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Sample records for advanced maternal age

  1. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  2. PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE

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    Rajmohan Laxmy*, Vinayachandran S, Guhan Beena and Sumangala Devi D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the incidence and general outcome of pregnancy in advanced maternal age attending IMCH for delivery from July 1st 2008 to June 30th 2009. To compare the pregnancy outcome of gravitas of AMA and the younger counter parts with special reference to incidence of pregnancy morbidities like GDM, hypertension, abnormal placentation, incidence of LSCS and other instrumental delivers, preterm deliveries and neonatal outcome and maternal mortality. A prospective study of all women of advanced maternal age (>35 yrs admitted for delivery in Institute of Maternal and Child Health (IMCH during a period of one year. The study design is Prospective cohort study and it was conducted in Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Calicut, a Tertiary referral center catering to around 16000-18000 deliveries per year, with 508 beds. The duration of study period is one year, July 1st 2008 to June 30th 2009. Data was collected by interviewing subjects, their relatives, attending doctors and reviewing their records. The sample size is 286 women admitted to IMCH labour room above 35 years of age and 300 controls belonging to 20-25 years age group admitted to labour room for delivery. From the study results our conclusions are Incidence of Pregnancy in advanced maternal age is 1.78% in 2009. Treatment for infertility, Bad obstetric history, Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, Gestational diabetes, Preterm delivery, Intrauterine growth restriction, Foetal distress, Still births, Cesarian section rate, and Co morbidities like leiomyomas and maternal mortality rates were more and statistically significant in Advanced maternal age compared to the younger counter parts.

  3. Influence of advanced age of maternal grandmothers on Down syndrome

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    Ramachandra Nallur B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS is the most common chromosomal anomaly associated with mental retardation. This is due to the occurrence of free trisomy 21 (92–95%, mosaic trisomy 21 (2–4% and translocation (3–4%. Advanced maternal age is a well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In India three children with DS are born every hour and more DS children are given birth to by young age mothers than by advanced age mothers. Therefore, detailed analysis of the families with DS is needed to find out other possible causative factors for nondisjunction. Methods We investigated 69 families of cytogenetically confirmed DS children and constructed pedigrees of these families. We also studied 200 randomly selected families belonging to different religions as controls. Statistical analysis was carried out using logistic regression. Results Out of the 69 DS cases studied, 67 were free trisomy 21, two cases were mosaic trisomy 21 and there were none with translocation. The number of DS births was greater for the young age mothers compared with the advanced age mothers. It has also been recorded that young age mothers (18 to 29 years born to their mothers at the age 30 years and above produced as high as 91.3% of children with DS. The logistic regression of case- control study of DS children revealed that the odds ratio of age of grandmother was significant when all the four variables were used once at a time. However, the effect of age of mother and father was smaller than the effect of age of maternal grandmother. Therefore, for every year of advancement of age of the maternal grandmother, the risk (odds of birth of DS baby increases by 30%. Conclusion Besides the known risk factors, mother's age, father's age, the age of the maternal grandmother at the time of birth of the mother is a risk factor for the occurrence of Down syndrome.

  4. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  5. Preeclampsia complicated by advanced maternal age: a registry-based study on primiparous women in Finland 1997–2008

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    Lamminpää Reeta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a frequent syndrome and its cause has been linked to multiple factors, making prevention of the syndrome a continuous challenge. One of the suggested risk factors for preeclampsia is advanced maternal age. In the Western countries, maternal age at first delivery has been steadily increasing, yet few studies have examined women of advanced maternal age with preeclampsia. The purpose of this registry-based study was to compare the obstetric outcomes in primiparous and preeclamptic women younger and older than 35 years. Methods The registry-based study used data from three Finnish health registries: Finnish Medical Birth Register, Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Register of Congenital Malformations. The sample contained women under 35 years of age (N = 15,437 compared with those 35 and over (N = 2,387 who were diagnosed with preeclampsia and had their first singleton birth in Finland between 1997 and 2008. In multivariate modeling, the main outcome measures were Preterm delivery (before 34 and 37 weeks, low Apgar score (5 min., small-for-gestational-age, fetal death, asphyxia, Cesarean delivery, induction, blood transfusion and admission to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Results Women of advanced maternal age (AMA exhibited more preeclampsia (9.4% than younger women (6.4%. They had more prior terminations (25 ( Conclusions Preeclampsia is more common in women with advanced maternal age. Advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in first-time mothers with preeclampsia.

  6. Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.

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    Louise C Kenny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using data on all singleton births in 2004-2008 from the North Western Perinatal Survey based at The University of Manchester, UK. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women aged 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40 years with women aged 20-29 years using log-linear binomial regression. Models were adjusted for parity, ethnicity, social deprivation score and body mass index. RESULTS: The final study cohort consisted of 215,344 births; 122,307 mothers (54.19% were aged 20-29 years, 62,371(27.63% were aged 30-34 years, 33,966(15.05% were aged 35-39 years and 7,066(3.13% were aged ≥40 years. Women aged 40+ at delivery were at increased risk of stillbirth (RR = 1.83, [95% CI 1.37-2.43], pre-term (RR = 1.25, [95% CI: 1.14-1.36] and very pre-term birth (RR = 1.29, [95% CI:1.08-1.55], Macrosomia (RR = 1.31, [95% CI: 1.12-1.54], extremely large for gestational age (RR = 1.40, [95% CI: 1.25-1.58] and Caesarean delivery (RR = 1.83, [95% CI: 1.77-1.90]. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. These risks are independent of parity and remain after adjusting for the ameliorating effects of higher socioeconomic status. The data from this large contemporary cohort will be of interest to healthcare providers and women and will facilitate evidence based counselling of older expectant mothers.

  7. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    Objectives In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Methods Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013.Results VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Conclusions Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged. PMID:26686195

  8. Justifiability of amniocentesis on the basis of positive findings of triple test, ultrasound scan and advanced maternal age

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    Dragoslav Bukvic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal screening for chromosomal abnormalities based on maternal age (≥35 years, positive ultrasound findings or a positive triple test. Materials and methods. Retrospective six-year study. The pregnant women routinely underwent established clinical and laboratory practice at the Department of Medical Genetics between 1997 and 2003. The women’s case notes were examined to identify indications for karyotyping, gestation period and the outcome of karyotyping and pregnancy. Results. Invasive antenatal tests were performed on 1440 cases, 1168 (81.11% age 35(a, 72 (5.00% positive triple test (b, 24 (1.67% positive ultrasound scanning (c and 176 (12.2% other (psychological, personal reasons, etc (d. The overall positive predictive value was 1.67% (1.6%(a, 1.4% (b, 12.5% (c, 0.0% (d. The constructed model of logistic regression gave an odds-ratio of 8.647 for the “positive ultrasound result vs. maternal age ≥35” indication, while the odds-ratio for the triple test vs. maternal age ≥35 was 0.854. Conclusions. Amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis of foetal karyotype should be presented as a diagnostic possibility to all women over 35 years. The application of biochemical markers was far from the expected results. If we compare results for indication positive ultrasound scanning vs. maternal age, an oddsratio of ~9 was obtained. These results demonstrate that the likelihood of obtaining positive results (i.e. the presence of chromosome alterations from an amniocentesis having this indication is almost 9 times higher than from having an amniocentesis performed solely for advanced maternal age.

  9. A systematic review of factors influencing uptake of invasive fetal genetic testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Skirton, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Women of advanced maternal age have a higher risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder than younger childbearing women and are frequently offered invasive testing during pregnancy. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and analyse the current evidence base regarding factors that influence the uptake of invasive fetal testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age. We conducted a systematic review. A search of The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English and Italian from January 2002 to May 2012. Eleven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, were subjected to quality assessment and included in the review. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The factors influencing women were classified as either external or psychosocial factors. External factors included the opportunity for screening, screening results and use of genetic counselling. Psychosocial factors related to ethnicity, socio-demographic status and attendance of partners during counselling. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the principle factors that influence uptake of invasive tests by women of AMA. More research is needed to enhance understanding of relevant factors to ensure that services are offered in a way that acknowledges practical as well as psychosocial influences. This type of research will help to equip midwives and other professionals caring for women during pregnancy to ensure that women are supported to make the choices that are appropriate for them and their families. PMID:23453699

  10. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

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    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for preterm births, for post-term births (except for primiparous women with schooling ≥12 years, and for low birth weight. When comparing older vs. younger women, higher educational levels ensure similar risks of low Apgar score at 1 min (for primiparous mothers and term births, of low Apgar score at 5 min (for term births, of macrosomia (for non-primiparous women, and of asphyxia. CONCLUSION: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  11. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. O Impacto da Idade Materna Avançada sobre os Resultados da Gravidez Impact of Advanced Maternal Age on the Outcome of Pregnancy

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    José G. Cecatti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar o efeito da idade sobre os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestações ocorridas em mulheres com 40 anos ou mais. Métodos: comparamos 494 gestantes com mais de 40 anos, com 988 gestantes com idade entre 20 e 29 anos, pareando-as por paridade. Após controlar possíveis variáveis confundidoras pela análise multivariada, a idade materna avançada manteve associação com a maior prevalência de hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, parto por cesária, hemorragia puerperal, índice de Apgar baixo, morte perinatal, natimortalidade e sofrimento fetal intraparto. Resultados: a idade materna avançada esteve isoladamente associada à hipertensão arterial, apresentação anômala, diagnóstico de sofrimento fetal intraparto, parto por cesária e hemorragia puerperal. Com relação aos resultados neonatais, a idade materna avançada estava associada independentemente apenas ao baixo índice de Apgar, morte perinatal e óbito fetal. Conclusões: esses achados mostram a necessidade de assistência obstétrica adequada com atenção especial a esses fatores para procurar melhorar os resultados maternos e perinatais das gestantes com idade avançada.Most authors agree on the negative impact of pregnancy in women with advanced maternal age on maternal and perinatal outcome. However, it is not usual to evaluate if some considered risk factors are only confounders because they are present in women over forty years. In order to identify the isolated effect of age on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancies in women over forty, 494 pregnancies from this age group were compared to 988 pregnancies among women aged 20 to 29 years, matched by parity. After controlling possible confounding variables through multivariate analysis, advanced maternal age maintained its association with a higher prevalence of hypertension, malpresentation, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, low Apgar score, perinatal death, late fetal

  13. Genetic counseling, prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome in the second trimester in women of advanced maternal age: a prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Qing-wei; JIANG Yu-lin; ZHOU Xi-ya; LIU Jun-tao; YIN Jie; BIAN Xu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of autosomal trisomy in livebirths is strongly dependent on maternal age.Special consideration is given to the provision of prenatal screening and cytogenetic testing to women of advanced maternal age (AMA).The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of second trimester prenatal screening and amniocentesis for Down syndrome (DS) and compare the trends of choice of screening and amniocentesis among AMAwomen.Methods A total of 5404 AMA patients with natural singleton pregnancy were recruited for this prospective study from January 2008 to December 2010.The gestational weeks were from 15 weeks to 20+6 weeks.The patients referred were grouped into a screening group (2107 cases) and an amniocentesis group (3297 cases) by their own decision.The prevalence of DS was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Choice rates for each maternal age with trends were compared by regression analysis.Results There were 18 cases of fetal DS detected in the screening group with a prevalence of 8.54‰ (18/2107).Twentyfive cases of fetal DS were diagnosed in the amniocentesis group with a prevalence of 7.58‰ (25/3297).No statistical difference was observed in the prevalence of DS between the screening and amniocentesis group (P=0.928).The invasive testing rate for DS in the amniocentesis group was 5.54 times higher than that of the screening group (1/131.88 vs.1/23.78).With the increase of the maternal age,the choice of amniocentesis increased while the choice of the screening showed an opposite trend.The choice of the AMA women between the screening and amniocantesis was significantly age relevant (P=0.012).Conclusions The second trimester serum screening in combination with maternal age was more effective than maternal age alone to screen for DS.We suggest educating the patients by recommending AMA women be informed of both screening and amniocentesis options.

  14. Incidence of chromosome abnormalities at a second-trimester genetic amniocentesis for Mainland Chinese women of advanced maternal age: a study of 6, 584 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qing-wei; Jiang Yu-lin; Zhou Xi-ya; Liu Jun-tao; Bian Xu-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate the expected incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy at second trimester genetic amniocentesis in Mainland China in women aged 35 and older.Methods: We reviewed the genetic amniocenteses data in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2001 to June 2011.The indication for genetic amniocentesis was solely advanced maternal age (AMA).A total of 6,584 cases were included in this study.The AMA women was divided into two groups by maternal age,the group of 35-39 years old and the group of ≥40 years old.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was compared between the two groups by chi-square test.Results: A total of 121 cases were diagnosed to be chromosomally abnormal,giving an overall incidence of 18.38‰ (121/6,584).The abnormal karyotypes included 111 cases of various aneuploidies and 10 cases with various structural abnormalities.The aneuploidies(mosaicism included)were 59 cases of (47,+ 21),25 cases of (47,+ 18),2 cases of (47,+ 13),8 cases of (45,X),3 cases of (47,XXX),13 cases of (47,XXY) and 1 case of (47,XYY).The karyotype of (47,+21) was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality,with an overall incidence of 8.96‰,account for 53.1% of all aneuploidies.Sex chromosome aneuploidies were the next most common,with a total incidence of 3.80‰.The incidence of fetal Down syndrome was significantly higher in the group of ≥40 years old than that of the group of 35-39 years old (P=0.047).Conclusions: The incidence of chromosomal aneuploidy found in this study is the first data published for Mainland China and will be helpful for the counseling of pregnant women in this age group.Consideration may be given to prenatal screening versus prenatal diagnosis in women of advanced maternal age in Mainland China.

  15. Risk assessment of medically assisted reproduction and advanced maternal ages in the development of Prader-Willi syndrome due to UPD(15)mat.

