaching Ecological Concepts with Mud Dauber Nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robert W.; Matthews, Janice R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that mud dauber nests--which are widely available, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use--offer a novel and highly motivating way to teach ecological concepts to life science students at many grade levels. Presents background information for teachers, details classroom-tested methods for nest dissection, provides keys to nest contents, and…

  18. Effects of air vessel on water hammer in high-head pumping station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of air vessel on water hammer process in a pumping station with high-head were analyzed by using the characteristics method. The results show that the air vessel volume is the key parameter that determines the protective effect on water hammer pressure. The maximum pressure in the system declines with increasing air vessel volume. For a fixed volume of air vessel, the shape of air vessel and mounting style, such as horizontal or vertical mounting, have little effect on the water hammer. In order to obtain good protection effects, the position of air vessel should be close to the outlet of the pump. Generally, once the volume of air vessel is guaranteed, the water hammer of a entire pipeline is effectively controlled

  19. Novel Highly Efficient Compact Rotary-Hammering Planetary Sampler Actuated by a Single Piezoelectric Actuator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We had two objectives in this task: 1. Develop effective single low-mass, low-power piezoelectric drive that can actuate rotary-hammer samplers through walls. 2....

  20. Koolitamine : andmisrõõm või edevus? / Ants Vasar, Arne Kaasik, Hele Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vasar, Ants

    2007-01-01

    Küsimusele, miks olete hakanud ettevõtjana koolitajaks, vastavad ASi Viru Keskus juhatuse liige Ants Vasar, Columbus IT Partner Eesti ASi pertner ja nõukogu esimees Arne Kaasik ja Amserv Grupi finantsdirektor Hele Hammer

  1. A wireless sensor system for a biofeedback training of hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Wan, Bingjun; Li, Hua; Shan, Gongbing

    2016-01-01

    Hammer-throw has a long-standing history in track and field, but unlike some other sports events, men's hammer throw has not seen a new world record since 1986. One of the possible reasons for this stagnation could be the lack of real-time biomechanical feedback training. In this study, we proposed to establish scientifically described training targets and routes, which in turn required tools that could measure and quantify characteristics of an effective hammer-throw. Towards this goal, we have developed a real-time biomechanical feedback device-a wireless sensor system-to help the training of hammer-throw. The system includes two sensors-an infrared proximity sensor for tracing the hip vertical movement and a load cell for recording the wire tension during a hammer-throw. The system uses XBees for data transmission and an Arduino processor for data processing and system control. The results revealed that the wire tension measurement could supply sufficient key features for coaches to analyze hammer-throw and give real-time feedback for improving training efficiency. PMID:27610314

  2. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  3. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  4. A wireless sensor system for a biofeedback training of hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Wan, Bingjun; Li, Hua; Shan, Gongbing

    2016-01-01

    Hammer-throw has a long-standing history in track and field, but unlike some other sports events, men's hammer throw has not seen a new world record since 1986. One of the possible reasons for this stagnation could be the lack of real-time biomechanical feedback training. In this study, we proposed to establish scientifically described training targets and routes, which in turn required tools that could measure and quantify characteristics of an effective hammer-throw. Towards this goal, we have developed a real-time biomechanical feedback device-a wireless sensor system-to help the training of hammer-throw. The system includes two sensors-an infrared proximity sensor for tracing the hip vertical movement and a load cell for recording the wire tension during a hammer-throw. The system uses XBees for data transmission and an Arduino processor for data processing and system control. The results revealed that the wire tension measurement could supply sufficient key features for coaches to analyze hammer-throw and give real-time feedback for improving training efficiency.

  5. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  6. Impact of pipes networks simplification on water hammer phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali A M Gad; Hassan I Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Simplification of water supply networks is an indispensible design step to make the original network easier to be analysed. The impact of networks’ simplification on water hammer phenomenon is investigated. This study uses two loops network with different diameters, thicknesses, and roughness coefficients. The network is fed from a boundary head reservoir and loaded by either distributed or concentrated boundary water demands. According to both hydraulic and hydraulic plus water quality equivalence, three simplification levels are performed. The effect of demands’ concentration on the transient flow is checked. The transient flow is initialized by either concentrated or distributed boundary demands which are suddenly shut-off or released. WHAMO software is used for simulation. All scenarios showed that both hydraulic equivalence and demands’ concentration simplifications increase the transient pressure and flow rate. However, hydraulic plus water quality equivalence simplification produces an adverse effect. Therefore, simplifications of the networks should be done carefully. Also, it was found that pump shut-off gives the same trend of valve shut-off or release.

  7. Deep and shallow sources for the Lusi mud eruption revealed by surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzaei, Manoochehr; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Lusi mud eruption, in East Java, Indonesia, began in May 2006 and continues to the present. Previous analyses of surface deformation data suggested an exponential decay of the pressure in the mud source but did not constrain the location, geometry, and evolution of the possible source(s) of the erupting mud and fluids. To map the surface deformation, we employ multitemporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar and analyze a well-populated L-band data set acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) between May 2006 and April 2011. We then apply a time-dependent inverse modeling scheme. Volume changes occur in two regions beneath Lusi, at 0.3-2.0 km and 3.5-4.75 km depth. The cumulative volume change within the shallow source is ~2-3 times larger than that of the deep source. The observation and model suggest that a shallow source plays a key role by supplying the erupting mud, but that additional fluids do ascend from depths >4 km on eruptive timescales.

  8. Hypothenar hammer syndrome from ice hockey stick-handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed A; McDonald, Joey; Tittley, Jacques G

    2013-11-01

    Ulnar artery thrombosis and hypothenar hammer syndrome are rare vascular complications that could potentially occur with repeated blows or trauma to the hand. Although initially reported as an occupational hazard among laborers and craftsmen, it has been observed more recently among recreationalists and athletes. Until now, it has never been reported as a complication in ice hockey players. In this case report, a 26-year-old Canadian professional ice hockey player presented with acute dominant right hand paleness, coolness, and pain with hand use. The patient used a wooden hockey stick with a large knob of tape at the end of the handle, which he regularly gripped in the palm of his right hand to help with face-offs and general stick-handling. Sonographic evaluation demonstrated no arterial flow in the distal right ulnar artery distribution, and ulnar artery occlusion with no aneurysmal degeneration was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiogram. Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy was initiated, and subsequent serial angiograms demonstrated significant improvement in distal ulnar artery flow as well as recanalization of right hand deep palmar arch and digital arteries. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was maintained on therapeutic anticoagulation for 3 months prior to returning to playing ice hockey professionally, but with a padded glove and no tape knob at the handle tip. This case highlights a unique presentation of hockey stick-handling causing ulnar artery thrombosis that was likely from repeated palmar hypothenar trauma. Appropriate diagnostic imaging, early intraarterial thrombolysis, and postoperative surveillance and follow-up were crucial for the successful outcome in this patient. PMID:23988538

  9. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized. PMID:27214002

  10. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  11. Theoretical and experimental research of hammer forging process of RIM from AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gontarz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of theoretical analysis and experimental tests of hammer forging process of rim part from AZ31 magnesium alloy are presented in this paper. On the basis of numerical simulation results, the analysis of limiting phenomena was made. These phenomena include: possibility of overlapping presence, not filling of die impression, overheating of material and cracks. The results of theoretical analysis provided the support for planning of experimental tests in industrial conditions. Forging tests were conducted in one of Polish forming plants, applying steam-air hammer of blow energy 63 kJ. On the basis of experimental verification, it was stated that it is possible to obtain rim forging from AZ31 alloy of assumed quality in the hammer forging process.

  12. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  13. Water hammer in valves. Solutions to assure stability; Druckstoesse in Ventilen. Loesungen fuer die Standfestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stork, Erhard [ARI-Armaturen Albert Richter GmbH und Co. KG, Holte-Stukenbrock (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The occurence of water hammer in fluid-conducting pipelines cannot be totally excluded, since their causes differ greatly in many cases. The effects of such surges on pipeline fittings and elements, and on valves, in particular, is the focus of this article, starting from the physically greatly differing types of hammer developments and progressing to the potentials for their system-orientated avoidance. An examination of various design provisions intended to improve valves' ability to withstand water hammer and enhance stability then follows. The effectiveness of the design details described is demonstrated by the extensive pressure-surge tests cited, which were performed at the Fraunhofer UMSICHT Institute in Oberhausen. (orig.)

  14. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel

  15. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  16. Water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows in hydraulic hoisting for ocean mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文亮; 王光谦; 吴保生; 刘少军; 邹伟生

    2002-01-01

    The particles of polymetallic nodules in hydraulic hoisting flows that are used for mining in deep sea are rather coarse, therefore their flow velocity is smaller than that of the surrounding water. The characteristics of solid-liquid flows such as their density, concentration, elastic modulus and resistance were discussed. The wave propagation speed and the continuity and momentum equations of water hammer in coarse-grained solid-liquid flows were theoretically derived, and a water hammer model for such flows was developed.

  17. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    This innovation comprises a compact drill that uses low-axial preload, via vibrations, that fractures the rock under the bit kerf, and rotates the bit to remove the powdered cuttings while augmenting the rock fracture via shear forces. The vibrations fluidize the powered cuttings inside the flutes around the bit, reducing the friction with the auger surface. These combined actions reduce the consumed power and the heating of the drilled medium, helping to preserve the pristine content of the produced samples. The drill consists of an actuator that simultaneously impacts and rotates the bit by applying force and torque via a single piezoelectric stack actuator without the need for a gearbox or lever mechanism. This reduces the development/fabrication cost and complexity. The piezoelectric actuator impacts the surface and generates shear forces, fragmenting the drilled medium directly under the bit kerf by exceeding the tensile and/or shear strength of the struck surface. The percussive impact action of the actuator leads to penetration of the medium by producing a zone of finely crushed rock directly underneath the struck location. This fracturing process is highly enhanced by the shear forces from the rotation and twisting action. To remove the formed cuttings, the bit is constructed with an auger on its internal or external surface. One of the problems with pure hammering is that, as the teeth become embedded in the sample, the drilling efficiency drops unless the teeth are moved away from the specific footprint location. By rotating the teeth, they are moved to areas that were not fragmented, and thus the rock fracturing is enhanced via shear forces. The shear motion creates ripping or chiseling action to produce larger fragments to increase the drilling efficiency, and to reduce the required power. The actuator of the drill consists of a piezoelectric stack that vibrates the horn. The stack is compressed by a bolt between the backing and the horn in order to

  18. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene over red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, S; Sastre, H; Díez, F V

    2001-01-29

    Hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene was investigated using red mud (RM, a by-product in the production of alumina by the Bayer process) as the catalyst. Use of RM as a hydrodechlorination catalyst is of interest from an industrial point of view because its cost is much lower than that of commercial catalysts. Hydrodechlorination reactions were carried out in a continuous fixed bed reactor. The influence of catalyst sulfiding, temperature (50-350 degrees C), pressure (2-10MPa), hydrogen flow rate and the presence of solvents (hexane, heptane, benzene and toluene) on the reaction was studied. Sulfided red mud is active as a hydrodechlorination catalyst, conversion of tetrachloroethylene increases as the pressure and temperature increase. The solvents did not influence the conversion, nor were side reactions involving the solvent observed. The kinetics of the reaction was studied at 350 degrees C and 10MPa, conditions for which mass transfer limitations were negligible. A good fit of a Langmuir-Hinselwood model to the experimental data was obtained.

  19. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  20. Optimizing the expenditure of drilling mud in different drilling methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strugovets, Ye.T.; Agishev, F.M.; Davletbayev, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    During drilling the drilled out rock weights the drilling mud moving in the annular space of a well and in such a way increases the differential pressure in the well and stratum system. Based on a criterion of a minimum of differential pressure, the optimal expenditure of drilling mud is (21 to 25) times 10exp-3 cubic meters per second.

  1. Consolidation theory and rheology of mud: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of project Strength evolution of soft consolidating mud layers, financially supported by the Netherlands Foundation of Technology, a literature survey on consolidation theory and rheological modelling of mud was carried out. A consolidation theory, focused on the Gibson equation (Gi

  2. Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch(Ipomoea Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WamiEmenikeNyeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the search for suitable local alternatives as additives in the manufacture of drilling muds which is an essential entity in the exploration of oil and gas, some vital considerations must be put in place such as cost and environmental effect. This study focuses on the suitability of locally processed potato starch as a viscosifier and fluid loss agent in drilling mud. Comparative analysis of properties obtained from the prepared potato starch mud and that formulated from Polyanionic cellulose (PAC were carried out. Results from this investigation showed that rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point of the potato starch mud increased when the content of both viscosifiers were equal at 1.0g/ 316.4ml of water. Plastic viscosity also increased by 13.6% when potato starch concentration increased by 50%. Also, a combination of PAC and potato starch at a ratio of 1:1 to 0.5:1.5 gave a fluid loss of 7.1 - 7.7 ml which were very close to that of the standard mud at 6.8ml. the pH, mud weight and specific gravity of the formulated mud samples ranged from 7.0 - 9.0, 7.0 - 9.1 and 0.83 - 1.09 respectively, which were all in line with the standard mud specifications.

  3. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  4. Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2006-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.

  5. Peloid Mud: a multi-step maturation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is understanding the process involved in the maturation of artificial peloid mud commonly use in thermal spa. I prepare a standard protocol for analysis: XRD, chemical, heat capacity and heavy metal sequential extraction . I also prepare 12 artificial peloid mud following the procedure describe in Veniale et al. (2004) mixing natural thermal waters form the Lazio region with a common clay also collected in Lazio Region with a ration of 1:1 in weight and put this mud in a sealed box at 40 °C for all the maturation process without remixing. Each peloid mud was sampled at one, three and six month of maturation, dried at 60 °C degree and milled for analysis. Each mud was compared with the result at one, three and six month to identify the major different of parameters at different time of maturation.

  6. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  7. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  8. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  9. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  10. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    of fluid mud. Nevertheless, none of them could be proved or disproved with field data. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the validity of some of the prevailing hypothesis on its occurrence such as subterranean conduit flow of mud...

  11. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  12. Water hammer in the pump-rising pipeline system with an air chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Sang-Gyun; LEE Kye-Bock; KIM Kyung-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Water hammer following the tripping of pumps can lead to overpressure and negative pressure. Reduction in overpressure and negative pressure may be necessary to avoid failure, to improve the efficiency of operation and to avoid fatigue of system components. The field tests on the water hammer have been conducted on the pump rising pipeline system with an air chamber. The hydraulic transient was simulated using the method of characteristics. Minimizing the least squares problem representing the difference between the measured and predicted transient response in the system performs the calibration of the simulation program. Among the input variables used in the water hammer analysis, the polytropic exponent, the discharge coefficient and the wave speed were calibrated. The computer program developed in this study will be useful in designing the optimum parameters of an air chamber for the real pump pipeline system. The correct selection of air chamber size and the effect of the inner diameter of the orifice to minimize water hammer have been investigated by both field measurements and numerical modeling.

  13. Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for Water Hammer Flows in Pumping Supply Systems with Air Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Sun; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Tae Uk Jang

    2015-01-01

    To solve water hammer problems in pipeline systems, many numerical simulation approaches have been developed. This paper improves a flux vector splitting ( FVS) scheme whose grid is the same as the fixed⁃grid MOC scheme. The proposed FVS scheme is used to analyze water hammer problems caused by a pump abrupt shutdown in a pumping system with an air vessel. This paper also proposes a pump⁃valve⁃vessel model combining a pump⁃valve model with an air vessel model. The results show that the data obtained by the FVS scheme are similar to the ones obtained by the fixed⁃grid method of characteristics ( MOC ) . And the results using the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model are almost the same as the ones using both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model. Therefore, it is effective that the proposed FVS scheme is used to solve water hammer problems and the pump⁃valve⁃vessel model replaces both the pump⁃valve model and the air vessel model to simulate water hammer flows in the pumping system with the air vessel.

  14. A Universal Rig for Supporting Large Hammer Drills: Reduced Injury Risk and Improved Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, David; Barr, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Drilling holes into concrete with heavy hammer and rock drills is one of the most physically demanding tasks performed in commercial construction and poses risks for musculoskeletal disorders, noise induced hearing loss, hand arm vibration syndrome and silicosis. The aim of this study was to (1) use a participatory process to develop a rig to support pneumatic rock drills or large electric hammer drills in order to reduce the health risks and (2) evaluate the usability of the rig. Seven prototype rigs for supporting large hammer drills were developed and modified with feedback from commercial contractors and construction workers. The final design was evaluated by laborers and electricians (N=29) who performed their usual concrete drilling with the usual method and the new rig. Subjective regional fatigue was significantly less in the neck, shoulders, hands and arms, and lower back) when using the universal rig compared to the usual manual method. Usability ratings for the rig were significantly better than the usual method on stability, control, drilling, accuracy, and vibration. Drilling time was reduced by approximately 50% with the rig. Commercial construction contractors, laborers and electricians who use large hammer drills for drilling many holes should consider using such a rig to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, fatigue, and silicosis. PMID:26005290

  15. Library generation and tests for the HAMMER system from the ENDF/B-IV data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications made to a number of programs belonging to the HAMMER system in order to process data from ENDF/B-IV are presented. An alternate scheme of representing the resonance region by means of extensive tabulation of profiles is made available for selected materials. Numerical examples illustrate comparisons of the results obtained with these libraries against those from the literature. (Author)

  16. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  17. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  18. Influence of pin and hammer mill on grinding characteristics, thermal and antioxidant properties of coriander powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, P; Singh, K K; Sharma, Alka; Choudhary, A K; Saxena, S N

    2015-12-01

    In present study, influence of grinding (hammer and pin mills) and moisture content (range: 6.4-13.6 % dry basis) on the quality traits of coriander powder were investigated. These include grinding parameters, colour parameters, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, glass transition temperature, essential oil, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging (%) of coriander powder. For coriander seed, the geometric properties such as major, medium, minor dimensions, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and volume of coriander seeds increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). For coriander powder, the grinding parameters such as average particle size, volume surface mean diameter and volume mean diameter increased significantly with increasing moisture (6.4-13.6 % db). With the grinding method, the colour attributes of coriander powder such as L-value, a-value, b-value, hue angle and browning index varied significantly. It was observed that the specific heat followed second order polynomial relationship with temperature and moisture whereas thermal conductivity varied linearly with temperature and moisture content. The variation of glass transition temperature with moisture can be best represented in quadratic manner. Total flavonoid content (mg QE/g crude seed extract) and DPPH scavenging % activity of coriander powder is significantly affected by grinding methods. A lower value of specific heat was observed for hammer ground coriander powder as compared to pin mill ground coriander powder. The thermal conductivity of hammer mill ground coriander powder was higher as compared to pin mill ground coriander. It was observed that hammer mill yields more fine coriander powder in comparison to pin mill. The browning index was more in hammer mill ground coriander powder. PMID:26604351

  19. Geotechnical properties of the Cassino Beach mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudio R. R.; Alves, Antonio M. L.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the marine soils properties, together with hydrodynamic and climatic data, plays an important role for a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of sandy and muddy coasts. This paper deals with reporting and basic interpretation of two campaigns of exploration and characterization of the mud of Cassino Beach, southern Brazil, carried out during the years of 2004 and 2005. Samples were obtained by means of cores collected at some locations offshore, and were submitted to various laboratory geotechnical tests, including determination of the physical index, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and shear resistance by both triaxial and shear vane tests. Results confirm the existence of a very soft soil deposit offshore Cassino Beach, highly plastic, compressible, and viscous, forming an important database for further studies.

  20. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  1. Study on Influence of Mud Pollution on Formation Fracture Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mud pollution may change the mechanical properties of rock during oil and gas drilling process, which affects the prediction of fracture pressure, leads to the failure of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to study influence of mud pollution on formation fracture pressure to improve the forecasting accuracy. The mud pollution has influences on the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio of rock by the mud pollution experiment, the core microstructure is observed around the mud pollution. Based on the experiment and research, the effects of mud pollution on the fracturing pressure are studied by finite element software system ANSYS, the factors such as pollution depth, perforation length and Poisson’s ratio of polluted area are taken into account. The result of the experiment indicated that the modulus of elasticity of rock is reduced and the Poisson’s ratio of rock is increased by the mud pollution. Through computing and analyzing, it can be concluded that increases in pollution depth and Poisson’s ratio can lead to a vast increase in formation fracturing pressure. A calculation example is presented and the results show that the results of this research can provide valuable guidance to the designers of hydraulic fracturing treatment.

  2. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. J.; Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Aliyev, C.; Matsuzaki, H.; Jull, A. J. T.

    2013-01-01

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for 10Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The 10Be concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The 10Be and 9Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the 10Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low 10Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of 40K and U-Th-series radionuclides (234Th, 210Pb, 226Ra, and 228Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the 10Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  3. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  4. Extraction of Rare Earth from Black Weathering Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A black weathering mud containing rare earth in Southwest China contains about 3%~7% RE2O3. RE in the weathering mud mainly exists on the amorphous Mn-Fe oxide, which can not be enriched by physical beneficiation methods such as floatation, magnetic and electrostatic separation or gravity concentration etc, and can not also be exchanged by salts. Chlorinating roasting is selected to treat the black weathering mud based on the thermodynamic analysis and the properties of mud in the paper. The chlorinating roasting treatment is divided two stages. The first step is to heat the mud mixed NH4Cl and carbon with (1.5~2.5)∶10 of NH4Cl/mud ratio at 200℃ for 1 h. NH4Cl directly chlorinates the RE2O3 in the weathering mud, but do not destroy Mn-Fe amorphous structure. The secondary stage is to heat the mixture to above 350℃, NH4Cl decomposes to NH3 and HCl, and carbon in the mixture also takes part in chlorinating of RE. Recovery of RE reaches to 91.6% under the conditions of temperature 450℃ and roasting for 2 h, and Pb and Mn can be further recovered at the same time.

  5. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II. PMID:20036053

  6. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianchi A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  7. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    banks surface. During the short-lived mud bank season the shore is lined with fi shing canoes and country boats and fi shermen landing, sorting and selling a wide variety of fi shes. The entire region transforms into a festive mood. In the safe... processors and exporters buy up the bumper crop and cash in on the abundance. The formation and behaviour of Mud Banks is a phenomenon unique to the southwest coast of India. They are peculiar in their formation as well as functions. Mud Banks are defi...

  8. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  9. C41-2000大吨位空气锤锤杆易断问题的分析%Analysis for hammer rod brittle problem of C41-2000 large tonnage air hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭银赛; 张毅; 程明科

    2014-01-01

    Static analysis,dynamic analysis and fatigue analysis are made by the method of finite element analysis in hammer rod of C41-2000 large tonnage air hammer.The results show that the dangerous sections of hammer rod are these two parts.The tran-sition area between the piston end and hammer rod.Hammer rod dovetail groove bottom.Improvement design of the hammer rod is made by the analysis results.Increase the strength of the weak transition areas of the piston and hammer rod,reduce the sphere radius,and increase the cone length and the concentrated ring area of maximum stress concentration of hammer rod dovetail groove bottom.The service life of the improved hammer rod can be multiply improved and hammer rod brittle problem of large ton-nage air hammer can be effectively restrained.%采用有限元分析方法对C41-2000大吨位空气锤锤杆及相关结构依次进行了静态分析、动态分析和疲劳分析。分析结果表明,锤杆的受力危险截面位于锤杆与活塞的过渡区域和锤杆燕尾槽底面。根据分析结果对锤杆进行改进设计,增加锤杆与活塞过渡区域薄弱部位的强度,适当减小锤杆末端危险截面的球面半径,增加锥面长度,增加锤杆燕尾槽底面的最大应力集中处的截面面积。改进后的大吨位空气锤锤杆寿命得到成倍提高,锤杆断裂问题得到有效遏制,大大提高了空气锤的整体性能。

  10. Analytical study on water hammer pressure in pressurized conduits with a throttled surge chamber for slow closure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang ZHANG; Ming-fei MIAO; Ji-ming MA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of water hammer in a hydraulic pressurized pipe system with a throttled surge chamber located at the junction between a tunnel and a penstock,and a valve positioned at the downstream end of the penstock.Analytical formulas of maximum water hammer pressures at the downstream end of the tunnel and the valve were derived for a system subjected to linear and slow valve closure.The analytical results were then compared with numerical ones obtained using the method of characteristics.There is agreement between them.The formulas can be applied to estimating water hammer pressure at the valve and transmission of water hammer pressure through the surge chamber at the junction for a hydraulic pipe system with a surge chamber.

  11. Development and validation of the water hammer program DYVRO Mod.3; Entwicklung und Validierung des Druckstossprogramms DYVRO Mod. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, Thorsten; Schaffrath, Andreas; Ronneberger, Rolf [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany); Altstadt, Eberhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden (DE). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung (IFS)

    2008-07-01

    Water hammer events in piping systems develop in case of a sudden opening or closure of armatures, changes or pump rotation speeds or as consequence of pipe breaks. The propagation speed of pressure waves depend on the properties of the fluid (compressibility, density) and the mechanical properties (Young modulus, Poisson ratio) and geometry of the piping system. Water hammer effects induce very often damage of the piping and the pipe mountings. The TUeV Nord Sys Tec GmBH and Co KG has developed and qualified the water hammer program DYVRO for two-phase fluids. The contribution covers the improved version of the program DYVRO Mod3. The validation of the calculation procedure includes the Simpson experiment and experiments at the cold water hammer test facility CWHTF in Rossendorf with and without vapor lock.

  12. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz, E-mail: abdelaziz.khlaifat@me.weatherford.com [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Al-Khashman, Omar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an, P.O. Box 20 (Jordan); Qutob, Hani [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  14. Prediction Method of Safety Mud Density in Depleted Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun-Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, many oilfields were placed in the middle and late development period and the reservoir pressure depleted usually, resulting in more serious differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage both in the reservoir and cap rock. In view of this situation, a systematic prediction method of safety mud density in depleted oilfields was established. The influence of reservoir depletion on stress and strength in reservoir and cap formation were both studied and taken into the prediction of safety mud density. The research showed that the risk of differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage in reservoir and cap formation were both increased and they were the main prevention object in depleted oilfields drilling. The research results were used to guide the practice drilling work, the whole progress gone smoothly.

  15. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  18. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuarine morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten; van Kessel, Thijs; Wongsoredjo, Samor; Bergsma, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sandy river estuaries have great economic and ecologic values, but a better understanding is required about the effect of mud on large-scale morphodynamics to optimise maintenance strategies. Very few studies actually include sand-mud interaction effects on morphodynamics on decadal and centennial timescales due to model limitations and lack of spatially and temporally dense data of mud in the bed. Here we study effects of cohesive sediment supply on equilibrium estuary shape, bar-channel patterns and dynamics, during formation from idealised initial conditions over a time scale of centuries and millennia. On the basis of related modelling and experimentation of river and delta patterns we hypothesise that mud will settle into mud flats flanking the estuary that resist erosion and thus self-confine and narrow the estuary and reduce braiding index and channel-bar mobility. We applied the process-based numerical model Delft3D in depth-averaged mode starting from idealised convergent estuaries. Mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for the cohesive regime, and Engelund-Hansen for the non-cohesive regime depending on the fraction of mud. This was subjected to a range of different mud inputs from the river or from the sea and a range of river discharge and tidal amplitudes. Our modelling results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the sides of the estuary. Higher mud concentration at the river inflow leads to narrower and shorter estuaries. Channels within the estuary also become narrower due to increased cohesion in the channel banks. This trend is confirmed in preliminary experiments. However, channels do not increase in depth; this is in contrast with what is observed in rivers and we do not yet fully understand this. Migration rates of channels and bars and bar splitting and merging also reduce with increasing mud concentration. For higher discharge channel

  19. Mud Origin, Characterisation and Human Activities (MOCHA): Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Du Four, I.; Zeelmaekers, E.; Baeteman, C.; Francken, F.; Houziaux, J.-S.; Mathys, M; Nechad, B.; Pison, V.; Vandenberghe, N.; Van den Eynde, D; Van Lancker, V. R. M; Wartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    The cohesive sediments, which are frequently found in the Belgian nearshore zone (southern North Sea), are of different age such as tertiary clays and Holocene, modern and recently deposited muds. The area is characterised by a turbidity maximum. The source areas of the recently deposited muds and the effect of human impact vs. natural processes on the distribution and/or erosion of these sediments have been investigated using historic and recent bottom samples, in situ and remote sensing (sa...

  20. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    OpenAIRE

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-01-01

    The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of p...

  1. Influence of Primary Glyoxal on Properties of Tested Drilling Mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was done to observe the influence of primary glyoxal on properties of tested drilling mud. Glyoxal was used as a reagent to reduce viscosity and stabilize shale. Drilling mud processing parameters were estimated before and after affecting by glyoxal. Suggested is the method of polysaccharide modification by glyoxal for improving its resistance to microorganisms; carried out the research of bio- and thermal resistance of starchy and xanthan reagents

  2. Energy based simulation of a Timoshenko beam in non-forced rotation. Application to the flexible piano hammer shank.

    OpenAIRE

    Chabassier, Juliette; Durufle, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear model for a vibrating Timoshenko beam in non-forced unknown rotation is derived from the virtual work principle applied to a system of beam with mass at the end. The system represents a piano hammer shank coupled to a hammer head. An energy-based numerical scheme is then provided, obtained by non classical approaches. A major difficulty for time discretisation comes from the nonlinear behavior of the kinetic energy of the system. Numerical illustrations are obtained by coupling th...