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    Matsubara, K; Murakami, N; Fukami, M; Kagami, M; Nagai, T; Ogata, T

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that disomic oocyte-mediated uniparental disomy 15 (UPD(15)mat) is increased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) born after medically assisted reproduction (MAR). However, it remains unknown whether the increase is primarily due to MAR procedure itself or advanced maternal childbearing ages as a predisposing factor for the disomic oocyte production. To examine this matter, we studied 122 naturally conceived PWS patients (PWS-NC group) and 13 MAR-conceived patients (PWS-MAR group). The relative frequency of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat was significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group (7/13 vs 20/122, p = 0.0045), and the maternal childbearing ages were significantly higher in PWS-MAR group than in PWS-NC group [median (range), 38 (26-45) vs 30 (19-42), p = 0.0015]. However, the logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between the occurrence of disomic oocyte-mediated UPD(15)mat and MAR, after adjusting for childbearing age (p = 0.25). Consistent with this, while the frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART)-conceived livebirths was higher in the PWS patients than in the Japanese general population (6.4% vs 1.1%, p = 0.00018), the distribution of childbearing ages was significantly skewed to the increased ages in the PWS patients (p < 2.2 × 10(-16) ). These results argue against a positive association of MAR procedure itself with the development of UPD(15)mat. PMID:26526156

  16. 394例高龄孕妇羊水细胞遗传学分析%Prenatal diagnosis analysis of 394 pregnant women of advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田卉; 任晨春; 张海霞; 梁明宏; 王文靖

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析高龄孕妇的胎儿染色体核型,探讨高龄妊娠胎儿染色体异常发生的风险.方法:采用羊水穿刺术对394例高龄孕妇进行细胞遗传学诊断,计算高龄妊娠胎儿染色体异常的比率.同时比较35 ~ 37岁、38~40岁及≥41岁组孕妇胎儿染色体异常发生率,分析不同高龄组胎儿染色体异常的风险比率.结果:394例样本中有21例染色体核型异常,异常发生率为5.33%,高于普通人群;且随孕妇年龄增长,胎儿染色体异常发生率增加.结论:高龄孕妇所孕胎儿存在染色体异常高风险,故应常规进行产前诊断.%Objective: To analyze the fetal chromosome abnormalities of pregnant women of advanced maternal age ( AMA) , and discuss the risk of chromosome abnormalities. Methods: Fetal chromosomal karyotypes were examined in 394 pregnant women of AMA by amniocentesis. Meanwhile , the study population was divided into three groups according to maternal age; 35 -37 years old, 38-40 years old and ≥41 years old, and the risk ratio of fetal chromosome abnormalities was compared among the three groups. Results: Among 394 pregnant women of AMA, 21 cases were abnormal karyotypes with the ratio of 5. 33% , which was higher than thai in common population. And the incidence of chromosome abnormalities was increased with their age increasing. Conclusion: Risk of the fetal chromosome abnormalities is high in advanced maternal age, and the prenatal diagnosis should be performed in every pregnant woman of AMA.

  17. Stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy: influence of maternal body mass index and age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Eva M

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy is limited. Uterine contractile performance may be altered in association with maternal obesity and advanced maternal age. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereology of human myometrium in pregnancy, and to evaluate a potential influence of maternal body mass index (BMI) and age.

  18. Maternal age and birth defects: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, P A; Sadovnick, A D; Yee, I M

    1991-03-01

    Since more and more women in developed countries are delaying childbearing to an older age, it is important to find out whether birth defects, other than those resulting from chromosomal anomalies, are related to maternal age. We have studied all 26,859 children with birth defects of unknown aetiology identified among 576,815 consecutive livebirths in British Columbia. All these cases' records were linked with provincial birth records to allow determination of maternal age at birth. We excluded children with chromosomal anomalies and those with other birth defects of known aetiology. Only 3 of the 43 birth defect categories studied showed significant maternal-age-specific trends: there were decreasing linear trends with maternal age for patent ductus arteriosus (chi 2 = 36.65, 1 df, p less than 0.01) and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (chi 2 = 4.90, 1 df, p less than 0.05) and a bell-shaped curve (risk increasing to maternal age 30 then falling) for congenital dislocatable hip/hip click. The findings from this population-based analysis of no association between the incidence of birth defects of unknown aetiology and advancing maternal age should be reassuring to healthy women who opt to delay childbearing. PMID:1671898

  19. Second-generation non-invasive high-throughput DNA sequencing technology in the screening of Down's syndrome in advanced maternal age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JIAO; ZHANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of using non-invasive DNA testing technology in screening Down's syndrome among women of advanced maternal age (AMA) and to provide evidence for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome. With a double-blind design, 8 ml of peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 87 women aged ≥35 years after 12 weeks of pregnancy. All cases were recorded with unique identification cards with clinical details and followed up until delivery. All the non-invasive prenatal testing results were confirmed by amniotic fluid fetal karyotyping (the gold standard of aneuploidy test), follow-up examination by neonatologists or neonatal blood karyotyping. The sensitivity, specificity and other indicators of non-invasive DNA testing technology were calculated based on the data of 87 women of AMA. Among the 87 women of AMA, 5 were cases with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (3 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 18 and 1 case of 47, XXX). The sensitivity and specificity reached 100% for trisomy 21, trisomy 18 and 47, XXX. The present study supports that non-invasive DNA testing is a useful method of AMA screening of Down's syndrome with 100% accuracy. Therefore, it can be used as an important alternative screening method for Down's syndrome in women of AMA. PMID:27313855

  20. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

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    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  1. 高龄孕产妇妊娠与分娩结局的临床分析%Clinical analysis of the consequences of the advanced maternal age and delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the consequences of the advanced maternal age and delivery.Methods:230 pregnant women over 35 years old (the advanced maternal age group) and 230 pregnant women with one fetus (the controlled group) were analyzed retrospectively from April 2013 to April 2014.Results:The incidence rates for the complications and comorbidiies of pregnancy such as gestational hypertension, prolonged pregnancy, hysteromyoma, diabetes and heart disease in the advanced maternal age group are all higher than those in the controlled group( P <0. 05); The incidence rates for the complications of delivery such as placental abruption, intrauterine fetal distress, premature rupture of fetal mem-branes, postpartum hemorrhage in the advanced maternal age group are all higher than those in the controlled group( P <0.05).Conclusion:The incidence rates for the complications of pregnancy and the complications and comorbidities of delivery are so high that maternal health care should be taken to prevent or reduce the incidence of complications and comorbidities .%目的:探讨高龄孕产妇妊娠与分娩的结局. 方法:回顾性分析2013年4月至2014年4月安庆市两家三甲医院住院分娩的高龄孕产妇230例和同期单胎孕产妇230例的临床资料. 结果:高龄组孕产妇妊娠期高血压病、前置胎盘、早产、过期妊娠、子宫肌瘤、糖尿病、以及心脏病等妊娠并发症或合并症的发生率均高于对照组( P <0.05);高龄组胎盘早剥、胎儿宫内窘迫、胎膜早破、产后出血等分娩并发症的发生率均高于对照组( P <0.05). 结论:高龄孕产妇妊娠、分娩并发症或合并症发生率高,因此要加强高龄孕产妇的孕产期保健,预防或减少并发症和合并症的发生.

  2. The efficacy of Chinese medicine for miscarriage prevention in women of advanced maternal age and nursing care for those women%中医中药对高龄孕妇安胎的疗效观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒小芳; 金楠; 宋丰琪; 欧秀敏; 奉新英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨我院中医中药对高龄孕妇安胎的治疗与护理.方法 对288例高龄孕妇采用中医中药治疗结合中医护理,于7天以内、8~14天、15~21天、22~30天以及30天以上对患者进行疗效观察并统计.结果 通过中医中药治疗与中医护理高龄孕妇,于22~30天疗效观察,治疗有效率达85%,结果有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 中医中药对高龄孕妇安胎治疗结合中医护理,收到了满意的效果,值得临床推广以及进一步研究.%ObjectiveTo explore the treatment of Chinese medicine for miscarriage prevention in women of advanced maternal age and the nursing care for those women. Methods288 women of advanced maternal age received Chinese nursing care and therapies with Chinese medicine. The efficacy was observed and analyzed on days 1 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and 22 to 30. Results The effective rate was 85% on days 22 to 30 in those women who had received Chinese nursing care and therapies with Chinese medicine, with a significant difference(P < 0.01). Conclusions Chinese medicine combined with Chinese nursing care is effective in miscarriage prevention in women of advanced maternal age. It is worth popularizing and doing further research.

  3. MATERNAL AGE EFFECT: THE ENIGMA OF DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER TRISOMIC CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneuploidy is the most frequently observed chromosome abnormality in human liveborn, abortuses, and oocytes. he only etiological factor that has been established is advanced maternal age for the occurrence of trisomies, particularly trisomy 21 which causes Down syndrome. he mater...

  4. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.

  5. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. METHODS: We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n...... = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. RESULTS: PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20...... increased among women aged 20 to 29 years, but their contribution to the overall PTB rates was offset by older maternal age over time. Women aged 20 to 29 years should be targeted to reduce PTB rates, as potential for prevention may be greater in this age group....

  6. Maternal age, investment, and parent-child conflict: a mediational test of the terminal investment hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Belsky, Jay

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on the evolutionary terminal investment hypothesis and Trivers' (1974) parent-offspring conflict theory, we advance and evaluate a mediational model specifying why and how maternal age, via mating effort and parental investment, affects mother-child conflict. Data from a longitudinal study of 757 families indicate that (a) older maternal age predicts lower mating effort during the child's first 5 years of life, and (b) thereby, higher maternal investment in middle childhood when the child is around 10 years old. (c) Higher maternal investment, in turn, forecasts less child-perceived mother-child conflict in adolescence (age 15). These results proved robust against theoretically relevant covariates (family resources, parity, maternal education, and maternal personality characteristics) and in the context of an autoregressive model. Study limitations are noted and results are discussed in terms of the unique contributions of an evolutionary perspective to the determinants-of-parenting literature. PMID:22468690

  7. Maternal Age and Offspring Adult Health: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko Myrskylä; Andrew T. Fenelon

    2012-01-01

    Advanced maternal age is associated with negative offspring health outcomes. This interpretation often relies on physiological processes related to aging, such as decreasing oocyte quality. We use a large, population-based sample of American adults to analyze how selection and lifespan overlap between generations influence the maternal age–offspring adult health association. We find that offspring born to mothers younger than age 25 or older than 35 have worse outcomes with respect to mortali...

  8. The nursing for advanced maternal age with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome%高龄孕妇并发妊娠高血压综合征的有效护理方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2012-01-01

      目的探讨对于并发妊娠高血压综合征的高龄产妇的有效护理方法。方法将我院在2008年11月至2011年5月期间接受治疗的80位伴有妊娠高血压综合征的高龄孕妇进行随机分组,分为对照组和治疗组两组,每组患者40人,其中对照组患者进行常规的临床护理工作,而治疗组则采用针对性护理方法,最终对两组患者的临床资料以及母婴影响情况进行全面性分析。结果对两组患者采用不同的护理措施后,治疗组的护理效果明显高于对照组,患者满意度提高,相关并发症减少。结论高龄孕妇本身就相对特殊,加上妊娠高血压综合征情况存在,需要更为专业全面性的护理工作,才能提升最终母婴的结局,医患之间建立了有效的沟通关系。%  Objective: To discuss the effective nursing methods of advanced maternal age withpregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Choosed 80 patients of advanced maternal age with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome from Nov. 2008 to May. 2011 to divide into study group and controled group with 40 cases in each group. Controled group were treated with common nursing, while study group were treated with pertinence nursing. Compared clinical data in these two group. Results: The clinical effect in study group was better than controled group, and satisfaction in study group was higher and complication decreased. Conclusion:advanced maternal age are special to couple with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome situation, they need more professional comprehensive nursing, so as to improve the final maternal and child outcome to establish doctor-patient relationship.

  9. The trend of national advanced maternal age woman proportion in hospital-based surveillance%基于医院的全国高龄产妇比率变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月花; 王艳萍; 代礼; 周光宣; 梁娟; 李琪; 朱军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the secular trend of advanced maternal age woman ( ≥35 year-old) in our country. Methods Data on maternal woman at different age were collected at surveillance hospital in Chinese Birth Defects Monitoring Network from 1996 to 2007 and retrospective analysis of the trend of advanced maternal women were carried out. Trend analysis of the advanced maternal age in urban and rural areas of west, middle and east areas was also conducted. Chi-square test was applied to test the differences and the fitting model analysis was also applied. Results A total of 6 308 594 parturient woman were monitored, included 354 511 woman (5.62%) of advanced maternal age. In 1996 and 2007, the proportion of the advanced maternal woman were 2.96% (12 508/422 486) and 8.56% (66 351/775 333) , respectively. It showed an increasing trend for the national woman proportion of advanced maternal age from 1996 to 2007 (χ~2 =45 376. 16,P<0. 01). In city, the proportion of advanced maternal age woman were 2. 95% (8755/296 975) and 7. 69% (40 197/522 596) in 1996 and 2007, respectively. In rural region, the proportion of advanced maternal age woman were 2. 99% (3753/125 511) and 10. 35% (26 154/252 737)in 1996 and 2007, respectively. It showed increasing both in city and rural areas(χ_(city)~2=24 152.86,P<0.01;χ_(rural)~2=20809.79, P<0. 01). And the proportions in urban area and rural area were 5. 13% ( 221 655/4 317 533) and 6. 67% (132 856/1 991 061), the proportions difference was significant in statistics (χ~2 =1536. 260,P<0.01). An Exponential model was established, In ( Y)=ln(2.52)+(0.103×t). In east areas, the proportion were 3.90% and 8.81% in 1996 and 2007, respectively, in middle areas the respective proportions were 2. 49% and 8. 56% , in west areas were 2. 11 % and 8. 21 % . They all showed increasing trend in proportion of advanced maternal age from 1996 to 2007 year in east areas, middle areas and west areas(χ_(east)~2, = 11 746. 87 ,P<0.01;χ_(middle)~2

  10. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okina...

  11. Prenatal Care and Maternal Age, Education and Reproductive Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Z.Pouranssari; P Kamali; H.Eftekhar Ardbili; A.Komarizadeh

    1987-01-01

    Reproductive behavior of 1525 pregnant woman were studied in the time of termination of pregnancy in relation to maternal age, education, prenatal care and the number of previous pregnancies. The results show that the frequency of maternal attendance at the centers of prenatal care is significantly related to maternal education. And the total pregnancies per woman are inversely correlated with maternal education. The kind of termination of pregnancy which resulted in live births or abortion h...

  12. Effect of maternal age on pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoli; Zhang Weiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades,there has been a delay in first-time pregnancies,and the average age of women at the time of delivery has increased in many countries.Advanced maternal age is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.This study aimed to determine the present trends and pregnancy outcomes related to maternal age in China.Methods Data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland of China.All deliveries were performed after 28 completed weeks of gestation and between January 1 and December 31,2011.In total,110 450 of 112 441 cases were included in the study.All enrolled cases were divided into 6 age groups with 5-year intervals.The x2 test or Fisher's exact test and unadjusted binary-Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results The mean age at the time of delivery was 28.18±4.70 years (range,14-52 years).The teenage group (15-19 years) had a higher risk than the 25-29-year old group for anemia (odds ratio (OR),1.4),preeclampsia (OR,1.6),preterm birth (OR,2.1),low birth weight neonates (OR,2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,3.6).The 35-39-year old group and ≥40-year-old group had a higher risk than the 25-29-year-old group for leiomyoma (OR,4.2 vs.5.8),pregestational diabetes (OR,2.2 vs.3.8),chronic hypertension (OR,4.6 vs.6.5),gestational diabetes (OR,2.6 vs.3.5),preeclampsia (OR,2.5 vs.3.6),premature delivery (OR,1.8 vs.2.4),postpartum hemorrhage (OR,1.5 vs.1.7),placenta previa (OR,2.7 vs.4.0),placental abruption (OR,1.4 vs.2.5),cesarean delivery (OR,2.1 vs.2.5),macrosomia (OR,1.2 vs.1.2),low birth weight neonates (OR,1.6 vs.2.3),and perinatal mortality (OR,1.6 vs.3.7).Conclusion Maternal and neonatal risks are higher during the teenage years and at an advanced maternal age; 20-30 years of age is the lowest risk period for pregnancy and delivery.

  13. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  14. Application of chromosomal karyotype analysis of amniotic cells for pregnant women with advanced maternal age%羊水细胞染色体核型分析在高龄孕妇产前诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许多

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To conduct prenatal diagnosis among pregnant women with advanced maternal age through chromosomal karyotype analysis of amniotic cells. Methods; A total of 910 pregnant women with advanced maternal age during 16-27 gestational weeks were selected, then amniotic cells were obtained by amniocentesis and cultured, chromosomal karyotype analysis was conducted after preparing chromosomes. Results; Among 910 pregnant women, amniotic cells culture succeeded in 891 , the successful rate was 97. 91%. Postoperative abortion occurred in 5 women, the abortion rate was 0.55%. A total of 43 pregnant women were found with abnormal karyotypes, including 24 pregnant women with autosomal chromosomal numerical abnormality, 6 pregnant women with sex chromosomal numerical abnormality, 2 pregnant women with chimera, and 11 pregnant women with chromosomal structural abnormality. Conclusion; Chromosomal karyotype analysis of amniotic cells is safe, effective, and essential prenatal diagnosis of pregnant women with advanced maternal age.%目的:利用羊水细胞染色体核型分析对高龄孕妇进行产前诊断.方法:对910例孕16 ~ 27周高龄孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺抽取羊水细胞培养,制备染色体并分析染色体核型.结果:910例高龄孕妇,羊水培养成功891例,成功率为97.91%.5例术后流产,流产率为0.55%.检出43例异常核型,其中常染色体数目异常24例,性染色体数目异常6例,嵌合体2例,结构异常11例.结论:羊水细胞染色体核型分析高龄孕妇产前诊断是安全、有效且必要的.

  15. 控制剖宫产率对高龄初产母婴结局影响的研究%Pregnancy outcomes in advanced maternal age pregnancies after taking measures to reduc-ing caesarean section rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冬如; 张小燕; 包狄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pregnancy outcomes in advanced maternal age pregnancies after taking measures to reducing caesarean section rate. Method A total of 1062 pregnant women aged 35 years or older who gave birth in beijing haidian district maternal and children healthcare hospital from 2013 to 2014 were retrospectively studied. 490 Pregnant women aged 35 years and over delivered in 2014 were included in study group and those 572 patients delivered in 2013 were included in the control group. Pregnant complications,delivery mode,postpartum hemorrhage rate,neonatal asphyxia rate were compared in both groups. Result ①No statistically significant difference was ob-served in the frequency of premature rupture of membrane,gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa,uterine my-oma,hypertensive disorders, preterm birth, or macrosomia in both groups;②The caesarean section rate in study group was statistically significantly lower than that in the control group(51. 63%vs 68. 88%,P0. 05). Conclusion With the measures of strengthening prenatal and intrapartum care, it is possible to reducing the caesarean section rate in advanced maternal aged pregnancies.%目的:探讨采取控制剖宫产率相关措施对高龄初产妇母婴结局的影响。方法回顾性分析1062例高龄初产孕产妇临床资料,2014年分娩的490例高龄初产妇作为研究组,2013年分娩的高龄初产妇572例作为对照组,比较两组妊娠并发症、分娩方式、产后出血率、新生儿窒息率。结果①两组胎膜早破、妊娠期糖尿病、前置胎盘、子宫肌瘤、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、巨大儿发生率差异无显著性(P>0.05);②研究组和对照组剖宫产率分别为51.63%、68.88%,两者比较差异有显著性(P0.05)。结论综合孕期和产时管理,将高龄初产孕妇剖宫产率控制在较合理的水平是可能的。

  16. Perinatal Outcomes in Advanced Age Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Yılmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcomes Methods: A retrospective analysis of 951 birth registry records of Zeynep Kamil Hospital, were analyzed between Janu­ary 2003 and December 2007. Study group was made up of women ≥40 years old and control group was made up of women younger than 40 years. Results: Mean maternal age was 41.48 years in the study group and 26.41 years in the control group. Mean gesta­tional age at the time of delivery is 37.73 weeks in study group and 38.10 weeks in the control group. There was no statistical difference in terms of preterm delivery, multiple pregnancy, fetal anomaly, IUGR, superimpose preeclampsia oligohidramnios, presentation anomaly and placenta previa rates between the study and control groups. Incidence of preeclampsia (p=0.041, Chronic hypertension (p=0.001, GDM (p= 0.003,is found to be higher in study group. Cesar­ean birth rate is higher (p<0.05 and hospitalization time is longer in study group (p=0.001. 1st minute and 5th minute APGAR scores of the study group (6.99±2, 8.27±2 was lower than the 1st minute and 5th Minutes APGAR scores of the control group (7.38±1.6, 8.58±1.7. Neonatal intensive care unit administration rate is seen also higher in study group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age was related to increased pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcome. Preeclampsia, GDM, chronic hypertension is seen more common in advanced age pregnancies. Neonatal intensive care administration is higher and APGAR scores are lower; cesarean delivery was performed more common, and hospitaliza­tion time was longer in advanced age pregnancies. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 157-162

  17. 高龄孕妇胎儿染色体非整倍体异常的早孕期检测%Detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in pregnant women at advanced maternal age during the first trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪淑娟; 高志英; 卢彦平; 李亚里; 姜淑芳; 汪龙霞; 张立文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of maternal plasma cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) examination in detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in pregnant women at advanced maternal ages during the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods A total of 136 pregnant women (11 to 13+6 gestational weeks) with advanced maternal ages were screened for fetal chromosomal aneuploidy with ultrasound and maternal plasma cff-DNA examination during March 1, 2011 to August 31, 2013, and the results were then confirmed by karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Of the 136 women examined, cff-DNA screening detected chromosomal aneuploidy in 5 cases, including trisome-21 in 3 cases, trisome-18 in 1 case, and 45,X in 1 case as confirmed subsequently by karyotype analysis. Ultrasound screening reported a normal finding in one case of trisomy-21, thickening of the NT in the case of trisomy-18, and fetal anasarca in the case of 45,X. Karyotype analysis and follow-up of the women did not find chromosomal abnormality in the 131 negative cases screened by cff-DNA detection. Conclusion Screening of materal plasma cff-DNA allows accurate and early detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in women of advanced maternal ages to avoid unnecessary invasive antenatal examinations.%目的:评价孕妇血浆胎儿游离DNA检测对高龄孕妇胎儿染色体非整倍体异常的早孕期检测价值。方法自2011年3月1日~2013年8月31日,采用早孕期超声筛查和孕妇血浆胎儿游离DNA检测技术,对136例孕11-13+6周的高龄孕妇进行检测,并通过染色体核型分析、荧光染色体原位杂交进行结果验证。结果cff-DNA检测,检出3例21-三体,1例18-三体(同时存在NT增厚),1例45,X(超声提示胎儿全身水肿),与荧光染色体杂交的结果一致,分别为47,XN,+21、47,XN,+18、45,X;筛查阴性者,未发现染色体异常。结论在早孕期开展cff-DNA检测,能更早期、

  18. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steegers Eric AP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started.

  19. 131名高龄初产孕妇剖宫产影响因素研究%The Study of the Factors that Influence Cesarean Section of 131 Advanced Maternal Age Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宏伟; 闫学明

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析影响高龄孕妇剖宫产选择的因素.方法 采用一般调查问卷、症状自评量表(SCL-90),对131名孕晚期高龄初产孕妇进行因素调查,并追踪孕妇的分娩方式,比较剖宫产组与非剖宫产组在孕晚期各因素的差异.结果 ①131名高龄孕妇剖宫产率为70.2%,北京除西城外的其他城区产妇为77.5%,外地产妇为66.2%,北京西城区为69.2%,北京农村为75.0%(P>0.05);②高龄孕妇孕晚期的心理状态较好,心理各项指标大部分小于常模(P0. 05). ?The mental states of third trimester older pregnant women are good. Most psychological scores are less than normal (P<0. 05). ③Univariate analysis shows that education and anxiety difference between the two groups are statistically significant (P<0. 05). ④Multivariate analysis shows that anxiety and interpersonal sensitivity are the predictive factors that affect the choice of cesarean section of advanced maternal age pregnant women. Conclusions Compared with physical and social factors, the late pregnancy psychological state affects the choices of advanced maternal age pregnant women more.

  20. 高龄孕妇应用快速产前诊断方法的可行性%Feasibility of rapid prenatal diagnosis in advanced maternal age women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马京梅; 潘虹; 付杰; 于丽; 王玲; 杨慧霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the feasibility of rapid prenatal diagnosis in the advanced maternal age women with or without positive serologic screening results.Methods We conducted a retrospective study of the women who underwent a mid-trimester amniocentesis in Peking University First Hospital from January 1,2001 to December 31,2012.Maternal age,indication for invasive prenatal diagnosis,karyotyping and pregnancy outcome were documented.Using a young population with high risk in serologic screening (S) as the standard,chromosome abnormalities in the advanced maternal age (A) group and the advanced maternal age with high risk in serologic screening (A+S) group were compared with the S group.Chromosome abnormalities were divided into detectable (D) and undetectable (U) during rapid prenatal diagnosis.Results Of 9 606 cases,222 (2.3%,222/9 606) cases with chromosome abnormalities were detected,23.0% (51/222) of which were undetectable by rapid prenatal diagnosis.The detection rate of detectable chromosome abnormalities was 1.8% (57/3 177) in group A,1.4%(13/925) in group A+S,and 1.8%(57/3 250) in group S (x2=0.662,P>0.05).The rate of undetectable chromosome abnormalities was 0.5% (15/3 177) in group A,0.3% (3/925) in group A+S,and 0.5% (16/3 250) in group S (x2=0.452,P>0.05).The most common indications for undetectable chromosome abnormalities in the young population were abnormal history of pregnancy,abnormal family history and chromosome abnormality history (16.4%,9/55),and abnormal ultrasound in the advanced maternal age population (4.4%,3/68).Conclusions The performance of rapid prenatal diagnosis in the advanced maternal age population with or without high risk in screening without abnormal findings in ultrasound,was similar to the young population with high risk in screening.Fluorescent in situ hybridization may be integrated into the strategy of prenatal diagnosis for this group of women.%目的 探讨在单纯高龄或高龄合并血清学

  1. Analysis of effective nursing for advanced maternal age with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome%高龄孕妇并发妊娠高血压综合征的有效护理方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凌惠

    2012-01-01

      Objective: To study the effective methods of nursing for advanced maternal age with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Choosed 156 advanced maternal age with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome to treat serious, moderate, mild patients with different nursing methods. Observed the clinical effect. Results: After 4 weeks, there were 40 cases of 52 mild patients cured, curative rate was 76.9%, higher than 47.8% in controled group; 38 cases of 64 moderate patients cured, curative rate was 59.4%, higher than 33.3% in controled group; 20 cases of serious patients cured, curative rate was 20.0%, higher than 20.0% in controled group. Conclusion: The effective rate could improve curative rate and decrease complication to safe the pregenant and neonate.%  目的研究分析高龄孕妇并发高血压综合征的有效护理方法和要点.方法对156例高龄孕妇伴有妊娠高血压综合征的患者进行临床护理监测,对于重度、中度和轻度患者采取不同的护理干预,总结护理干预的方式和疗效.结果对患者进行4周的护理干预后进行随访,观察组52例轻度患者40例获得治愈,治愈率是76.9%,高于对照组的47.8%;64例中度患者中38例得到治愈,治愈率59.4%,高于对照组的33.3%;20例重度患者中4例得到治愈,治愈率20.0%,高于对照组的20.0%.所有患者均得到顺利生产,没有出现产妇和新生儿的生命危险,其中观察组明显优于对照组,差异具有统计学意义,(P<0.05).结论有效的护理干预能够提高患者的治疗效率,降低并发症,保证孕妇和新生儿的安全.