  3. Large historical eruptions at subaerial mud volcanoes, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Active mud volcanoes in the northern Apennines, Italy, currently have gentle eruptions. There are, however, historical accounts of violent eruptions and outbursts. Evidence for large past eruptions is also recorded by large decimeter rock clasts preserved in erupted mud. We measured the rheological properties of mud currently being erupted in order to evaluate the conditions needed to transport such large clasts to the surface. The mud is well-characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with yield stresses between 4 and 8 Pa. Yield stresses of this magnitude can support the weight of particles with diameters up to several mm. At present, particles larger than this size are not being carried to the surface. The transport of larger clasts to the surface requires ascent speeds greater than their settling speed in the mud. We use a model for the settling of particles and rheological parameters from laboratory measurements to show that the eruption of large clasts requires ascent velocities > 1 m s−1, at least three orders of magnitude greater than during the present, comparatively quiescent, activity. After regional earthquakes on 20 May and 29 May 2012, discharge also increased at locations where the stress changes produced by the earthquakes would have unclamped feeder dikes below the mud volcanoes. The magnitude of increased discharge, however, is less than that inferred from the large clasts. Both historical accounts and erupted deposits are consistent in recording episodic large eruptions.

  4. A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.

  5. Mitigating check valve slamming and subsequentwater hammer events for PPFS using MOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Wenxi; SU Guanghui; WANG Gaopeng; QIU Suizheng; XIAO Zejun

    2009-01-01

    The method of characteristic (MOC) was adopted to analyze the check valve-induced water hammer behaviors for a Parallel Pumps Feedwater System (PPFS) during the alternate startup process. The motion of check valve disc was simulated using inertial valve model. Transient parameters including the pressure oscillation, local flow velocity and slamming of the check valve disc etc. have been obtained. The results showed that severe slamming between the valve disc and valve seat occurred during the alternate startup of parallel pumps. The induced maximum pressure vibration amplitude is up to 5.0 MPa. The scheme of appending a damping torque to slow down the check valve closing speed was also performed to mitigate of water hammer. It has been numerically approved to be an effective approach.

  6. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the "gold standard" imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  7. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  8. Hammer: an Android based application for end-user industrial robot programming

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Benito, Carlos; Brunete González, Alberto; Gambao Galán, Ernesto; Hernando Gutiérrez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel tablet based end-user interface for industrial robot programming (called Hammer). This application makes easier to program tasks for industrial robots like polishing, milling or grinding. It is based on the Scratch programming language, but specifically design and created for Android OS. It is a visual programming concept that allows non-skilled programmer operators to create programs. The application also allows to monitor the tasks while it is being executed by o...

  9. Validation of a method to predict hammer speed from cable force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara M. Brice; Kevin F. Ness; Doug Rosemond

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method that would facilitate immediate feedback on linear hammer speed during training. Methods:Three-dimensional hammer head positional data were measured and used to calculate linear speed (calculated speed) and cable force. These data were used to develop two linear regression models (shifted and non-shifted) that would allow prediction of hammer speed from measured cable force data (predicted speed). The accuracy of the two models was assessed by comparing the predicted and calculated speeds. Averages of the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) and the root mean square (RMS) of the difference between the predicted and calculated speeds for each throw of each participant were used to assess the level of accuracy of the predicted speeds. Results:Both regression models had high CMC values (0.96 and 0.97) and relatively low RMS values (1.27 m/s and 1.05 m/s) for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. In addition, the average percentage differences between the predicted and calculated speeds were 6.6%and 4.7%for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. The RMS differences between release speeds attained via the two regression models and those attained via three-dimensional positional data were also computed. The RMS differences between the predicted and calculated release speeds were 0.69 m/s and 0.46 m/s for the non-shifted and shifted models, respectively. Conclusion:This study successfully derived and validated a method that allows prediction of linear hammer speed from directly measured cable force data. Two linear regression models were developed and it was found that either model would be capable of predicting accurate speeds. However, data predicted using the shifted regression model were more accurate.

  10. Water hammer, flow induced vibration and safety/relief valve loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valandani, P.; Uffer, R.; Sexton, D.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation performed to determine current and recommended practices regarding the consideration of water hammer, flow-induced vibration and safety-relief valve loads in the design of nuclear power plant piping systems. Current practices were determined by a survey of industry experts. Recommended practices were determined by evaluating factors such as load magnitude and frequency content, system susceptibility to load occurrence and safety effects of postulated piping damage.

  11. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

    2013-06-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling

  12. THEORETICAL,NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF WATER HAMMER IN PIPE SYSTEM WITH COLUMN SURGE CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ze-xuan; Tan Soon Keat

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of governing equations for water hammer based on the elastic column theory was proposed and adopted to analyse water hammer phenomenon in the pipe system with a vertical column surge chamber and water level fluctuation in the surge chamber during pressure transient. The wrongness existing in the classical governing equations for water hammer was analysed. A typical reservoir-valve pipe system was chosen as an example to verify the new governing equations numerically and experimentally. The finite difference method based on the method of characteristics was used to solve numerically the nonlinear characteristic equations. The temporal evolutions of transient volume flux and head and of water level fluctuation for various surge chamber configurations were worked out, assuming that the air in the surge chamber are compressible. The relevant experiment was conducted to verify the new governing equations and numerical method. The numerical and experimental results show that the new governing equations are valid and the conventional assumption that the pressure head at the base of a surge chamber equals that of the static head above it during pressure transient is not always valid. The surge chamber generally reises the period of transient pressure wave in pipe system, reduces the maximum pressure envelope and lifts the minimum envelope substantially. The water level fluctuation in the surge chamber was numerically and experimentally observed. Increasing the size of the surge chamber and/or decreasing the initial air pressure in the surge chamber enhance the effectiveness of the surge chamber in suppressing pressure wave.

  13. HAMMER FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan: WBS number-sign 8.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center -- known simply as HAMMER -- is being developed to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and others dedicated to improving worker health, safety and productivity. HAMMER is a training and education program for hazardous material, waste management, and emergency response workers. HAMMER is managed by the DOE Richland Operations Office under Work Breakdown Structure (8.2). The 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) includes the Execution Year data and provides the information for Programmatic Fiscal Year Site Management System Execution Baseline, as well as the detailed work plan for performance evaluation of the authorized work. The MYPP incorporates various planning methodologies to define the program and provides essential program integration, and a fully developed technical, cost, and schedule baseline. The MYPP will be utilized by WHC Program and Department Managers as the baseline management tool for status and progress monitoring, performance enhancement, impact analysis studies, and as the basis for detailed fiscal year and near-term planning

  14. Diagnosis of the hypothenar hammer syndrome by high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.T.; Ghanem, N.; Schaefer, O.; Lehnhardt, S.; Thuerl, C.; Laubenberger, J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Roth, M. [Center of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology Freiburg, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Horch, R.E. [Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    Our objective was to describe the imaging features of hypothenar hammer syndrome using minimally invasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography in comparison with oscillography study. In five patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome Gd-BOPTA-enhanced elliptically reordered 3D pulse sequence MR was compared with oscillography findings and clinical symptoms focusing on angiographic appearance of vessel injury, distribution pattern of hand vasculature and joining branches between the radial and ulnar artery supply. All patients showed segmental occlusion at the site of trauma impact with varying involvement of the superficial palmar arch, common volar digital arteries. Embolic disease was present in 50% of patients and could be clearly identified with MRA. Good correspondence was found between angiographic appearance including the presence of collaterals, clinical symptoms and oscillography. Bilateral comparison was helpful in distinguishing between vessel variants and pathology. Bilateral Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR angiography is a minimally invasive method to depict clearly the localization and extent of vessel injury in hypothenar hammer syndrome providing valuable information about distribution pattern of hand vasculature and presence of collaterals; however, no flow data can be obtained. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  17. Chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic characteristics of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia: implications for the environment, public health, and eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Casadevall, T. J.; Wibowo, H. T.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Breit, G. N.; Hageman, P. L.; Wolf, R. E.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting from a vent 150 meters away from a gas exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI mud volcano, has continued at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This paper will present analytical results of mud samples collected in Sept. 2007 and Nov. 2008, and interpretive findings based on the analytical results. The 2007 mud sample contains high proportions of particles that could be ingestible by hand-mouth transmission (~98 vol % alveoli (~ 40 vol % <2.5 microns), so the mud and dust from the dried mud could be readily taken up by exposed individuals. Our results confirm those of a previous study that the levels of potentially toxic heavy metals or metalloids in the mud are low. A complex mixture of organic compounds in the mud is likely derived from petroleum source rocks. Although the 2007 mud sample contains several percent iron sulfides, net acid production tests indicate that enough carbonate material is also present to prevent the mud from becoming acid-generating due to weathering and sulfide oxidation in the near-surface environment. Water derived from settling mud deposits may have the potential to adversely affect the quality of surface- or groundwater sources for drinking water, due to high levels of fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. The very high nitrate levels in the waters contained within the mud may present a source of nutrients that could enhance algal blooms and resulting adverse impacts such as hypoxia in fresh-water and marine ecosystems into which some of the mud is being discharged. In agreement with previous studies, water separated from the 2007 mud sample is compositionally and

  18. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  19. WAVE ATTENUATION OVER MUD BED: A PSEUDO-PLASTIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qing-he; Onyx W.H. Wai; Joseph H. W. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A two-layer model, with the upper layer being the perfect fluid and the lower layer being the pseudo-plastic fluid describing water wave attenuation over mud bed, was established. A simplified method based on the principle of equivalent work was applied to solve the boundary value problems. The computational results of the model show that the two-layer perfect fluid model and the perfect-viscous fluid model are all special cases of the present model. The complex nonlinear properties of wave attenuation over mud bed, can be explained by the present model, e.g., the wave dissipation rate decreases with the wave height in certain cases, while the small wave propagates over mud bed with less energy dissipation and large wave attenuates rapidly in other cases. Other factors influencing the wave attenuation were also discussed.

  20. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Changes of biogeochemical activities before and after significant mud displacement at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Yoerger, D.; Camilli, R.; German, C.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.; de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (72°N, 14° 43' E, 1250 m water depth) was studied for a period of a year by the Long-term Observatory On Mud-volcano Eruptions (LOOME) in 2009-2010, to investigate temporal variations of mud volcanism and consequences for biogeochemical processes. The HMMV is a highly active methane cold seep ecosystem characterized by high rates of methane efflux. It hosts different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on changes in community composition and biogeochemical activity such as methane emission, total benthic oxygen uptake, microbial methane and sulfate consumption before and after a major mud displacement recorded by LOOME. The sensor-enabled long-term observations of the HMMV habitats were combined with short-term analyses before and after the displacement events by ROVs QUEST (MARUM) and GENESIS (University of Gent), the AUV Sentry (WHOI) equipped with a multibeam and subbottom profiler, CTD and photographic unit as well as with a mass spectrometer. We found shifts in the distribution patterns of chemosynthetic communities and also substantial changes in their activity, consistent with changes in temperature gradients. This study was sponsored by the EU-Projects HERMIONE "Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European Seas", and ESONET "European Seas Observatory Network" (Demonstration Mission LOOME "Long term observations on mud volcano eruptions").

  2. UO2-PuO2 critical experiments based on a coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/HAMMER-TECHNION system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of the HAMMER-TECHNION system in the criticality analysis of mixed oxide (UO sub(2)-PuO sub(2)) fuel pins clad with Zircaloy-2 and having light water as moderator was analyzed in this work. The basic nuclear data libraries for the HAMMER-TECHNION have been generated by processing the ENDF/B-IV and JENDL-2 nuclear data files with the NJOY system. The question of the effect of Plutonium resonances close to the thermal region on the average thermal parameters was addressed by creating a special version of the HAMMER-TECHNION system with the thermal energy cut-off at 1.855 eV. The final system effective multiplication factor was calculated with the CITATION code by using the homogeneized four-group cross sections generated by the HAMMER-TECHNION system. Results are shown for the original HAMMER-TECHNION thermal cut-off and for the one at 1.855 eV. Besides that, for some selected critical systems, the effect of the resonance interference among the resonances of the Uranium and Plutonium isotopes was addressed by using the ROLAIDS module of the AMPX-II system. The effect of the thermal energy cut-off on the integral parameters of the critical systems was not found to be of extreme importance. (author)

  3. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumert, Michael D; Kluck, Marius; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2009-07-01

    Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions.

  4. Methane emission from mud volcanoes in eastern Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Feyzullaiev, A.; Geology Institute of Azerbaijan; Baciu, C. L.; Babes Bolyai University; Milkov, A. V.; British Petroleum, Texas

    2004-01-01

    Methane (CH4) flux to the atmosphere was measured from gas vents and, for the first time, from soil microseepage at four quiescent mud volcanoes and one ‘‘everlasting fire’’ in eastern Azerbaijan. Mud volcanoes show different activity of venting craters, gryphons, and bubbling pools, with CH4 fluxes ranging from less than one to hundreds of tons per year. Microseepage CH4 flux is generally on the order of hundreds of milligrams per square meter per day, even far away from the a...

  5. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and

  6. A Bingham-Plastic Model for Fluid Mud Transport Under Waves and Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春嵘; 吴博; 呼和敖德

    2014-01-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  7. Attempt to combine in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and relative-age Schmidt-hammer dating - first application in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to gain information on absolute ages of moraines, e.g. in combination with measurements of the weathering rind thickness on boulders. In this context, cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage that an absolute age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces is given, exactly what is tested with the Schmidt-hammer (or weathering rind thickness) as well. Radiocarbon dated organic material is, by contrast, not only difficult or impossible to find at some localities/moraines, the temporal relationship to the processes of moraine formation and the related glacial dynamics is not always free of possible misinterpretations and doubts. There is, however, one disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating: the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. This points directly towards a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique, as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. Additionally, the Schmidt-hammer can be applied to cross check the boulder chosen for cosmogenic nuclide sampling in order to avoid unrepresentative (e.g. rotated) boulder surfaces. Preliminary results of this combined approach at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park for a large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges will be presented in order to show the potential of this 'multi-proxy approach'. Schmidt-hammer measurements have been used to group the moraine ridges into three groups formed during Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type events prior to the Little Ice Age, whereas a number of samples that have been dated by cosmogenic 10Be gave ages of c. 2,400 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP for these advances. The innermost ridges were dated by a simple dating curve. Even if more subsequent cosmogenic 10Be-dating is necessary to confirm the first preliminary results, the attempt to combine 'absolute' cosmogenic surface exposure dating and the relative age-dating technique of the Schmidt-hammer seems to be

  8. Hammer head beam solution for beam-to-column joints in seismic resistant building frames

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Long; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre; Demonceau, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on an innovative stiffened extended end-plate joint, used to connect I-shaped beams to partially-encased composite wide flange columns. In the joint, T-shaped hammer heads cut from the same I-profiles than the beams are used, instead of using traditional haunches. At the joint level, the column web is strengthened by two lateral plates welded to the column flanges; these plates also reinforce the column flanges. This type of joint is proposed to use in the seism...

  9. Hammer crusher - influences of design and execution of vibroprotection and machine properties on vibration intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makovička D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available On an example of a hammer crusher the author analyzes the factors participating in the proper operation of any machine. Their number includes the estimate of load magnitude, the safety reserves in its determination, the influence of material characteristics of the machine, vibration isolation and subgrade, the influence of the execution of vibroprotection arising from installation inaccuracies and, last but not least, the influence of the machine design. The individual factors are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively on the example of a comparison of response produced by a theoretical model and experimental results.

  10. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  11. ANALYSIS OF STATE-CHANGING WATER HAMMER IN A LONG PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-ming; WANG Zheng-jun; YANG Ke

    2004-01-01

    Pressure wave propagation along a pipe attached with an active pressure-controlling system at an end was described by an unsteady state-changing motion of the pressure wave fronts, in order to study the interaction among successive waves caused by successive controlling spillovers with the consideration of liquid compressibility due to high head. A model for water hammer propagation was established by using the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The influence of the wave interactions on the pressure suppression was analyzed. Testing verifications were conducted with a 2575m length and 776m head penstock in hydro-power station. The computed results are in good agrement with the tested ones.

  12. An unusual case of hypothenar hammer syndrome in the non-dominant hand

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Natasha J.G.; Hardy, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    A 60-year-old male patient was referred to the vascular clinic with a 2-week history of a 1.5 cm pulsatile tender swelling in the left hypothenar eminence. He worked as a gas fitter and sustained this swelling following an injury at work. Interestingly, unlike many cases reported, his left, non-dominant hand was only used passively while his dominant right hand was using the hammer. Duplex ultrasonography confirmed the presence of a true aneurysm of the left ulnar artery, measuring 11 mm in d...

  13. Modal Analysis of Small & Medium Structures by Fast Impact Hammer Testing (FIHT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    TIRELLI Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the SERIES project (Task 2.3: “software development for data processing”) concerning the availability of simple tools and techniques for real-time data analysis and interpretation, the present report discusses the use of the Fast Impact Hammer Testing method (FIHT) with the purpose of providing to the partners of SERIES the opportunity to use the FIHT method on the structures of the project, and at the same time to improve the method for the dynamic characterisation of stru...

  14. 喷灌系统水锤及其防护%Water Hammer and It's Prevention in Sprinkling Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 冯卫民

    2001-01-01

    This paper expounds some sorts of water hammer in sprinklingirrigation system, base theory and method for water hammer analysis, and boundary condition of spray nozzle and complicate pipe network. Through example, this paper point out that when we design a sprinkling irrigation system, we must analyze water hammer in pipe network and adopt rational preventional measure according to actual situation.%本文阐述了喷灌系统水锤的分类及其数值模拟的基本理论和方法,介绍了几种适用的水锤防护技术。结合实例说明:在喷灌系统的设计阶段必须进行水锤的数值模拟和定量分析,并根据实际情况选择合理的水锤防护措施。

  15. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage.

  16. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    of the fluidmud occurring at Pallana coast, Alappuzha, were monitored during the waxing, fully devel- oped and waning phases in September 2008 (southwest monsoon period). The boundary of the fluid mud, where the waves are breaking, was visually identified... water and groundwater in the study area are presented in Table 1. 4.1. Field observations The boundaries of the fluid mud in the Pallana coast, Alappuzha, during the waxing, fully developed and waning phases in September 2008 were plotted in a site map...

  17. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-01-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface. PMID:27445272

  18. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  19. Hindered settling and consolidation of mud - analytical results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of hindered settling from a suspension developed by Kynch (1952) is known to satisfactorily describe the settling and primary consolidation of mud. This theory, in which effective stresses are disregarded, is reviewed for this purpose, and some analytical results for interface formation a

  20. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain valu

  1. Assessment of pollutants sequestration in flowing waters using Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red Mud, a waste product of bauxite refinement, has already been reported as a non-conventional adsorbent of heavy metals and some other important nutrients, such as phosphorus. Its use has been explored since it is a low cost solid adsorbent with a strong binding capacity. Although there were equil...

  2. Pressure signature and evaluation of hammer pulses during underwater implosion in confining environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sachin; Matos, Helio; Shukla, Arun; LeBlanc, James M

    2016-08-01

    The fluid structure interaction phenomenon occurring in confined implosions is investigated using high-speed three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) experiments. Aluminum tubular specimens are placed inside a confining cylindrical structure that is partially open to a pressurized environment. These specimens are hydrostatically loaded until they naturally implode. The implosion event is viewed, and recorded, through an acrylic window on the confining structure. The velocities captured through DIC are synchronized with the pressure histories to understand the effects of confining environment on the implosion process. Experiments show that collapse of the implodable volume inside the confining tube leads to strong oscillating water hammer waves. The study also reveals that the increasing collapse pressure leads to faster implosions. Both peak and average structural velocities increase linearly with increasing collapse pressure. The effects of the confining environment are better seen in relatively lower collapse pressure implosion experiments in which a long deceleration phase is observed following the peak velocity until wall contact initiates. Additionally, the behavior of the confining environment can be viewed and understood through classical water hammer theory. A one-degree-of-freedom theoretical model was created to predict the impulse pressure history for the particular problem studied. PMID:27586733

  3. Analysis on Shock Wave Speed of Water Hammer of Lifting Pipes for Deep-Sea Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-jin; YANG Ning; WANG Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes.In this work,the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods,and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation.As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed,the experiment results about the pressure-time history,discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that:as its concentrations rose up,the maximum transient pressure went down,so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually,the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less,and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased.These results have highly coincided with simulation results.The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences,such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  4. Thermal effects during condensation induced water hammer behind fast acting valves in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the accident scenarios discussed for VVER-440 reactors assume an overfeed of the secondary side of the steam generators by water coming either from the primary side or from the feed water system. This may happen, for example, in case of a leakage from the primary to the secondary side as well as during earthquakes and may lead to a water ingress into the main steam-lines, where condensation-induced water hammers may be the consequence. The present work was initiated to study this phenomenon experimentally. For this purpose the PMK-2 test facility of KFKI Budapest, an integral thermohydraulic model of a VVER-440/W213, was extended by a stem-line model, which is equipped with a novel two-phase flow instrumentation as well as fast pressure and displacement transducers. The applied mesh sensor developed by Forschungszentrum Rossendorf allows a visualisation of the transient flow section during the water hammers. Local void probes detect the propagation of slugs along the pipe. The applied new kind of probe is equipped with micro-thermo-couples to provide local instantaneous temperature measurements beside the phase detection. This allows to assess temperature gradients at the boundary between water and steam. The paper describes test facility and new instrumentation. The results of the first tests are presented and discussed. The work is part of the WAHALoads project, which is in progress within the 5th EU framework programme. (author)

  5. Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present paper water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flow are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated that in single phase-flow due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs ampersand Bril correlations

  6. A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

    2012-02-15

    Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

  7. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  8. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster , D; Medrano Llamas, R; Legger , F; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, G; Ubeda Garca , M

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion p...

  9. On the importance of valve modelling, reflected pressures, and wall friction, in CATHENA water hammer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of code and modelling developments outlined in this paper show that CATHENA can be used to accurately model the behaviour of valve slam generated water hammer if sufficient care and detail are used to model the characteristics of the valve. It also shows that CATHENA can accurately predict the reflection and transmission of travelling water pressure waves at expansions, contractions, and dead ends. Finally, although CATHENA is capable of accurately predicting the critical phenomena observed in water hammer, the inter-peak timing of the pressure excursions is not well predicted when significant bulk flows occur. The use of an unsteady wall friction factor to correct for this discrepancy has been examined, but the implementation of relationships suggested in the literature provided too much damping. A good match between experimental and simulation data can be achieved, but it is suggested that the default implementation of such a relationship take place only after an investigation of further potential loss terms can be completed. (author)

  10. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  11. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Ruirui Xin; Chengcheng Li; Chunli Xu; Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis.The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated.It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200℃.Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste,significantly reducing its environmental effects,but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  12. Effects of Polymeric Flocculants on Settlement of Bayer Red Mud Generated from Chinese Diaspore Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨瑜; 胡慧萍; 张丽娟; 陈启元

    2008-01-01

    A systematic investigation on the interaction between Bayer red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite and commercial sodium polyacrylate (SPA) or polyacrylamide (PAM) was performed by red mud settling tests, conductivity-pH titration and Ubbelodhe viscosimetric measurement. The results indicate that the treatment with red mud by SPA gives a lower red mud settling rate and lower supematant turbidity than the treatment with red mud by PAM. There is an optimum polymer dosage of 300 g/t (based on the weight of dry red mud) when red mud slurry is treated by SPA or PAM, so "bridging" adsorption is one of the main interactions between red mud and SPA or PAM. With the increase of NaOH concentration, the hydrolysis degree of PAM dissolved in NaOH solution increases and its molecular weight almost does not change, but the settling rote of red mud treated by it drops rapidly. The settling rate of red mud treated by PAM dissolved in 10 g/L NaOH solution is 0.61 m/h while by PAM dissolved in distilled water it is 1.31 m/h, because the adsorption ability of the hydrolyzed PAM onto red mud surface declines primarily due to the formation of-CONH2~-COO-~-CONH2 intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  13. Growth patterns and dynamics of mud cracks at different diagenetic stages and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-yu ZHAO; Yan-ru GUO; Yan WANG; Hong LIU; Qing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth stages, spatial structures, quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters, growth patterns and influencing factors of mud cracks by field survey, core observation and SEM analysis. The study shows that:(1) Mud crack growth can go through three stages, i.e. the syndiagenetic stage, the burial diagenetic stage (including early diagenetic stage, middle-late diagenetic stage) and the epidiagenetic stage. (2) Quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters allow a great significance to describe the spatial structure, the regional distribution and the growth environment of mud cracks. (3) Mud crack growth has three models, such as the unilateral growth model including the linear growth pattern, the curvilinear growth pattern and the bifurcation growth pattern, the multilateral growth model including the intersectional growth pattern, the join growth pattern and the dispersed growth pattern, and the mixed growth model including the combination of any patterns listed above. (4) Modern mud crack growth usually undergoes four stages. Sand beds in sand-mud rhythmic strata can play a lubricative role on crack growth and provide enough sandy deposits for filling cracks. (5) Mud crack growth usually produces bifurcation and bifurcation angles which are mostly 120° or 90° that are related to sediment heterogeneity and released energy. (6) Factors affecting mud crack growth cover many aspects: clay content and salinity can control the number of mud cracks in different areas;terrain can control mud crack morphology;and different sedimentary cycles can control the growth patterns and filling models of mud cracks.

  14. The propagation of a solitary wave over seabed mud of the Voigt model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, YueZhang; Zhu, KeQin

    2012-01-01

    In shallow water, seabed mud can dissipate the energy of surface gravity waves effectively. In this paper, solitary wave attenuation induced by seabed mud is studied based on a two-layered system, in which the water is assumed to be inviscid and the mud layer is described by the Voigt model. A set of Boussinesq-type equations suitable for solitary waves over the mud of the Voigt model is established, by combining the perturbation analysis and the Laplace transformation. Degenerating into the case of Newtonian model, our Boussinesq-type equations are equivalent to those of Liu and Chan (2007), while the term indicating mud influence is greatly simplified. Based on the equations, the attenuation of solitary waves is studied. An evolution equation of wave amplitude is obtained and the development of mud velocity profiles is discussed. The modal analysis shows that the first mode always dominates mud dynamics. The results are also compared with those of the Maxwell model.

  15. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval

  16. Potential fatigue strength improvement of AA 5083-H111 notched parts by wire brush hammering: Experimental analysis and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Wire brush hammering increases by 20% the AA 5083-H111 notched parts fatigue limit. • Improvement of fatigue strength is related to the fatigue cracks nucleation. • Fatigue strength prediction accounts for wire brush hammering effects. - Abstract: The effects of milling as machining process and a post-machining treatment by wire-brush hammering, on the near surface layer characteristics of AA 5083-H111 were investigated. Surface texture, work-hardening and residual stress profiles were determined by roughness measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations, microhardness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The effects of surface preparation on the fatigue strength were assessed by bending fatigue tests performed on notched samples for two loading stress ratios R0.1 and R0.5. It is found that the bending fatigue limit at R0.1 and 107 cycles is 20% increased, with respect to the machined surface, by wire-brush hammering. This improvement was discussed on the basis of the role of surface topography, stabilized residual stress and work-hardening on the fatigue-crack network nucleation and growth. The effects biaxial residual stress field and surface work-hardening were taken into account in the finite element model. A multi-axial fatigue criterion was proposed to predict the fatigue strength of aluminum alloy notched parts for both machined and treated states

  17. Detection Of Multilayer Cavities By Employing RC-DTH Air Hammer System And Cavity Auto Scanning Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjiang; Li, Lijia; Peng, Jianming; Yin, Kun; Li, Peng; Gan, Xin; Zhao, Letao; Su, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The subterranean cavities are seriously threatened to construction and mining safety, and it's important to obtain the exact localization and dimensions of subterranean cavities for the planning of geotechnical and mining activities. Geophysical investigation is an alternative method for cavity detection, but it usually failed for the uncertainly solution of information and data obtained by Geophysical methods. Drilling is considered as the most accurate method for cavity detection. However, the conventional drilling methods can only be used for single cavity detection, and there is no effective solution for multilayer cavities detection have been reported. In this paper, a reverse circulation (RC) down-the-hole (DTH) air hammer system with a special structured drill bit is built and a cavity auto scanning laser system based on laser range finding technique was employed to confirm the localization and dimensions of the cavities. This RC-DTH air hammer system allows drilling through the upper cavities and putting the cavity auto scanning laser system into the cavity area through the central passage of the drill tools to protect the detection system from collapsing of borehole wall. The RC-DTH air hammer system was built, and field tests were conducted in Lanxian County Iron Ore District, which is located in Lv Liang city of Shan Xi province, the northwest of china. Field tests show that employing the RC-DTH air hammer system assisted by the cavity auto scanning laser system is an efficiency method to detect multilayer cavities.

  18. Numerical investigation of soil plugging effect inside sleeve of cast-in-place piles driven by vibratory hammers in clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong Jie; Chen, Fu Quan; Dong, Yi Zhi

    2016-01-01

    During driving sleeve of cast-in-place piles by vibratory hammers, soils were squeezed into sleeve and then soil plugging was formed. The physic-mechanical properties of the soil plug have direct influence on the load transmission between the sleeve wall and soil plug. Nevertheless, the researches on this issue are insufficient. In this study, finite element and infinite element coupling model was introduced, through the commercial code ABAQUS, to simulate the full penetration process of the sleeve driven from the ground surface to the desired depth by applying vibratory hammers. The research results indicated that the cyclic shearing action decreases both in soil shear strength and in granular cementation force when the sleeve is driven by vibratory hammers, which leads to a partially plugged mode of the soil plug inside the sleeve. Accordingly, the penetration resistance of sleeve driven by vibratory hammers is the smallest compared to those by other installation methods. When driving the sleeve, the annular soil arches forming in the soil plug at sleeve end induce a significant rise in the internal shaft resistance. Moreover, the influence of vibration frequencies, sleeve diameters, and soil layer properties on the soil plug was investigated in detail, and at the same time improved formulas were brought forward to describe the soil plug resistance inside vibratory driven sleeve. PMID:27386238

  19. Design And Preliminary Testing of a Hammer Mill with End-Suction Lift Capability Suitable for Commercial Processing of Grains and Solid Minerals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebunilo P. O.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A hammer mill with an end-suction lift capability has been designed, fabricated and tested. The tests were carried out by comparing the product of a conventional hammer mill with that of the new hammer mill with end suction lift capability. The preliminary test results obtained using grains show that the efficiency of a conventional hammer mill and its ability to produce an output of specific size of 400m-600m for both maize and cowpeas is low when compared with the output of the new hammer mill. The new hammer mill, which is a partially closed system while in operation and utilizes suction power, virtually eliminates environmental pollution usually associated with the operation of conventional hammer mills and can be used to mill commonly occurring Nigerian grains like millet, sorghum, maize, cowpeas, guinea-corn and soya beans into flour and also for pulverizing locally occurring solid minerals like clays into powder. This would diversify storage options for the grains, deepen and widen the available food choices for all Nigerians and enhance food security and rural development.