  2. 高龄孕妇产前超声筛查的临床意义%Clinical significance of prenatal ultrasound screening in pregnart women with advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚玉琦; 范毓萍; 张兴普; 刘荣; 路宁; 尹玉良

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨对高龄孕妇实施系统产前超声筛查的诊断价值及临床意义.方法 统计10630例接受胎儿畸形产前超声检查孕妇资料,对其中712例高龄孕妇(预产期年龄> 35周岁)实施系统产前超声筛查,并随访所有高龄孕妇妊娠结果,胎儿畸形以产后最终诊断为标准,同时以非高龄孕妇筛查作为对照组进行比较,评估产前超声诊断的价值.结果 712例高龄孕妇中,产前超声诊断胎儿畸形32例(4.49%),单发畸形15例,复合畸形17例,漏诊4例,畸形检出率88.88% (36/32).对照组9 918例孕妇产前超声诊断胎儿畸形243例(2.45%).结论 高龄孕妇畸形发生率高于低龄孕妇,对高龄孕妇根据超声筛查结果行产前诊断,可以能有效地降低畸形儿的出生率及漏诊率.%Objective To investigate the implementation of the system of older pregnant women prenatal ultrasound screening for the diagnosis and clinioal significance.Methods Clinical data from March 2004 to April 2009 a total of 10 630 cases of pregnant women receiving prenatal ultrasound examination of fetal malformation data,of which 712 cases of advanced maternal age( expected date of birth aged≥35 years) to implement the system of prenatal ultrasound screening and follow-up of all maternal age pregnancy outcome,the final post-natal diagnosis of fetal malformations in the standard,both young women screened as a control group for comparison to assess the value of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis.Results 712 cases of advanced maternal age,prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal malformations in 32 cases,abnormalities occur in approximately 4.49%,single abnormal in 15 cases,complex deformity in 17 cases,missed 4 cases of malformation detection rate was 88.88% (36/32).Control group,9918 cases of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of fetal malformations 243 cases,2.45% incidence of deformity (243/9 918 ).Conclusion Older pregnant women,prenatal ultrasound screening for malformations

  3. 血清学筛查在高龄孕妇产前诊断中应用价值分析%Analyzing the Application of Prenatal Screening in Advanced Maternal Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林元; 郑翠仙; 曾凡湘; 何德钦; 徐两蒲; 陈水仙; 陈小梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of chromosome abnormalities in advanced maternalage(AMA) ,and to investigate the value of prenatal screening in AMA . Methods Retrospective analysis of 314 cases of AMA which had invasive prenatal diagnosis .314 cases of AMA were divided into two groups according to expected date of childbirth age :35~39 years old and older than 40 years old . And they were also divided into three groups according to serum screening :low-risk serum screening group ,high-risk serum screening and without serum screeningand ,to analyze the percentage of fetal chro-mosome abnormalities in these groups . Results The percentage of fetal chromosomal abnormalities of 314 AMA was 4 .14% (13/314) . The percentage of fetal chromosomal abnormalities in AMA whose ma-ternal age older than 40 years old was 13 .21% (7/53) ,which was higher than that in AMA whose mater-nal age 35~39 years old 2 .30% (6/261) (P=0 .001) . In high-risk serum screening group ,the percent-age of fetal chromosome abnormalities was 7 .69% (7/91) ,which was higher than that in low-risk serum screening group 0 (0/64) (P=0 .022) . Conclusions Maternal prenatal screening tests could be applied in AMA .%目的:探讨血清学筛查在高龄孕妇产前诊断中的应用价值。方法回顾性分析2012年1月1日-2012年10月31日行胎儿染色体核型分析的高龄孕妇314例,按预产期年龄分为35~39岁组和≥40岁组;按血清学筛查情况分为血清学筛查低危组、血清学筛查高危组和未做血清学筛查组,分析各组胎儿染色体异常率。结果胎儿染色体异常率4.14%(13/314)。≥40岁组胎儿染色体异常率13.21%(7/53),高于35~39岁组2.30%(6/261)( P=0.001)。血清学筛查高危组胎儿染色体异常率7.69%(7/91),高于血清学筛查低危组0(0/64)( P=0.022)。结论对高龄孕妇进行血清学筛查,有助于减少介入性产前诊断率。

  4. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Amy eLehrner; Iouri eMakotkine; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Rachel eYehuda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  5. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Heather N.; Linda M. Bierer; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  6. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time...... a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. RESULTS: Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group...... and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in...

  7. 心理干预与高龄孕妇妊娠结局的关系%Analysis on the connections between psychological intervention and preg-nancy outcome of pregnant women with advanced maternal age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游志鹏; 何艳君; 黄锡欢; 梁敏洪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨心理干预与高龄孕妇妊娠结局的关系。方法将在我院进行产检分娩的196例高龄初产孕妇随机分为观察组(n=98)和对照组(n=98),给予对照组常规护理,给予观察组孕妇心理干预,比较分析两组孕妇的干预前后的心理状况、妊娠结局和相关并发症的发生情况。结果观察组孕妇干预后SCL-90症状自评量表、阿森斯失眠量表评分均明显低于对照组(P<0.01);所有高龄初产孕妇分娩的新生儿均未出现死亡;观察组产妇的自然分娩率(70.41%)明显高于对照组(27.55%),差异具有统计学意义(字2=21.562,P<0.01)。对照组产妇的剖宫产率(68.37%)明显高于观察组(27.55%),差异具有统计学意义(字2=15.208,P<0.01)。观察组产妇的妊娠期高血压病、早产、产后出血、足月低体重儿等相关并发症的发生率均明显低于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论心理干预能够有效地改善高龄孕妇的心理状况,从而改善高龄产妇的妊娠结局。%Objective To explore the connections between psychological intervention and pregnancy outcome of preg nant women with advanced maternal age. Methods All 196 primipara with advanced maternal age who received antenatal examination and gave birth to children in our hospital were randomly allocated to observation group(n=98)and control group(n=98). The control group received routine nursing while the observation group received psychological interven-tion. Mental conditions, pregnancy outcome and related complications were compared and analyzed between the two groups of pregnant women before and after the intervention. Results Scores of SCL-90 and Athens insomnia scale in the observation group after the intervention were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01);all new-borns delivered by primipara with advanced ma ter nal age were alive; rate of natural childbirth in observation group(70.41%)was significantly higher than

  8. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh Beatriz E; Locke Robert; Paul David A; Hoffman Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission ...

  9. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongh, Beatriz E; Locke, Robert; Paul, David A; Hoffman, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA), and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not b...

  10. Etiology of Early Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion in Women with Advanced Maternal Age%高龄早期复发性流产患者流产原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉昆; 陈欣; 刘颖琳; 陈慧; 谭剑平; 张建平

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the etiology of early recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in patients with advanced maternal age.[Methods] From January 2008 to October 2012,the data of 82 early RSA patients with advanced maternal age who underwent both conventional examination for RSA and karyotype analysis on products of conception were retrospectively analyzed.The rate of abnormal embryonic karyotype in patients with RSA was compared to that with sporadic spontaneous abortion (SSA).The distribution of causes in primary and secondary RSA was also compared.The distribution of causes of RSA among woman with different number of prior spontaneous abortion were compared.[Results] The rate of abnormal embryonic karyotype in patients with SSA was higher than that of patients with RSA (85.1% vs 67.1%).Embryonic karyotype anomaly was the most frequent (67.1%) causes of RSA.The prevalence of endocrinologic factor,uterine anomaly,APA positive,parental chromosomal abnormality and infection were 24.4%,19.5%,12.2%,3.7%,and 2.4%,respectively.The prevalence of RSA of truly unexplained causes was 15.9%.The distribution of causes of early RSA in primary and secondary RSA had no difference.The distribution of causes did not differ among patients with different spontaneous abortion numbers.[Conclusions] Abnormal embryonic karyotype was the most common cause of RSA in patients with advanced maternal age.Embryonic karyotype analysis should be added to the list of evaluation items in women with RSA.%[目的]探讨高龄早期复发性流产患者的流产原因.[方法]回顾性分析2008年1月至2012年10月,在我院诊治的高龄早期复发性流产患者的病历资料,对已行系统病因学检查,并且流产后成功行绒毛染色体分析的82例患者的病因分布进行分析.并比较了高龄早期复发性流产与高龄偶发性早期流产的绒毛染色体异常发生率,原发性流产与继发性流产的病因分布,不同流产次数的复发

  11. Mechanisms underlying the associations of maternal age with adverse perinatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Mortensen, Laust; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between maternal age (both young and older maternal age) and adverse perinatal outcomes are unclear. Methods We examined the association of maternal age at first birth with preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a cohor...

  12. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Marteleto; Molly Dondero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first bir...

  13. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  14. The Effects of Weathering Demonstrated by Maternal Age on Low Birth Weight Outcome in Babies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Mustapha, Bello; Bappariya, Jonathan Isah; Alfred, Numfor; Joel, Zwabragi

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights. Methods One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age ...

  15. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    OpenAIRE

    Tabš Dunja; Radunović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.). Even though estimating the ova...

  16. Pedophiles: mental retardation, maternal age, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J

    1999-04-01

    Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one. PMID:10483505

  17. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  18. Maternal age at birth and childhood type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 30 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Jané, Mireia; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely G A; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma J K; Chetwynd, Amanda; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Patterson, Chris C

    2009-01-01

    -9) increase in childhood type 1 diabetes odds per 5-year increase in maternal age (P = 0.006), but there was heterogeneity among studies (heterogeneity I(2) = 70%). In studies with a low risk of bias, there was a more marked increase in diabetes odds of 10% per 5-year increase in maternal age. Adjustments for...... incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in recent years could be explained by increases in maternal age....

  19. Maternal age at menarche and atopy among offspring at the age of 31 years

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, B; Jarvelin, M; Hartikainen, A.; Pekkanen, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Influences of female hormones on the occurrence of allergic disorders have been suggested. Age at menarche may be a marker of endogenous oestrogen levels. Data from a Finnish birth cohort followed to adulthood were analysed to determine whether there is any association between maternal age at menarche and the occurrence of atopy among offspring.
METHODS—The study was conducted in 5188 subjects born in northern Finland for whom data collections were started duri...

  20. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures. CONCLUSIONS: Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  1. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-la...

  2. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi; Ron Auslender; Martha Dirnfeld

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades.The same trend is seen also for men.The influence of maternal age on fertility,chromosomal anomalies,pregnancy complications,and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring,has been thoroughly investigated,and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling.Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention.The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of oaternal age on reoroductive outcome.

  3. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Joost; English, Sinead; Uller, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i) if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii) the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii) the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild. PMID:26752635

  4. Disposable Soma Theory and the Evolution of Maternal Effects on Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available Maternal effects are ubiquitous in nature and affect a wide range of offspring phenotypes. Recent research suggests that maternal effects also contribute to ageing, but the theoretical basis for these observations is poorly understood. Here we develop a simple model to derive expectations for (i if maternal effects on ageing evolve; (ii the strength of maternal effects on ageing relative to direct environmental effects; and (iii the predicted relationships between environmental quality, maternal age and offspring lifespan. Our model is based on the disposable soma theory of ageing, and the key assumption is thus that mothers trade off their own somatic maintenance against investment in offspring. This trade-off affects the biological age of offspring at birth in terms of accumulated damage, as indicated by biomarkers such as oxidative stress or telomere length. We find that the optimal allocation between investment in maternal somatic investment and investment in offspring results in old mothers and mothers with low resource availability producing offspring with reduced life span. Furthermore, the effects are interactive, such that the strongest maternal age effects on offspring lifespan are found under low resource availability. These findings are broadly consistent with results from laboratory studies investigating the onset and rate of ageing and field studies examining maternal effects on ageing in the wild.

  5. Maternal age-specific risk of non-chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, M; Dolk, H; Morris, J K; Garne, Ester

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the excess risk of non-chromosomal congenital anomaly (NCA) among teenage mothers and older mothers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based prevalence study using data from EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 23 regions of Europe in 15 countries, covering a total of 1.......75 million births from 2000 to 2004. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 38,958 cases of NCA that were live births, fetal deaths with gestational age > or = 20 weeks or terminations of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of a congenital anomaly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of NCA according to maternal age, and...... relative risk (RR) of NCA and 84 standard NCA subgroups compared with mothers aged 25-29. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of all NCA was 26.5 per 1000 births in teenage mothers (<20 years), 23.8 for mothers 20-24 years, 22.5 for mothers 25-29 years, 21.5 for mothers 30-34 years, 21.4 for mothers 35-39 years...

  6. The differential effects of maternal age, race/ethnicity and insurance on neonatal intensive care unit admission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongh Beatriz E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal race/ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status (SES are important factors determining birth outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated that, teenagers, and mothers with advanced maternal age (AMA, and Black/Non-Hispanic race/ethnicity can independently increase the risk for a poor pregnancy outcome. Similarly, public insurance has been associated with suboptimal health outcomes. The interaction and impact on the risk of a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission has not been studied. Our aim was, to analyze the simultaneous interactions of teen/advanced maternal age (AMA, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on the odds of NICU admission. Methods The Consortium of Safe Labor Database (subset of n = 167,160 live births was used to determine NICU admission and maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, insurance, previous c-section, and gestational age. Results AMA mothers were more likely than teenaged mothers to have a pregnancy result in a NICU admission. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers with private insurance had increased odds for NICU admission. This is in contrast to the lower odds of NICU admission seen with Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic pregnancies with private insurance. Conclusions Private insurance is protective against a pregnancy resulting in a NICU admission for Hispanic and White/Non-Hispanic mothers, but not for Black/Non-Hispanic mothers. The health disparity seen between Black and White/Non-Hispanics for the risk of NICU admission is most evident among pregnancies covered by private insurance. These study findings demonstrate that adverse pregnancy outcomes are mitigated differently across race, maternal age, and insurance status.

  7. In-vitro Fertilization in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreiter M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Postponement of family planning can be seen as a consequence of increased life expectancy and extended education in industrialized countries. The increasing number of prospective parents undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF due to advanced reproductive age, however, reflects the discrepancy between socio-cultural development and physical limits. Assisted reproduction is, therefore, challenged to create and adapt treatment regimens for women of advanced reproductive age to bridge between this wish for late parenthood and the age-related decline in fecundity. Consequently, the knowledge concerning age-related changes of reproductive functions gains in importance. While follicular depletion and impaired oocyte quality, frequently also called ‘diminished ovarian reserve’, are generally acknowledged as the underlying mechanisms for the decline in maternal fecundity, the way to correctly assess the status of ovarian reserve has remained controversial. Besides increasing attempts to achieve conception, deferring pregnancy and delivery into older age also implies medical risks and ethical considerations. The use of IVF in older women, therefore, raises the issue of the utilization of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in the assessment of embryonic aneuploidies, as well as in attempts to optimize pregnancy rates with IVF. Moreover, expected future concepts in assisted reproduction are warranted to allow for the establishment of viable singleton pregnancies in women of advanced reproductive age.

  8. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. PMID:25592941

  9. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  10. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  11. Role of maternal and paternal age in an assisted reproductive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabš Dunja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Many infertile couples try to become parents spontaneously, neglecting the possibility to conceive artificially, so they seek medical help in their late reproductive age. Maternal age Major aspects of maternal age in regard to assisted reproduction consider oocytes, ovaries and endometrium. Also, some habits and maternal diseases associated with aging may have an impact on fertility (smoking, atherosclerosis, previous gynecological operations etc.. Even though estimating the ovarian reserve is the most objective test in assessing female fertility, it has a limited predictive value in younger women. A short protocol of ovulation induction showed best results in women with poor ovarian reserve, but recent studies recommend low-dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in these cases. Paternal age With aging, sperm parameters become worse, which points to the neglected role of the father in assisted reproduction. Conclusion Thus, parental age plays an important role in assisted reproductive programs.