  20. 蜂窝型双金属复合锤头铸造工艺%Casting Technology of Honeycomb-type Bimetallic Composite Hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a type of honeycomb-type bimetallic hammer was developed. The hammer was made by taking high manganese steel as the hammer body and high chromium cast iron as the wear-rods, and using a special insert-cast process to inserting the wear rods into the end of the hammer. The wear rods and the hammer body have a solid combination and strong impact, improving its life of hammer, reducing the use cost ofhammer.%针对反击式破碎机专用锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种蜂窝型双金属复合型锤头.该锺头以高锰钢作锤体,高铬铸铁作耐磨棒,并采用特殊镶铸工艺,将耐磨棒弥散分布于锤头端部.锤头内耐磨棒与基体结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,大幅度提高了锤头使用寿命,从而降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  1. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  2. Application and Development of MMH Mud in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Duo

    1995-01-01

    @@ At present, the application range of MMH is extending and the techniques of MMH drilling fluid is in rapid development and continuos improvement, a variety of MMH drilling fluid systems are using in more than ten Chinese oilfields. A number of oil wells drilled with MMH drilling fluid was registered over 150 in that 30 over 3 000m deep wells, 33 directional wells and 11 horizontal wells of different depth. DH1-4-7 well in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang with5 970 m deep was the deepest well drilled with MMH mud. Through vast drilling experiences in areas with complicated geological and engineering difficulties and with variable target depth, a series of MMH mud formulas suitable for different underground and technological circumstances were figured out.

  3. Modal Analysis for Connecting Rod of Reciprocating Mud Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhiwei; Liu, Hao; Zhu, Fengxia

    Modal analysis is an effective method to determine vibration mode shapes and weak parts of the complex mechanical system, its main purpose is to use optimal dynamics design method of mechanical structure system instead of the experience analog method. Reciprocating mud pump is the machine that transport mud or water in the process of drilling, which is an important component of the drilling equipment. In order to improve the performance of reciprocating pump and decrease the failure of the connecting rod caused by vibration during running, a modal analysis method is performed. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite-element model of connecting rod was built to provide analytical frequencies and mode shapes, then the modal distribution and vibration mode shapes for connecting rod were obtained by computing. The results showed the weakness of the connecting rod, which would provide the reference to dynamics analysis and structural optimization for connecting rod in the future.

  4. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  5. Electron microscopy study of red mud after seawater neutralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red Mud, residue of Bayer process for extracting alumina from bauxite, is produced in large quantity. This residue is very alkaline and can cause damage to health and the environment. One way to minimize the environmental impact of this residue is neutralization by sea water. The Brazilian Red Mud was treated with sea water. It appears that the initial pH of the samples is reduced to 8. The analysis by x-ray diffraction allows to identify the formation of hydrotalcite and aragonite. The transmission electron microscopy images show that this consists of particles with dimensions between 0.02 to 2 μm. It was possible to identify by EDS/MET particles of magnesium, confirming the formation of hydrotalcite. (author)

  6. Variation of Modal Characteristics of Electrical Cabinet According to the Excitation Level in Impact Hammer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. Safety-related equipment is typically seismic qualified before installation. Seismic qualification of equipment is possible when identifying the accurate dynamic characteristics of the equipment. According to the nature of the cabinet, the dynamic characteristics of the electrical cabinet vary nonlinearly with excitation level. This study analyzed the nonlinear variation of the dynamic properties of an actual cabinet. For the purpose of this study, a seismic monitoring system cabinet was selected as a specimen. The impact hammer tests were conducted to identify a variation of the dynamic characteristics of the specimen by increasing the impulse level. Modal identification technique was used to extract the modal properties of the cabinet from the measurements

  7. Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Single Piezo-Actuator Rotary-Hammering (SPaRH) Drill includes a horn actuator having high power piezoelectric materials and a flexure pre-stress to increase the actuators effectiveness. The drill is a low mass, low power, compact coring drill measuring 20-cm high by 7-cm diameter and having a total weight of 2 kg including drive electronics. Using an average power of 50-Watts, the drill basalt is expected to cut basalt at a rate of 0.2 cm/min down to depth of 10-cm and create cuttings and an intact core. The drill is expected to operate under different environments including Martian ambient (6 Torr and down to -50 degree C), and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) and low pressure (<<1 Torr) to simulate lunar polar and Europa conditions. Materials expected to be sampled include Kaolinite, Saddleback Basalt, Limestone, Volcanic Breccia, Siltstone, ice, permafrost and layered rocks with different hardness.

  8. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  9. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Medrano Llamas, R; Sciacca, G; Van der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 80 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate si...

  10. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site...

  11. Runge-Kutta time-stepping schemes with TVD central differencing for the water hammer equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, E. M.

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, Runge-Kutta schemes are used to simulate unsteady flow in elastic pipes due to sudden valve closure. The spatial derivatives are discretized using a central difference scheme. Second-order dissipative terms are added in regions of high gradients while they are switched off in smooth flow regions using a total variation diminishing (TVD) switch. The method is applied to both one- and two-dimensional water hammer formulations. Both laminar and turbulent flow cases are simulated. Different turbulence models are tested including the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith models. The results of the present method are in good agreement with analytical results and with experimental data available in the literature. The two-dimensional model is shown to predict more accurately the frictional damping of the pressure transient. Moreover, through order of magnitude and dimensional analysis, a non-dimensional parameter is identified that controls the damping of pressure transients in elastic pipes.

  12. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-04-27

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  13. Formation of mud ridge and runnels in the intertidal zone of the Severn Estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P. A.; Williams, J. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Amos, C. L.

    2009-09-01

    Flow-parallel linear bedforms, consisting of ridges and runnels have been reported widely in soft and consolidated cohesive sediments within intertidal and subtidal coastal waters. Less frequent are reports of these systems incised into soft bedrock. Despite their common occurrence there are few data concerning the hydrodynamic controls on the initiation and maintenance of ridge-runnel systems. Rather, several hypotheses have been advanced to account for them. In tidal environments a theory based upon the evolution of 'streamwise vorticity' transverse to the main flow direction is favoured, and has been supported recently by detailed hydrodynamic data obtained from above a ridge-runnel system on an intertidal zone of the Severn Estuary, UK. In the present paper, a detailed description of the sedimentology of the same ridge-runnel system is provided and interpreted within the framework of the 'streamwise vorticity' hypothesis. This objective is accomplished by measurements of the morphology and sampling the bulk characteristics of the sedimentary ridges and runnels but also with reference to ridges and runnels incised into soft bedrock beneath the sediment body. Grain-size composition, sediment compaction, radionuclide distributions and elemental distributions and X-radiography are used to describe the sediment structures within ridges and their inferred histories of development. These descriptions are interpreted with respect to the known hydrodynamic climate and the deposition and erosion behaviour of the sediments in laboratory experiments using an annular flume. Runnels contain liquid mud at low tide but contain very little fine gravel and shell debris. In contrast, fine suspended sediment is present at high concentrations in the flow. Thus fluid evorsion, aided by a dense suspension of fine sediment that impacts the mud bed, must be the primary tool to initiate and maintain the runnels, rather than scour by a coarse bedload. The ridges are composed primarily of

  14. Are reefs and mud mounds really so different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rachel

    2001-12-01

    Although both 'ecologic reefs' and mud mounds are demonstrably rigid, framework reefs, they are still considered to be distinct in terms of their dominant processes of formation and preferred environmental settings. This distinction has rested largely upon the assumption that ecologic reefs are dominated by skeletal metazoans growing in shallow waters, in contrast to the complex autochthonous micrite-supported cavity systems that characterise deep-water mud mounds, now considered to represent either organomineralic deposits (where carbonate precipitation has taken place in association with nonliving organic substrates to form 'automicrite') or various types of microbialite (where carbonate forms as a direct result of the physiological activity or decay of benthic microorganisms). Yet, such autochthonous micrite is increasingly recognised as an important component of many ancient shallow ecologic reefs as well as some modern coral reefs, and indeed may contribute locally up to 80% of the reef rock. These observations raise doubts as to the validity of current fabric-based definitions used to distinguish between mud mounds and ecologic reefs. Whether the autochthonous micrite in mud mounds proves to be dominated by either automicrite or microbialite, both require particular environmental conditions for their formation. Automicrites form where surplus organic matter from metazoans has degraded to release quantities of acidic amino acids with a significant ability to bind Ca 2+ , and microbialite formation also often requires either unusual marine chemistries or ecological conditions. Such conditions might include changes in terrigenous influx, ground water seepage, local anoxia, and increases in the pH of interstitial reef waters or in nutrient concentration.

  15. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-05-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH{sub 4}, but low SO{sub 4} and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions ({delta}{sup 18}O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}, where the CH{sub 4}-C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of {delta}{sup 13}C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region.

  16. Gas migration through indurated clays (mud-rocks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the gas migration through indurated clays. The main features that distinguish the gas transport properties of mud-rocks from those of all other rock-types are the sub-microscopic dimensions of the interparticle spaces, the very large specific surface of the mineral phases, the strong physico-chemical interactions between water molecules and surfaces, the exceptionally low permeability and the very pronounced coupling between the hydraulic and mechanical responses. (author)

  17. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  18. Seismic response prediction for cabinets of nuclear power plants by using impact hammer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective method to predict the seismic response of electrical cabinets of nuclear power plants is developed. This method consists of three steps: (1) identification of the earthquake-equivalent force based on the idealized lumped-mass system of the cabinet, (2) identification of the state-space equation (SSE) model of the system using input-output measurements from impact hammer tests, and (3) seismic response prediction by calculating the output of the identified SSE model under the identified earthquake-equivalent force. A three-dimensional plate model of cabinet structures is presented for the numerical verification of the proposed method. Experimental validation of the proposed method is carried out on a three-story frame which represents the structure of a cabinet. The SSE model of the frame is accurately identified by impact hammer tests with high fitness values over 85% of the actual frame characteristics. Shaking table tests are performed using El Centro, Kobe, and Northridge earthquakes as input motions and the acceleration responses are measured. The responses of the model under the three earthquakes are predicted and then compared with the measured responses. The predicted and measured responses agree well with each other with fitness values of 65-75%. The proposed method is more advantageous over other methods that are based on finite element (FE) model updating since it is free from FE modeling errors. It will be especially effective for cabinet structures in nuclear power plants where conducting shaking table tests may not be feasible. Limitations of the proposed method are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of water hammer in two-component two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water hammer phenomena caused by a sudden valve closure in air-water two-phase flows must be clarified for the safety analysis of LOCA in reactors and further for the safety of boilers, chemical plants, pipe transport of fluids such as petroleum and natural gas. In the present work water hammer phenomena caused by sudden valve closure in two-component two-phase flows are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The phenomena are more complicated than in single phase-flows due to the fact of the presence of compressible component. Basic partial differential equations based on a one-dimensional homogeneous flow model are solved by the method of characteristic. The analysis is extended to include friction in a two-phase mixture depending on the local flow pattern. The profiles of the pressure transients, the propagation velocity of pressure waves and the effect of valve closure on the transient pressure are found. Different two-phase flow pattern and frictional pressure drop correlations were used including Baker, Chesholm and Beggs and Bril correlations. The effect of the flow pattern on the characteristic of wave propagation is discussed primarily to indicate the effect of void fraction on the velocity of wave propagation and on the attenuation of pressure waves. Transient pressure in the mixture were recorded at different air void fractions, rates of uniform valve closure and liquid flow velocities with the aid of pressure transducers, transient wave form recorders interfaced with an on-line pc computer. The results are compared with computation, and good agreement was obtained within experimental accuracy

  20. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  1. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives

  4. Combination of in situ cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and Schmidt-hammer dating for the investigation of Late-Holocene lateral moraines in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S.

    2009-04-01

    absolute' age of the boulder surfaces was needed to allow the construction of a dating curve by reliable fixed points to, radiocarbon (14C) dating could not provide those information because of the lack of organic material indisputable be related to the glacier advance forming the moraine ridges. On base on these considerations, this study comprises the first attempt to combine in situ (terrestrial) cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating with Schmidt-hammer measurements for the dating of Holocene moraines and the reconstruction of a regional glacier chronology. Cosmogenic 10Be dating has the important advantage of delivering an ‘absolute' age for the exposure of boulder or bedrock surfaces, i.e. the same surface tested with the Schmidt-hammer. One disadvantage of cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating is, however, the limited number of boulders sampled due to high costs. From this background, a combination with the Schmidt-hammer technique seems ideal as the latter could provide measurement of a large number of boulders. The Schmidt-hammer measurements can, on the other hand, help with the selection of representative boulders for cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) surface exposure dating avoiding boulders that have been exposed to post-depositional movement (e.g. rotation). Results from the application of this combined ‘multi-proxy-approach' at Strauchon Glacier in Westland/Tai Poutini National Park and Hooker Glacier in Mt Cook/Aoraki National Park on large lateral moraine complex with several individual moraine ridges proof its potential. Three pre-‘Little Ice Age' moraine sequences each related to an individual Late-Holocene Little Ice Age-type event unambiguously distinguished by Schmidt-hammer measurements provides cosmogenic (10Be) ages of 2,400/2,500 a BP, c. 1,700 a BP, and c. 1,000/1,100 a BP. The preliminary construction of a dating curve based on both Schmidt-hammer and cosmogenic (10Be) dating results shows high significance and confirms the successful

  5. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  6. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotioma M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

  8. Sulfur Fixation by Chemically Modified Red Mud Samples Containing Inorganic Additives: A Parametric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; LI Yang; Zhou, Feng-shan; Hu, Ying-mo; Zhang, Yi-he

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur retention ability of Bayer red mud from alumina plant was investigated. Bayer red mud modified by fusel salt and waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide as the main sulfur fixation agent and the calcium based natural mineral materials as servicing additives; the experimental results showed the following: (1) Through 10 wt% waste mother liquor of sodium ferrocyanide modifying Bayer red mud, sulfur fixation rate can increase by 13 wt%. (2) Magnesium oxide can obviously improve the sul...

  9. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  10. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes.

  11. Research on the water hammer protection of the long distance water supply project with the combined action of the air vessel and over-pressure relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take a concrete pumping station as an example in this paper. Through the calculation of water hammer protection with a specific pumping station water supply project, and the analysis of the principle, mathematical models and boundary conditions of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve we show that the air vessel can protect the water conveyance system and reduce the transient pressure damage due to various causes. Over-pressure relief valve can effectively reduce the water hammer because the water column re-bridge suddenly stops the pump and prevents pipeline burst. The paper indicates that the combination set of air vessel and over-pressure relief valve can greatly reduce the quantity of the air valve and can eliminate the water hammer phenomenon in the pipeline system due to the vaporization and water column separation and re-bridge. The conclusion could provide a reference for the water hammer protection of long-distance water supply system

  12. Potential improvement of Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) of moraines in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, by application of the new electronic Schmidt-hammer (SilverSchmidt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Corbett, David

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Alps of New Zealand are among the few key study sites for investigating Holocene glacier chronologies in the mid-latitudinal Southern Hemisphere. Their characteristic highly dynamic geomorphological process systems prove, however, to be a considerable challenge for all attempts to date and palaeoclimatologically interpret the existing Holocene moraines record. As a multi-proxy approach combining 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating (TCND) with Schmidt-hammer testing, the recently developed Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) has already shown its potential in this study area (cf. Winkler 2005, 2009, 2013). An electronic Schmidt-hammer (named SilverSchmidt) was introduced by the manufacturer of the original mechanical Schmidt-hammer (Proceq SA) a few years ago. It offers, in particular, facilities for much easier data processing and constitutes a major improvement and potential replacement for the mechanical Schmidt-hammer. However, its different approach to the measurement of surface hardness - based on Q-(velocity) values instead of R-(rebound) values - is a potential drawback. This difference effectively means that measurements from the two instruments are not easily interconvertible and, hence, that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without previous comparative tests of both instruments under field conditions. Both instruments used in this comparative study were N-type models with identical impact energy of 2.207 Nm for the plunger. To compare both instruments and explore interconvertibility, parallel measurements were performed on a selected number of boulders (10 boulders per site with 5 impacts each, at least 2 sites per moraine) on moraines of homogeneous lithology but different established ages covering the entire Holocene and the Late Glacial. All moraines are located east of the Main Divide of the Southern Alps at Mueller Glacier, Tasman Glacier, and in the outer Tasman River Valley. All paired samples (n = 50) were

  13. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  14. Plugging wellbore fractures : limit equilibrium of a Bingham drilling mud cake in a tensile crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garagash, D.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Resource Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The proper selection of drilling muds is important in order to successfully drill hydrocarbon wells in which wellbore mud pressure remains low enough to prevent circulation loss and high enough to support the uncased wellbore against the shear failure. This paper presented a mathematical model to study invasion of mud cake into a drilling-induced planar fracture at the edge of a wellbore perpendicular to the minimum in situ principal stress. The model assumed a planar edge-crack geometry loaded by the wellbore hoop stress, variable mud pressure along the invaded region adjacent to the wellbore, and uniform pore-fluid pressure along the rest of the crack. The invading mud was assumed to freely displaces the pore-fluid in the crack without mixing with it. The case corresponding to a sufficiently permeable formation was considered. This solution provides a means to evaluate whether or not the mud cake could effectively plug the fracture, thereby prevent fracture propagation and associated uncontrollable loss of wellbore drilling mud. The toughness or tensile strength is evaluated based on criterion for initiation of crack propagation, which may lead to uncontrollable loss of mud circulation in a well. The study provided information on the breakdown pressure as a function of the rock ambient stress, ambient pore pressure, pre-existing crack length, and mud cake properties. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Polyacrylamide/potassium-chloride mud for drilling water-sensitive shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.K.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Rath, H.; Van Laar, H.G.

    1976-06-01

    A shale-protective, water-base drilling fluid containing a high molecular-weight, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and potassium chloride has been used in many wells around the world. A laboratory test for evaluating the ability of water-base muds to protect stressed shales under dynamic conditions was used in the initial development of the system. Field application of the polyacrylamide/potassium-chloride mud has been successful in stabilizing hard, sloughing shales in Canada and in reducing shale-related hole problems in several offshore areas. Recent use in the Canadian Arctic has extended the application to weighted muds for drilling soft, mud-producing shales.

  16. Mud transportation on a steep shelf, Rio de La Plata shelf, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, K.A.; Pilkey, O.H.; Trumbull, J.V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Hurricanes David (August 29-30, 1979) and Frederick (September 2-5, 1979) caused major flooding of the Rio de La Plata in northern Puerto Rico. A thin mud layer was deposited across the narrow insular shelf adjacent to the river mouth. Within 5 months, fair-weather shelf-winnowing processes moved the mud layer entirely from the shelf, 0.5 to 2 km to the shelf break at the 50-m contour and beyond. The process of mud movement is termed 'mud hopping.' ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  17. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  18. Evaluation of Corn Cob Cellulose and its Suitability for Drilling Mud Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Properties of mud formulated with variable concentrations of cellulose processed from corn cob have been studied. The results obtained were compared with that of a standard mud formulated from Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC. These results have shown that the pH, mud density, specific gravity of the mud formulated from corn cob cellulose are higher than that of the standard mud, but rheology of the prepared mud was lower than that of the standard mud. The results show that cellulose processed from corn cob can significantly reduce fluid loss in a water based drilling mud, suggesting cellulose as a good fluid loss control agent. It is confirmed that polymer can be used as fluid loss control agent in the mud system. The water loss analysis showed that the drilling fluid formulated from local material has a lower fluid loss of between 5.2-5.8 mls as compared to 6.6 mls for PAC. This also confirms that cellulose processed from corn cobs are preferred fluid loss control agents thanPolyanionic Cellulose (PAC.

  19. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  20. Development of Combined Hammer Used in Counterattack-type Crusher%反击式破碎机组合型锤头的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莹

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the failure characteristics of the hammer used in counterattack-type crusher due to wear, a combination-type hammer used in the counterattack-type crusher was developed. The hammer handle is made of alloy steel material, and the wear-resistant blocks is made of high chromium cast iron, the hammer handle and hammer head is connected with a special structure of profiled tapered dovetail. The connecting surface of the hammer is solid, its impact resistances is strong, and the wear-resistant blocks can be replaced, so its serve life improves, its integrated cost significantly reduces.%针对反击式破碎机中锤头因磨损而失效的特点,研发了一种应用于反击式破碎机的组合型锤头.该锤头以合金钢材料做锤柄,高铬铸铁做耐磨块,采用特殊的异形燕尾槽结构连接锤柄与锤头.锤头连接面结合牢固、抗冲击能力强,而且耐磨块可更换,不仅提高了锤头一次性使用寿命,同时大幅度降低了锤头综合使用成本.

  1. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of people under a common visual language. How, then, did mudejar managto gain popularity across reconquered Spain, so much so that it spread to the New World colonies? In this article, I argue that art and architecture move more fluidly than ideologies across boundaries, physical and political. The theory of transculturation makes it possible to understand how an architectural style such as Mudéjar can be generated from a cultural clash and move to an entirely different context. Developed in 1947 by Cuban scholar and theorist Fernando Ortíz, transculturation posited means by which cultures mix to create something entirely new. This process is often violent, the result of intense conflict and persecution, and one culture is almost always defeated in the process. The contributions of both societies, however, coexist in the final product, whether technological, artistic, or even agricultural. I argue that mudejar in Latin America is a product of two separate transculturations: the adoption of Arab design and ornamentation by Spanish Christians, and the subsequent transference of these forms to the New World through the work of indigenous laborers.

  2. Tools of Thor - more than a hammer: An overview of some analysis methods for turbulence investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Stein; Vaivads, Andris; Eriksson, Elin

    2016-04-01

    In the old Norse mythology Thor was a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder and lightning. THOR is also an acronym for Turbulence Heating ObserveR - a planned space mission dedicated to stydy space plasma turbulence. Whereas the mythological Thor did most of his work with a single tool, Mjølnir - his hammer, the modern version of THOR is far more versatile. The proposed THOR spacecraft comes with a comprehensive package of instruments to explore the energy dissipation and particle energization taking place in turbulent plasma environments. This paper presents a more detailed investigation of some of the analysis methods listed in the submitted THOR proposal. To demonstrate the methods, we have used data from existing spacecraft missions like Cluster and MMS to examine and compare single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods to establish proper frames. The presented analysis methods are based on fundamental plasma laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy and do not require any triangulation or gradients based on multiple spacecraft. Our experience based on Cluster and MMS results show that a well equipped single spacecraft platform, like the proposed THOR mission, very often provides better and less ambiguous results that a constellation of many spacecraft with less capable instrumentation. Limitations in underlying assumptions, such as planarity and linearity, as well as non-optimal spacecraft separation and configurations often limit the possibility to utilize multi-spacecraft methods. We also investigate the role of time resolution and dynamical range of the measurements used in the methods. Since the particle instruments onboard THOR will have a much better time resolution than existing magnetospheric satellite missions, we infer that THOR will be far better suited to resolve time evolution in plasma structures. This is of particular importance in the solar wind and magnetosheat, where frame velocities can be very high. With a larger

  3. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    OpenAIRE

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain value, e.g. 1200 kg/m3. However, the shear strength might be a more direct criterion to relate the navigable depth to. Presently, a research project, which is financed by The Netherlands Technology Fou...

  4. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieć M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The erosion curves based on weight loss were measured.

  5. Method of producing a reagent for treating drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khariv, I.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed for obtaining a reagent for treating drilling muds by hydrolysis of the polymer of the acryl series at 95-100/sup 0/C. In order to increase the capacity of the reagent to reduce viscosity and water output, and to increase the flocculating effect of the solution, the acryl polymer used is polyacryl nitrile, while hydrolysis is done in an alkali solution of sodium or potassium humates with the following ratio of components, % by mass: polyacryl nitrile 5.0-20.0, alkali solution of sodium or potassium humates the rest.

  6. Numerical analysis of water hammer induced by injection of subcooled water into steam flow in a horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcooled water injection into steam flow in piping systems may generate a water column containing a large steam slug. The steam slug collapses due to rapid condensation and interfaces on both sides collides with each other. Water hammer takes place and sharp pressure pulse propagates through the pipe. The purpose of this study is to show capability of the present numerical simulation method for predictions of pressure transient and loads on a piping system following steam slug collapse. A three-dimensional computer code for transient gas-liquid two-phase flow was applied to simulate an experiment of steam-condensation-induced water hammer with a horizontal polycarbonate pipe. The code was based on the extended two-fluid model, which treated interface motion using the VOF (Volume of Fluid) technique. The Godunov scheme of highly compressible single-phase flow was modified for application to the Riemann problem solution of gas-liquid mixture. Analysis of local steam slug collapse resulted in comparable peak pressure and pulse width of pressure transients with the observation. The calculation of pressure pulse propagation and impact load on piping system showed the quasi-steady pressure load was imposed especially on elbow at 1/10 of water hammer peak pressure. (author)

  7. An assessment of the moving point method for numerical calculation of fluid-structure interaction in water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of providing an accurate numerical method for modelling fluid-structure interaction in practical water hammer calculations for power station pipe networks is addressed. The application of the moving point method to a problem representative of practical water hammer is presented. A suitable model including both liquid pressure waves and pipe wall tension waves if formulated as a set of partial differential equations with algebraic equations and boundary and initial conditions. The problem is non-dimensionalized, to identify key parameters, and a suitable linearized problem is constructed by omitting small terms. The problem is transformed to characteristic variables which are shown to be simply transported along the pipe without change of value. This motivates the choice of the moving point method. In the course of the work a program WHOMP (Water Hammer On Moving Points) was developed which exploits the moving point method. It is specific to the problem of a single pipe with thin elastic walls but the boundary and initial conditions permitted are sufficiently general that any reasonable physical problem for a single pipe can be addressed. Results of WHOMP for the model problem are compared with experimental and other numerical results including superficially those from a commercially available code FLUSTRIN. Some consideration of extending the moving point method to practical pipe networks is given. This includes the incorporation of bending and torsion waves in the pipe wall and incorporation of additional physics leading to significant non-linearity. (author)

  8. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh, E-mail: jiinshuh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chung-Ho [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Sracek, Ondra [OPV s.r.o. (Groundwater Protection Ltd.), Bělohorská 31, 169 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Li, Zhaohui [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Bundschuh, Jochen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying and National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba (Australia); Yang, Huai-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Yen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Study represents geochemical characteristics and their spatial variability among six mud volcanoes of southern Taiwan. ► Anoxic mud volcanic fluids containing high NaCl imply connate water as the possible source. ► δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids is associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction. ► High As content in mud and its sequential extraction showed mostly adsorbed As on organic and sulphidic phases. ► Organic matter specially humic acid showed redox dependence and it may play an important role in binding and mobility of arsenic. -- Abstract: The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of

  9. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  10. Theoretical study of steam condensation induced water hammer phenomena in horizontal pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena are investigated and new theoretical results are presented. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to RELAP5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermohydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and in the Rosa facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In our present study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow rates for various pipe geometries where CIWH can happen. Such a reliable database would be a great help for future reactor constructions and scheming.

  11. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  12. Theoretical study of steam condensation induced water hammer phenomena in horizontal pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, Imre Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; ELI-HU Nonprofit Kft., Szeged (Hungary); Pocsai, Mihaly Andras [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Wigner Research Center; Pecs Univ. (Hungary). Inst. of Physics; Guba, Attila [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Imre, Attila Rikard [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Energy Research Center; Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Dept. of Energy Engineering

    2015-11-15

    Steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena are investigated and new theoretical results are presented. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to RELAP5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermohydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and in the Rosa facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In our present study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow rates for various pipe geometries where CIWH can happen. Such a reliable database would be a great help for future reactor constructions and scheming.

  13. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  14. Vibration analysis of fluid -structure interaction in water hammer based on transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; TANG Xuelin

    2016-01-01

    In consideration of the problem that the effect of conduit structure on water hammer has been ignored in the classical theory,the Poisson coupling between the fluid and the pipeline was stu-died and a fourteen-equation mathematical model of fluid -structure interaction (FSI)was developed. Then,the transfer matrix method (TMM)was used to calculate the modal frequency,modal shape and frequency response.The results were compared with that in experiment to verify the correctness of the TMMand the results show that the fluid -structure coupling has a greater impact on the modal frequen-cies than the modal shape.Finally,the influence on the response spectrum of different damping ratios was studied and the results show that the natural frequency under different damping ratios has changed little but there is a big difference for the pressure spectrum.With the decreasing of damping ratio,the damping of the system on frequency spectrum is more and more significant and the dispersion and dissi-pation is more and more apparent.Therefore the appropriate damping ratio should be selected to mini-mize the effects of the vibration of the FSI.The results provide references for the theory research of FSI in the transient process.