  12. Delivery outcomes for nulliparous women at the extremes of maternal age - a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, DA

    2013-06-12

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between extremes of maternal age (≤17 years or ≥40 years) and delivery outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban maternity hospital in Ireland. POPULATION: A total of 36 916 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2011. METHODS: The study population was subdivided into five maternal age groups based on age at first booking visit: ≤17 years, 18-19 years, 20-34 years, 35-39 years and women aged ≥40 years. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between extremes of maternal age and delivery outcomes, adjusting for potential confounding factors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth, admission to the neonatal unit, congenital anomaly, caesarean section. RESULTS: Compared with maternal age 20-34 years, age ≤17 years was a risk factor for preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.33-2.52). Babies born to mothers ≥40 years were more likely to require admission to the neonatal unit (adjOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.72) and to have a congenital anomaly (adjOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.07-2.76). The overall caesarean section rate in nulliparous women was 23.9% with marked differences at the extremes of maternal age; 10.7% at age ≤17 years (adjOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34-0.62) and 54.4% at age ≥40 years (adjOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.67-3.94). CONCLUSIONS: Extremes of maternal age need to be recognised as risk factors for adverse delivery outcomes. Low caesarean section rates in younger women suggest that a reduction in overall caesarean section rates may be possible.

  13. Factors associated with having the first baby at an advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Anne Britt Vika

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to investigate characteristics of women and men who have their first baby at an advanced age, reasons for postponing childbirth, and consequences in terms of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal age at first birth has increased in many modern societies; in both Sweden and Norway, first-time mothers are now about five years older, compared with the previous generation. This delaying of parenthood has been associated with an increased need for artificial repro...

  14. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  15. When does maternal age-dependent trisomy 21 arise relative to meiosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang-Jiang Zheng [National Inst. of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States); Byers, B. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Polymorphic DNA markers have recently been used to estimate the fraction of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) cases that may be attributable to postzygotic nondisjunction - indicative of a loss in the fidelity of the first few cell divisions after fertilization. In these studies, a postzygotic nondisjunction is defined as a case in which two chromosomes of the trisomic set are homozygous for all informative markers (i.e., for those markers that were heterozygous in their parent of origin). These studies estimate that the postzygotic mutation mechanism accounts for 4.5% (11/238) and 3.5% (9/255) of their cases, respectively, but their estimates may actually be conservative, since all noninformative haplotypes (frequency not reported) are arbitrarily attributed to meiosis II-type nondisjunction. Nevertheless, even the conservative estimates would, if confirmed, constitute a new and nonnegligible source of chromosomal segregation errors leading to trisomy. These studies` conclusions are supported by the observation that the 20 reported {open_quotes}postzygotic{close_quotes} cases (5 paternal and 15 maternal) appear to be less dependent on maternal age (mean maternal age 28.4 years) than maternal meiosis I-type failures (mean maternal age 31.2 years). However, given the limited sample size involved, one should be cautious in positing the absence of a maternal age effect. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chapman-Novakofski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food and endogenously (in humans with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research.

  17. The Association between Maternal Reproductive Age and Progression of Refractive Error in Urban Students in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children' refractive error progression in Chinese urban students.The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student's refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline.At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4% were reexamined. 226 students (58.5% with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993-1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003-2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001, with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01, and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01, had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04 had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found.In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades.

  18. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Simon; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine; Pearson, Rebecca; Hughes, Rachel; Sterne, Jonathan; Crawley, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort.Methods: Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were sym...

  19. Association between maternal age at conception and risk of idiopathic clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Zhao, Li; Ding, Jing; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Cheng-Long; Wu, Zhen-Kai; Yang, Xuan; Li, Hai

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Results from case-control studies of maternal age at conception and risk of idiopathic clubfoot have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether there is any association between maternal age at conception and the morbidity of idiopathic clubfoot. Methods - We searched PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 and supplemented the search with manual searches of the reference lists of the articles identified. 11 studies published between 1990 and 2015 were pooled. We investigated heterogeneity in maternal age and whether publication bias might have affected the results. Results - Compared to a control group, maternal age at conception of between 20 and 24 years old was associated with an increased risk of occurrence of clubfoot (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4). No such association was found for the age groups of ≥ 35, 30-34, 25-29, and < 20 years. There was no heterogeneity in the age groups of ≥ 35, 30-34, and 20-24 years, moderate heterogeneity in the 25- to 29-year age group, and a large degree of heterogeneity in the group that was < 20 years of age. The prediction intervals for the age groups of 25-29 and < 20 years were 0.56 to 1.3 and -0.39 to 2.4, respectively. We found no evidence of significant publication bias. Interpretation - From the results of this meta-analysis of 11 studies, maternal age at conception between 20 to 24 years of age appears to be associated with an increased risk of occurrence of clubfoot. PMID:26901038

  20. New findings for maternal mortality age patterns: aggregated results for 38 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann K Blanc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. METHODS: We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. FINDINGS: The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A "J" shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns.

  1. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Khandaker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW is determined using ultrasound variables [Biparietal diameter (BPD, Head Circumference (HC, Abdominal Circumference (AC, Femur Length (FL]. This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [Medialogic solutions (P Ltd, Chennai, India] to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth and a total of 192 LGA fetuses are selected. At birth newborn growth pattern are determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery which divide the cohort into two groups: true LGA fetuses after delivery and true AGA fetuses after delivery. Main outcome measures: The association of maternal risk factors (body mass index, maternal weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus to the newborns between these two groups is evaluated. Results: Among the risk factors obesity and excess maternal weight gain among non-obese has highest risks for delivering LGA fetuses (relative risk 1.89 and 1.88; respectively; followed by excess maternal weight gain among obese (relative risk 1.5 and gestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk 1.4. Conclusions: Obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and GDM all are associated with LGA. Decreasing the prevalence of obesity also reduce the prevalence of LGA fetuses apart from controlling excess maternal weight gain.

  2. Advances on circulating fetal DNA in maternal plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xian-hu; CHEN Han-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in 1997 has opened up new possibilities for noninvasive diagnosis.1 By RT-PCR, circulating fetal DNA can be detected in the plasma of pregnant women,even in the first trimester of pregnancy,2,3 and thus can be used for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of sex-linked disorders,4-6 the RhD status of fetuses,7 and single gene disorders such as beta-thalassaemia,8,9 congenital adrenal hyperplasia,10 and achondroplasia.11 In addition,quantitative aberrations of circulating fetal DNA may indicate various pregnancy-associated disorders,including1 Preeclampsia,12-14 preterm labor15,16 and fetal trisomy 21.17

  3. Risk assessment adjusted for gestational age in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardosi, J.; Mongelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between errors in calculation of gestational age and assessment of risk of Down's syndrome and to analyse the implications for screening programmes. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of dating of gestational age by menstrual history v ultrasound scan. Computer program with maternal age and concentrations of alpha fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to calculate risk for a range of expected dates of delivery. Computer simulated prospectiv...

  4. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  5. 无创动脉检测联合平均动脉压在高龄孕妇合并妊娠期高血压疾病中的应用%Application of noninvasive vascular diagnosis combined with MAP in pregnant women of advanced maternal age with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宾美; 蔡杰; 胡海华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical value of noninvasive vascular diagnosis combined with mean arterial pressure (MAP) in pregnant women of advanced maternal age with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Methods Synchronous brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and MAP were detected by the Omron arteriosclerosis detector (BP-203RPE Ⅲ) in 86 patients.According to the values of baPWV,the patients were divided into abnormal result group and normal result group; moreover,according to the detection results of baPWV combined with MAP,the patients were divided into positive combination group and negative combination group.The data were compared between the two groups and then analyzed.Results The rate of hypertensive disorders in pregnant women of advanced maternal age was markedly higher in the positive combination group than in the negative combination group (34.29% vs.1.96 %,P<0.01) and in the abnormal result group (27.5%).Conclusions Noninvasive vascular diagnosis combined with MAP can predict the occurrence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy earlier,which provides possibility of early clinical intervention.%目的 探讨无创动脉硬化联合平均动脉压(MAP)检测高龄孕妇合并妊娠期高血压疾病的临床价值.方法 应用欧姆龙无创动脉硬化检测仪(BP-203RPE Ⅲ)对86例高龄孕妇检测同步臂踝脉搏波传导速度(baPWV)及MAP,按照baPWV数值分成动脉硬化检测异常组及正常组;另外,baPWV联合MAP分成阳性联合组及阴性联合组,分别对上述两组数据进行对比分析.结果 阳性联合组高龄孕妇临床妊娠期高血压疾病发生率为34.29%,明显高于阴性联合组(1.96%),两组对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),也高于动脉检测异常组(27.5%).结论 无创动脉硬化检测联合MAP能早期预测妊娠期高血压疾病的发生,从而为及早干预疾病进展提供了可能.

  6. Developmental outcome in preschoolers: Interrelations among maternal depression, perceived social support, and child's age of entry into Head Start

    OpenAIRE

    Papero, Anna L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a mediated-moderator model that was developed to explore whether age of entry into a Head Start Program moderated the relationship between maternal depressive symptomology and child cognitive and social outcome. In addition, the mediating role of maternal social support was examined. The study sample included 43 low-income mothers and their pre-school aged children who were enrolled in a large Head Start program in Southwest Virginia. Maternal depressive symptomology wa...

  7. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. PMID:24697990

  8. Intra-operative maternal complications of emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor is a big challenge in obstetrics due to increased risk of intraoperative complications. In the last decade, a rapid increase in cesarean section done in advanced labor has been observed. Difficult deli-very of the fetal head during cesarean section carries a high risk of intraoperative complications like cervical and uterine tears, intra operative hemorrhage and trauma to the baby. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find out the frequency and risk factors for intra-operative complications in emergency cesarean section done in advanced labor, so that appropriate management protocols can be planned to reduce these complications. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit - 2 of Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Services Hospital, Lahore; from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2007. All patients undergoing emergency cesarean sections done on laboring mothers were included in the study. The sample was divided into two groups; emergency C-section done in advanced labor as the study group and emergency C-section in early labor as the control group. Data were collected regarding age, parity, booked or unbooked status, indications for cesarean section, level of competence of operating surgeon, intra-operative complications and the risk factors for these complications. Data were recorded on a structured proforma and compared between the two groups. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using computer programme SPSS Version 14 for windows applying student t-test for quantitative and chai square test for qualitative parameters. A p-value < 0.05 was used as statistically significant. Results: Out of 2064 total deliveries in the year 2007, 1290 (62.5%) were vaginal deliveries and 774 (37.5%) were C-Sections. Out of 774 C-Section, 174 (23%) were elective and 600 (77%) were emergency. Out of 600 emergency C

  9. Is later better or worse? Association of advanced parental age with offspring cognitive ability among half a million young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-04-01

    Parental ages are increasing in the developed world, and postponed parenthood may have a negative association with the cognitive ability of offspring. There is, however, inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of both maternal and paternal ages. We have been able to reduce or eliminate unobserved confounding by using methods that account for fixed parental characteristics shared by brothers. Associations between parental age and intelligence quotient (IQ) among 565,433 Swedish males (birth cohorts 1951 to 1976) were analyzed, with IQ measured at conscription examinations (given between ages 17 and 20 years). When we accounted for the IQ time trend by adjusting for birth year, advanced paternal age showed no association with offspring IQ; however, maternal ages above 30 years were inversely associated with offspring IQ. For example, maternal ages 40-44 years were associated with an offspring IQ that was 0.07 standard deviations lower than that for maternal ages 25-29 years (P age, as without birth year adjustment, advanced maternal age was positively associated with IQ. Although the results confirmed that maternal age was negatively associated with offspring IQ, the association was small enough that delaying parenthood resulted in higher offspring IQ scores because of the positive IQ test score trend. PMID:23467498

  10. Individual and maternal determinants of self-reported dental health among Turkish school children aged 10-12 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, A B; Kosku, N; Sandalli, N;

    2008-01-01

    To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds.......To assess the influence of maternal and individual characteristics on self-reported dental health of Turkish school children aged 10-12 years with different socio-economic backgrounds....

  11. Causes and consequences of maternal age-related aneuploidy in oocytes: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danylevska, Anna; Šebestová, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 65-72. ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/0743; GA ČR GAP502/12/2201 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : aneuploidy * oocyte * maternal age Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2013

  12. Maternal Attitudes toward Mother-Child Separation: Working and Nonworking Mothers of School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Elissa K.; Fisher, Celia B.

    Exploring possible similarities and differences between mothers who work outside the home and mothers who do not, this study provides a preliminary investigation of maternal reactions to mother-child separation when children have reached school age. A total of 41 women working outside the home and 48 mothers staying at home responded to a…

  13. Maternal age of menarche is not associated with asthma or atopy in prepubertal children

    OpenAIRE

    Maitra, A; Sherriff, A.; Northstone, K; Strachan, D; the, A; Henderson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Maternal sex hormones in pregnancy can theoretically influence the developing fetal immune system and modulate the subsequent development of atopic disorders. Early onset of menarche has been linked to increased oestrogen levels in adult women. A study was undertaken to examine the association between early onset menarche in pregnant women and asthma and atopic status of their children at 7 years of age.

  14. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Markunas

    Full Text Available Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child's DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers' age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7. These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother's age at pregnancy could affect her child's health through epigenetic mechanisms.

  15. Maternal Age at Delivery Is Associated with an Epigenetic Signature in Both Newborns and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Allen J.; Xu, Zongli; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Harlid, Sophia; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Håberg, Siri E.; Nystad, Wenche; London, Stephanie J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Lie, Rolv T.; Wade, Paul A.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of older mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, childhood cancers, type 1 diabetes, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The underlying biologic mechanisms for most of these associations remain obscure. One possibility is that maternal aging may produce lasting changes in the epigenetic features of a child’s DNA. To test this, we explored the association of mothers’ age at pregnancy with methylation in her offspring, using blood samples from 890 Norwegian newborns and measuring DNA methylation at more than 450,000 CpG sites across the genome. We examined replication of a maternal-age finding in an independent group of 1062 Norwegian newborns, and then in 200 US middle-aged women. Older maternal age was significantly associated with reduced methylation at four adjacent CpGs near the 2nd exon of KLHL35 in newborns (p-values ranging from 3x10-6 to 8x10-7). These associations were replicated in the independent set of newborns, and replicated again in women 40 to 60 years after their birth. This study provides the first example of parental age permanently affecting the epigenetic profile of offspring. While the specific functions of the affected gene are unknown, this finding opens the possibility that a mother’s age at pregnancy could affect her child’s health through epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27383059

  16. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  17. Contrasting Effects of Maternal and Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W.; Buka, Stephen L.; McGrath, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35–54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men ...