  15. Numerical analyses of a water pool under loadings caused by a condensation induced water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timperi, A.; Paettikangas, T.; Calonius, K.; Tuunanen, J.; Poikolainen, J.; Saarenheimo, A. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2004-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of a rapidly condensing steam bubble in a water pool have been performed by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Star-CD. The condensing bubble was modelled by using a mass sink in a single-phase calculation. The pressure load on the wall of the pool was determined and transferred to the structural analyses code ABAQUS. The analyses were done for a test pool at Lappeenranta University of Technology. The structural integrity of the pool during steam experiments was investigated by assuming as a test load the rapid condensation of a steam bubble with a diameter of 20 cm. The mass sink for modelling the collapse of the bubble was deter-mined from the potential theory of incompressible fluid. The rapid condensation of the bubble within 25 ms initiated a strong condensation water hammer. The maximum amplitude of the pressure load on the pool wall was approximately 300 kPa. The loads caused by the high compression waves lasted only about 0.4 ms. The loadings caused by larger bubbles or more rapid collapse could not be calculated with the present method. (au)

  16. Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

  17. A focused liquid jet formed by a water hammer in a test tube

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, Akihito; Ando, Keita; Kameda, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate motion of a gas-liquid interface in a test tube induced by a large acceleration via impulsive force. We conduct simple experiments in which the tube partially filled with a liquid falls under gravity and impacts a rigid floor. A curved gas-liquid interface inside the tube reverses and eventually forms an elongated jet (i.e. the so-called a focused jet). In our experiments, there arises either vibration of the interface or increment in the velocity of a liquid jet accompanied by the onset of cavitation in the liquid column. These phenomena cannot be explained by considering pressure impulse in a classical potential flow analysis, which does not account for finite speeds of sound as well as phase change. Here we model such water-hammer events as a result of one-dimensional pressure wave propagation and its interaction with boundaries through acoustic impedance mismatching. The method of characteristics is applied to describe pressure wave interactions and the subsequent cavitation. The proposed m...

  18. Weighty Issues in Small Star Masses...Like Your Favorite Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.

    1999-12-01

    The masses for objects smaller than the Sun are discussed, with particular attention paid to the most populous members of the galaxy, the red dwarfs. Both empirical and theoretical evaluations of current data for low mass stars will be reviewed, as well as the interplay between eclipsing, spectroscopic and astrometric (e.g. visual and interferometric) multiple star research. In addition, the transition region between stars and brown dwarfs is just beginning to be explored for mass determinations using observing techniques from both the ground and space, and the current status of results will be outlined. New results on the mass-luminosity relation (mass versus Mv to be specific) are presented in the form of a tool for researchers studying any aspect of stellar astronomy. The effects of metallicity and age, two parameters which directly affect luminosities on the main sequence and hence any relation derived using only a two parameter fit, are discussed. This tool should reside in every stellar astronomer's toolbox and should be used like a favorite hammer, because it is needed in order for us to build a sturdy understanding of stellar astrophysics.

  19. Loss of Power and Water Hammer Event at San Onofre, Unit 1, on November 21, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 21, 1985, Southern California Edison's Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1, located south of San Clemente, California, experienced a partial loss of inplant ac electrical power while the plant was operating at 60% power. Following a manual reactor trip, the plant lost all inplant ac power for 4 minutes and experienced a severe incidence of water hammer in the feedwater system which caused a leak, damaged plant equipment, and challenged the integrity of the plant's heat sink. The most significant aspect of the event involved the failure of five safety-related check valves in the feed-water system whose failure occurred in less than year, without detection, and jeopardized the integrity of safety systems. The event involved a number of equipment malfunctions, operator errors, and procedural deficiencies. This report documents the findings and conclusions of an NRC Incident Investigation Team sent to San Onofre by the NRC Executive Director for Operations in conformance with NRC's recently established Incident Investigation Program

  20. Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Imre Ferenc

    2014-01-01

    We investigate steam condensation induced water hammer (CIWH) phenomena and present new theoretical results. We use the WAHA3 model based on two-phase flow six first-order partial differential equations that present one dimensional, surface averaged mass, momentum and energy balances. A second order accurate high-resolution shock-capturing numerical scheme was applied with different kind of limiters in the numerical calculations. The applied two-fluid model shows some similarities to Relap5 which is widely used in the nuclear industry to simulate nuclear power plant accidents. This model was validated with different CIWH experiments which were performed in the PMK-2 facility, which is a full-pressure thermo-hydraulic model of the nuclear power plant of VVER-440/312 type in the Energy Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest and in the Rosa facility in Japan. In our recent study we show the first part of a planned large database which will give us the upper and lower flooding mass flow ...

  1. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  2. A Numerical Study on Wave-Mud Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dao-hua; NG Chiu-on

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a numerical study on the interaction of progressive waves propagating in a body of water overlying a layer of viscous fluid mud on the bottom, with emphasis placed on the induced oscillatory motion of the water-mud interface. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with the complete set of viscous boundary conditions are solved numerically by a finite difference method that is based on a time-dependent boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate system, for the simulation of wave motion in the two-layer viscous fluid system. Waves of moderate wavelength are generated in the upper water layer by a numerical flap-type wavemaker. The dynamic pressure due to the surface wave is transmitted downward onto the lower layer, generating wave motion on the interface. On mimicking some reported experimental conditions, the ratio of interfacial to surface wave amplitudes is evaluated and the results are found to compare more favorably with the experimental data than the prediction by a linear theory.

  3. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Monique Gagnon

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster, to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs. Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs: an ester (E, an isomerized olefin (IO and linear alpha olefin (LAO. Condition factor (CF, liver somatic index (LSI, hepatic detoxification (EROD activity, biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70 were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  4. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  5. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  6. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  7. Gases in Taiwan mud volcanoes: Chemical composition, methane carbon isotopes, and gas fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH4 emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH4 were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH4 (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N2 + O2 + Ar, 1-5%) and CO2 (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH4 concentration (CH4 > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO2 up to 85%, and much lower CH4 content (4 content (>90%) with low CO2 (1 (methane)/C2 (ethane) + C3 (propane) and δ13CCH4 results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH4 concentration variations, 4 emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH4 could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH4 emissions in Taiwan.

  8. Effect of potassium-salt muds on gamma ray, and spontaneous potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interpretations of the gamma ray and Spontaneous Potential curves generally assume the presence of sodium chloride as the dominant salt in both the formation water and the mud filtrate. However, potassium-salt muds are increasingly being used by the oil industry. The potassium cation is significantly different from the sodium cation in its radioactive and electrochemical properties. Natural potassium contains a radioactive isotope which emits gamma rays. Thus, the presence of potassium salts in the mud system may contribute to Gamma-Ray tool response. Since the Gamma Ray is used quantitatively in many geological sequences as an indicator of clay content, a way to correct for the effect of potassium in the mud column is desirable. Correction methods and charts based on laboratory measurements and field observations are presented. The effect of temperature on the resistivity of potassium muds is also briefly discussed. From data available, it appears to be similar to that for NaCl muds. On the bases of field observations and laboratory work, the electrochemical properties of potassium-chloride and potassium-carbonate muds and mud filtrates are discussed. Activity relationships are proposed, and the influence of these salts on the SP component potentials--namely, the liquid-junction, membrane, and bi-ionic potentials--is described. Several field examples are presented

  9. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris forage in Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus Mud Plumes

    OpenAIRE

    Kylin, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Greay Whales Eschristius robustus are the only large whales that are specialized bottom feeders, foraging on bottom sediments. When surfacing after a feeding dive a mud plume is formed at the surface as remaining sediment is strained out between the baleen. In the Chukchi Sea, Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris are attrackted to these mud plumes in search of food particles.

  10. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mud-stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. It is well recognised that microbes live in a wide range of subsurface environments including potential geological repository host rocks; and their presence can have an impact on transport processes. Microbial activity in any environment is located on chemical or physical interfaces, usually within bio-films. Their impact on transport can be physical (e.g. altering porosity) and/or chemical (e.g. changing redox conditions or altering pH) often resulting in intracellular or extracellular mineral formation or degradation. Consequently, the significance of microbial activity on the transport properties of potential host rocks for geological repositories is now being investigated. This pilot study investigates changes in transport properties that are because of microbial activity in sedimentary mud-stone rock environments at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Horonobe underground research laboratory (URL) in northern Japan. The geological setting of the URL is summarised elsewhere. Geo-microbiological assessments of ground waters, from boreholes, previously drilled at Horonobe, have revealed the presence of a diverse indigenous microbiological ecosystem. The impacts of the presence of these microbes on the performance of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository, using geo-microbiological data from Horonobe, has shown that denitrifying bacteria is likely to be the group of organisms with the greatest activity. Consequently, the impact of this group of organisms, specifically Pseudomonas denitrificans, on Horonobe rock transport properties, is the focus of this study. In brief, two experiments, one biotic and a 'control', were carried out using a flow-through column operated at a constant rate of fluid flow and under pressurised conditions. Changes in biological and chemical parameters were monitored throughout the experiment together with changes in confining pressure and temperature. The experiments were

  11. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  12. Reduction of iron oxides during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, N. A.; Korneev, V. P.; Averin, V. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Zinoveev, D. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experiments on the use of red mud in traditional pyrometallurgical processes and plants are presented. The red muds of the Ural Aluminum Plant (UAZ, Kamensk-Ural'skii) and the Alyum Plant (Tul'chiya) are shown to have similar phase and chemical compositions. The morphology of the iron oxides in red mud samples taken from mud storage is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is found that the metallic (cast iron) and slag phases that form during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud by melting with a carbon reducer in the temperature range 1200-1500°C are clearly separated. Cast iron can be used in steelmaking, and the slag can be used for hydrometallurgical processing and extraction of nonferrous metals and for the building industry after correcting its composition.

  13. Subsurface fluid distribution and possible seismic precursory signal at the Salse di Nirano mud volcanic field, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lupi, Matteo; Suski Ricci, Barbara; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelect...

  14. The Analysis of Influence Factor and Research Stayus of Hammer Mill%锤片式粉碎机工作性能影响因素及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 阮竞兰

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes several factors which influence the working performance of the hammer mill,such as linear velocity of hammer end,the number of hammer,diameter sieve,the perforation and corneri-te of screen and the hammer-screen space.It states the influence of these factors on hammer mill’s production efficiency,product quality and energy consumption.It also briefly elaborates the research situation of hammer mill in domestic,and introduces the structure features and advantages of the special type grinding chamber of hammer mill,the hammer grinder with wide horizontal vibrating screen and the double rotor structure of hammer mill.%分析了锤片末端线速度、锤片数量、筛孔直径、筛片开孔率和锤筛间隙等影响锤片式粉碎机工作性能的诸多因素,阐述了这些因素对粉碎机生产效率、产品质量和能耗等方面的影响。扼要地论述了目前国内粉碎机的研究现状,并介绍了“异型粉碎室”、“振动筛”及“双转子”等新型锤片式粉碎机的结构特点和优点。

  15. Mud depocenters on continental shelves—appearance, initiation times, and growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Lantzsch, Hendrik; Nizou, Jean

    2015-12-01

    Mud accumulates on continental shelves under a variety of environmental conditions and results in a diverse formation of mud depocenters (MDCs). Their three-dimensional architectures have been in the focus of several recent studies. Due to some terminological confusion concerning MDCs, the present study sets out to define eight individual MDC types in terms of surface sediment distribution and internal geometry. Under conditions of substantial sediment supply, prodeltas (distal zones off river deltas; triangular sheets), subaqueous deltas (disconnected from deltas by strong normal-to-shore currents; wedge-like clinoforms), and mud patches (scattered distribution) and mud blankets (widespread covers) are formed. Forced by hydrodynamic conditions, mud belts in the strict sense (detached from source; elongated bodies), and shallow-water contourite drifts (detached from source; growing normal to prevailing current direction; triangular clinoforms) develop. Controlled by local morphology, mud entrapments (in depressions, behind morphological steps) and mud wedges (triangular clinoforms growing in flow direction) are deposited. Shelf mud deposition took place (1) during early outer-shelf drowning (~14 ka), (2) after inner-shelf inundation to maximum flooding (9.5-6.5 ka), and (3) in sub-recent times (<2 ka). Subsequent expansion may be (1) concentric, in cases where the depocenter formed near the fluvial source, (2) uni-directional, extending along advective current transport paths, and (3) progradational, forming clinoforms that grow either parallel or normal to the bottom current direction. Classical mud belts may be initiated around defined nuclei, the remote sites of which are determined by seafloor morphology rather than the location of the source. From a stratigraphic perspective, mud depocenters coincide with sea-level highstand-related, shelf-wide condensed sections. They often show a conformable succession from transgressive to highstand systems tract stages.

  16. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  17. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Danielle T; Tavormina, Patricia L; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic) proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR). This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling. PMID:27478692

  18. Power consumption and quality features in the hammer crushing process for olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi, B.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous research, a preliminary analysis on the thermal balance in different crushing systems for olive oil production was carried out. According to the previous results, in this paper the study has been extended to power consumption aspects related to the main quality features of the extracted olive oil, restricting the analysis only to the hammer crushing (Coratina cultivar, which represents the worst case. In particular, the effect of the olives delivery on the power consumption and quality of the extracted oil has been studied. The experimental trials, carried out on a laboratory plant during the 1993-94 and 1994-95 olive-oil seasons, show that, even though the diagram of power consumption has a parabolic increasing trend, the specific power decreases with the olives delivery. Anyway studying the olives hammer crushing process also from the qualitative point of view (polyphenols number, acidity, peroxide number and induction time, it is possible to define an optimal range of olives delivery values. This optimal range (140 kg/h-240 kg/h for the studied hammer crusher represents the better working solution from both the point of view of the power consumption and the quality of the extracted oil. In particular, at the beginning of the olive oil season it is necessary to work near the greatest lower bound of the optimal range just defined. With the passing of the harvesting time, the olives delivery has to be increased, reaching values near the greatest higher bound at the end of the olive oil season.

    En una investigación previa, se ha llevado a cabo un análisis preliminar sobre el balance térmico en diferentes sistemas de trituración para la producción de aceite de oliva. De acuerdo con los resultados previos, en este trabajo el estudio se ha extendido a aspectos del consumo energético relacionados con las principales características de calidad del aceite de oliva extraído, limitando el análisis sólo a la trituraci

  19. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  20. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  1. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  2. In-Situ Observation of Fluid Mud in the North Passage of Yangtze Estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-fa(李九发); WAN Xin-ning(万新宁); HE Qing(何青); YING Ming(应铭); SHI Lian-qiang(时连强); S.M.Hutchinson

    2004-01-01

    Observations of fluid mud were made in the lower North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary in February 2000, on 10 ~11 August 2000, on 30~ 31 August 2000 (after two strong typhoons), on 21 ~ 24 August 2000 (neap tide) and on 3 ~6 September 2000 (mean tide) respectively. In situ data show that the fluid mud in this area consists of fine cohesive sediment (median size 7.23μm). The formation and movement of fluid mud varied during the neap-spring and flood-ebb tidal cycle. Observations suggest that fluid mud phenomena in this area may be categorised in a three-fold manner as slack water, storm and saltwedge features. The thickness of the fluid mud layer of slack water during the neap tide ranged from 0.2 to 0.96 m, whereas during the mean tide, the thickness ranged from 0.17 to 0.73 m, and the thickness of the fluid mud layer was larger during slack water than at the flood peak. Shoals cover an area of 800 km2 with a water depth smaller than 5 m. Erosion of these extensive intertidal mudflats due to storm action provides an abundant sediment source. This is particularly significant in this estuary when the tidal level is lower than 5 m. The lower North Passage is a typical zone of saltwater wedging, so the saltwedge fluid mud has the most extensive spatial range in the estuary.

  3. Appraisal of Thermal Properties of Mud in the Ariake Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Moqsud

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the thermal properties of the Ariake Sea mud and to find out the affecting factors which affect these values, a portable thermal properties analyzer was used. Thermal conductivity, thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity of the mud samples collected from both the tidal flat and inside the deep sea were measured in the laboratory. The thermal properties of mud collected from tidal flat showed a different trend from the mud collected from inside the sea due to the enough exposure to the sunlight and vigorous exchange of sea water in the tidal flat. Thermal conductivity of the Ariake mud was reduced 85-90% after it was oven dried and was increased up to 30% after the ignition loss test. Thermal resistivity of the Ariake mud increased dramatically after oven dried and it was less affected by the organic matter content. Thermal diffusivity was decreased 10-30% after oven dry however it increased up to 40% after the ignition loss test. The volumetric heat capacity of the Ariake mud was reduced up to 90% and increased 40% after the oven dry and ignition loss, respectively.

  4. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  5. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Jason B.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

  6. Mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea are hot spots of exclusive meiobenthic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Mea, Marianna; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    Mud volcanoes are cold seeps, in which the escape of gas and fluids associated with mud creates 3-D bottom structures that enhance the spatial heterogeneity and potentially alter the functioning of the benthic ecosystems. We investigated a complex system of mud volcanoes of the Mediterranean Sea characterised by the presence of different structures (i.e., isolated domes, domes surrounded by moats, clustered domes, and ridges) displaying different levels of seepage. We hypothesize that the combined effects of seafloor heterogeneity (i.e., different 3-D structures as revealed by detailed topographic analysis), fluid emissions and trophic characteristics of these systems can influence the structural and functional biodiversity of meiofauna (with special focus on the nematodes). We found that sediments affected by intensive seepage displayed the lowest faunal abundances and number of higher taxa. However, mud volcanoes without emissions, but characterized by a high structural complexity (such as the ridges), were associated with the highest meiofaunal abundances and number of higher taxa. Mud volcanoes hosted also a remarkable abundance of rare taxa specifically associated with these structures (e.g., acarians, cumaceans, tanaids, cladocerans and hydroids) and absent in slope sediments (used as a control). Each mud-volcano area displayed a different nematode species composition. Overall 76 nematode species (from a total of 235) were exclusively associated with mud-volcano structures, whilst 29 were exclusively encountered in slope sediments. We conclude that the presence of mud volcanoes, for their contribution to increase spatial heterogeneity and for the extreme conditions associated with gas emissions, promotes higher levels of beta diversity, thus enhancing the regional (gamma) benthic diversity. These findings provide new insights on the factors controlling meiobenthic biodiversity in mud volcanoes and clues for future action of conservation of the biodiversity

  7. Effect of electro-acupuncture, massage, mud, and sauna therapies in patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha B Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in 2007, came to our hospital in July 2014 with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints, especially over small joints, which was associated with stiffness (more in morning, deformities of fingers and toes, with disturbed sleep and poor quality of life (QOL for the past 7 years. She received a combination of electro acupuncture (14 sessions, massage (18 sessions, mud (18 sessions, and sauna (3 sessions (EMMS therapies for 30-min, 45-min, 30-min, and 15-min per session, respectively for 3 weeks. During and postintervention assessment showed reduction in visual analog scale score for pain, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. It also showed an increase in the scores of 10-Meter Walk Test, isometric hand-grip test, and short form-36 version-2 health survey. This result suggest that, the EMMS therapy might be considered as an effective treatments in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and stress with improvement in physical functions, quality of sleep and QOL in patient with RA. EMMS therapies were tolerated and no side effects were reported by the patient. Though the results are encouraging, further studies are required with larger sample size and advanced inflammatory markers.

  8. Effect of electro-acupuncture, massage, mud, and sauna therapies in patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Geetha B; Mooventhan, A; Anagha, N

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old married woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2007, came to our hospital in July 2014 with the complaint of severe pain and swelling over multiple joints, especially over small joints, which was associated with stiffness (more in morning), deformities of fingers and toes, with disturbed sleep and poor quality of life (QOL) for the past 7 years. She received a combination of electro acupuncture (14 sessions), massage (18 sessions), mud (18 sessions), and sauna (3 sessions) (EMMS) therapies for 30-min, 45-min, 30-min, and 15-min per session, respectively for 3 weeks. During and postintervention assessment showed reduction in visual analog scale score for pain, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. It also showed an increase in the scores of 10-Meter Walk Test, isometric hand-grip test, and short form-36 version-2 health survey. This result suggest that, the EMMS therapy might be considered as an effective treatments in reducing pain, depression, anxiety, and stress with improvement in physical functions, quality of sleep and QOL in patient with RA. EMMS therapies were tolerated and no side effects were reported by the patient. Though the results are encouraging, further studies are required with larger sample size and advanced inflammatory markers.

  9. On the Use of the Water Hammer Equations with Time Dependent Friction during a Valve Closure, for Discharge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Dunca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for in site discharge estimation in pressured pipes. The method consists in using the water hammer equations solved with the method of characteristics with an unsteady friction factor model. The differential pressure head variation measured during a complete valve closure is used to derive the initial flow rate, similarly to the pressure-time (Gibson method. The method is validated with a numerical experiment, and tested with experimental laboratory measurements. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the discharge estimation error by 0.6% compared to the standard pressure-time (Gibson method for the flow rate investigation.

  10. Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this program has been to measure the response of commercially important marine bivalve molluscs to low levels of drilling muds. Because these materials are composed of several major components whose proportions vary between wells and with depth for a single well, the approach of this study has been to test the major components individually and then to test a representative synthetic mud and finally a used drilling mud from an offshore platform. In all but one of these tests the target organism has been the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.

  11. Treatment of Red Mud From Alumina Production by High–Intensity Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Mohamad; Kmet, Stanislav; Jakabský, Štefan; Hredzák, Slavomír; Kunhalmi, Gabriel

    1995-01-01

    The paper gives attention to the possibilities of magnetic separation of red mud. The red mud can be characterised as an insoluble residue originated during the bayer method application in bauxite processing. Sample of red mud was obtained by leaching of bauxite from the Fria deposit (Guinea). The wet method of high–intensity magnetic separation was applied to the treatment. The magnetic product with the Fe content of 47% and recovery of 85% was obtained under magnetic field induction of 0.06...

  12. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  13. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  14. Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil by Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Mud Clam Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic potential of calcium oxide synthesized from mud clam shell as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was studied. The mud clam shell calcium oxide was characterized using particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and BET gas sorption analyzer. The catalyst performance of mud clam shell calcium oxide was studied in the transesterification of castor oil as biodiesel. Catalyst characterization and transesterification study results of synthesized catalyst proved the efficiency of the natural derived catalyst for biodiesel production. A highest biodiesel yield of 96.7% was obtained at optimal parameters such as 1 : 14 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 3% w/w catalyst concentration, 60°C reaction temperature, and 2-hour reaction time. Catalyst reusability test shows that the synthesized calcium oxide from mud clam shell is reusable up to 5 times.

  15. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  17. Surface charge properties of red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun-yu; HU Hui-ping; ZHANG Li-juan; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Acid/basic potentiometric titration can be used to quantify the red mud surface charge properties. The amount of surface active -OH groups and surface charge density on the red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite were evaluated from the acid/basic potentiometric titration data in 0.1 mol/L or 0.5 molL NaCI solution. The results show that the adsorption of sodium polyacrylate(SPA) on the red mud surface causes the increase of the surface active -OH groups, which makes the point of zero charge(PZC) shift to a lower pH value. However, the adsorption of polyacrylamide(PAM) causes little change. As the concentration of NaCl solution increases, the surface charge becomes more positive in acidic solution and more negative in alkaline solution, which can be attributed to the presence of a porous surface gel coating on the red mud particles.

  18. Evaluation of some vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants as additives for water based mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water-based drilling fluids are increasingly being used for oil and gas exploration and are generally considered to be more environmentally acceptable than oil-based or synthetic-based fluids. In this study, new types of vanillin-modified polyoxyethylene surfactants were evaluated as additives in water-based mud. Their rheological properties in water-based mud were investigated which included the apparent viscosity, the plastic viscosity, the yield point, the gel strength, the thixotropy as well as the filtration properties. Also, the effect of high temperature on the rheology of the formulated water based mud was studied. The tested ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants showed good results when utilized in the formulation of water-based mud.

  19. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  20. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September, October, November, December, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. Strength Development and Microstructure of Hardened Cement Paste Blended with Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhihua; ZHANG Yanna; XU Zhongzi

    2009-01-01

    Red mud was activated to be a mineral admixture for Portland cement by means of heating at different elevated temperatures from 400 ℃ to 700 ℃. Results show that heating was ef-fective, among which thermal activation of red mud at 600 ℃ was most effective. Chemical analysis suggested that cement added with 600 ℃ thermally activated red mud yielded more calcium ion dur-ing the early stage of hydration and less at later stage in liquid phase of cement water suspension sys-tem, more combined water and less calcium hydroxide in its hardened cement paste. MIP measure-ment and SEM observation proved that the hardened cement paste had a similar total porosity and a less portion of large size pores hence a denser microstructure compared with that added with original red mud.

  3. The wister mud pot lineament: Southeastward extension or abandoned strand of the San Andreas fault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D.K.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of a survey of mud pots in the Wister Unit of the Imperial Wildlife Area. Thirty-three mud pots, pot clusters, or related geothermal vents (hundreds of pots in all) were identified, and most were found to cluster along a northwest-trending line that is more or less coincident with the postulated Sand Hills fault. An extrapolation of the trace of the San Andreas fault southeastward from its accepted terminus north of Bombay Beach very nearly coincides with the mud pot lineament and may represent a surface manifestation of the San Andreas fault southeast of the Salton Sea. Additionally, a recent survey of vents near Mullet Island in the Salton Sea revealed eight areas along a northwest-striking line where gas was bubbling up through the water and in two cases hot mud and water were being violently ejected.

  4. CFD Simulation of Liquid-solid Multiphase Flow in Mud Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation was performed to analyze the mixing phenomena associated with multi-phase flow in a mud mixing system. For the validation of CFD simulation, firstly a liquid-solid multiphase flow inside horizontal pipe was simulated and compared with the experiments and other numerical simulations. And then, the multiphase flow simulation was carried out for the mud mixer in the drilling handling system in order to understand mixing phenomena and predict the mixing efficiency. For the modeling and simulation, a commercial software, STAR-CCM+, based on a finite-volume method (FVM was adopted. The simulation results for liquid-solid flow inside the pipe shows a good agreement with the experimental data. With the same multiphase model, the simulation for mud mixer is performed under the generalized boundary condition and then pressure drop through the mud mixer will be discussed.

  5. Meiofaunal stratification in relation to microbial food in a tropical mangrove mud flat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parulekar, A

    The vertical gradients of meiofauna mainly in relation to biochemical changes and microbial abundance in the upper 20 cm of deposit of a mangrove mud flat were studied. Strong vertical gradients in the redox potential (Eh), interstitial water...

  6. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  7. Transmutation analysis considering and explicit fission product treatment based on a coupled Hammer-Technion and Cinder-2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study about neutron absorption in a typical PWR cell by considering an explicit treatment for the fission products. The proposed methodology to treat fission product neutron absorption in a lattice calculation combines the HAMMER-TECHNION and CINDER-2 codes. The fission product chain treatment considers nearly 99% of all original CINDER-2 neutron absorption chain treatment. Parallel to the explicit treatment, a cross section library in the HAMMER-TECHNION code multigroup structure for the fission products was generated using the ENDF/B-V fission product library and processed by NJOY and AMPX-II processing codes. The methodology validation was investigated against two available benchmarks and it was obtained excellent results for the K-Infinity (IAEA-TECDOC-233) as function of burnup and enrichment and for the aggregate quantity sup(σ)2200 in units of barns/fission cross sections (OKAZAKI and SOKOLOWSKI). This work contributed for a better understanding of the fission product neutron absorption in a typical PWR cell and showed that the explicit fission product treatment can be successfully achieved. Besides that the performance of the ENDF/B-V fission product library was accessed. (author)

  8. Evidence of subsurface anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons and potential secondary methanogenesis in terrestrial mud volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Etiope, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Feyzullayev, A.; Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; Milkov, A. V.; BP, Russia Offshore SPU, Moscow, Russia; Waseda, A.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Mizobe, K.; Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., JAPEX Research Center, Chiba, Japan; Sun, C. H.; Exploration and Development Research Institute, CPC Taiwan, Taiwan, ROC

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gas origin in mud volcanoes and related petroleum systems must consider postgenetic processes which may alter the original molecular and isotopic composition of reservoir gas. Beyond eventual molecular and isotopic fractionation due to gas migration and microbial oxidation, investigated in previous studies, we now demonstrate that mud volcanoes can show signals of anaerobic biodegradation of natural gas and oil in the subsurface. A large set of gas geochemical data fro...