  18. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  19. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuro Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA<33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was assessed. Results. Among the 182 eligible infants (median GA, 29.1 weeks; median birth weight (BW, 1028 g, 84 (46% developed any stage of ROP, of which 45 (25% required laser treatment. Multivariate analysis using a stepwise method showed that GA (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.508–0.858, BW (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.994–0.998, and lower maternal age (P=0.032; 95% CI, 0.819–0.991 were the risk factors for ROP development and GA (P<0.001; 95% CI, 0.387–0.609 and lower maternal age (P=0.012; 95% CI, 0.795–0.973 were for laser treatment. The odds ratio of requiring laser treatment was 3.3 when the maternal age was <33 years. Conclusion. ROP was more likely to be developed and progressed in infants born from younger mother and low GA.

  20. Maternal age-specific risk of non-chromosomal anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Loane, M.; Dolk, H; Morris, JK; EUROCAT working group

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine the excess risk of non-chromosomal congenital anomaly (NCA) among teenage mothers and older mothers. Design and setting:  Population-based prevalence study using data from EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 23 regions of Europe in 15 countries, covering a total of 1.75 million births from 2000 to 2004. Participants:  A total of 38 958 cases of NCA that were live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥20 weeks or terminations of pregnancy following pren...

  1. Maternal Obesity, Cage Density, and Age Contribute to Prostate Hyperplasia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Emily C; Gill, Jeff; Lamb, Laura E; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors is gravely needed to prevent adverse prostate health outcomes. We previously developed a murine precancer model in which exposure to maternal obesity stimulated prostate hyperplasia in offspring. Here, we used generalized linear modeling to evaluate the influence of additional environmental covariates on prostate hyperplasia. As expected from our previous work, the model revealed that aging and maternal diet-induced obesity (DIO) each correlated with prostate hyperplasia. However, prostate hyperplasia was not correlated with the length of maternal DIO. Cage density positively associated with both prostate hyperplasia and offspring body weight. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in prostates also positively correlated with cage density and negatively correlated with age of the animal. Together, these findings suggest that prostate tissue was adversely patterned during early life by maternal overnutrition and was susceptible to alteration by environmental factors such as cage density. Additionally, prostate hyperplasia may be acutely influenced by exposure to DIO, rather than occurring as a response to worsening obesity and comorbidities experienced by the mother. Finally, cage density correlated with both corticosteroid receptor abundance and prostate hyperplasia, suggesting that overcrowding influenced offspring prostate hyperplasia. These results emphasize the need for multivariate regression models to evaluate the influence of coordinated variables in complicated animal systems. PMID:26243546

  2. Predictive value of different prenatal diagnosis indications for fetal chromosomal aneuploid among advanced maternal age women%不同指征对高龄孕妇产前诊断胎儿染色体非整倍体的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 罗福薇; 谢建生; 袁晖; 赵光临; 徐志勇; 蓝紫萍

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨不同指征对高龄孕妇(advanced maternal age,AMA)产前诊断胎儿染色体非整倍体的预测价值,为AMA遗传咨询提供指导.方法 回顾分析我院2008年1月至2013年12月期间AMA产前诊断的记录,计数不同指征行产前诊断的病例数及检出非整倍体数,计算阳性预测值(positive predictive value,PPV),采用行×列表资料的x2检验比较PPV的差异.结果 2167例AMA行产前诊断共检出非整倍体83例,非整倍体发生率为3.83% (83/2167).不同指征的PPV(非整倍体数/产前诊断的病例数)如下:高龄为唯一指征0.76% (5/657);夫妇一方染色体异常或不良孕史或致畸因素1.78% (4/225);血清筛查高风险3.21% (37/1152);超声筛查胎儿异常19.8% (18/91);血清筛查高风险伴超声异常45.2% (19/42).不同指征的PPV的差异有统计学意义(x2=286.3,P<0.01).结论 对AMA胎儿非整倍体预测价值最高的指征是血清筛查高风险伴超声异常,最低的是高龄为唯一指征,建议对AMA行血清和超声联合筛查使产前诊断指征更加高效明确.

  3. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  4. Low Birth Weight in Relation to Maternal Age and Multiple Pregnancies at Muhimbili National Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Harold, Adamson

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple pregnancies A retrospective cross-sectional study was done where by data were obtained from labor ward register books and computer database of the MNH labour ward and analyzed by using EPI-INFO version 6 computer program. Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) A total of 6931 infants were studied. Prevalence of LBW and multiple births were 26.4% and 2.9% respectively. There was no significant association betwee...

  5. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fernando César; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Haddad, Samira M; Costa, Maria Laura; Pacagnella, Rodolfo Carvalho; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Souza, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surv...

  6. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  7. Idade materna e síndrome de Down no Nordeste do Brasil Maternal age and Down syndrome in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. F. Gusmão

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se, aqui, a associação entre idade materna avançada para procriação e aumento da incidência de progênie com síndrome de Down em amostra populacional do Estado da Bahia. Compararam-se as idades das mães de 220 portadores de síndrome de Down ao grupo-controle composto por mães de mesmo número de nascidos vivos, sem a síndrome de Down. Estimou-se em 43,6% o percentual de síndrome de Down dependente da idade materna indicando uma alta correlação (r = 0,95 entre idade materna e síndrome de Down. Este componente foi, entretanto, significantemente menor do que o percentual de 75% referido na literatura. Estimou-se o componente independente da idade materna em 56,4%, evidenciando a importância de outros fatores, no processo de não-disjunção meiótica associada à trissomia 21. Os resultados encontrados mostram também que, não obstante as características próprias da Região Nordeste, os fatores dependentes e independentes da idade materna apresentam a mesma tendência de distribuição observada na Região Sudeste do Brasil, onde extensivos estudos têm sido realizados.This study analyzes the association between advanced maternal age and increased incidence of Down syndrome in neonates, based on a population sample from the State of Bahia in Northeast Brazil. Age of the mothers of 220 Down syndrome subjects was investigated, and age distribution was compared to that of the population control group, 220 mothers of subjects without Down syndrome. The proportion of Down syndrome infants dependent on advanced maternal age was estimated at 43.6%, thus showing a high correlation (r = 0.95 between advanced maternal age and Down syndrome incidence. However, this component was significantly lower than the 75% reported in the literature. The component independent of maternal age was estimated at 56.4%, indicating the action of other factors on meiotic non-disjunction associated with 21 trisomy. The results also indicate that

  8. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Heitmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR and the...... two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high...... agreement between recalled and registered BW (MD =-0.2 g; ICC = 0.94) and GA (MD = 0.3 weeks; ICC = 0.76). Only 1.6% of BW would have been misclassified into low, normal or high BW and 16.5% of GA would have been misclassified into preterm, term or post-term based on maternal recall. The logistic regression...

  9. Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Factor-Litvak

    Full Text Available Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ.Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = -2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.33, -1.05 and b = -2.69 (95% CI = -4.22, -1.16 per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4 and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1 points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.

  10. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  11. Advanced method for cable aging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' started in FY2002. Until the end of FY2006, approximately 80% of the planned aging data has been acquired by the cable aging evaluation tests. The LOCA tests for nine kinds of cables were also conducted using the simultaneous aging specimens. Based on these results, the outlines of 'Guidelines for environmental qualification test for cables (Draft)' were developed. And a tentative assessment for seven kinds of cables was made using data acquired until present according to the outlines of guidelines. (author)

  12. Egg length of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart (Diptera, Tephritidae according to oviposition rate and maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C. Boleli

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of the entire egg, micropile and vitellus regions of Anastrepha obliqua Macquart, 1835 were measured during all opposition period. Obtained values were compared among them and with oviposition rate. The smallest eggs were produced during the first 35 oviposition days, period where the highest oviposition rate occured. The decrease in egg length was found to be due to a descrease in the vitellus region. Micropile length was found to be pratically constant throughout oviposition. Furthermore, no relationship between maternal age and length was detectable.

  13. Accuracy and correlates of maternal recall of birthweight and gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, A R A; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high......OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR and the...

  14. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Valadan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prenatal and obstetrical outcome in mothers aged 40years or older.Materials and methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted for the women aged 40 yearsand over who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond from January 2004 to December 2005 at fourHospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. For comparison, a control group of patients whowere 20-29 years of age was considered.Results: There were statistically significant increases in the rates of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia,caesarean section, breech presentation and stillbirth in women 40 years of age or older.Conclusion: There is a need to offer older women special counseling both before and after conception sothat they become informed of the increased risks involved.

  16. Maternal Characteristics Determine Stunting in Children of Less than Five Years of Age Results from a National Probabilistic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition and some variables are the main determining factors of birthweight and delayed intrauterine growth of children.Objective: To explore the association between the mothers’ biological and sociodemographic characteristics, and the anthropometry status in children under five years of age.Design: The population consisted of a sub-sample of 1,047 mother-and-child selected pairs from the probabilistic National Nutrition Survey, carried out in Mexico. Mother-and-child pairs included mothers aged 12 to 49 years, with children under five years of age. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric history, 24-hour recall dietary intake, and the women and children’s anthropometry were collected. The association between maternal characteristics and children’s anthropometry status was assessed using multiple logistic regression models.Result: Nearly 16.7% of the children 2y. The height/age of the children was severely affected by maternal height and birth order. In addition, the interaction between socioeconomic level and maternal schooling had a marginal effect (p = 0.09 in the ≤2y group. On the other hand, whether the family received social services and the interaction between maternal height and a dichotomy urbanism variable were significant ( p = 0.05 and (p 2y group.Conclusion: Some biological and socioeconomic characteristics among mothers have a negative effect on their children’s attained size, especially in the period between 2 and 5 years of age.

  17. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  18. Neighborhood influences on the association between maternal age and birth weight: A multilevel investigation of age-related disparities in health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Magdalena; Buka, Stephen L; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the relationship between maternal age and infant birthweight varies significantly across neighborhoods and that such variation can be predicted by neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed 229,613 singleton births of mothers aged 20–45 from Chicago, USA in 1997–2002. Random coefficient models were used to estimate the between-neighborhood variation in age-birthweight slopes, and both intercepts- and-slopes-as-outcomes models were used to evaluate area-level predictors of such variation. The crude maternal age-birthweight slopes for neighborhoods ranged from a decrease of 17 grams to an increase of 10 grams per year of maternal age. Adjustment for individual-level covariates reduced but did not eliminate this between-neighborhood variation. Concentrated poverty was a significant neighborhood-level predictor of the age-birthweight slope, explaining 44.4 percent of the between-neighborhood variation in slopes. Neighborhoods of higher economic disadvantage showed a more negative age-birthweight slope. The findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal age and birthweight varies between neighborhoods. Indicators of neighborhood disadvantage help to explain such differences. PMID:18313187

  19. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C;

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the ovarian reserve in a woman at a given age associated with her mother's age at menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: We demonstrated a significant, positive association between age at maternal menopause and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC) in...... daughters. The rate of decline in serum-AMH level and AFC is also associated with age at maternal menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The association between menopausal age in mothers and daughters has been established through several epidemiological studies. This paper shows that early...... prospective cohort whose mothers' age at natural menopause was known. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS: Participants were recruited from female health care workers aged 20-40 years employed at Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, and were enrolled in the study between September 2008 and February...

  20. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  1. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  2. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. PMID:27082752

  3. Maternal obesity and offspring dietary patterns at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Trolle, Ellen;

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Differences in the quality of complementary feeding between infants of obese and nonobese mothers have not been examined sufficiently. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary patterns, foods, nutrients and energy intakes of 9-month-old Danish infants in a cohort.......Results:SKOT I was characterized by a lower maternal body mass index (BMI) and a higher social class than SKOT II in relation to parental education and occupation. Infants in SKOT II had lower scores on a Health-Conscious Food pattern reflected at the food group level, for example, with lower intake of the food...... months. Therefore, the promotion of healthy complementary feeding might be beneficial for the prevention of health implications, such as obesity, later in life for these infants.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 3 December 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.258....

  4. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, J.; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M.B.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4–11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n = 642) and fathers (n = 439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  5. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; Pmilk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  6. [Maternal Predictors of Body Mass Index of Pre-school and School Age Children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Félix, Rosario E; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; Cárdenas-Villareal, Valia M; Moral de la Rubia, José; Ruvalcaba Rodríguez, María D; Hernandez-Carranco, Roandy G

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to identify maternal variables that could be used as predictors of the child's body mass index (BMI). We considered the following variables: (a) socio-demographic (age, education, occupation, marital status and family income); (b) anthropometric (BMI); and (c) upbringing strategies (monitoring and limits for eating habits, monitoring and sedentary behavior limits, discipline and control in feeding. A predictive correlational study was carried out with 537 dyads (mother-child). Children enrolled in 4 public schools (2 for pre-school children and 2 for primary school children) were selected for probabilistic, random sampling. The mothers answered the Feeding and Activity Upbringing Strategies Scale, giving socio-demographic information and the dyads' weight and height was measured. The data were analyzed for correlations and path analysis. It was found that the average age of mothers was 34.25 years (SD=6.91), with 12.40 years of education (SD=3.36), 53.3% mentioned that they were housewives and 46.7% had a paid job outside of the home; 38.5% showed pre-OB and 27.3% some degree of OB. The child's average age was 7.26 years (SD=2.46), and 3.2% showed low weight, 59.6% normal weight and 37.2% OW-0B. It was found that working outside the home, having a higher maternal BMI, less control and more discipline in feeding are variables that predict higher BMI in the child. We recommend the design of interventions to reduce and treat the child's OW-OB taking into account the predictors that were found. PMID:26821487

  7. Recent advances in vertebrate aging research 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan. A primate dietary restriction (DR) study found that restriction led to major improvements in glucoregulatory status along with provocative but less striking effects on survival. Visceral fat removal in rats improved their survival, although not as dramatically as DR. An unexpected result showing the power of genetic background effects was that DR shortened the lifespan of long-lived mice bearing Prop1(df), whereas a previous report in a different background had found DR to extend the lifespan of Prop1(df) mice. Treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, enhanced the survival of even elderly mice and improved their vaccine response. Genetic inhibition of a TOR target made female, but not male, mice live longer. This year saw the mTOR network firmly established as a major modulator of mammalian lifespan. PMID:20331443

  8. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  9. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Early postnatal maternal separation (MS can play an important role in the development of psychopathologies during ontogeny. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day [PND] 1–21 on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, the nucleus accumbens (NAc and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21, adolescent (PND 35 and young adult (PND 56 Wistar rats. The results indicated that MS increased BDNF in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG of adolescent rats as well as in the DG of young adult rats. However, the expression of BDNF in the mPFC in the young adult rats was decreased by MS. Additionally, in the hippocampus, there was decreased BDNF expression with age in both the MS and socially reared rats. However, in the mPFC, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the socially reared rats; nevertheless, the BDNF expression was significantly decreased in the MS young adult rats. In the NAc, the BDNF expression was increased with age in the male NMS rats, and the young adult female MS rats had less BDNF expression than the adolescent female MS rats. The

  10. Size at birth, maternal nutritional status in pregnancy, and blood pressure at age 17: population based analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, A.; Stevenson, D K; Shemer, J; Gale, R; Seidman, D S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of size at birth, maternal nutrition, and body mass index on blood pressure in late adolescence. DESIGN: Population based analysis of birth weight corrected for gestational age, mother's weight before pregnancy and weight gain in pregnancy, obtained from the Jerusalem perinatal study, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 17, available from military draft records. SETTING: Jerusalem, Israel. SUBJECTS: 10,883 subjects (6684 men and 4199 women) born in Je...