  9. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  10. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  11. Long-term follow-up of hypothenar hammer syndrome: a series of 47 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Isabelle; Hervé, Fabien; Primard, Etienne; Cailleux, Nicole; Levesque, Hervé

    2007-11-01

    Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon, occurring mainly in subjects who use the hypothenar part of the hand as a hammer; the hook of the hamate strikes the superficial palmar branch of the ulnar artery in the Guyon space, leading to occlusion and/or aneurysm of the ulnar artery. In patients with HHS, such injuries of the palmar ulnar artery may lead to severe vascular insufficiency in the hand with occlusion of digital artery. To date, only a few series have analyzed the long-term outcome of patients with HHS. This prompted us to conduct the current retrospective study to 1) evaluate the prevalence of HHS in patients with Raynaud phenomenon and 2) assess the short-term and long-term outcome in patients with HHS. From 1990 to 2006, 4148 consecutive patients were referred to the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Rouen medical center for evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon using nailfold capillaroscopy. HHS was diagnosed in 47 of these 4148 patients (1.13% of cases).Forty-three patients (91.5%) had occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma. The more common occupations were factory worker (21.3%), mason (12.8%), carpenter (10.6%), and metal worker (10.6%); the mean duration of occupational exposure to repetitive palmar trauma at HHS diagnosis was 21 years. One patient (2.1%) had recreational exposure (aikido training) to repetitive trauma of the palmar ulnar artery, and 3 other patients (6.4%) developed HHS related to a single direct injury to the hypothenar area. Clinical manifestations were more often unilateral (87.2%) involving the dominant hand (93%). HHS complications included digital ischemic symptoms (ischemia: n = 21, necrosis: n = 20) and irritation of the sensory branch of the ulnar nerve (n = 11). In HHS patients, angiography demonstrated occlusion of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (59.6%), aneurysm of the ulnar artery in the area of the Guyon space (40.4%), and embolic

  12. Direct mechanical energy measures of hammer mill comminution of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover and analysis of their particle size distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitra, V.S.P [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Miu, P.I. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    Biomass particle size impacts handling, storage, conversion, and dust control systems. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented hammer mill. Direct energy inputs were determined for hammer mill operating speeds from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 3.2 mm integral classifying screen and mass input rate of 2.5 kg/min with 90 - and 30 -hammers. Overall accuracy of specific energy measurement was calculated as 0.072 MJ/Mg. Particle size distributions created by hammer mill were determined for mill operating factors using ISO sieve sizes from 4.75 to 0.02 mm in conjunction with Ro-Tap sieve analyzer. A wide range of analytical descriptors were examined to mathematically represent the range of particle sizes in the distributions. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate the hammer mill plus that imparted to biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as energy imparted to biomass. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover grinding increased by 37, 30, and 45% from 114.4, 125.1, and 103.7 MJ/Mg, respectively, with an increase in hammer mill speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm for 90 -hammers. Corresponding total specific energy per unit size reduction was 14.9, 19.7, and 13.5 MJ/Mg mm, respectively. Effective specific energy of 90 -hammers decreased marginally for switchgrass and considerably for wheat straw and it increased for corn stover with an increase in speed from 2000 to 3600 rpm. However, effective specific energy increased with speed to a certain extent and then decreased for 30 -hammers. Rosin Rammler equation fitted the size distribution data with R2 > 0.995. Mass relative span was greater than 1, which indicated a wide distribution of particle sizes. Hammer milling of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover with 3.2 mm screen resulted in well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic

  13. Adsorption removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by active red mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Red mud is the waste of alumina industry and has high TiO2 and Fe2O3 content which are active components for the adsorption of anion pollutants. In this study, the uptake of phosphate by red mud activated by heat treatment and acid-heat treatment was investigated.The factors influencing the adsorption were also investigated. The result showed that the red mud sample treated using acid-heat method at 80℃ with 0.25 mol/L HCl for 2 h achieved the highest phosphate removal. For the heat-activated red mud, the sample heated at 700℃ for 2 h preformed better than the other heat treatment. Phosphate removal by the activated red mud was significantly pH dependent, and pH 7 was the optimal pH for phosphate removal. The adsorption fits Langmuir isotherm model well and the maximum adsorption capacities of the acid-heat activated red mud and the heat activated samples were 202.9 mgP/g and 155.2 mgP/g, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  15. Model and method of permeability evaluation based on mud invasion effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Hu, Xiang-Yun; Meng, Qing-Xin; Hu, Xu-Dong; Liu, Zhi-Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of permeability in reservoir assessment is a complex problem. Thus, it is difficult to perform direct evaluation permeability with conventional well-logging methods. Considering that reservoir permeability significantly affects mud invasion during drilling, we derive a mathematical model to assess the reservoir permeability based on mud invasion. A numerical model is first used to simulate the process of mud invasion and mud cake growth. Then, based on Darcy's law, an approximation is derived to associate the depth of mud invasion with reservoir permeability. A mathematical model is constructed to evaluate the reservoir permeability as a function of the mud invasion depth in time-lapse logging. Sensitivity analyses of the reservoir porosity, permeability, and water saturation are performed, and the results suggest that the proposed model and method are well suited for oil layers or oil-water layers of low porosity and low permeability. Numerical simulations using field logging and coring data suggest that the evaluated and assumed permeability data agree, validating the proposed model and method.

  16. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. PMID:26951343

  17. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arogundade, A. I., E-mail: ajiunolorioba@gmail.com; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M., E-mail: puteris@petronas.com.my; Faiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Bhat, A. H. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Tecknologi Petronas (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  18. Potential use of natural red mud as pozzolan for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production by the Bayer process, is considered hazardous due to its high pH, according to the Brazilian standard NBR 10004/2004, and worldwide generation of this waste exceeds 117 million tons/year. In this work, non-calcined red mud was used, thus requiring less energy and time and reducing costs, which is the ideal condition for reusing wastes. Mortars containing 30 wt. (% of cement substituted by red mud showed higher strength of hardened products. The pozzolanic activity index was evaluated based on physical and mechanical parameters (Brazilian NBR 5751 and NBR 5752 standards and on a chemical analysis (European EN 196-5 standard. A comparison of the reference mixture (without red mud and the results obtained with red mud confirm the potential of non-calcined red mud for use a as pozzolanic additive in cementitious materials. The setting time (according to the MERCOSUL NM 65 standard tends to increase but workability remains almost unchanged.

  19. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehryar, Esmaeil; Bi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·gVS−1, digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·gVS−1) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition.

  20. Lime muds and their genesis off-Northwestern India during the late Quaternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Purnachandra Rao; A Anil Kumar; S W A Naqvi; Allan R Chivas; B Sekar; Pratima M Kessarkar

    2012-06-01

    Two sediment types were found in five gravity cores collected from water depths between 56 m and 121 m along the northwestern continental margin of India: lime muds were abundant in the lower section while siliciclastic sediments dominated the upper section. Lime mud-dominated sediments in shelf cores contained 60%–75% carbonate, 0.3%–0.6% Sr and terrigenous minerals, whereas those at the shelf break were found to have < 90% carbonate, 0.6%–0.8% Sr and traces of terrigenous minerals. Aragonite needles showing blunt edges, jointed needles and needles wrapped in smooth aragonite cement were found to be common. Stable (O and C) isotopes of lime mud indicate a potentially freshwater contribution for shelf cores and purely marine contribution for those at the shelf break. Calibrated radiocarbon ages of the lime muds ranged from 17.6–11.9 ka in different cores. The results reported here suggest that the lime muds in the shallow shelf are probably reworked from the Gulf of Kachchh, whereas those at the shelf break were biodetrital, initially formed on the carbonate platform during low stands of sea level and then exported. The change in lime mud-dominated to siliciclastic-dominated sediments in the cores may be due to climate change and rapid rise in sea level during the early Holocene.

  1. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  2. Red Mud and Li-Ion Batteries: A Magnetic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-08-23

    Exceptional Li-ion battery performance is presented with the oxide component of the anode was extracted from red mud by simple magnetic separation and applied directly without any further processing. The extracted material has γ-Fe2 O3 as the major phase with inter-dispersed phases of Ti, Al, and Si oxides. In a half-cell assembly, the phase displayed a reversible capacity (∼697 mA h g(-1) ) with excellent stability upon cycling. Interestingly, the stability is rendered by the multiphase constitution of the material with the presence of other electrochemically inactive metal oxides, such as Al2 O3 , SiO2 , and Fe2 TiO4 , which could accommodate the strain and facilitate release during the charge-discharge processes in the electrochemically active maghemite component. We fabricated the full-cell assembly with eco-friendly cathode LiMn2 O4 by adjusting the mass loading. Prior to full-cell assembly, an electrochemical pre-lithiation was enforced to overcome the irreversible capacity loss obtained from the anode. The full-cell delivered a capacity of ∼100 mA h g(-1) (based on cathode loading) with capacity retention of ∼61 % after 2000 cycles under ambient conditions. PMID:27403736

  3. Determination of Atterberg limits using newly devised mud press machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayabali, Kamil; Akturk, Ozgur; Fener, Mustafa; Ozkeser, Ali; Ustun, Ayla Bulut; Dikmen, Orhan; Harputlugil, Furkan; Asadi, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    Consistency limits are one of the most prominent parameters to be determined in geotechnical investigations. While these limits are akin to one another, different tools determine each one. Each method of determining consistency limits has its own uncertainties, the operator dependency being the top source of uncertainty. Liquid limit (LL) and plastic limit (PL) tests have a number of uncertainties affecting the test results. The very speculative nature of the bead-rolling method for the plastic limit has long been known. Besides this, its results can be barely accepted as quantitative. In the past, a number of attempts have been made to eliminate these setbacks for Atterberg limits. The scope of this investigation is to evaluate the potential of newly developed "mud press method (MPM)" to predict the two consistency limits. The material employed for this investigation covers 275 soils, whose liquid limits range from 28 to 166. The log(a) and 1/b parameters obtained from the MPM method were correlated to results of the conventional methods. The PL and LL for each soil were predicted using empirical forms and were compared with the laboratory values. Remarkably good matches were obtained between the conventionally determined test results and the predicted values for the liquid and plastic limits. The newly developed tool is superior in several aspects to the available conventional methods and tools.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss and Catherine Birney

    2011-05-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 544 are located within Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada National Security Site. Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following CASs: • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 544 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 544 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  5. 多元低合金耐磨锤头制造工艺%Manufacturing Process for Complex Low-alloyed Wear-resisting Hammers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正伟; 李永堂; 曹建新; 贾璐

    2013-01-01

    锤头的耐磨性和工作寿命直接影响着破碎机的工作效率和生产成本,因此锤头要求有良好的力学性能、冲击韧性和耐磨性。在分析了锤头工况和失效机理的基础上,设计了多元低合金耐磨锤头材料的化学成分,提出了铸造工艺和热处理工艺,进行了工业试验,并对试件进行了检测分析,获得了满意的结果。%The operation efficiency and production cost of crusher were directly affected by the performance and service life of hammers .Therefore ,hammers were requested to have good mechanical properties ,impact toughness and abrasive resistance .Based on the analysis of working condition of the hammers and the failure mechanism ,the chemical composition of multi-element low-alloy wear-resistant material for hammers was designed ,the program of casting process and heat treatment process were proposed ,the industrial test was carried out ,and the satisfactory results were obtained .

  6. 击弦乐器乐声特性与演奏手法的关系%Relationship between hammered string instrument musical sound characteristic and playing skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任静锋; 王旸; 龙姝明

    2012-01-01

    给定初值条件,解弦振动波动定解问题,计算演奏手法变化引起的击弦乐器振动驻波能谱结构变化.探索击弦乐器乐声的音调、音色与弦振动驻波能谱结构的关系.用Mathematica编程模拟击弦乐器弦振动乐声,用听觉体验和频谱分析研究击弦乐器音调、音色与演奏手法的关系.%Given initial conditions, string vibration wave problem was solved. By changing playing techniques, calculation of the change caused by hammered string instrument vibration energy spectrum. Explore the relationship of the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and string vibration energy spectrum was exploved. Mathematics programming was used to simulate the hammered string instrument music. By auditory experience and spectrum analysis, the relationship between the hammered string instrument tone and timbre and playing techniques was studied.

  7. Thessaloniki Mud Volcano, the Shallowest Gas Hydrate-Bearing Mud Volcano in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Perissoratis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed multibeam survey and the subsequent gravity coring carried out in the Anaximander Mountains, Eastern Mediterranean, detected a new active gas hydrate-bearing mud volcano (MV that was named Thessaloniki. It is outlined by the 1315 m bathymetric contour, is 1.67 km2 in area, and has a summit depth of 1260 m. The sea bottom water temperature is 13.7∘C. The gas hydrate crystals generally have the form of flakes or rice, some larger aggregates of them are up to 2 cm across. A pressure core taken at the site contained 3.1 lt. of hydrocarbon gases composed of methane, nearly devoid of propane and butane. The sediment had a gas hydrate occupancy of 0.7% of the core volume. These characteristics place the gas hydrate field at Thessaloniki MV at the upper boundary of the gas hydrate stability zone, prone to dissociation with the slightest increase in sea water temperature, decrease in hydrostatic pressure, or change in the temperature of the advecting fluids.

  8. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  9. Predicting bedforms and primary current stratification in cohesive mixtures of mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Jaco, B.; Peakall, J.

    2015-12-01

    The use of sedimentary structures as indicators of flow and sediment morphodynamics in ancient sediments is essential for reconstruction of formative flow conditions generated in a wide range of grain sizes and sedimentary environments. Yet, the vast majority of past research has concerned bedforms generated in essentially cohesionless sediments that lack the presence of mud within the flow and within the sediment bed itself. However, most sedimentary environments possess fine-grained sediments, with recent work demonstrating how the presence of such fine sediment may substantially modify the fluid dynamics of such flows. It is thus increasingly evident that the influence of mud, and the presence of cohesive forces, is essential to permit a fuller interpretation and understanding of many modern and ancient sedimentary successions. In this paper, we summarize on the fluid dynamics of turbulence modulation generated by the presence of fine suspended sediment, and use this knowledge to propose a new extended bedform phase diagram for bedforms generated in mixtures of sand and mud under rapidly decelerated flows. This diagram provides a phase space using the variables of yield strength and grain mobility as the abscissa and ordinate axes, respectively, and defines the stability fields of a range of bedforms generated under flows that have modified fluid dynamics due to the presence of suspended sediment within the flow. We also show data on a range of bedforms generated in such flows, from laboratory experiments and examples from ancient sediments, including: i) heterolithic stratification, comprising alternating laminae or layers of sand and mud; ii) the preservation of low amplitude bed-waves, large current ripples, and bed scours with intrascour composite bedforms; iii) low angle cross-lamination and long lenses and streaks of sand and mud formed by bed-waves; iv) complex stacking of reverse bedforms, mud layers and low-angle cross-lamination on the upstream face of

  10. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon Mud Volcano (Nile Deep Sea Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile Deep Sea Fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulphate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition and microbial activities over three years, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulphide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. Furthermore, within three years, cell numbers and hydrocarbon degrading activity increased at the gas-seeping sites. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon mud volcano is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer mud volcano area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  11. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. PMID:24631200

  12. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution.

  13. Frictional Constitutive Parameters for Serpentine Mud from South Chamorro Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Ishii, T.

    2005-12-01

    The lack of great earthquakes in Izu-Ogasawara and Mariana subduction zones may be associated with low-temperature serpentinite (M. Kasahara, 2003). We have thus started experimental studies on fault constitutive properties of serpentinite gouge, using a biaxial frictional testing machine at Kyoto University. Many conically-shaped serpentine seamounts are developed behind those subduction zones. They are consisted mainly of serpentinite mud with clasts of mantle rocks and high-pressure metamorphic rocks. Previous studies imply that the serpentinite is likely to have formed at depths around 30km. We have used serpentine mud, consisted mainly of chrysotile, in the drill core from South Chamorro Seamount (ODP Leg195). Double shear frictional experiments have been conducted on about 0.3 mm thick gouge at 30 MPa normal stress, at room temperature and under wet conditions (but without pore pressure). A series of velocity-step tests were performed in velocity range from 0.015 to 150 μm/s. Rate-and-state constitutive laws were fit to experimental data, by solving specimen-apparatus interaction numerically searching for the optimum constitutive parameters. Determination of stiffness of the apparatus is essential for accurate estimate of constitutive parameters. Careful measurements have revealed that the total stiffness (9.00×107 N/m) fluctuates by up to about 10 % probably owing to loose alignment of machine elements. This induces errors in constitutive parameters depending on dc}. If dc is in the order of 10 μm or larger, the error in b value is in the order of percent or less. But if the dc is around 1 μm, it becomes tens of percents or larger. The absolute value of frictional coefficient is around 0.2, very low and consistent with that of pure chrysotile (Moore et al., 1997). a- σb value is about 0.005 for velocity steps at 0.015-0.15 μm/s, decreases with increasing slip rate down to about -0.01 for the velocity steps at 15-150 μm/s. It changes from positive to

  14. Seasonal variability of antioxidant biomarkers in mud crabs (Scylla serrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Chainy, G B N

    2013-01-01

    Studies on oxidative stress (OS) in crustacea are widely used as ecotoxicological indices to assess the environment risk produced by the impact of several stressor and pollutants. In the present study, effects of seasonality on OS physiology markers such as antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), small antioxidant molecules (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione), oxidative stress indices (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and hydrogen peroxide) and total antioxidant capacity in hepatopancreas, gills and abdominal muscle of adult mud crab Scylla serrata, sampled from Chilika lagoon of India, were determined in winter, summer and rainy seasons. Results indicate that variations in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with relation to season were not only tissue specific but also were gender specific. The levels of OS parameters were higher in hepatopancreas in comparison to gills and abdominal muscle of the crabs in all seasons. OS indices in tissues of the crabs were mainly higher in summer season when temperature and salinity of the lagoon were high with low oxygen content. Although OS was lower in winter season and moderate in rainy season in tissues of male crabs, it was higher in gills and hepatopancreas of females in rainy season. Correlation analyses between hydrological parameters of the lagoon (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen content) and OS physiology parameters in tissues of crabs suggest that abiotic factors influence the levels of antioxidant enzymes and, thereby the OS status in a tissue and sex specific manner. Collectively, the results of the present work suggest that further investigation is warranted before using OS parameters in S. serrata as biomarkers to monitor estuarine environment as these are influenced by gender, tissue and season.

  15. Monitoring and characterisation of sand-mud sedimentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Alan J. S.; Ibikunle, Olugbenga; McCarter, W. John; Starrs, Gerard

    2016-07-01

    Estuaries and tidal inlets are often characterised by the presence of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. Knowledge of the sedimentation behaviour of sand-mud mixtures is therefore crucial to the understanding and prediction of the time-dependent structure (i.e. mixed or segregated), composition and erodibility of sediment bed deposits developing within these environments. In the current study, a series of settling column tests are conducted to investigate the hindered settling and initial bed consolidation phases of a range of sand-clay mixtures to determine the parametric conditions under which bed segregation occurs. A new, non-invasive, electrical resistivity measurement technique is employed to capture both temporal and spatial changes in the density, porosity and composition of the evolving sand-clay bed deposits, complimented by time-lapsed images of the sedimentation process within the column. The results show that the formation of segregated (sand-clay) bed layers with bed deposits is largely controlled by the initial fractional composition (i.e. relative sand and clay concentrations). Specifically, mixtures with low clay contents are shown to form well-defined (sand-clay) layer segregation within the resulting deposits, while higher clay contents result in more transitional segregation patterns or no layer segregation (for very high clay concentrations). The physical mechanisms under which these different segregation types can be generated are illustrated through predictions from an existing polydisperse hindered settling model. This model indicates that the degree of bed segregation, and time scale over which this occurs, correlates well with the difference in predicted hindered settling characteristics and upward displacements associated with the sand and clay fractions, respectively. In this regard, the new experimental dataset provides validation for the polydisperse model (for the first time), with the combined data and model predictions

  16. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Although not uncommon within the dryer eastern parts of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, comparatively few previous studies have previously focused on rock glacier dynamics and spatial distribution. Neither investigations of their chronological constraints nor any studies on actual rock glacier velocities have yet been carried out. Rock glaciers and periglacial processes still largely constitute a largely unexplored albeit potentially valuable field of research in the Southern Alps. The high-altitude valley head of Irishman Stream in the Ben Ohau Range between Lakes Ohau and Pukaki, roughly 30 km southeast of the Main Divide, contains a few morphologically intact rock glaciers and some appear to be active features (Sattler et al. 2016). Previous work focusing on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines in the valley head below the rock glaciers (Kaplan et al. 2010) provided 10Be-ages that could be utilised as fixed points for SHD (Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating). Apart from detailed Schmidt-hammer sampling on the Late-glacial and early Holocene moraines, two altitudinal transects from the toe to their apex have been measured in detail on selected rock glaciers. On each of the multiple ridges of the rock glacier surface three sites of 50 boulders have been sampled with one impact each by the hammer (an N-type electronic SilverSchmidt by Proceq). Apart from getting some age constraints of these periglacial features in comparison to the well-dated moraines, the Schmidt-hammer measurements also had the aim to provide some insight into their genetic development resulting in a quite complex morphology of the rock glaciers and partial interaction with some of the moraines. Both altitudinal transects reveal a clear and continuous trend of increasing means (i.e. less weathered/younger exposure ages) towards their apex. The values for the individual ridges show, however, a transitional character with adjacent ridges albeit the abovementioned trend not statistically

  17. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  18. And now for something completely different: condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca Oil Sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. Two major failures will be highlighted: MEG Energy had a steam distribution line fail at the Christina Lake project. Large parts of the pipe, weighing some 2500 kg, were thrown some 800 meters into the bush during the failure; and, Total had a steam release (blowout) at their Joslyn property due to a loss of caprock containment. A number of causes have been postulated. While it is agreed that there was sufficient downhole pressure to hydraulically fracture the formation, questions have been raised about the contribution that condensation induced water hammer made. The situations that have occurred will be outlined, along with some preliminary thermal hydraulic work. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (author)

  19. Gases in Taiwan mud volcanoes: Chemical composition, methane carbon isotopes, and gas fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Hung-Chun [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); You, Chen-Feng, E-mail: cfy20@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)] [Earth Dynamic System Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chih-Hsien [Exploration and Production Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    Mud volcanoes are important pathways for CH{sub 4} emission from deep buried sediments; however, the importance of gas fluxes have hitherto been neglected in atmospheric source budget considerations. In this study, gas fluxes have been monitored to examine the stability of their chemical compositions and fluxes spatially, and stable C isotopic ratios of CH{sub 4} were determined, for several mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan. The major gas components are CH{sub 4} (>90%), 'air' (i.e. N{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + Ar, 1-5%) and CO{sub 2} (1-5%) and these associated gas fluxes varied slightly at different mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. The Hsiao-kun-shui (HKS) mud volcano emits the highest CH{sub 4} concentration (CH{sub 4} > 97%). On the other hand, the Chung-lun mud volcano (CL) shows CO{sub 2} up to 85%, and much lower CH{sub 4} content (<37%). High CH{sub 4} content (>90%) with low CO{sub 2} (<0.2%) are detected in the mud volcano gases collected in eastern Taiwan. It is suggestive that these gases are mostly of thermogenic origin based on C{sub 1} (methane)/C{sub 2} (ethane) + C{sub 3} (propane) and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4} results, with the exception of mud volcanoes situated along the Gu-ting-keng (GTK) anticline axis showing unique biogenic characteristics. Only small CH{sub 4} concentration variations, <2%, were detected in four on-site short term field-monitoring experiments, at Yue-shi-jie A, B, Kun-shui-ping and Lo-shan A. Preliminary estimation of CH{sub 4} emission fluxes for mud volcanoes on land in Taiwan fall in a range between 980 and 2010 tons annually. If soil diffusion were taken into account, the total amount of mud volcano CH{sub 4} could contribute up to 10% of total natural CH{sub 4} emissions in Taiwan.

  20. Aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation in terrestrial mud volcanoes in the Northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, C.; Brady, S.; Rockstroh, S.; Dreier, A.; Kokoschka, S.; Heinzelmann, S. M.; Heller, C.; Reitner, J.; Taviani, M.; Daniel, R.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-07-01

    Methane oxidizing prokaryotes are ubiquitous in oxic and anoxic habitats wherever C1-compounds are present. Thus, methane saturated mud volcano fluids should be a preferred habitat of methane consuming prokaryotes, using the readily available electron donors. In order to understand the relevance of methane as a carbon and energy source in mud volcano communities, we investigate the diversity of prokaryotic organisms involved in oxidation of methane in fluid samples from the Salse di Nirano mud volcano field situated in the Northern Apennines. Cell counts were at approximately 0.7 × 106 microbial cells/ml. A fraction of the microbial biomass was identified as ANME (anaerobic methanotroph) archaea by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. They are associated in densely colonized flakes, of some tens of μm in diameter, embedded in a hyaline matrix. Diversity analysis based on the 16S rDNA genes, retrieved from amplified and cloned environmental DNA, revealed a high proportion of archaea, involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Aerobic methane-oxidizing proteobacteria could be highly enriched from mud volcano fluids, indicating the presence of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which may contribute to methane oxidation, whenever oxygen is readily available. The results imply that biofilms, dominated by ANME archaea, colonize parts of the mud volcano venting system.

  1. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  2. Dry Sliding Wear behaviour of Aluminium-Red mud- Tungsten Carbide Hybrid metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi Chinta, Neelima; Selvaraj, N.; Mahesh, V.

    2016-09-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste obtained during the processing of alumina by Bayer's process. An attempt has been made to utilize the solid waste by using it as the reinforcement material in metal matrix composites. Red mud received from NALCO has been subjected for sieve analysis and milled to 42 nanometers using high energy ball mill. Red mud is used as a reinforcement material in Pure Aluminium matrix composite at 2%, 4%, and 6% weight at 100 microns level as well as 42 nano meters along with 4%Tungsten carbide by weight. Micro and Nano structured red mud powders, Tungsten carbide powder and Aluminium is mixed in a V-Blender, compacted at a pressure of 40 bar and samples are prepared by conventional sintering with vacuum as medium. In this current work, dry sliding wear characteristics at normal and heat treatment conditions are investigated with optimal combination of Aluminium, Tungsten carbide and different weight fractions of micro and nano structured red mud powder.

  3. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Natálya I; Santos, Patrícia S C; de Souza, Talita E; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Castro, Cínthia S

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400°C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe2O3 is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe(2+) species present in Fe3O4, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction.

  4. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  5. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Natálya I; Santos, Patrícia S C; de Souza, Talita E; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Castro, Cínthia S

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400°C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe2O3 is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe(2+) species present in Fe3O4, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction. PMID:27149399

  6. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 deg. C for 110 min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10 MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process

  7. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushil, S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Alabdulrahman, A.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Petroleum and Petrochemical Research Institute (PAPRI), PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Balakrishnan, M. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Batra, V.S., E-mail: vidyasb@teri.res.in [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Blackley, R.A. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Clapp, J.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Monaghan, A.; Pulford, I.D. [WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rico, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalisis, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio E, CU, Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58060 (Mexico); Zhou, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe{sub 3}C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  8. Logging identification of the Longmaxi mud shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional gas reservoirs, shale gas reservoirs are not sensitive to petrophysical properties, making it much difficult to identify this kind of reservoirs with well logging technologies. Therefore, through a comparison of the logging curves of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, it is found that the mud shale on conventional log curves generally features high gamma ray, high uranium, low thorium, low kalium, relative high resistivity, high interval transit time, low neutron, low density and low photoelectric absorption cross section index, while on elements logging curves, it features an increase of silicon content and a decrease of aluminum and iron content. Based on the logging response characteristics of mud shale, the logging curves most sensitive to shale, gamma ray, neutron and density logging were selected and overlaid to identify mud shale effectively. On the basis of qualitative identification, the density logging value can identify the non-organic-rich mud shale from organic-rich mud shale, because the former has a density of 2.61–2.70 g/cm3, while the latter has a density of less than 2.61 g/cm3. The identification results agree well with the results of field gas content test, TOC experiment, and gas logging, so this study can provide reference for the logging interpretation.

  9. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-15

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 degrees C for 110min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process. PMID:18457916

  10. Beryllium geochemistry constraints on the hydraulic behavior of mud volcanoes: the Trinidad Island case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrec-Rouelle, M.; Bourlès, D. L.; Boulègue, J.; Dia, A. N.

    2002-11-01

    To constrain Trinidad mud volcanoes hydraulic behavior, both cosmogenic 10Be ( t1/2=1.5 Myr) and 9Be concentrations have been measured in fluid and associated expelled mud. As previously evidenced [A.N. Dia, M. Castrec, J. Boulègue, P. Comeau, Trinidad Mud Volcanoes: where do the expelled fluids come from? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63 (1999) 1023-1038] from δ 18O values and Cl concentrations, 9Be concentrations in the fluids mostly reflect the mixing of two deep components: REM I and REM II. REM I (δ 18O=10.5‰, Cl≈275 mM and 9Be≈0.05 nM) has characteristics of a continental fluid while REM II (δ 18O=3‰, Cl≈350 mM and 9Be≈1 nM) results from seawater-volcanogenic derived sediment interaction. Although 10Be concentrations in the fluid samples are close to the detection limit, the distribution of both beryllium isotopes between the hydroxylamine leachable and residual phases indicates exchange reaction with fluid younger than 15 Myr. Comparison between the lowest REM I 10Be/ 9Be ratio in fluid recorded by the hydroxylamine leachable phase (TD5 mud sample) and the 10Be/ 9Be ratio representative of meteoric contribution in the recharge area (TD8 fluid sample) yields a circulation rate of REM I fluid in the Trinidad mud volcanoes of several 10 -1 m/yr.

  11. 夯锤冲击黄土行程试验研究%MODEL TEST ON PROCESS OF HAMMER UNDER DYNAMIC COMPACTION OF LOESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩云山; 董彦莉; 白晓红

    2015-01-01

    为研究夯锤对地基的冲击机制,探索表征夯锤冲击效能的方法,在黄土地基上开展392 N×2.5 m以及700 N×1.4 m两组相同能级的强夯模型试验,以模型夯锤为研究对象,得到2组夯锤冲击黄土地基时的加速度时程曲线,并通过数值积分获得速度曲线及冲击行程的位移时程曲线。通过对比后发现,在相同击数下,低落距重锤的加速度峰值虽均比高落距轻锤的小,但重锤的冲击力峰值增加幅度却比轻锤的大;将夯锤冲击行程分为无效行程、夯沉量及地基反弹3个部分,定义夯沉量与夯锤冲击行程的位移计算值之比为夯沉比,得到夯沉比曲线及其表达式,从而用夯沉比来表征夯锤冲击效能。同时认为还可以根据一定标准,利用夯沉比及其曲线确定最优强夯击数,从而为优化强夯设计提供参考。%To investigate the mechanism of dynamic compaction on foundation and to explore the method of evaluating the effect of dynamic impact,two groups of dynamic model tests on loess foundation were carried out with the same energy level of 392 N×2.5 m and 700 N×1.4 m respectively. The hammer was the focus in the tests. Two groups of time history of acceleration were obtained during the test. The velocity curve and the time history curve of displacement of the hammer were obtained with the method of numerical integration based on the test data. Under the action of the same number of hammer droppings,the peak value of acceleration with the heavier hammer at lower dropping distance was smaller than that with the lighter hammer at higher dropping distance. While the increment of peak value of impact force with the heavier hammer was larger than that with the lighter hammer. The whole process of dynamic compaction was divided into an invalid part,a settlement part,and a rebound part. The tamping displacement ratio was proposed and was defined as the ratio of measured displacement to

  12. Water-retentive and anti-inflammatory properties of organic and inorganic substances from Korean sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmi; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Sea mud has been popularly used as an effective base in cosmetic preparations although its biologically-active materials and mechanisms on skin have not yet been fully determined. We isolated humic substances as the major organic substance of the sea mud from a tidal flat in Korea, and investigated their water-retentive properties. Among the three isolated humic substances, humic acid (HA) showed the highest water retentive property (approximately 50 % mass increase from water uptake). Based on the observations that mud pack therapy has been traditionally used to soothe UV-irradiated skin, we examined the antiinflammatory property of the sea mud on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by measuring PGE2 levels produced by keratinocytes in the presence of either the total water or methanol extracts of the mud. The water extract showed higher inhibition of PGE2 production from HaCaT cells (30% inhibition) than the methanol extract at 200 ppm (microg/g). We further fractionated the water extract to determine the major components responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. It was found that the minerals in the mud inhibited PGE2 production by 83 % at 200 ppm, which is comparable with the inhibitory effect of 1 microM indomethacin. No mud extract showed cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. The mineral compositions of the mineral extract were determined by ICP-MS, revealing that the sea mud consisted of more than 19 different mineral components, rich in Na+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. These results imply that the anti-inflammatory effect of the sea mud is largely due to the minerals in the mud. Our research suggests the potential use of the organic and inorganic substances from the sea mud in various skin products as safe biological substances for skin protective purposes. PMID:20420315

  13. Illuminating Anaerobic Microbial Community and Cooccurrence Patterns across a Quality Gradient in Chinese Liquor Fermentation Pit Muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Du, Hai; Ren, Cong; Xu, Yan

    2016-04-15

    Fermentation pit mud, an important reservoir of diverse anaerobic microorganisms, is essential for Chinese strong-aroma liquor production. Pit mud quality, according to its sensory characteristics, can be divided into three grades: degraded, normal, and high quality. However, the relationship between pit mud microbial community and pit mud quality is poorly understood, as are microbial associations within the pit mud ecosystem. Here, microbial communities at these grades were compared using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the variable region V4 of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results revealed that the pit mud microbial community was correlated with its quality and environmental factors. Species richness, biodiversity, and relative and/or absolute abundances ofClostridia,Clostridium kluyveri,Bacteroidia, andMethanobacteriasignificantly increased, with corresponding increases in levels of pH, NH4 (+), and available phosphorus, from degraded to high-quality pit muds, while levels ofLactobacillus, dissolved organic carbon, and lactate significantly decreased, with normal samples in between. Furthermore, 271 pairs of significant and robust correlations (cooccurrence and negative) were identified from 76 genera using network analysis. Thirteen hubs of cooccurrence patterns, mainly under theClostridia,Bacteroidia,Methanobacteria, andMethanomicrobia, may play important roles in pit mud ecosystem stability, which may be destroyed with rapidly increased levels of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus,Pediococcus, andStreptococcus). This study may help clarify the relationships among microbial community, environmental conditions, and pit mud quality, allow the improvement of pit mud quality by using bioaugmentation and controlling environmental factors, and shed more light on the ecological rules guiding community assembly in pit mud. PMID:26896127

  14. Arsenate removal from water using sand--red mud columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Bregnhøj, Henrik; McConchie, David

    2005-08-01

    This study describes experiments in which sorption filters, filled with chemically modified red mud (Bauxsol) or activated Bauxsol (AB) coated sand, are used to remove As(V) (arsenate) from water. Bauxsol-coated sand (BCS) and AB-coated sand (ABCS) are prepared by mixing Bauxsol or AB with wet sand and drying. Samples of the BCS and ABCS are also used in batch experiments to obtain isotherm data. The observed adsorption data fit the Langmuir model well, with adsorption maxima of 3.32 and 1.64 mgg(-1) at pH values of 4.5 and 7.1, respectively for BCS; and of 2.14 mgg(-1) for ABCS at a pH of 7.1. Test results show that higher arsenate adsorption capacities can be achieved for both BCS and ABCS when using the columns compared to results for batch experiments; the difference is greater for BCS. Additional batch tests, carried out for 21 days using BCS to explain the observed discrepancy, show that the equilibrium time previously used in batch experiments was too short because adsorption continued for at least 21 days and reached 87% after 21 days compared to only 35% obtained after 4h. Fixed bed column tests, used to investigate the effects of flow rate and initial arsenate concentration indicate that the process is sensitive to both parameters, with lower flow rates (longer effective residence times in the columns) and initial arsenate concentrations providing better column performance. An examination of the combined effect of potential competing anions (i.e. silicate, phosphate, sulphate and bicarbonate) on the column performance showed that the presence of these anions in tap water slightly decreases arsenate removal. Each breakthrough curve is compared to the Thomas model, and it is found that the model may be applied to estimate the arsenate sorption capacity in columns filled with BCS and ABCS. The data obtained from both batch and column studies indicate that BCS and ABCS filtration could be effectively used to remove arsenate from water, with the latter being

  15. Mass Transport in a Thin Layer of Bi-Viscous Mud Under Surface Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NG Chiu-on; FU Sau-chung; BAI Yu-chuan(白玉川)

    2002-01-01

    The mass transport in a thin layer of non-Newtonian bed mud under surface waves is examined with a two-fluidStokes boundary layer model. The mud is assumed to be a bi-viscous fluid, which tends to resist motion for small-appliedstresses, but flows readily when the yield stress is exceeded. Asymptotic expansions suitable for shallow fluid layers areapplied, and the second-order solutions for the mass transport induced by surface progressive waves are obtained numeri-cally. It is found that the stronger the non-Newtonian behavior of the mud, the more pronounced intermittency of theflow. Consequently, the mass transport velocity is diminished in magnitude, and can even become negative (i. e., oppo-site to wave propagation) for a certain range of yield stress.

  16. Canoe binds RanGTP to promote Pins(TPR)/Mud-mediated spindle orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Brett; Johnston, Christopher A; Prehoda, Kenneth E; Doe, Chris Q

    2011-10-31

    Regulated spindle orientation maintains epithelial tissue integrity and stem cell asymmetric cell division. In Drosophila melanogaster neural stem cells (neuroblasts), the scaffolding protein Canoe (Afadin/Af-6 in mammals) regulates spindle orientation, but its protein interaction partners and mechanism of action are unknown. In this paper, we use our recently developed induced cell polarity system to dissect the molecular mechanism of Canoe-mediated spindle orientation. We show that a previously uncharacterized portion of Canoe directly binds the Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain. The Canoe-Pins(TPR) interaction recruits Canoe to the cell cortex and is required for activation of the Pins(TPR)-Mud (nuclear mitotic apparatus in mammals) spindle orientation pathway. We show that the Canoe Ras-association (RA) domains directly bind RanGTP and that both the Canoe(RA) domains and RanGTP are required to recruit Mud to the cortex and activate the Pins/Mud/dynein spindle orientation pathway.

  17. A nonlinear model for the fluidization of marine mud by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.A.; Hunt, J.R.; Chou, Hsien-Ter (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-04-15

    The authors consider the problem of fluidization of mud deposits in shallow waters due to interactions with water waves. This is of increasing interest because of concerns that water pollutants, including heavy metals, pesticides, etc., are often found near surfaces of mud deposits. The authors look at the question of whether the cohesive properties of mud deposits exhibit nonlinear properties when they experience strains from water wave interactions. It is obvious that with large enough wave interactions the deposits become fluidized, and are not in that case truly nonlinear. In their modeling efforts they try to incorporate these ideas into a cohesive model where the magnitude of the water wave-sediment interaction has an influence on the type of response within the system.

  18. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  19. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes.

  20. Possible earthquake precursor and drumbeat signal detected at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Suski Ricci, Barbara; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelectrical study. Next, we deployed a broad-band seismic station to understand the typical seismic signal generated at depth. Seismic records show a background noise below 2 s, sometimes interrupted by pulses of drumbeat-like high-frequency signals lasting from several minutes to hours. Drumbeat signal was previously discovered in geysers and at magmatic volcanoes. To date this is the first observation of drumbeat signal observed in mud volcanoes. In 2013 June we recorded a M4.7 earthquake, that occurred approximately 60 km far from our seismic station. According to empirical estimations the Nirano mud volcanic field should not have been affected by the M4.7 earthquake. Yet, before the seismic event we recorded an increasing amplitude of the signal in the 10-20 Hz frequency band. The signal emerged approximately two hours before the earthquake and lasted for about three hours. We performed an analysis of the 95th percentile of the root mean square amplitude of the waveforms for the day of the earthquake. This statistical analysis suggests the presence of a possible precursory signal about 10 minutes before the earthquake indicating the occurrence of enhanced fluid flow in the subsurface that may be related to pressure build up in the preparation zone of the earthquake.

  1. Production and characterization of red mud based on glasses for the immobilization of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses based on red mud, a residual material from bauxite processing, were developed and characterized in this work. In order to promote its use, a minimum 60 wt% of red mud was used in the production of the glasses. According to XRD results, materials containing considerable amorphous phases were produced when using red mud as raw material. These amorphous phases were observed even though crystalline phases associated to Fe coming from the red mud itself were present. The material denominated 60L40S, which has a nominal composition of 60 wt% red mud showed the best properties comparing with the others compositions studied. However, these materials presented a high melting temperature. Changes in the composition of this material were made with the objective of lowering this temperature. Results indicated that the changes made to the material were successful in the reduction of the melting temperature. However, a reduction in the chemical properties of the resulting material was observed. Elements usually found in the chemical composition of nuclear wastes were added to the glasses produced. It was done with the objective of determining the effect of these elements on the chemical and physical properties of the red mud based glasses obtained. It was found that it was possible to add up to 15 wt% of these elements to the materials produced. The addition of these simulant materials promoted a reduction in the melting temperature of the resulting material. Above 15 wt%, the added elements precipitate in the structure of the resulting material. Even though the reduction in the chemical durability of the 60L40S material when simulant elements were added, it was observed that this material contained the simulant elements confined in its structure when in contact with water. This is a promising result, since it indicates that the 60L40S has the potential to immobilize elements from nuclear wastes . (author)

  2. Characteristics of laser textured silicon surface and effect of mud adhesion on hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, H. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khaled, M. [CHEM Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Aqeeli, N.; Abu-Dheir, N. [ME Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Kfupm box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Varanasi, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Laser treatment increases surface microhardness and slightly lowers surface fracture toughness. • Residual stress formed is compressive and self-annealing effect of laser tracks lowers residual stress. • Nitride species lowers surface energy and adhesion work required to remove dust. • Mud residues do not have notable effect on fracture toughness and microhardness of treated surface. • Mud residues lower surface hydrophobicity. - Abstract: Laser gas assisted texturing of silicon wafer surface is carried out. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the laser treated surface are measured using the indentation technique while residual stress formed is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. The hydrophobicity of the textured surfaces are assessed incorporating the contact angle data and compared with those of as received workpiece surfaces. Environmental dust accumulation and mud formation, due to air humidity, at the laser treated and as received workpiece surfaces are simulated and the effect of the mud residues on the properties of the laser treated surface are studied. The adhesion work due to the presence of the mud on the laser treated surface is also measured. It is found that laser textured surface composes of micro/nano poles and fibers, which in turn improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly. In addition, formation of nitride species contributes to microhardness increase and enhancement of surface hydrophobicity due to their low surface energy. The mud residues do not influence the fracture toughness and microhardness of the laser textured surface; however, they reduced the surface hydrophobicity significantly.

  3. Practical application of failure criteria in determining safe mud weight windows in drilling operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is reported frequently as one of the most significant incidents during drilling operations. Analysis of wellbore instability includes estimation of formation mechanical properties and the state of in situ stresses. In this analysis, the only controllable parameter during drilling operation is the mud weight. If the mud weight is larger than anticipated, the mud will invade into the formation, causing tensile failure of the formation. On the other hand, a lower mud weight can result in shear failures of rock, which is known as borehole breakouts. To predict the potential for failures around the wellbore during drilling, one should use a failure criterion to compare the rock strength against induced tangential stresses around the wellbore at a given mud pressure. The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion is one of the commonly accepted criteria for estimation of rock strength at a given state of stress. However, the use of other criteria has been debated in the literature. In this paper, Mohr–Coulomb, Hoek–Brown and Mogi–Coulomb failure criteria were used to estimate the potential rock failure around a wellbore located in an onshore field of Iran. The log based analysis was used to estimate rock mechanical properties of formations and state of stresses. The results indicated that amongst different failure criteria, the Mohr–Coulomb criterion underestimates the highest mud pressure required to avoid breakouts around the wellbore. It also predicts a lower fracture gradient pressure. In addition, it was found that the results obtained from Mogi–Coulomb criterion yield a better comparison with breakouts observed from the caliper logs than that of Hoek–Brown criterion. It was concluded that the Mogi–Coulomb criterion is a better failure criterion as it considers the effect of the intermediate principal stress component in the failure analysis.

  4. Salt tectonics and mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basins, eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, C.; Tahchi, E.; Klaucke, I.; Maillard, A.; Sahling, H.

    2009-05-01

    Salt tectonics and mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basin, eastern Mediterranean, is investigated by means of swath sounding, reflection seismics and side-scan data as well as by camera and video sledge observations. Both basins are located east of Cyprus and are associated with the collision front between the African and Anatolian plate. The Pliocene-Quaternary sediment succession is underlain by up to 1 km thick Messinian evaporites. Both thick-skinned plate tectonic and thin-skinned salt tectonic control fluid dynamics and associated mud volcanism in the Latakia and Cyprus Basin as well as at the Troodos Latacia Culmination, which separates both basins. An end-member model is proposed which explains the presence of elongated topographic highs and trenches along the Troodos Larnaca Culmination and south of it by gravity gliding of the Messinian evaporites and associated fluid migration. Thin-skinned extension in the Troodos Larnaca Culmination and boudinage, respectively, facilitate fluid flow through and out of the evaporites. The fluid or mud flow dissolutes the salt layer and creates elongated trenches. Mud intrudes into the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments above the trenches. Consequently, the overburden is thickened and forms morphological ridges. South of the culmination the evaporites and overburden are folded due to thin-skinned shortening of the evaporites. In one instance fluid extrusion out of the evaporites is inferred from seismic data interpretation. The outflow caused a volume reduction and collapse of the evaporites. Mud volcanoes and fold anticlines align above deep-rooted transpressional fault systems which are associated with the African-Anatolian collision zone. The faults may act as conduits for rising fluids. In the western part of the survey area, where the Cyprus Arc strikes almost West-East and the collision occurred more frontal and stress was highest, mud volcanoes emerged. Further to the east, where the Cyprus Arc runs SW-NE and

  5. Distribution of lacustrine gas seeps and mud volcanoes in Lake Baikal, Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    L. Naudts; De Batist, M.; Granin, N.; Khlystov, O.; Van Rensbergen, P.; J. Poort; Criel, W.; Klerkx, J.; SONIC Team, SONIC

    2005-01-01

    Gas seepage and mud volcanism in a lacustrine environment was first discovered on the deep basin floors of Lake Baikal in 1999. Later on gas seeps were also detected in shallow parts of the lake on echosounder recordings or by visualization of gas bubbles at the lake surface. In this presentation we want to give an overview of the distribution of gas seepage and mud volcanism in relation to the geologic settings of the different seep areas.From the integration of the available data sets (echo...

  6. Djenne: African City of Mud, RIBA Exhibition, March 3 - May 29 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Trevor H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The art of mud building reaches its zenith in Djenné, an island town in the heart of West Africa’s Inland Niger Delta. Djenné’s elegant merchant houses and world-renowned mosque bear testament to an ancient history of trade and Islamic scholarship. The bold compositions and molten contours of its monumental architecture have earned Djenné an esteemed position among UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites. Creative mud building thrives where masons adapt traditional knowledge, building craft and magic t...

  7. Cold water corals and carbonate crusts in the El Arraiche mud volcano field, Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensbergen, P.; Henriet, J. P.; Swennen, R.; Cunha, M.; Ivanov, M.

    2003-04-01

    The El Arraiche mud volcano field is situated on the Atlantic Moroccan margin. About 8 small to giant mud volcanoes are clustered around two sub-parallel thrust ridges, the Vernadsky and Renard ridges, with steep fault escarpments. The ridges rise up in water depths of about 700 m and stretch to the shelf edge. Most mud volcanoes occur on top of the Renard ridge (Lazarillo de Tormes mv, Gemini mv, Don Quichote mv and Fiúza mv). Isolated mud volcanoes occur between the ridges (Adamastor mv, Mercator mv, Al Idrissi mv). The largest mud volcano, Al Idrissi, is situated at the shelf edge and is almost 250 m high, 5.3 km wide at the base and 1.4 km at the top. The mud volcano cluster was discovered during a R/V Belgica cruise in May 2002 and surveyed again with the R/V Logachev in July 2002. The surveys yielded detailed swath bathymetry over the entire area, dense grids of high-resolution seismic data, a few very high-resolution deep-tow sub bottom profiles, side scan sonar mosaics over the major structures, selected TV-lines, TV-grabs, dredge samples and gravity cores. Integration of the data set allows to reconstruct the structure of active mud volcanoes in detail, and moreover, it allows to zoom at selected places from the regional structures gradually down to microscopic scale. In the study area small coral banks and carbonate crusts were found at the Pen Duick escarpment at the southern flank of the Renard Ridge.The Pen Duick escarpment is a fault scarp about 4.5 km long, 100 m high, and the waterdepth at the top is 525 m. The eastern part of the platform is characterized by a hummocky topography, to the west the pattern changes to parallel elongated ridges. On basis of the TV lines, TV guided grab samples were taken from dead coral banks and from a fault zone with carbonate slabs. The coral bank consisted of a dead coral framework with terrigeneous mud matrix and few living corals at the top. It is indicative of a more favourable coral habitat in the past

  8. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  9. Mud and stud refurbishing workshop coordinated and run jointly with East Midlands Earth Structure Society [organisation, facilitation, research] Tumby, Lincolnshire, UK; 28 Apr 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2012-01-01

    Students Workshop for ArchiLOVE - Students Research Group - coordinated by MM Kolakowski and EMESS (East Midlands Earth Structure Society: preparing wood and earth-straw mix for Mud and Stud construction, lime wash, constructing Lincolnshire Mud and Stud walls.

  10. Mud and stud refurbishing workshop coordinated and run jointly with East Midlands Earth Structure Society [organisation, facilitation, research] Spilsby, Lincolnshire, UK; 28 Oct 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin M.

    2012-01-01

    Students Workshop for ArchiLOVE - Students Research Group - coordinated by MM Kolakowski and EMESS (East Midlands Earth Structure Society: preparing wood and earth-straw mix for Mud and Stud construction, lime wash, constructing Lincolnshire Mud and Stud walls.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  12. 破碎机锤头耐磨材料与制造工艺的发展%Development of wear-resistant materials for crusher hammers and their manufacturing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦; 程巨强; 高滋辰; 刘志学

    2012-01-01

    介绍了破碎机锤头常用材质的种类、成分、组织和性能特点;综述了破碎机锤头耐磨材料的几种生产工艺及特点。破碎机锤头的耐磨材料要根据破碎物料的种类和设备情况来选择。锤头工作应力较大时,可选择高锰钢或超高锰钢锤头材料,锤头的生产可采用整体铸造的方法;锤头工作应力较小时,可选择合金钢整体铸造或碳钢与高铬铸铁复合铸造方法。复合铸造法生产破碎机锤头,是提高破碎机锤头使用寿命的较好方法。%The kind of common materials for crusher hammers and their microstructure, properties and char- acteristics were introduced, and several processes of manufacturing wear-resistant materials and their charac- teristics were summarized. Wear-resistant materials for the crusher hammers should be selected according to the kind of crushing material and equipment status. While the hammer had higher operating stress, the high manganese steel or ultra-high manganese steel could be selected for hammer material and the hammer could be manufactured by integral casting. While the hammer had lower operating stress, integral casting of alloy steel or compound casting of carbon steel and high chromium cast iron could be selected. The application of compound casting to manufacture of the crusher hammer was a good way to improve the lifespan of the crusher hammer.

  13. Characterization of Environmental Dust in the Dammam Area and Mud After-Effects on Bisphenol-A Polycarbonate Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami.; Ali, Haider; Al-Aqeeli, Naseer; Khaled, Mazen M.; Said, Syed; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Merah, Necar; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2016-04-01

    Owing to recent climate changes, dust storms are increasingly common, particularly in the Middle East region. Dust accumulation and subsequent mud formation on solid surfaces in humid environments typically have adverse effects on surface properties such as optical transmittance, surface texture, and microhardness. This is usually because the mud, which contains alkaline and ionic species, adheres strongly to the surface, often through chemical bonds, and is therefore difficult to remove. In this study, environmental dust and the after-effects of mud formed on a polycarbonate sheet, which is commonly used as a protective glass in photovoltaic cells. Ionic compounds (OH‑) are shown to significantly affect the optical, mechanical, and textural characteristics of the polycarbonate surface, and to increase the adhesion work required to remove the dry mud from the polycarbonate surface upon drying. Such ability to modify characteristics of the polycarbonate surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  14. Using Integrated 2D and 3D Resistivity Imaging Methods for Illustrating the Mud-Fluid Conduits of the Wushanting Mud Volcanoes in Southwestern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Yu Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2D and 3D looped resistivity surveys in the Wushanting Natural Landscape Preservation Area (WNLPA in order to understand the relationships of the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. 2D resistivity surveys were conducted along seven networked lines. Two separate C-shape looped electrode arrays surrounding the volcano craters were used in the study. First, the two 3D looped measurements were inverted separately. Yet the inverted 3D images of the mud-volcano system were inconsistent with the landscape features suggesting that artifacts perhaps appeared in the images. The 3D looped data were then combined with the 2D data for creating a global resistivity model of WNLPA. The resulting 3D image is consistent with the observed landscape features. With the resistivity model of WNLPA, we further tried to estimate the distribution of water content. The results suggest that the 3D resistivity image has the potential to resolve the dual porosity structures in the mudstone area. Last, we used a simplified WNLPA model for forward simulation in order to verify the field measurement results. We have concluded that the artifacts in the 3D looped images are in fact shadow effects from conductive objects out of the electrode loops, and that inverted images of combined 2D and 3D data provide detailed regional conductive structures in the WNLPA site.

  15. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  16. Energy based simulation of a Timoshenko beam in non-forced rotation. Influence of the piano hammer shank flexibility on the sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabassier, Juliette; Duruflé, Marc

    2014-12-01

    A nonlinear model for a vibrating Timoshenko beam in non-forced unknown rotation is derived from the virtual work principle applied to a system of beam with mass at the end. The system represents a piano hammer shank coupled to a hammer head. An energy-based numerical scheme is then provided, obtained by non-classical approaches. A major difficulty for time discretization comes from the nonlinear behavior of the kinetic energy of the system. This new numerical scheme is then coupled to a global energy-preserving numerical solution for the whole piano. The obtained numerical simulations show that the pianistic touch clearly influences the spectrum of the piano sound of equally loud isolated notes. These differences do not come from a possible shock excitation on the structure, or from a changing impact point, or a “longitudinal rubbing motion” on the string, since neither of these features is modeled in our study.

  17. EFFECT OF SULPHATE-REDUCING BACTERIA ON ELECTRO-CHEMICAL CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 16Mn STEEL IN SEA MUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on electrochemical corrosion behavior of 16Mn steel, and galvanic corrosion behavior of the steels in the juncture area between bacterial and bacteria-free sea mud was studied in laboratory under simulated conditions. Sea mud dense with SRB was taken from the Qingdao beach. Part of the sea mud was sterilized and the rest was kept in the original condition. The sterilized and original sea mud was put respectively into two plastic testing troughs electrically-connected by an agar potassium chloride salt bridge. Galvanic and non-galvanic 16Mn steel samples were put into the trough at the same intervals. The SRB number measured by the MPN tri-tube method was about 2.4×105 per 100 g mud and was kept basically the same during the experimental period. The ρ, pH, eH, T, S (salinity) were measured simultaneously. The galvanic current was measured with zero-resistance galvanometer and the corrosion rate was measured with the weight loss method.The results showed that (1) the corrosion rate of 16Mn steel in bacterial sea mud was 4.0 times that in bacteria-free sea mud; (2) galvanic corrosion occurs between steel samples buried in different (bacterial and bacteria-free) sea mud. The steel sample in the bacterial sea mud was the anode of a galvanic couple and had higher corrosion rate than that of the non-galvanic sample. The existence of the galvanic couple increased the corrosion rate of the sample in bacterial sea mud by 4.1%.

  18. Raman tomography of Himalayan-derived muds (Bengal Shelf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borromeo, Laura; Andò, Sergio; Aliatis, Irene; France-Lanord, Christian; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Raman mineral analysis (RaMAn) is an innovative, efficient and user-friendly technique representing the ideal tool to perform provenance analysis of silt-sized sediments, which represent most of the sediment flux in river systems and the predominant grain size in large deltas and submarine fans (Andò et al., 2011). RaMAn allows in fact the reliable recognition of detrital grains down to 5 μm in size. The Ganga-Brahmaputra estuary in Bangladesh represents the largest single entry point of detritus in the world oceans. Between 1 and 2 billion tons of sediment each year has been reaching the Bengal Sea during most of the Neogene, feeding the world largest submarine fan (Goodbred and Kuehl, 2000; Galy and France-Lanord 2001). In order to detect the compositional differences between the fluvial environment (Garzanti et al., 2010; 2011) and the deep sea (Thompson, 1974; Yokohama et al., 1990) as well as the mineralogical variability associated with hydrodynamic sorting in the delta plain and proximal shelf, we have determined the mineralogical composition of largely Himalayan-derived muds deposited on the Bengal Shelf. Mineralogical analyses were carried out separately for four grain-size classes of 4 samples: (5-10 μm, 10-15 μm, 15-32 μm, >32 μm). Each class was separated into low-density (2.90 g/cm3) by centrifuging in sodium polytungstate and recovered by partial freezing with liquid nitrogen. Accurate quantitative mineralogical data were obtained by identifying at least 100 grains on each slide. RaMAn resulted to be essential for confident mineral identification, and helped us to reveal the nature of altered and opaque grains that cannot be identified under the optical microscope. Andò S.,Vignola P., Garzanti E., (2011). Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rendiconti Lincei, 22, Issue 4, pp 327-347; Galy A., France-Lanord C., (2001), Higher erosion rates in the Himalaya geochemical constraints on riverine fluxes. Geology, 29, pp. 23

  19. Development and Selection of Wear Resistant Materials for Hammer Crusher%破碎机锤头耐磨材料的研制与选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛静波

    2012-01-01

    分析了近年来国内外破碎机锤头耐磨材料的研究及应用情况,指出破碎机锤头材料普遍存在的问题:硬度和韧性偏低、耐磨性差,且容易断裂。着重介绍了大型破碎机超强高锰钢锤头、耐磨合金钢锤头、高韧性合金耐磨铸铁锤头的研制和使用效果。%The development and application of wear resistant materials for hammer crusher in recent years is analyzed. It is pointed out that the common problems of hammer crusher materials are lower hardness and toughness, bad abrasion resistant and easy to fracture. The manufacture and using effects of superhigh manganese steel, wearresistant alloy steel and high toughness abrasionresistant alloy cast iron hammers for large crusher are emphasized.

  20. 45钢钳工锤免锻造工艺探索%Heat Treatment of 45 Steel Fitter Hammer Not Subjected to Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祎英; 曹学峰

    2014-01-01

    对一种不经锻造而直接用热轧圆钢制造的小型45钢钳工锤,采用亚温淬火和合理的回火工艺替代传统的热锻成型后正常温度淬火、中温回火的工艺,进行了热处理工艺试验。对该钳工锤进行了硬度测试和敲击试验。结果表明,经790℃亚温淬火+400℃回火能使45钢钳工锤头获得较高的强韧性,满足使用要求。%A type of 45 steel fitter hammer, made of hot rolled rounds without being forged , was heat treated by a trial process consisting of intercritical quenching and reasonable tempering rather than forging followed by quenching from commonly used temperature and medium temperature tempering .Subsequently , the hammer was subjected to hardness test and to knock test .The results show that the hammer quenched from 790 ℃and tempered at 400 ℃exhibited higher strength and toughness , fulfilling the service requirements .

  1. STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSING INTEGRATED PRODUCTS MUD OF TAMBUKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Karagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of quality of products of complex processing mud of Tambukan: press, alcohol and oil extrac-tions performed. The presence of humic acid and dehydrating the alcohol extraction of carotenoids and chloro-phyll in the oil alcoholic extraction of phytosterols in oil extraction using qualitative reactions, TLC, UV spec-trophotometry

  2. Natural radioactivity in Egyptian and industrially used australian bauxites and its tailing red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red mud is produced in considerable masses as a waste product in the production of aluminum from bauxite. It may be used for industrial or agricultural purposes. According to it's genesis by weathering and sedimentation bauxites contain high concentrations of uranium and thorium. Three Egyptian bauxites, Australian industry used bauxite and its red mud tailing were analyzed by a high resolution gamma spectrometer, with a hyper pure germanium detector. The three Egyptian bauxites show high concentrations in uranium series, and around 120 Bq kg-1 for uranium -235. K-40 concentrations for these samples ranged from 289 to 575 Bq kg-1. Thorium series concentrations show lower values. The industrially used bauxite shows very low concentrations for all radioactive nuclides. Its tailing red mud as a low level radioactive waste LLRW, shows low concentrations for uranium - series, thorium - series and also 40K, so it is recommended to be used in industrial and agricultural purposes, which is not permissible for the normal red mud. (author)

  3. Toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Since the early to mid 1990s, many companies have composted invert (diesel) drilling muds with wood chips/bark chips in the green (forestry) zone as a method of drilling mud treatment. This presentation addressed the toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips and provided some background on composted invert drilling mud (CIDM). EBA Engineering monitored 22 third-party sites in 2002, some of which were biopiles, and others land treatment areas (LTAs). Active treatment started between 1995 and 1999 and some LTAs were seeded with varying degrees of success. Composted materials had hydrocarbon odour and staining and were very moist. Materials exceeded Alberta Environment guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and sometimes barium. Most sites were within areas that had forestry production/wildlife as end land use. Receptors included plants, soil invertebrates by soil contact, and wildlife by ingestion. Stakeholder meetings were held for their input and an ecotoxicity study was developed. Material tested, tests and species used as well as results of the ecotoxicity study were presented. A comparison of results to other EBA composting studies was also given. It was concluded that CIDM affects the reproduction of earthworms and springtails, and plant growth; wood/barks chips themselves can be ecotoxic; and, other compost studies with finely ground sawdust and no bark chips had less ecotoxicity. tabs., figs.