  11. The relationship between the risk of the gestational diabetes mellitus with respect to maternal age and initial body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Güdücü Kutay; Gökçenur Gönenç; Herman İşçi; Alin Başgül Yiğiter; İlkkan Dünder

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the risk of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with respect to maternal age and body mass index (BMI). Methods: The data of the patients, admitted to our clinic for pregnancy follow up between 2007 and 2011were collected retrospectively. 50 gram and 100 gram screening test results, birth weight of the newborns and demographic features of the patients were recorded. Results: 544 patients were included. Mean age of the patients was 30.2±4.2 years,...

  12. Maternal age and spine development in a rotifer: ecological implications and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John J; McPeek, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Brachionus calyciflorus typically develops long, defensive spines only in response to a kairomone from the predatory rotifer, Asplanchna. However, in the absence of any environmental induction, females of some clones produce daughters with increasingly long spines as they age; late-born individuals can have posterolateral spines as long as those induced by Asplanchna: up to 50% or more of body length. Here, we construct a model using data from life-table and predator-prey experiments to assess how this maternal-age effect can influence the distribution of spine lengths in reproducing populations and provide defense against Asplanchna predation. When Asplanchna is absent, the frequency of individuals with late birth orders rapidly becomes extremely low; thus, any cost associated with the production of long-spined individuals is minimal. When Asplanchna is present at densities too low for spine induction, and preys selectively on individuals with no or short posterolateral spines, the frequency of long-spined individuals rapidly increases until a stable birth-order structure is reached. As a result, mortality from Asplanchna predation is greatly reduced. The pronounced and novel birth-order effect in this rotifer appears to be an effective bet-hedging strategy to limit predation by Asplanchna when its kairomone induces no or less than maximal spine development. PMID:24358702

  13. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    (P < 0.01), indicative of dam hunger/metabolic burden in the preceding period. We found no signs of nipple/inflammation problems, evaluated visually and by Infrared Thermography (IRT) measuring surface temperatures of active teats.Dams separated at litter age 7 weeks had higher concentrations of...... and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim was...... significant difference in dam bodyweight (7w: 1420 ± 15.0 g, 8w: 1404 ± 14.7, P = 0.43). However, the litter size negatively influenced both the dam weight and body condition (P < 0.001) regardless of the separation age. Stereotypies D0-D1were influenced by group (8w > 7w) and increased with number of young...

  14. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  15. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  16. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  17. Maternal weight determines the association between Hbalc in second half of pregnancy and risk of large for gestational age babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, Margrethe;

    Aim: To assess the association between maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic pregnancies and the risk of delivering large for gestational age babies (LGA) taking into account maternal body mass index (BMI), weight gain, age, White class, and smoking habits.  Method: We identified...... all pregnant diabetic women in a Danish county. HbA1c values after 20th gestational week were collected and offspring was categorized as large, normal or small for gestational age. Logistic regression models we fitted to assess the association between HbA1c and risk of delivering a LGA baby taking...... into account the impact of potential confounding from the above mentioned factors.   Results: We found 209 singleton pregnancies of which 59% (95% CI: 52%-65%) terminated with a LGA baby. HbA1c, BMI, and weight gain were all associated with increasing risk of delivering a LGA baby. Analyses stratified...

  18. Continuity and change in gender relations in advanced old age

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Gail

    1997-01-01

    With greater numbers and a greater proportion of people reaching advanced old age, it is possible that a socially approved life stage may develop which older people can accept as their own. On the evidence presented in this survey, men will need to become more like women if they are to improve the quality of their lives.

  19. Maternal inflammation linearly exacerbates offspring age-related changes of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiology until senectitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Qi-Gang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Xue-Yan; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can elevate the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in offspring. However, how it affects age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory and changes in the neurobiological indictors in the offspring in later adulthood is still elusive. In this study, the CD-1 mice with maternal gestational inflammation due to receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS, i.p. 50 or 25μg/kg) were divided into 3-, 12-, 18-, and 22-month-old groups. The spatial learning and memory were evaluated using a six-radial arm water maze and the levels of presynaptic proteins (synaptotagmin-1 and syntaxin-1) and histone acetylation (H3K9ac and H4K8ac) in the dorsal hippocampus were detected using the immunohistochemical method. The results indicated that there were significant age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, decreased levels of H4K8ac, H3K9ac, and syntaxin-1, and increased levels of synaptotagmin-1 in the offspring mice from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age controls. Maternal LPS treatment significantly exacerbated the offspring impairments of spatial learning and memory, the reduction of H3K9ac, H4K8ac, and syntaxin-1, and the increment of synaptotagmin-1 from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age control groups. The changes in the neurobiological indicators significantly correlated with the impairments of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, this correlation, besides the age and LPS-treatment effects, also showed a dose-dependent effect. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation during pregnancy could exacerbate age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiochemical indicators in the offspring CD-1 mice from midlife to senectitude. PMID:26992827

  20. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wang; Lu Liu; Yong-Fang Hu; Jia-Hu Hao; Yuan-Hua Chen; Pu-Yu Su; Lin Fu; Zhen Yu; Gui-Bin Zhang; Lei Wang; Fang-Biao Tao; De-Xiang Xu

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite...

  1. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  2. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  3. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S K; Jespersen, Louise Norman; Nissen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    and external causes. What is known already: Advanced paternal age has previously been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and some long term health problems in the offspring. This is possibly due to specific point mutations, a condition known to increase in the sperm with increasing paternal......Study question: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? Summary answer: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...... Labour Market Research, the Medical Birth Registry and the Registry of Causes of Death was linked using the unique civil registry number. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the risk of under-five mortality. The effect of paternal age was examined using restricted...

  4. Maternal Education and Micro-Geographic Disparities in Nutritional Status among School-Aged Children in Rural Northwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cuili; Kane, Robert L.; Xu, Dongjuan; Li, Lingui; Guan, Weihua; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas) in a Chinese minority area. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nu...

  5. Maternal Zinc Supplementation during Pregnancy Affects Autonomic Function of Peruvian Children Assessed at 54 Months of Age12

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. O...

  6. Maternal education and micro-geographic disparities in nutritional status among school-aged children in rural northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuili Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prior evidence suggests geographic disparities in the effect of maternal education on child nutritional status between countries, between regions and between urban and rural areas. We postulated its effect would also vary by micro-geographic locations (indicated by mountain areas, plain areas and the edge areas in a Chinese minority area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a multistage random sample of 1474 school children aged 5-12 years in Guyuan, China. Child nutritional status was measured by height-for-age z scores (HAZ. Linear mixed models were used to examine its association with place of residence and maternal education. RESULTS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status and the level of socioeconomic composition were found. Children living in mountain areas had poorer nutritional status, even after adjusting for demographic (plain versus mountain, β = 0.16, P = 0.033; edge versus mountain, β = 0.29, P = 0.002 and socioeconomic factors (plain versus mountain, β = 0.12, P = 0.137; edge versus mountain, β = 0.25, P = 0.009. The disparities significantly widened with increasing years of mothers' schooling (maternal education*plain versus mountain: β = 0.06, P = 0.007; maternal education*edge versus mountain: β = 0.07, P = 0.005. Moreover, the association between maternal education and child nutrition was negative (β = -0.03, P = 0.056 in mountain areas but positive in plain areas (β = 0.02, P = 0.094 or in the edge areas (β = 0.04, P = 0.055. CONCLUSIONS: Micro-geographic disparities in child nutritional status increase with increasing level of maternal education and the effect of maternal education varies by micro-geographic locations, which exacerbates child health inequity. Educating rural girls alone is not sufficient; improving unfavorable conditions in mountain areas might make such investments more effective in promoting child health. Nutrition programs targeting to the least

  7. ADVANCE: research project of aging in wiring electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the project ADVANCE (Ageing Diagnostics and Pronostics of low-voltage I and C Cables) whose objective is to adapt, optimize and rating techniques of Condition Monitoring for nuclear power plants cables, enabling know the State of degradation of the cable along its length, and together with the establishment of acceptance criteria appropriate to estimate their residual life. In the paper outlines the main stages of the project and the current state of the same.

  8. End-of-Life Decisions and Advanced Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that most people die in advanced old age, little attention is given to cases involving older people in debates about the moral and legal dimensions of end-of-life decision making. The purpose of this paper is to establish some of the ways our discussions should change as we pay attention to important factors influencing end-of-life decisions for people in advanced old age. Focusing on the prevalence of comorbidities and the likelihood that people in advanced old age will experience an extended period of declining function before death, I argue that our debates should be expanded to include greater consideration of how we want to live in the final stages of life. With this, I am arguing against the tendency to think that “end-of-life” decision making concerns only making decisions about when and how it is appropriate to terminate a person’s life. I argue, further, that we should move away from the medicalization of dying.

  9. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 1650 low-risk Caucasian women in a London University teaching hospital. Maternal IGF-1, IGF-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured in maternal blood at booking and analyzed with respect to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: There was no significant association between maternal IGF-1 or IGF-2 and preterm birth (PTB). A significant reduction in mean IGFBP-3 levels was noted with delivery <32 completed weeks (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Maternal mean IGFBP-3 levels are significantly reduced in cases complicated by delivery <32 completed weeks.

  10. Emotional well-being in advanced old age: comparative study by age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buz Delgado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In very old age, emotional states become the most important reasonto maintain life satisfaction. In this study we examined the role of positive and negative emotions on the judgment of life satisfaction in advanced old age and the age and gender differences in a sample of 400 elderly people of Salamanca, aged between 75 and 104. The results show a higher frequency of positive emotions than negative, with the most frequent of the former being attentive,active and strong, and the less frequent ones being excited and inspired. Among the more frequent negative emotions are feeling jittery, nervous and alert, and the less frequent ones are feeling guilty, hostile and ashamed. In addition, there are differences in terms of both age (people aged between 75 and 84 are more active, enthusiastic and inspired and gender (very old women are more jittery, nervous, proud, afraid, scared and upset. Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that remaining lively, happy, interested and alert to events is essential for maintaining the life satisfaction of people aged over 75. These results confirm that positive emotions are a potential resource for psychological esilience in advanced old age.

  11. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  12. The Impact of Maternal Age, Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index Weight Gain and Parity on Glucose Challenge Test (GCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM complicates 3-7% of all pregnancies and feto-maternal outcomes are strongly related to early diagnosis of GDM. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of risk factors in the prediction of an abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT.Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted during 2009-2010 in two prenatal clinics in Rey, Iran. A total of 711 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and met the inclusion criteria were selected. The women were observed once every other week until 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients at 24-28 weeks of gestation were screened with 50 g oral glucose GCT. The effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, maternal age, and weight gain until the time of GCT, and parity on abnormal GCT were evaluated. All confident intervals were calculated at the 95% level. Data was analyzed using student’s t test and the logistic regression test.Results: Maternal age (p<0.001, pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.00, parity (p=0.05 and weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.05, were significantly higher in women with abnormal GCT compared to women who had normal GCT. Logistic regression analyses confirmed that pre-pregnancy BMI (OR=1.09, maternal age (OR=1.14, and weight gain during pregnancy (OR=1.13 were associated with abnormal GCT.Conclusion: Weight gain had a profound impact on the prevalence of abnormal GCT in our population. Therefore, we propose that pregnant women should only gain the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy.

  13. The relationship between maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGFBP-3 to gestational age and preterm delivery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, Sharon M

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between levels of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) in antenatal maternal serum and gestational age at delivery.

  14. The influence of maternal attachment and postpartum depression on abnormal development of the child until the age of 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beetz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the psychological or physical development of children seem to increase in Western Societies, probably also due to suboptimal interactions with caregivers and insecure attachments, and can be observed already in early childhood. In the present study, the association of children’s abnormal development until the age of 18 months with attachment representation, prenatal attachment and postpartum depression of their 161 primiparae mothers with a relatively high educational background were investigated. A high level of maternal attachment disorganization and even medium levels of postpartum depression were significantly linked to noticeable problems with physical and behavioral development in the regular child screening exams (at 6 and 12 months and with the problem behaviour reported by the mothers. This suggests that also mothers without obvious and known risk factors, who are usually not targeted by early interventions, would profit from professional support. A simple indicator for a screening would be maternal depression at 6 months postpartum.

  15. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not...

  16. [Neutrophilic dermatosis in ulcerative colitis occurring in advanced age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Maldonado, M D; Calvo Catalá, J; Ronda Gasulla, A; Hortelano Martínez, E; Herrera Ballester, A; Febrer Bosch, I

    1994-08-01

    The Neutrophilic dermatosis (ND) is considered as an independent entity with diverse clinical manifestations among which there are: gangrenous pyoderma, nodous erythema, Sweets Syndrome, vesiculopustula eruptions associated to ulcerous colitis and intestinal short circuit syndrome with or without short circuit. Histologically, they are characterized by infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, generally at the dermic level, but also at the epidermic. They are usually associated to systemic diseases, especially to chronic intestinal inflammatory disease. Our aim was to describe two forms of clinical presentation of neutrophilic dermatosis: gangrenous pyoderma and vesiculopustula eruption, associated to ulcerous colitis starting at advances ages. PMID:7772690

  17. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  18. Potential Gains in Reproductive-Aged Life Expectancy by Eliminating Maternal Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Liu, L; Zimmerman, L;

    2014-01-01

    . Findings: In developed countries, five years in RALE were gained over the twentieth century, of which approximately 10%, or half a year, was attributable to reductions in maternal mortality. In sub-Saharan African countries, the possible achievable gains fluctuate between 0.24 and 1.47 years, or 6% and 44...