  4. Bedload Transport of Flocculated Mud and Resulting Microfabric of Deposits - Insights from Flume Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawar, Z.; Schieber, J.

    2015-12-01

    In flume experiments muds flocculate in moving suspensions. Salinity enhances flocculation efficiency, but its absence will not prevent flocculation. The exact impact of salinity is subject to further experimental work. For a given mud composition there is a critical velocity (or shear stress) of sedimentation below which floccules transfer through the basal shear layer and travel as sand-size bedload particles. These bedload floccules form migrating ripples that are in size and geometry comparable to sand ripples. For various clays (illite, kaolinite, smectite) critical velocities of sedimentation are in the 20-25 cm/sec velocity window (5 cm flow depth). At higher velocities bedload particles are dense silt size (25-60 micron) clay composites, the coarse tail of the processed clay deposit. Once the critical velocity is reached (bed shear stress ~0.2 Pa) larger floccules appear in bedload that grow to a size of several hundred microns as velocity is lowered further. When clays are mixed with quartz silt, transport segregation occurs. Coarse silt (~15-63 microns) forms bedload ripples that travel over the flume bed at the same time as ripples that consist of flocculated clays. Fine silt (ancient laminated shales from Precambrian to Tertiary. The ancient muds show the same segregation into coarse silt vs clay-rich laminae, and show scattered fine silt within clay rich layers. This strongly suggests that ancient laminated shales formed when bottom currents transported flocculated muds in bedload over the seabed.

  5. STUDY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSING INTEGRATED PRODUCTS MUD OF TAMBUKAN

    OpenAIRE

    H. G. Karagulov; E. F. Stepanova; S. B. Evseeva

    2013-01-01

    Studies of quality of products of complex processing mud of Tambukan: press, alcohol and oil extrac-tions performed. The presence of humic acid and dehydrating the alcohol extraction of carotenoids and chloro-phyll in the oil alcoholic extraction of phytosterols in oil extraction using qualitative reactions, TLC, UV spec-trophotometry

  6. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amo

  7. Small edifice features in Chryse Planitia, Mars: Assessment of a mud volcano hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Goro; Okubo, Chris H.; Wray, James J.; Ojha, Lujendra; Cardinale, Marco; Murana, Alessio; Orosei, Roberto; Chan, Marjorie A.; Ormö, Jens; Gallagher, Ronnie

    2016-04-01

    Small edifice features that are less than a few kilometers in diameter and up to a few hundred meters in height are widely distributed in Chryse Planitia on Mars. They exhibit a broad range of morphological properties that are here classified as Type 1 (steep-sided cones typically with a summit crater), Type 2 (nearly flat features with single or multiple central/summit craters or cones) and Type 3 (nearly circular features in plan view, characterized by steep sides and a broadly flat summit area). Their origins have not been determined with certainty, but our study utilizing the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images supports the interpretation of mud volcanism, based on the observed morphological characteristics of these small edifices and comparisons with terrestrial analogs. Additionally, hydrated minerals detected on these edifice features in data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), further support the mud volcano hypothesis. Injection features such as clastic mega-pipes and sand blow features may coexist with the mud volcanoes. Alternative mechanisms such as magmatic volcanism are not excluded, but they have less support from our remote sensing observations. Further confirmation or rejection of the mud volcano hypothesis will require in-situ investigation by landers or rovers.

  8. An Integrated Approach to Study Mud Banks of Alleppey Kerala using the Autonomous Vertical Profiler (AVP)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Maurya, P.; Desa, E.S.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Lamani, V.; Manoharan, V.; Naik, N.; Thottam, T.J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; deAraujo, B.A.

    and the AVP on the mooring was successfully deployed to obtain high resolution data of the Mud Banks. A total of 115 missions were executed, out of which about 44% achieved the required dive depth. Using the Mooring AVP, the variations of turbidity...

  9. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang

    2016-03-01

    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  10. Increasing the clay dissolving capability of a buffer-regulated mud acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.H.; Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-05-23

    The clay dissolving capability of an aqueous mud acid solution of weak acid, weak acid salt and fluoride salt (of the type described in the E. A. Richardson U.S. Pat. No. 3,889,753) can be increased by including in the solution a partial salt of an aminopolyacetic acid chelating or complex-forming agent.

  11. Observations of suspended sediment from ADCP and OBS measurements in a mud-dominated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a 1.2-MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and particle size variation in a mud-dominated environment has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in the Bay of Banten, Indonesia, where clays and silts in the range of 3-55

  12. Effect of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria on Corrosion Behavior of Mild Steel in Sea Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong ZHAO; Jizhou DUAN; Baorong HOU; Suru WU

    2007-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is very severe corrosion for constructions buried under sea mud environment. Therefore it is of great importance to carry out the investigation of the corrosion behavior of marine steel in sea mud. In this paper, the effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on corrosion behavior of mild steel in sea mud was studied by weight loss, dual-compartment cell, electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that corrosion rate and galvanic current were influenced by the metabolic activity of SRB. In the environment of sea mud containing SRB, the original corrosion products, ferric (oxyhydr) oxide, transformed to iron sulfide. With the excess of the dissolved H2S, the composition of the protective layer formed of FeS transformed to FeS2 or other non-stoichiometric polysulphide, which changed the state of the former layer and accelerated the corrosion process.

  13. Use of tracers for mud filtrate and completion fluid invasion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleven, Reidun [Statoil DDB, Bergen (Norway); Dahl, John Blessum; Bjoernstad, Tor; Qvenild, Carsten; Tollan, Odd [Institutt for energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)

    1996-09-30

    The objectives of this work are (1): to study sorption/desorption of mud filtrate ions near the wellbore region by using water sampled with a formation tester equipment (FTE); (2) to study sorption/desorption of ions in the mud filtrate and the completion fluid by monitoring the ionic composition of produced water; (3) to determine the fraction of mud filtrate and completion fluid water in produced water; and (4) develop a suitable and safe tracer method. A tracer method was developed to measure sorption/desorption of various ions infiltrating the reservoir during drilling and completion of a well. Tritiated water (HTO) was used to tag the mud filtrate and bromide ion (Br{sup -}) to tag the completion fluid. The measurements are based on analysis of FTE and produced water samples. The ionic concentrations observed are compared with corresponding `no sorption/desorption` concentration values determined theoretically. Special attention is paid to the `tracer diagram` of an open well, because a `no sorption/desorption curve` can be expressed in a straight line in a linear coordinate system. Observed deviations from these curves show that sorption/desorption processes have taken place. The tracer method presented was useful to determine the distribution of ions in the pore-water/sedimentary rock system near the wellbore

  14. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Salter, Michael A; Harborne, Alastair R; Crowley, Stephen F; Jelks, Howard L; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-03-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO(3)) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 10(6) kg CaCO(3)/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  15. Cholesterol Effect on Survival and Development of Larval Mud Crab Scylla serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATSUYUKI HAMASAKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on the survival and development of larval mud crab Scylla serrata were examined by feeding larvae with Artemia enriched with different level of cholesterol. Artemia enriched with four stated levels of cholesterol i.e., 0, 5, 10, and 20 ul/l (Chol 0, 5, 10, and 20. All treatments were mixed with DHA70G at 25 ul/l. All the oil was adjusted to 100 ul/l by adding the oleic acid. Survival rate, intermolt period, and carapace width at the fisrt crab stage of mud crab larvae fed Chol 0, 5, and 10 were higher compared to that of Chol 20 (P < 0.05. We suggest that free sterol contained in Artemia at 1.37% was harmful to the growth performance of mud crab larvae. This study suggests that mud crab larvae required at least 0.61% cholesterol for maintaining good survival and development and therefore no need to enrich Artemia by cholesterol for the practical purpose.

  16. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G.J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominentindicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at theseafloor on both passive and active continental margins.Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent attheWest Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlayinga major sedimentary depocentr

  17. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24·2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol

  18. Recovery of value-added products from red mud and foundry bag-house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Keegan

    "Waste is wasted if you waste it, otherwise it is a resource. Resource is wasted if you ignore it and do not conserve it with holistic best practices and reduce societal costs. Resource is for the transformation of people and society." Red mud is a worldwide problem with reserves in the hundreds of millions of tons and tens of millions of tons being added annually. Currently there is not an effective way to deal with this byproduct of the Bayer Process, the primary means of refining bauxite ore in order to provide alumina. This alumina is then treated by electrolysis using the Hall-Heroult process to produce elemental aluminum. The resulting mud is a mixture of solid and metallic oxides, and has proven to be a great disposal problem. This disposal problem is compounded by the fact that the typical bauxite processing plant produces up to three times as much red mud as alumina. Current practice of disposal is to store red mud in retention ponds until an economical fix can be discovered. The danger associated with this current method of storage is immense to the surrounding communities and environment, thus the interest from the Center for Resource Recovery and Recycling (CR3). The purpose of this document is to explain one way to remove the value added materials, primarily iron, from the Jamaican red mud using both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical approaches. In the beginning, soda ash and carbon roasting were completed simultaneously at 800°C. This type of roasting produced results that were unacceptable. After the soda ash roast was completed independently of carbon roasting, a water wash produced results that separations of alumina at 90%, Iron at 99%, calcium at 99%, titanium t 100%, and sodium by 74%. Smelting produced separations of 97% for alumina, 99% for iron, 87% for sodium, 94% for calcium and 72% for titanium.

  19. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaobo, E-mail: zhuxiaobo0119@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China); Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan 454000 (China); Henan Key Discipline Open Laboratory of Mining Engineering Materials, Henan 454000 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The dealkalization of active roasting and water leaching from red mud was put forward. • The main factors on dealkalization during active roasting and water leaching were investigated. • The mechanism of dealkalization from red mud was in-depth studied in the process. - Abstract: The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP–AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM–EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na{sub 6}CaAl{sub 6}Si{sub 6}(CO{sub 3})O{sub 24}·2H{sub 2}O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH·H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol.

  20. Utilization of Red Mud as Raw Material in the Production of Field Road Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao; LUO Zhongtao; ZHANG Lei; RONG Hui; YANG Jiujun

    2016-01-01

    The total utilization amount of red mud is limited due to its high content of alkali, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive element. In order to rationalize the use of red mud, a typical ifeld road cement using dealkalized red mud (content of alkali lower than 1%) as raw material was ifrstly prepared in this paper. Then, a preliminary research on the radioactivity of the red mud based ifeld road cement has been carried out. For that reason, two samples of raw materials were prepared. One was with ordinary raw materials, as the control group (CG), the other was with 23w % red mud, as the experimental group (EG). The clinkers were acquired by sintering the above two raw materials at 1 400℃. Subsequently, the two types of cement prepared by the above two kinds of clinkers were tested by measuring the normal consistency, setting time, mechanical strength and drying shrinkage. Meanwhile, the hydration products of the two types of cement were examined by XRD analysis at the curing age of 6 hours, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days, respectively. The radioactivity of the two kinds of cement clinkers was then measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The experimental results indicate that the main mineralogical phases components in the EG ifeld road cement clinkers are C3S, C2S, and C4AF, the 28 days lfexural and compressive strength of the EG ifeld road cement mortars could be up to 8.45 and 53.2 MPa, respectively. The radioactive measuring results of the EG field road cement show that the value of radium equivalent activity index (Raeq) is 254.8 Bq/Kg-1, which is lower than the upper limit.

  1. Mapreduce is Good Enough? If All You Have is a Hammer, Throw Away Everything That's Not a Nail!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jimmy

    2013-03-01

    Hadoop is currently the large-scale data analysis "hammer" of choice, but there exist classes of algorithms that aren't "nails" in the sense that they are not particularly amenable to the MapReduce programming model. To address this, researchers have proposed MapReduce extensions or alternative programming models in which these algorithms can be elegantly expressed. This article espouses a very different position: that MapReduce is "good enough," and that instead of trying to invent screwdrivers, we should simply get rid of everything that's not a nail. To be more specific, much discussion in the literature surrounds the fact that iterative algorithms are a poor fit for MapReduce. The simple solution is to find alternative, noniterative algorithms that solve the same problem. This article captures my personal experiences as an academic researcher as well as a software engineer in a "real-world" production analytics environment. From this combined perspective, I reflect on the current state and future of "big data" research. PMID:27447035

  2. Numerical Simulation for Two-Phase Water Hammer Flows in Pipe by Quasi-Two-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Uk Jang; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Qiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    The features of a quasi⁃two⁃dimensional ( quasi⁃2D) model for simulating two⁃phase water hammer flows with vaporous cavity in a pipe are investigated. The quasi⁃2D model with discrete vaporous cavity in the pipe is proposed in this paper. This model uses the quasi⁃2D model for pure liquid zone and one⁃dimensional ( 1D ) discrete vapor cavity model for vaporous cavity zone. The quasi⁃2D model solves two⁃dimensional equations for both axial and radial velocities and 1D equations for both pressure head and discharge by the method of characteristics. The 1D discrete vapor cavity model is used to simulate the vaporous cavity occurred when the pressure in the local pipe is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid. The proposed model is used to simulate two⁃phase water flows caused by the rapid downstream valve closure in a reservoir⁃pipe⁃valve system. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with those by the corresponding 1D model and the experimental ones provided by the literature, respectively. The comparison shows that the maximum pressure heads simulated by the proposed model are more accurate than those by the corresponding 1D model.

  3. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Subani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order modelling technique. The results show that changes in the pressure wave profile and amplitude depend on the type of closing laws, valve closure times, and the number of polygonal segments in the closing function. The pressure wave profile varies from square to triangular and trapezoidal shape depending on the type of closing laws, while the amplitude of pressure waves reduces as the closing time is reduced and the numbers of polygonal segments are increased. The instantaneous and convex closing laws give rise to minimum and maximum pressure, respectively.

  4. 液压锤打桩动态过程有限元分析%FEM analysis of dynamic process of piling using hydraulic hammer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡均平; 刘武波; 刘成沛

    2012-01-01

    The process of hydraulic hammer piling is an impact process related to many parts of structures. The dynamic analysis of the complicated interactions is important to realize piling effect and guide the design of pile. Considering the hammer-blow system is composed of hammer, hammer cushion, anvil, pile cushion, pile and soil, an integrated finite element model was established, the penalty function method was adopted to deal with the contact, and the industrial test was simulated. The calculation results of the stress at the tested point, while the hammer is beating on the soft soil and the supporting layer, are in good agreement with the test results. The accuracy of the model was adopted. The stress distributions along pile and pile diameter were analyzed. By using the model of beating on the supporting layer, the impact stresses in the cushions with materials of different elastic modulus ratios were compared and the guide for choosing cushion material was presented.%液压锤打桩过程是由多结构组成的冲击过程.对其复杂的相互作用进行动态分析,对实现液压锤打桩效果及桩的设计有着指导作用.针对锤头、锤垫、砧座、桩垫、桩与土组成的锤击系统,建立有限元模型,采用罚函数法处理接触,对工业试验进行模拟.打击软土层与持力层时,测试点应力的计算结果与实测值吻合较好,验证了模型的正确性.在此基础上,分析了不同打击层应力沿桩长和桩径的分布,得到了桩上的应力分布规律,指导桩的设计.使用持力层打击模型,就垫层弹性模量比对桩顶锤击应力的影响进行了分析,得到了垫层材料的选择依据.

  5. Influence of the drilling mud formulation process on the bacterial communities in thermogenic natural gas wells of the Barnett Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struchtemeyer, Christopher G; Davis, James P; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2011-07-01

    The Barnett Shale in north central Texas contains natural gas generated by high temperatures (120 to 150°C) during the Mississippian Period (300 to 350 million years ago). In spite of the thermogenic origin of this gas, biogenic sulfide production and microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed at several natural gas wells in this formation. It was hypothesized that microorganisms in drilling muds were responsible for these deleterious effects. Here we collected drilling water and drilling mud samples from seven wells in the Barnett Shale during the drilling process. Using quantitative real-time PCR and microbial enumerations, we show that the addition of mud components to drilling water increased total bacterial numbers, as well as the numbers of culturable aerobic heterotrophs, acid producers, and sulfate reducers. The addition of sterile drilling muds to microcosms that contained drilling water stimulated sulfide production. Pyrosequencing-based phylogenetic surveys of the microbial communities in drilling waters and drilling muds showed a marked transition from typical freshwater communities to less diverse communities dominated by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. The community shifts observed reflected changes in temperature, pH, oxygen availability, and concentrations of sulfate, sulfonate, and carbon additives associated with the mud formulation process. Finally, several of the phylotypes observed in drilling muds belonged to lineages that were thought to be indigenous to marine and terrestrial fossil fuel formations. Our results suggest a possible alternative exogenous origin of such phylotypes via enrichment and introduction to oil and natural gas reservoirs during the drilling process. PMID:21602366

  6. Provenance analysis of surface sediments in the Holocene mud area of the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaobo; BI Shipu; ZHANG Yong; YANG Yuan; LIU Shanshan; KONG Xianghuai; LI Xiaoyue; CHU Hongxian

    2016-01-01

    The sedimentary record of mud areas is an important carrier of information on the Holocene evolution of marine environments. Based on fine interpretations of the shallow stratigraphic section data, a small mud deposit area has been found in the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula. This mud area is mainly distributed in coastal waters north of Laoshantou to the vicinity of Rushan Estuary. Overall, it is parallel to the coastline and spreads in a banded pattern, gradually thinning from offshore to the sea. The isopach map of depth distribution is parallel with the shoreline, and the depocenter lies in coastal waters of the Aoshan Bay where the maximum thickness is up to 22.5 m. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)14C dating shows that the mud area was formed in the Holocene. The test data of surface sediments from the mud area, including particle size, mineral characteristics, and rare earth element contents, are used in comparisons with the composition of materials from the major surrounding medium and small rivers flowing into the sea and the Huanghe (Yellow) River. In this paper, the sedimentary characteristics and provenance of the mud deposit area are discussed. The results show that the formation of this mud area resulted from the joint action of the Huanghe River and surrounding rivers flowing into the sea.

  7. Influence of drilling muds on the primary chemosensory neurons in walking legs of the lobster, Homarus americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, C.D.; Atema, J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of whole drilling muds on the normal activity of walking leg chemosensory neurons of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were examined using extracellular neurophysiological recording techniques. Exposure of legs for 3-5 min to 10 mg/L drilling mud suspended in seawater altered responses to food odors of 29% of the chemoreceptors examined (data pooled for the two drilling muds tested); similar exposure to 100 mg/L drilling mud resulted in interference with 44% of all receptors studied. The effects of both of these concentrations are statistically significant, although they are not different from each other. Interference was usually manifested as a marked reduction in the number of action potentials in a response. In one preparation, the exposure to drilling mud caused a change in the temporal pattern of the spikes without affecting the total number of spikes. Other chemosensory neurons were excited by 10 mg/L drilling mud itself. However, not all chemoreceptors are inhibited by these drilling muds since responses to feeding stimuli were recorded from the legs of lobsters that had been exposed to drilling mud for 4-8 d before the neurophysiological experiments. Antennular and leg chemoreceptors are important in eliciting normal feeding behavior in lobsters. Although behavioral assays have demonstrated that feeding behavior is altered following exposure to drilling muds and petroleum fractions, there is no conclusive proof for a causal relationship between chemoreceptor interference and behavior deficits. The two techniques complement each other as pollution detection assays, perhaps reflecting a common interference mechanism. 42 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  10. Methods of study in the characteristics of elastomers’ samples of mud motors at modeling the conditions of their operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the development of the methods of experimental research on rubber elastomers parameters of mud motors at modeling the conditions of their operation. The specific features of mud motors operation as well as main aggressive agents affecting the state and parameters of elastomers, such as drilling mud type, ambient temperature, and mechanical action of the rotor on the plate of the stator are shown in the paper. Due to described agents, new methods of investigations and new units of experimental bed are developed. The experiments confirmed the relevance of the proposed methodology, with its main advantages - ease of implementation and speed of research.

  11. The state and means for developing efforts to regulate drilling mud types at the ''Permneft''' union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysin, N.I.; Minaeva, R.M.; Sukhikh, U.M.

    1979-01-01

    Service water has been most widely used as a drilling mud at the ''Permneft''' union. Emulsion mud and emulsion mud-carbonated drilling mud are also widely used. In unstable rock areas, flushing is conducted using calcium chloride mud drilling solutions and mud drilling solutions with natural subsalt mineralization. The use of various types of drilling muds is analyzed. The following were the primary indicators in the analysis: the specific weight of the expenditures on drilling solution materials in the overall cost of borehole construction and the expenses on materials for 1 meter of drilling. The types of drilling solutions recommended for use in different fields in specific geological conditions are determined. The drilling solution standards are compared based on the results of an analysis and the reference materials of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute on Comprehensive Oil Solutions. An examination proceedure is described, together with the regulation acceptances and directions for improving them.

  12. Mud volcano venting induced gas hydrate formation at the upper slope accretionary wedge, offshore SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Saulwood; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Wan-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Tien; Chen, NeiChen; Hsieh, I.-Chih

    2016-04-01

    TsanYao Mud Volcano (TYMV) is the largest mud volcano cone in the Hengchun Mud Volcano Group (HCMVG), located at the upper slope of the accrretionary wedge, southwest of Taiwan. The region is under active tectonic activity with the Philippine Plate, moving northwestward at a rate of ~8 cm/year. This region also receives huge quantity of suspended particle load of ~100 mT/year at present time from adjacent small rivers of the Island of Taiwan. Large loads of suspended sediments influx become a major source of organic carbon and later gas and other hydrocarbon. Gas and fluid in the mud volcano are actively venting from deep to the sea floor on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge. In order to understand venting on the HCMVG, echo sounder, towcam and coring were carried out. Pore water sulfate, chloride, potassium, calcium, stable isotope O-18, gas compositions, dissolved sulfide were analysed. The HCMVG consists of 12 volcano cones of different sizes. Large quantity of gas and fluid are venting directly from deep to the TYMV structure high, as well as 50+ other vents as appeared as flares on the echo sounder. Some flares are reaching to the atmosphere and likely a source of green house gases to the atmosphere. Venting fluids include gas bubbles, suspended particle, mud, and breccia. Breccia size could reach more than 12 cm in diameter. Circular bands in different color appeared around the cone may represent stages of vent eruptions. Compositions of vent gas include methane, ethane and propane. High proportions of ethane and propane in the vent gas demonstrated that source of gas are thermogenic in origin. Patchy authigenic carbonate, bacterial mats, bivalves, tube worms and other chemosynthesis organisms were supported by venting gas AOM process near the sea floor. Pore water chloride concentrations show distinct variation pattern from center cone to the side of the volcano, with low in the center and high away from the cone. Pore water with higher than seawater

  13. The Debris Flow of September 20, 2014, in Mud Creek, Mount Shasta Volcano, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J. A.; Bachmann, S.; Courtney, A.; Meyers, N.; Mikulovsky, R.; Rust, B.; Coots, F.; Veich, D.

    2015-12-01

    The debris flow in Mud Creek on September 20, 2014 occurred during a warm spell at the end of an unusually long and hot summer. No precipitation was recorded during or immediately before the event, and it appears to have resulted from rapid glacial melt. It initiated on the toe of the Konwakiton Glacier, and immediately below it. The flow track was small in the upper parts (40 feet wide), but between 8,000 and 10,000 feet in elevation, it entrained a large volume of debris from the walls and bed of the deeply incised gorge and transported it down to the apex of the Mud Creek alluvial fan (4,800'). At that point, it overflowed the channel and deposited debris on top of older (1924) debris flow deposits, and the debris plugged a road culvert 24 feet wide and 12 feet high. A small fraction of the flow was diverted to a pre-existing overflow channel which parallels Mud Creek, about 1,000 feet to the west. The main debris flow traveled down Mud Creek, confined to the pre-existing channel, but locally got to within a foot or so of overflowing the banks. At elevation 3920', video was taken during the event by a private citizen and placed on YouTube. The video revealed that the flow matrix consisted of a slurry of water/clay/silt/sand/gravel, transporting boulders 1-6 feet in diameter along with the flow. Cobble-sized rock appears to be absent. Sieve analysis of the debris flow matrix material revealed a fining of particles in a downstream direction, as expected. The thickness of deposits on the fan generally decreased in a downstream direction. Deposits were 5-6 feet deep above the Mud Creek dam, which is at 4,800' elevation, and 4-5 feet deep at the dam itself. Further downstream, thicknesses decreased as follows: 3920'aqueduct crossing, 3-4 feet; 3620' Pilgrim Creek Road crossing, 2-3 feet; 3,520', 1-2 feet; 3,440' abandoned railroad grade, 1 foot. This event damaged roads, and future events could threaten life and property. There is a need to better understand local

  14. Use of red mud (bauxite residue) for the retention of aqueous inorganic mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinos, David A; Barral, María Teresa

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the oxide-rich residue from bauxite refining (red mud) to remove inorganic Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed. The aspects studied comprised the kinetics of the process (t = 1 min-24 h), the effect of pH (3.5-11.5), the interacting effect between salt concentration (0.01-1 M NaNO3) and pH and the Hg(II) sorption isotherm. Hg leaching from spent red mud was evaluated using the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) method. The sorption of Hg(II) onto red mud was very fast, with most of Hg(II) (97.0-99.7%) being removed from 0.5-50 μM Hg solutions in few minutes. The kinetic process was best described by Ho's pseudo-second order equation, pointing to chemisorption as the rate controlling step. Hg(II) sorption efficiency was very high (% removal between 93.9 and 99.8%) within all the studied pH range (3.5-11.5) and added Hg concentrations (5 and 50 μM), being optimal at pH 5-8 and decreasing slightly at both lowest and highest pH. The effect of background electrolyte concentration suggests specific sorption as the main interaction mechanism between Hg(II) and red mud, but the increasing non-sorbed Hg concentrations at low and high pH for higher electrolyte concentrations also revealed the contribution of an electrostatic component to the process. The sorption isotherm showed the characteristic shape of high affinity sorbents, and it was better described by the Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich equations, which are models that assume sorbent heterogeneity and involvement of more than one mechanism. The estimated Hg(II) sorption capacity from the Langmuir equation (q m ~9 mmol/kg) was comparable to those of some inorganic commercial sorbents but lower than most bio- or specifically designed sorbents. The leachability of retained Hg(II) from spent red mud (0.02, 0.25 and 2.42 mmol Hg/kg sorbed concentration) was low (0.28, 1.15 and 2.23 μmol/kg, respectively) and accounted for 1.2, 0.5 and 0.1% of previously sorbed Hg

  15. Spatially limited mud turbidites on the Cascadia margin: segmented earthquake ruptures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldfinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of 23 thin, mostly mud-silt turbidites are found interspersed between larger, well-dated and regionally correlated paleoseismic sandy turbidites that extend along most of the Cascadia margin, northwestern United States. Investigation of the structure, distribution, and sedimentology of these thin mud-silt units supports the interpretation of these units as turbidites originating on the continental slope. Interpretation of mud turbidites is inhibited by bioturbation and lower response to analytical and imaging techniques; nevertheless most of the 23 interpreted beds exhibit most of the characteristics of coarser turbidites. These characteristics include sharp bases, fining upward sequences, darker color, increased gamma and CT density and magnetic susceptibility relative to the hemipelagic background, sparse microfossils, high lithic content, and evidence of transport from marine sources on the continental slope. New core data from sites south of Rogue Apron indicate that sandy and muddy turbidites may be correlated at least 150 km south to Trinidad Plunge Pool for the period ~ 4800 yr BP to present. Many of the mud turbidites initially described at Rogue Apron coarsen southward, becoming sandy turbidites. High-resolution Chirp seismic profiles reveal that turbidite stratigraphy along the base of the southern Cascadia continental slope is continuous, with little variation for at least 240 km along strike. The Chirp data show that turbidites along the Cascadia base of slope are ubiquitous, and likely not sourced solely from submarine canyon mouths, but may also have been delivered to the proximal abyssal plain as sheet flows from the open continental slope and coalescing local sources. Regional stratigraphy reveals that hemipelagic sedimentation rates and total Holocene turbidite thickness and mass are similar at widely separated sites, yet the total thickness of the Holocene section is greater by a factor of two in southern Cascadia

  16. Road and Street Centerlines, Mud Springs, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Mud Springs'. The extent of these data...

  17. Can mud (silt and clay) concentration be used to predict soil organic carbon content within seagrass ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Kendrick, Gary A.; Calafat, Antoni; York, Paul H.; Steven, Andy; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of blue carbon science is seeking cost-effective ways to estimate the organic carbon content of soils that are bound by coastal vegetated ecosystems. Organic carbon (Corg) content in terrestrial soils and marine sediments has been correlated with mud content (i.e., silt and clay, particle sizes expected between soil Corg and mud contents. This study shows that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, and therefore should not be applied generally across all seagrass habitats. Mud content can only be used as a proxy to estimate soil Corg content for scaling up purposes when opportunistic and/or low biomass seagrass species (i.e., Zostera, Halodule and Halophila) are present (explaining 34 to 91 % of variability), and in bare sediments (explaining 78 % of the variability). The results obtained could enable robust scaling up exercises at a low cost as part of blue carbon stock assessments.

  18. Assessment of optimum dilution ratio for biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with sewage and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjaram, B; Saravanane, R

    2011-02-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with water or sewage at ratios of 1:7.5, 1:10 and 1:12.5 were performed in continuously fed UASB reactors for hydrogen production. At a constant hydraulic retention time of 30 h, the specific hydrogen production rate was 187 mL/g volatile solids (VS) reduced during maximum biohydrogen production of 7960 mL/day at a 1:10 ratio of press mud to sewage. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and VS reductions of 61% and 59% were noted on peak biohydrogen yield. A pH range of 5-6 was suitable at ambient temperature for entire process; a lower pH was inhibitory. Co-digestion of acidic press mud with sewage controlled pH for fermentation. Hence press mud can be exploited for biohydrogen production.

  19. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime. PMID:23941006

  20. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30

  1. Visual persuasion and politics: ideology and symbols of the totalitarian regimes'--case study: hammer and sickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilicić, Niksa; Maldini, Pero

    2013-06-01

    Unlike all other autocracies, authoritarian regimes are, as the ultimate form of authoritarianism, a distinct phenomenon of the modern era. Caused by the crisis of liberal democracy and industrial capitalism of the early twentieth century, and led by radical populist political movements/parties and their leaders, they established themselves as the regimes which marked one of the greatest degrees of unfreedom. The article analyzes the specific sociostructural, sociocultural and sociopsychological aspects of the formation of totalitarian regimes (particularly communism), as well as their political system, ideological foundations and modus operandi. In doing so, it particularly emphasizes the dissolution of civil society and its substitution by a political society as a key structural determinant, authoritarianism and fear as a sociopsychological basis, and repression as the functional basis of operation for totalitarian regimes. In that context, it analyzes the political, anthropological and visual aspects of the symbols of totalitarian regimes, their archetypal (mythological, religious, ethnic, cultural, historical) meaning, and explains their function (political, anthropological, sociocultural, and sociopsychological) in the development and preservation of totalitarian regimes. Using the example of the hammer and sickle, a typical symbol of communism, it shows a substantial and communicational (particularly visual) dimension of symbol, by breakdown by the elements of semiotics (signum, designatum, interpretant) and its sub-disciplines (semantics, pragmatics, sintactics). On this basis, it tries to show the decisive power of political symbols over the political perceptions and political behavior of individuals and entire social groups, i.e. their manipulative power by meanings assigned to them by totalitarian authorities and forms of their communication, with the goal of preserving the totalitarian regime.

  2. Effects of Hammer Rusher on the Separation and Breaking of Maize%锤片式粉碎机设计参数对玉米脱胚破碎指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤芹; 于丽颖

    2000-01-01

    The relation between property of hammer crusher and property of separation and breaking was studied. In the experiment of hammer crusher use the parmeters selected are hammer crusher, diameter of sieve hole, hammer speed, gap between hammer and sieve. A series of single fector and orthogonelity experiments on the utilization of wet maize were made, the experimental results were analyzed for attaining the optimum parameters which can be directly applied in the processing of extruding production.%锤片式粉碎机的设计参数对脱胚破碎指标的影响很大。本研究用锤片式破碎机对干玉米进行破碎,将锤片数量、筛孔直径、锤片的旋转速度和锤筛间隙作为试验因素,经单因素性能试验和正交试验后,再对试验结果进行处理和分析,得到最佳参数组合,并将其直接应用于挤压膨化食品加工过程中。

  3. 冲击作用下煤矿破碎机锤头有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Coal Crusher Hammer Head Under the Action of Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士强

    2013-01-01

    Using finite element analysis software ANSYS to crusher key components hammer head for single static analysis, the stress and strain distribution rule of the hammer head are obtained for different materials. Provide a theoretical basis for coal mine crusher of hammer head design, selecting material. Analysis results show that: stress and strain in the hammer head role uneven distribution of surface, the maximum stress occurs in the pin shaft and pin axle hole on the contact edge, three kinds of materials can meet the safety requirements, ZGMn13 hammer head resist deformation ability stronger, and safety coefficient is higher.%利用有限元分析软件ANSYS对煤矿破碎机关键部件锤头进行单体静力分析,得到了使用不同材料锤头的应力、应变分布规律。为煤矿破碎机的锤头设计、选材提供了理论依据。分析结果显示:应力及应变在锤头作用面上分布不均匀,最大应力发生在销轴与销轴孔接触的上边缘处,3种材料均满足安全要求,高锰钢锤头抵抗变形的能力更强,安全系数更高。

  4. Experimental study on low temperature performance of polymer drilling mud agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Jiajia; XU Huiwen; CAI Hongliang

    2009-01-01

    Drilling fluid additives has a major impact on rheology behavior and other performances of the drilling fluid. The key to low temperature drilling fluids is choosing antifreeze and polymer agent which have a strong ability in resisting low temperature. On the basis of determining glycol as antifreeze agent, the low-temperature-performance and capacities of anti-collapse of regular validity mud agents have been studied, the mechanism of anti-caving of the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA), polypropylene potassium (KPA) and PAC-141 polymer additives have been also analyzed. A pilot study of compatibility between ethylene glycol and the polymers has educed that the polymers, ethylene glycol and inorganic salt are compatible, and they can significantly reduce the freezing point of drilling fluid. Anti-collapse ability of the drilling mud is the results of synergistic action among the agents.

  5. Data processing techniques for a wireless data transmission application via mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qingjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The data measured by well bottom sensors can be transmitted to the surface through the drilling mud during oil drilling operations. This article introduces a data processing scheme for a wireless data transmission application via mud. The detailed signal processing procedure is given, and several data processing techniques used are discussed, mainly including data encoding and signal integrating method, signal filtering, data storage and manage method, peak detection, signal recognition, and data decoding method. The article uses M pulses in N slots to encode the values of actual parameters. A two step filtering method and a dynamic data storing and managing method are proposed. A mix peak detection method is utilized to find the position of a pulse by combining threshold method and neighbor comparison method. These techniques have been successfully used in an oil well drilling operation.

  6. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  7. Iron speciation in bleached rocks by hydrocarbon leaching in Dushanzi Mud Volcano, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, G D [Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fu, B H; Matsuo, M [Key Laboratory of Earth' s Deep Interior, Institute of Geology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Kuno, A, E-mail: gdzhuk@hotmail.co [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Mud volcano is a typical petroleum leaching system, which normally result in bleaching effect to surrounding rocks. The result of Moessbauer spectroscopy of rock samples collected from the Dushanzi mud volcano system revealed clear variations in iron species. Compared to the unbleached reddish sedimentary rocks, the bleached rocks are dominated by reducing iron species such as paramagnetic ferrous iron (para-Fe{sup 2+}), ferrous iron in siderite (sid-Fe{sup 2+}), sulphide and pyrite (pyr-Fe{sup 2+}) whereas the original reddish rock is enriched in ferric iron including iron in hematite (hem-Fe{sup 3+}) and paramagnetic ferric iron (para-Fe{sup 3+}). A reduction of ferric iron species and hydrolysis of iron along with oxidation of hydrocarbons should be one of the main processes along bleaching by hydrocarbons to rocks.

  8. Aproximación al arte Mudéjar en la corte de Enrique IV

    OpenAIRE

    María B. López Díez

    1996-01-01

    El Arte Mudéjar es, sin duda, uno de los conceptos más confusos dentro de Ia Historia del Arte Español tanto por su definición, como por sus límites cronológicos. Si atendemos al significado que viene expresado en el Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española, "mudéjar" tiene su orígen etimológico en el vocablo árabe mudayyan, término con el que se designa al musulmán a quien se permitía seguir viviendo entre los vencedores cristianos, sin mudar de religión, a cambio de un tributo....

  9. Numerical simulation and optimization of red mud separation thickener with self-dilute feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天; 李茂; 周谦; 周孑民

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire the flow pattern and investigate the settling behavior of the red mud in the separation thickener, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), custom subroutines and agglomerates settling theory were employed to simulate the three-dimensional flow field in an industrial scale thickener with the introduction of a self-dilute feed system. The simulation results show good agreement with the measurement onsite and the flow patterns of the thickener are presented and discussed on both velocity and concentration field. Optimization experiments on feed well and self-dilute system were also carried out, and indicate that the optimal thickener system can dilute the solid concentration in feed well from 110 g/L to 86 g/L which would help the agglomerates’ formation and improve the red mud settling speed. Furthermore, the additional power of recirculation pump can be saved and flocculants dosage was reduced from 105g/t to 85g/t in the operation.

  10. Toxicity of oil and dispersed oil on juvenile mud crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie A; Kuhl, Adam J; Anderson, A Nikki

    2014-04-01

    In order to simulate an offshore oil spill event, we assessed the acute toxicity of the non-dispersed and the chemically dispersed water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil using Louisiana sweet crude and Corexit(®) 9500A with juvenile Harris mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii), an important Gulf of Mexico benthic crustacean. The chemical dispersion of crude oil significantly increased acute toxicity of the WAF in juvenile mud crabs compared to naturally dispersed oil. The majority of the mortality in the chemically dispersed treatments occurred within 24 h. While higher concentrations of chemically dispersed WAF had no survivors, at lower concentrations surviving juvenile crabs displayed no long-term effects. These results suggest that if the juvenile crabs survive initial exposure, acute exposure to dispersed or non-dispersed crude oil may not induce long-term effects.

  11. HP-HT Drilling Mud Based on Environmently-Friendly Fluorinated Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henaut I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide growing demand for energy drives oil and gas companies to drill deeper and hotter wells. The exploration and the development of Deeply Buried Reservoirs (DBR generate major technical challenges due to the extremely high pressures and temperatures met (1 400 bar, 300°C. Currently, several drilling fluids are emerging. They are briefly reviewed at the beginning of the paper. The technical difficulty related to HP-HT mud is so significant that standard mud formulation technologies are irrelevant and alternative systems have to be considered. New formulations based on perfluorochemicals have been jointly developed by IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN, Solvay Specialty Polymers Italy and Total. Their lab characterizations are presented and reveal their promising benefits.

  12. Simplified toxicity testing of drilling muds I: Marine phytoplankton Skeletonema costatum grown in test tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestgaard, K.; Bonaunet, K.

    1990-06-01

    Our current standard toxicity test of drilling muds, based on growth inhibition of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum, has been reorganized and simplified. Instead of the traditional cultivation in Ehrlenmeyer flasks, the algae have been cultivated directly in disposal test tubes with optical properties allowing direct recording of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence in a standard fluorometer. Sampling is thus no longer necessary, and the number of replicate cultures can easily be increased within a compact space. This means less work and increased accuracy. Independent testing of eight different drilling mud samples has generally given EC{sub 50}-values (estmated cell concentration) close to those reported earlier for the old test system. It is therefore suggested that the standard test now valid is replaced by the simplified version documented in this report. This can be done without quantitative adjustments of the safety limits currently applied by the Norwegian pollution authorities (SFT). 12 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. A FORTRAN algorithm for correcting normal resistivity logs for borehole diameter and mud resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Henry

    1978-01-01

    The FORTRAN algorithm described in this report was developed for applying corrections to normal resistivity logs of any electrode spacing for the effects of drilling mud of known resistivity in boreholes of variable diameter. The corrections are based on Schlumberger departure curves that are applicable to normal logs made with a standard Schlumberger electric logging probe with an electrode diameter of 8.5 cm (3.35 in). The FORTRAN algorithm has been generalized to accommodate logs made with other probes with different electrode diameters. Two simplifying assumptions used by Schlumberger in developing the departure curves also apply to the algorithm: (1) bed thickness is assumed to be infinite (at least 10 times larger than the electrode spacing), and (2) invasion of drilling mud into the formation is assumed to be negligible. * The use of a trade name does not necessarily constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. Mud volcano formation within the Western slope of the Nile Cone sourced from pre-salt layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Christopher; Cartwright, Joseph; Hermanrud, Christian; Jebsen, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanos are prevalent in a variety of settings, particularly in those where rapid sedimentation, thrust loading or horizontal tectonic stresses are observed. Here we describe from a three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey located on the Western slope of the Nile Cone, a suite of mud volcanoes emplaced throughout the post-salt Pliocene-Recent succession. These mud volcanoes are highly variable in scale, some among the largest ever described. Extrusive volumes range from 100 km3. Evaporites are widely considered a world class seal which has given rise to the discovery of numerous pre-salt hydrocarbon accumulations. Pre-salt depletion features, contrasts in p-wave velocity and salt welding due to mud remobilisation, are all indicative of a pre-Messinian (sub-salt) primary mud source, predominantly Tortonian in age. This implies large scale mud remobilisation through the thick Messinian evaporite succession. It is our interpretation that the formation of mud volcanoes within this region is intimately related to the basinal hydrodynamics, which include undercompaction and subsequent fluid retention, local sea level variation and overpressure generation. These mechanisms are controlled by key events in the geological history of the basin such as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Zanclean flood. We argue that the formation of these mud volcanoes is a direct response to overpressure generated primarily through rapid loading of pre-salt sediments during the MSC and catastrophic re-flooding during its immediate aftermath. Ultimately the location at which they form is associated with deeper features such as underlying faults and potential hydrocarbon plays. It is feasible that similar basin-scale remobilisation and overpressure could be expected for other salt basins world-wide that have undergone similar priming processes.

  15. Analysis of Thermal Desorption System for the Chemical Treatment of Old Storages of Oil Based Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Tanweer Hussain; Abdul Rehman Memon; Javed Larik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis for the chemical treatment of OBM (Oil Based Mud) used in the drilling process in the oil and gas industry. The analysis is based on OBM stored at ENI (Italian National Energy) gas fields at Bhit mount district Jamshoro since the last ten years that has been chemically and physically deteriorated. Characterization of various OBM samples was performed and these samples were processed in order to evaluate the best characteristics of the OBM for optimum treatment ...

  16. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the same species. The aim of the present study is to review the available information on the life-history and ecological traits of the mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum Gray (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca),...

  17. Radiometric sand-mud characterisation in the Rhine-Meuse estuary part A. Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, M; Venema, LB; De Meijer, RJ; Zwolsman, JJG; Gieske, JMJ

    2002-01-01

    The composition of the underwater sediment bed is often defined in terms of the mud (63 and 63 mum) and sand (>63 mum) as: 46.2 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg U-238 and 9.3 +/- 0.9 Bq/kg U-238 and 45.6 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg Th-232 and 9.7 +/- 0.9 Bq/kg Th-231, respectively. The assessed radiometric fingerprint allows a quan

  18. Smelting of bauxite residue (red mud) in view of iron and selective rare earths recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, Chenna Rao; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis; Binnemans, Koen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-01-01

    During acid leaching of bauxite residue (red mud), the increase in dissolution of rare-earth elements (REEs) is associated with an increase in iron dissolution, which poses problems in the downstream processing. Therefore, it would be beneficial to remove iron from bauxite residue by smelting reduction. The slag generated in the smelting reduction process could then be further processed for recovery of REEs. Smelting experiments were carried out at temperatures between 1500 and 1600 degrees C...

  19. [Catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene in water by acidification-activated red mud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ya-ning; Li, Hua-nan; Xu, Bing-bing; Qi, Fei; Zhao, Lun

    2013-05-01

    Red mud as one kind of aluminum industrial wastes was used as raw material for catalyst preparation. It was activated by acidification in order to enhance its catalytic activity in the system of catalytic ozonation. Furthermore, removal performance and reaction mechanism in degradation of organic pollutants were discussed. Results showed that acid modified red mud had more significant catalytic activity than the raw red mud. The removal efficiency of nitrobenzene by catalytic ozonation with acidified red mud (RM6.0) increased with the increasing ozone concentration. When the ozone concentration was increased from 0.4 mg x L(-1) to 1.7 mg x L(-1), the removal efficiency of nitrobenzene increased from 45% to 92%. There was a consistent effect of water pH on the removal efficiency and the ozone concentration variation. The variation of the removal efficiency depended on the initial water pH. This was because the concentration of OH(-) led to ozone decomposition to generate hydroxyl radicals. The higher water pH value led to the quenching of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in the reduction of catalytic activity of RM6.0. The experimental results of aqueous ozone concentration variation in the presence of RM6.0 and inhibition by hydroxyl radicals indicated that the main reaction mechanism was catalytic ozonation of NB. Firstly, aqueous ozone was absorbed onto the surface of RM6.0, and then the concentrated ozone oxidized NB in water which was with a combination of direct and indirect oxidation. In catalytic reaction, hydroxyl radicals were present, which were generated during the oxidation of NB on the surface of RM6.0.

  20. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T; Salter, Michael A; Harborne, Alastair R; Crowley, Stephen F; Jelks, Howard L; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-03-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO(3)) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 10(6) kg CaCO(3)/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the < 63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past. PMID:21368155

  1. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  2. Heavy metal levels in mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from East Bataan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Chona Camille E Vince; Ramos, Gliceria; Ablan-Lagman, Ma Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal levels (Pb and Cu) on adult mud crabs (Scylla spp.) from the East Bataan Coast were determined. Muscle tissue from each crab was processed through nitric acid digestion and analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The average concentrations in the samples were 3.37 × 10(-3) and 1.01 mg/L-both within WHO acceptable limits. These were contrasted with the levels found in sediments from catch and grow-out sites (17.9, 14.5, 37.8, and 31.3 mg/L) and were found to be significantly lower in concentration. It takes 3-8 months before adult mud crabs can be harvested from grow-out ponds, and the data suggests that the organisms, even when constantly exposed to high levels of Pb and Cu, do not bio-accumulate toxic levels of these heavy metals. Mud crabs constitute a major economic natural resource in the Philippines and in the province of Bataan. Commanding high prices due to the quality of its meat, it is also a preferred culture product due to its impressive size, rapid growth rate, and high flesh content. Mud crab culture in Bataan is primarily driven by grow-out of captured juveniles in pen or pond cultures sourced from nearby bodies of water-making them vulnerable to prolonged exposure to pollutants. The East Bataan Coast shares its waters with the polluted Manila Bay, giving rise to the concern of the quality of seafood acquired from the area.

  3. Isolation of Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) growing on ferric hydroxide mud impregnated with gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudin, C. (Lavera Refinery, France); Chater, K.W.A.

    1977-09-01

    In northern France, gas oil-impregnated ferric hydroxide mud was found to support fungal growth. The fungus was identified by the Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, with whom a reference culture has been registered. Experiments indicated that its growth resulted from the biodegradation of the gas oil. It is believed that, in this unusual situation, contaminating hydrocarbons may be removed from the environment by microbial activity.

  4. Immobilization of 60Co and 90Sr ions using red mud from aluminum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Aleksandra S.; Smičiklas Ivana D.; Marković Jelena P.; Vukelić Nikola S.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of 60Co and 90Sr from the aqueous phase was tested using red mud - the fine grained residue from bauxite ore processing. This industrial waste represents a mixture of numerous minerals, mainly oxides and hydroxides of Fe, Al, Si, and Ti. Experiments were conducted as a function of contact time, pH, and pollutant concentrations. Kinetic data were well fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. The calculated rate constants and initial sorption r...

  5. Effects on water quality from mud clearance operations in the Pezze' hydropower basin (Trentino, Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes dynamic concentration for various parameters, that have been monitored through both continuous and instant samplings, during maintenance operations (mud deposit clearance) in a hydropower basin along Torrent Avisio in Trentino region, Italy. Aim of the work is to demonstrate that, during such operations, an organic water pollution occur besides turbidity. The former is well expressed by a marked value increment of different parameters, as total phosphorus, ammonium and organic matter

  6. Gamma-Ray Induced Polymerization of Unsaturated Polyester in Red Mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of investigations was conducted on the 60Co-irradiation of a mixture of unsaturated polyester and styrene in the presence of red mud. A total dose of approximately 0.8 Mrad was sufficient to cure the mixture to a strong composite. The relationship between the process variables and the impact strengths of the composites was studied by means of response surface technology. (author)

  7. Orthogonal Experiments on Direct Reduction of Carbon-bearing Pellets of Bayer Red Mud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dun-cheng FAN; Wen NI; Ai-yun YAN; Jian-yue WANG; Wei-hua CUI

    2015-01-01

    To recycle residual iron efifciently in Bayer red mud, three-factor three-level orthogonal experiments on carbon-bearing pellets of Bayer red mud were conducted on the basis of their characteristics. The inlfuences of CaO dosage, temperature and roast-ing time on total iron content and iron recovery of reduced iron powder were studied. Results showed that these factors slightly inlfuenced iron recovery, but signiifcantly inlfuenced total iron content. The principal factor inlfuencing total iron content was CaO dosage, followed by temperature and roasting time. An increase in CaO dosage could decrease total iron content, whereas an increase in temperature and an extension of roasting time could improve total iron content. The reduced iron powder with total iron content of 88.41% and iron recovery rate of 97.97% can be obtained under the optimal conditions of temperature of 1 275 °C, roasting time of 60 min and CaO dosage of 7.5%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the reduced pellets showed that iron minerals in red mud were almost completely reduced to metallic iron. The principal factor inlfuencing the total iron content of reduced iron powder was the grain size of metallic iron particles. An increase in CaO dosage hindered the growth of metallic iron particles, whereas an increase in temperature and an extension of roasting time could neutralise the effect of CaO dosage. Therefore, CaO dosage should be decreased when iron minerals in red mud can be adequately reduced into metallic iron.

  8. Precipitation of heavy metals by lime mud waste of pulp and paper mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puek Tantriratna

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation of heavy metals in synthetic and actual wastewater with lime mud (solid waste generated from the pulp and paper production process was experimented using Jar-tests. Separate synthetic wastewater samples were prepared for each of the following heavy metals: lead (1,433.7 mgPb2+/L, chromium (506.7 mgCr3+/L, cadmium (1,095 mgCd2+/L and mercury (9.37 mgHg2+/L. The actual wastewater was tanning wastewater containing 74.49 mgCr3+/L and COD wastewater containing 683 mgHg2+/L. Adjustments of pH in the acidic range, pH 2-7, were made for each type of synthetic wastewater except for the Hg synthetic wastewater. The optimum conditions obtained from the tests of the synthetic wastewater were used for theactual wastewater samples. Precipitation of heavy metals with lime mud was effective as indicated by the removal efficiency as high as 90% up for Pb, Cd and Hg and 100% for Cr. However, the removal efficiency for the Hg-COD wastewater was only 67%. The precipitating pH was in the range of 10 up, which is the common pH range for metal carbonate precipitation. The optimum dosage of lime mud for Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg synthetic wastewater was 0.4-1.0 g/L, 2.0-4.0 g/L, 1.6-2.0g/L and 0.8 g/L, respectively. While the optimum dosage of lime mud for precipitating chromium in tanning wastewater was 3.8 g/L and 3.6 g/L for precipitating mercury in COD wastewater.

  9. An Alternative to Clay in Building Materials: Red Mud Sintering Using Fly Ash via Taguchi’s Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchita Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Red mud” or “bauxite residue” is a highly alkaline waste generated from alumina refinery with a pH of 10.5–12.5 which poses serious environmental problems. Neutralization or its treatment by sintering in presence of additives is one of the methods for overcoming the caustic problem as it fixes nearly all the leachable free caustic soda present in red mud. In the present study, feasibility of reducing the alkaline nature of red mud by sintering using fly ash as an additive via Taguchi methodology and its use for brick production, as an alternative to clay, is investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that sintering temperature is the most significant parameter in the process. A pH of 8.9 was obtained at 25–50% of red mud and 50–75% fly ash with water and temperature of . Alternatively 50% of red mud can be mixed with 50% of fly ash with water at temperature of to get a pH of about 8.4. The mechanism of this process has been explained with also emphasis on chemical, mineralogical, and morphological analysis of the sintered red mud. The results would be extremely useful in utilization of red mud in building and construction industry.

  10. A New Stochastic Modeling of 3-D Mud Drapes Inside Point Bar Sands in Meandering River Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yanshu, E-mail: yys6587@126.com [Yangtze University, School of Geosciences (China)

    2013-12-15

    The environment of major sediments of eastern China oilfields is a meandering river where mud drapes inside point bar sand occur and are recognized as important factors for underground fluid flow and distribution of the remaining oil. The present detailed architectural analysis, and the related mud drapes' modeling inside a point bar, is practical work to enhance oil recovery. This paper illustrates a new stochastic modeling of mud drapes inside point bars. The method is a hierarchical strategy and composed of three nested steps. Firstly, the model of meandering channel bodies is established using the Fluvsim method. Each channel centerline obtained from the Fluvsim is preserved for the next simulation. Secondly, the curvature ratios of each meandering river at various positions are calculated to determine the occurrence of each point bar. The abandoned channel is used to characterize the geometry of each defined point bar. Finally, mud drapes inside each point bar are predicted through random sampling of various parameters, such as number, horizontal intervals, dip angle, and extended distance of mud drapes. A dataset, collected from a reservoir in the Shengli oilfield of China, was used to illustrate the mud drapes' building procedure proposed in this paper. The results show that the inner architectural elements of the meandering river are depicted fairly well in the model. More importantly, the high prediction precision from the cross validation of five drilled wells shows the practical value and significance of the proposed method.

  11. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami.; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M.; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems.

  12. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain

    CERN Document Server

    Goehring, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    When cracks form in a thin contracting layer, they sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of crack formation, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120$^\\circ$. However, hexagonal crack patterns are typically only seen when a crack network opens and heals repeatedly, in a thin layer, or advances by many intermittent steps into a thick layer. Here it is shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and how a rectilinear crack pattern evolves towards a hexagonal one. Such an evolution is expected when cracks undergo many opening cycles, where the cracks in any cycle are guided by the positions of cracks in the previous cycle, but when they can slightly vary their position, and order of opening. The general features of this evolution are outlined, and compared to a review of the specific p...

  13. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

    2007-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications. PMID:17985664

  14. Preparation of Granular Red Mud Adsorbent using Different Binders by Microwave Pore - Making and Activation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thiquynhxuan; Wang, Hanrui; Ju, Shaohua; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Wang, Shixing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this work, microwave energy is used for preparing a granular red mud (GRM) adsorbent made of red mud with different binders, such as starch, sodium silicate and cement. The effects of the preparation parameters, such as binder type, binder addition ratio, microwave heating temperature, microwave power and holding time, on the absorption property of GRM are investigated. The BET surface area, strength, pore structure, XRD and SEM of the GRM absorbent are analyzed. The results show that the microwave roasting has a good effect on pore-making of GRM, especially when using organic binder. Both the BET surface area and the strength of GRM obtained by microwave heating are significantly higher than that by conventional heating. The optimum conditions are obtained as follows: 6:100 (w/w) of starch to red mud ratio, microwave roasting with a power of 2.6 kW at 500℃ for holding time of 30 min. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter of GRM prepared at the optimum conditions are 15.58 m2/g, 0.0337 cm3/g and 3.1693 A0, respectively.

  15. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-01

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol. PMID:25559862

  16. Ca(2+) and OH(-) release of ceramsites containing anorthite and gehlenite prepared from waste lime mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Yang, Chuanmeng; Cui, Chong; Huang, Jiantao; Hussain, Ahmad; Ma, Hailong

    2016-09-01

    Lime mud is a kind of solid waste in the papermaking industry, which has been a source of serious environmental pollution. Ceramsites containing anorthite and gehlenite were prepared from lime mud and fly ash through the solid state reaction method at 1050°C. The objective of this study was to explore the efficiency of Ca(2+) and OH(-) release and assess the phosphorus and copper ion removal performance of the ceramsites via batch experiments, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that Ca(2+) and OH(-) were released from the ceramsites due to the dissolution of anorthite, gehlenite and available lime. It is also concluded that gehlenite had stronger capacity for Ca(2+) and OH(-) release compared with anorthite. The Ca(2+) release could be fit well by the Avrami kinetic model. Increases of porosity, dosage and temperature were associated with increases in the concentrations of Ca(2+) and OH(-) released. Under different conditions, the ceramsites could maintain aqueous solutions in alkaline conditions (pH=9.3-10.9) and the release of Ca(2+) was not affected. The removal rates of phosphorus and copper ions were as high as 96.88% and 96.81%, respectively. The final pH values of both phosphorus and copper ions solutions changed slightly. The reuse of lime mud in the form of ceramsites is an effective strategy.

  17. Archaeal Populations in Hypersaline Sediments Underlying Orange Microbial Mats in the Napoli Mud Volcano▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the “active” archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  18. Experimental studies on resistance characteristics of high concentration red mud in pipeline transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing; QU Yuan-yuan; HU Wei-wei; CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WU Miao

    2008-01-01

    Red mud will flow in paste form under high pressure during pipeline transport. It belongs to a two-phase flow of materials with high viscosity and a high concentration of non-sedimentation, homogeneous solid-liquids. In pipeline transport, its resistance char-acteristics will be influenced by such factors as grain size, velocity, concentration, density,grain composition and pipe diameter etc.. With the independently developed small-sized tube-type pressure resistance test facility, studied the resistance characteristics of red mud concerning the three influencing factors, paste concentration, velocity and pipe diameter,which attract the most attention in projects. The fine grain size of the red mud is d50=13.02 μm. According to the experimental results, the pressure loss in transport will in-crease along with the increase of velocity and will fall along with the increase of pipe di-ameter. A 1% difference in paste concentration will result in a 50%~100% difference in pipeline resistance loss. These experimental data is hoped to be direct guidance to the design of high concentration and viscous material pipeline transport system.

  19. Determination of Surface Area of Red Mud and BeringiteUsing Methylene Blue Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on three soil amendments, red mud from Hungary, red mud from UK and beringite from Belgium, was studied to determine the surface areas of the amendments using a 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution and deionised water as background solutions. The surface areas determined by the methylene blue method in the 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution were 3.357, 2.340 and 5.576 m2 g-1 for red nmd (Hungary), red mud (UK) and beringite, respectively, slightly lower than those in the deionised water system. The largest surface area of beringite suggested that the MB could adsorb effectively on the interlayer surface of illite. The effect of NaCl on the surface areas was relatively small and may therefore be ignored. Both the 0.005 mol L-1 NaCl solution and deionised water could be used as a background solution for measurement of surface area of oxide-rich materials.

  20. Mineral Phase and Physical Properties of Red Mud Calcined at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on red mud uncalcined and samples calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structural transition of red mud heated from room temperature are indicated by XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM techniques. The mean particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have been investigated. The results indicate the decomposition of gibbsite into Al2O3 and H2O between 300°C and 550°C and calcite into CaO and CO2 in the interval of 600–800°C. Tricalcium aluminate and gehlenite are formed in the range of 800–900°C. Combined with the SEM images, the results of physical property testing show that the particle size and the strength each has a continuous rise during the heat treatment from 150°C to 1350°C. But the value of density will undergo a little drop before 450°C and then increases to a higher value at the temperature of 1200°C. These obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of red mud.