  19. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  20. Maternal separation produces alterations of forebrain brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in differently aged rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiong; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity, such as postnatal maternal separation (MS), play a central role in the development of psychopathologies during individual ontogeny. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated MS (4 h per day from postnatal day (PND) 1–21) on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the hippocampus of male and female juvenile (PND 21), adolescent (PND 35) and young adult (PND 56) Wistar rats...

  1. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Ellen Aagaard Nohr; Michael Gamborg; Mette Juhl; Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s w...

  2. Maternal determinants of complete child immunization among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Okoro, Anselm O

    2012-01-17

    This study was conducted to identify determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria. The World Health Organization cluster survey was used to evaluate immunization coverage of infants. Mothers of 525 children selected by the two-stage sampling method and interviewed using an adapted questionnaire responded. Completion of the immunization schedule was verified by an immunization card or by reported history indicating that the child had received full doses of four of the antigens included in the Nigeria routine immunization schedule. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with completion of immunization. Only 32.4% of children had completed the immunization schedule. Determinants of complete immunization status included a maternal age less than 30 years (AOR=2.26, 95% CI:1.27-4.03), availability of an immunization card at first contact (AOR=7.72, 95% CI:4.43-13.44), fewer than three children (AOR=2.22, 95% CI:11.1-4.42), completion of post secondary education (AOR=2.34, 95% CI:1.12-4.47) and maternal unemployment (AOR=1.71, 95% CI:1.01-2.89). Identifying mothers whose children are at risk of not completing the immunization schedule and educating them is an important strategy to improve antigen coverage and prevent early childhood deaths from diseases like tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles. PMID:22137878

  3. DNA damage-induced metaphase I arrest is mediated by the spindle assembly checkpoint and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, Petros; Stevense, Michelle; Niaka, Konstantina; Lagoudaki, Michaela; Nabti, Ibtissem; Jessberger, Rolf; Carroll, John

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian oocytes DNA damage can cause chromosomal abnormalities that potentially lead to infertility and developmental disorders. However, there is little known about the response of oocytes to DNA damage. Here we find that oocytes with DNA damage arrest at metaphase of the first meiosis (MI). The MI arrest is induced by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) because inhibiting the SAC overrides the DNA damage-induced MI arrest. Furthermore, this MI checkpoint is compromised in oocytes from aged mice. These data lead us to propose that the SAC is a major gatekeeper preventing the progression of oocytes harbouring DNA damage. The SAC therefore acts to integrate protection against both aneuploidy and DNA damage by preventing production of abnormal mature oocytes and subsequent embryos. Finally, we suggest escaping this DNA damage checkpoint in maternal ageing may be one of the causes of increased chromosome anomalies in oocytes and embryos from older mothers. PMID:26522734

  4. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  5. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  6. Mortality among children under the age of one: analysis of cases after discharge from maternity *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieni Paula dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze infant death after discharge from maternity in the time period between 2000 and 2013. METHOD A cross-sectional retrospective quantitative study in a municipality northward in the state of Paraná. Data were analyzed using the SPSS®, and were subjected to Chi-square test, logistical regression, 95% confidence interval, and a significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS Two hundred forty-nine children were born, discharged from maternity and subsequently died; 10.1% in the neonatal period and 89.9% in the post-neonatal period. Pregnancy follow-up, birth, and child monitoring took place mainly in the public health system. There was a statistically significant association between the infant component and place of delivery (p =0.002; RR=1.143; IC95%=1.064-1.229, and a lower number of childcare medical visits (p =0.001; RR=1.294; IC95%=1.039-1.613. The causes of death in the neonatal period were perinatal conditions (40%; external causes (32%; and congenital malformations (20%. In the post-neonatal period, congenital malformations (29.9%, external causes (24.1%; and infectious-parasitic diseases (11.2% were the causes of death. CONCLUSION Virtually all children were born in conditions of good vitality that were worsened due to potentially preventable diseases that led to death.

  7. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings. PMID:26392152

  8. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial of...... different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of...... children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  9. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej;

    ) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations of male offspring in late middle age. The study is based on 598 Danish males from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (mean age, 55.2 years) with comprehensive historical data from birth. Path analysis is employed to estimate direct and indirect effects. A...

  10. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  11. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health ...

  12. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2004-01-01

    A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth...... Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival...... lifestyle during pregnancy. Various approaches to adjustment for potential residual confounding of the relation by maternal age did not affect the relative risk estimates. The paternal age-related risk of late fetal death was higher than the risk of early fetal death and started to increase from the age of...

  13. Early maternal separation impacts cognitive flexibility at the age of first independence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A Wren; Caporale, Natalia; Wu, Claudia; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Early life adversity is associated with increased risk for mental and physical health problems, including substance abuse. Changes in neural development caused by early life insults could cause or complicate these conditions. Maternal separation (MS) is a model of early adversity for rodents. Clear effects of MS have been shown on behavioral flexibility in rats, but studies of effects of MS on cognition in mice have been mixed. We hypothesized that previous studies focused on adult mice may have overlooked a developmental transition point when juvenile mice exhibit greater flexibility in reversal learning. Here, using a 4-choice reversal learning task we find that early MS leads to decreased flexibility in post-weaning juvenile mice, but no significant effects in adults. In a further study of voluntary ethanol consumption, we found that adult mice that had experienced MS showed greater cumulative 20% ethanol consumption in an intermittent access paradigm compared to controls. Our data confirm that the MS paradigm can reduce cognitive flexibility in mice and may enhance risk for substance abuse. We discuss possible interpretations of these data as stress-related impairment or adaptive earlier maturation in response to an adverse environment. PMID:26531108

  14. Association of Maternal Age to Development and Progression of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants of Gestational Age under 33 Weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To find predictive and indicative markers of risk for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and its progression to the stage requiring laser treatment, in premature infants whose gestational age (GA) was under 33 weeks. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 197 premature infants born in 2005–2010 whose GA < 33 weeks and underwent eye screening at Keio University Hospital. The association between candidate risk factors and development or progression of ROP was ...

  15. Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leew Shirley

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS. Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current

  16. Association Between Maternal Diabetes in Utero and Age at Offspring's Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Pettitt, David J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Beyer, Jennifer; Hillier, Teresa A.; Liese, Angela D.; Mayer-Davis, Beth; Loots, Beth; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Liu, Lenna; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Linder, Barbara; Dabelea, Dana

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to examine age of diabetes diagnosis in youth who have a parent with diabetes by diabetes type and whether the parent's diabetes was diagnosed before or after the youth's birth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The cohort comprised SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study participants (diabetes diagnosis 2001–2005) with a diabetic parent. SEARCH is a multicenter survey of youth with diabetes diagnosed before age 20 years. RESULTS—Youth with type 2 diabetes were mo...

  17. Social competitiveness and plasticity of neuroendocrine function in old age: influence of neonatal novelty exposure and maternal care reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Akers

    Full Text Available Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the other half stayed in the home cage. At 24 months of age, pairs of rats competed against each other for exclusive access to chocolate rewards. We found that novelty-exposed rats won more rewards than home-staying rats, indicating that early experience exerts a life-long effect on this aspect of social dominance. Furthermore, novelty-exposed but not home-staying rats exhibited habituation of corticosterone release across repeated days of social competition testing, suggesting that early experience permanently enhances plasticity of the stress response system. Finally, we report a surprising finding that across individual rat families, greater effects of neonatal novelty exposure on stress response plasticity were found among families whose dams provided more reliable, instead of a greater total quantity of, maternal care.

  18. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged ‎‎3-6 years‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Doaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression.Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods.Conclusion:‎‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎

  19. Constriction band syndrome occurring in the setting of in vitro fertilization and advanced maternal age

    OpenAIRE

    Rinker, Brian; Vasconez, Henry C.

    2006-01-01

    The debate as to the pathogenesis of constriction band syndrome began with Hippocrates and continues today. The exogenous theory attributes the condition to entanglement of the fetus in the amniotic remnants following premature rupture of the amnion, which is in contrast to the endogenous, or genetic, mechanism.

  20. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  1. 孕产妇年龄对妊娠及分娩结局的影响%Effects of maternal age on pregnancy:a retrospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉; 邹丽颖; 陈奕; 阮炎; 刘亚君; 张为远

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠年龄对妊娠及分娩结局的影响。方法收集北京、上海、江苏、陕西、四川、辽宁及广东等14个省市自治区共39家医院,2011年妊娠满28周至足月住院分娩的孕产妇病历资料,共110450例。以孕产妇年龄5岁间隔分成6组。以25~29岁组为参考组,应用二元Logistic回归分析计算其他年龄组的相对危险度(OR)。结果孕产妇的平均分娩年龄(28±5)岁。35~39岁组及≥40岁组妊娠合并糖尿病(35~39岁组及≥40岁组OR值分别为2.2和3.8)、妊娠合并慢性高血压(OR值4.6和6.5)、妊娠合并子宫肌瘤(OR值4.2和5.8)、妊娠期糖尿病(OR值2.6和3.5)、子痫前期(OR值2.5和3.6)、产后出血(OR值1.5和1.7)、早产(OR值1.8和2.4)、前置胎盘(OR值2.7和4.0)、胎盘早剥(OR值1.4和2.5)、剖宫产分娩(OR值2.1和2.5)、巨大儿(OR值1.2和1.2)、低出生体重儿(OR值1.6和2.3)及围产儿死亡(OR值1.6和3.7)的发生风险均高于参考组。<20岁的低龄组与参考组比较,妊娠合并贫血( OR值1.4)、子痫前期( OR值1.6)、早产(OR值2.1)、低出生体重儿(OR值2.3)及围产儿死亡(OR值3.6)的发生风险增加。结论20~30岁为妊娠及分娩的最适年龄,高龄孕妇及低龄孕妇的母婴风险均增加。%Objective To determine the pregnancy outcomes related with maternal age in China . Methods A total of 110 450 cases were selected and divided into 6 age groups at intervals of 5 years.The clinical data were collected from 39 hospitals in mainland China.All deliveries were after 28 weeks of completed gestation in 2011.The unadjusted binary-logistic regression was employed for statistics .Results The mean age of all pregnant women was 28 ±5 at the time of delivery.The advanced age groups (35-39 yr and ≥40 yr) had higher risks than the 25-29 age group for pregestational diabetes [ odds ratio ( OR) , 2

  2. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  3. Success Rate of Inseminations Dependent on Maternal Age? An Analysis of 4246 Insemination Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Schorsch, M.; Gomez, R.; Hahn, T.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Seufert, R.; Skala, C.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has latterly become less important in reproductive medicine. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to identify and evaluate the success rates of repeated insemination cycles in women of different ages. All women who underwent intrauterine insemination in the Wiesbaden Fertility Clinic between 1998 and 2010 were included in the analysis. Additional inclusion criteria were: not more than 45 years old, previous FSH stimulation and slight to ...

  4. Chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the sorafenib age

    OpenAIRE

    Miyahara, Koji; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto,Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The kinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only systemic therapy proven to have a positive effect on survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After development of sorafenib and its introduction as a therapeutic agent used in the clinic, several critical questions have been raised. Clinical parameters and biomarkers predicting sorafenib efficacy are the most important issues that need to be elucidated. Although it is difficult to know the responders in advance using conven...

  5. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne Cc;

    2015-01-01

    population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each of these......BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between...... for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) birth weight standard and the 1991 US birth weight reference. The associations were then meta-analyzed. RESULTS: All short stature categories were statistically significantly associated with term SGA, preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), and preterm...

  6. Lumbar spinal mobility changes among adults with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Using these data, we developed normative values of spinal mobility for each sex and age group. This study helps the clinicians to understand and correlate the restrictions of lumbar spinal mobility due to age and differentiate the limitations due to disease.

  7. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  8. Development of a Theory-based, Sociocultural Instrument to Assess Black Maternal Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Aged 9 to 12 Against HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Erves, Jennifer; Talbott, Laura L; O'Neal, Marcia R; Ivankova, Nataliya V; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could assist in reducing the cervical cancer disparity existing between Black and White women. Understanding factors influencing Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughter is essential in improving vaccination uptake. However, existing instruments do not comprehensively assess factors (e.g., culture) influencing maternal intentions. This paper describes the development of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Survey for Black Mothers with Girls Aged 9 to 12 (HPVS-BM), the first instrument to measure knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, and cultural beliefs relating to Black maternal intentions to vaccinate their daughters aged 9 to 12 years against HPV. The items and scales were refined using content review by experts, as well as cognitive interviews and pilot testing with target audience participants. The final version of the HPVS-BM was administered to 242 Black mothers with adolescent daughters. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha. An a priori hypothetical model was developed to determine convergent and discriminant validity. All scales of the HPVS-BM had an acceptable internal reliability of 0.70 or higher. The intention scale of HPVS-BM was significantly correlated (p instrument could be used by healthcare researchers and professionals to develop programs to increase HPV vaccination among Black adolescent females aimed at reducing the racial disparities in cervical cancer. Further psychometric testing of this survey tool for understanding factors influencing maternal intentions is warranted. PMID:26081311

  9. The Contribution of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE's) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  10. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years....... Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither...... hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure...

  11. Inhibition and breaking of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with bis-2-aminoimidazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mike A.; Furlani, Robert E.; Podell, Brendan K.; Ackart, David F.; Haugen, Jessica D.; Melander, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), unregulated modifications to host macromolecules that occur as a result of metabolic dysregulation, play a role in many diabetes related complications, inflammation and aging, and may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have enormous therapeutic potential in the treatment of these disease states. We report the screening of a series of 2-aminoimidazloles for anti-AGE activity, and the identification of a bis-2-aminoimidazole lead compound that possesses superior AGE inhibition and breaking activity compared to the known AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine. PMID:26146419

  12. Maternal Factors Associated with Nutritional Status of 1-5 years Children Residing in Field Practice Area of Rural Health Training Centre Naila, Jaipur (Rajasthan India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Sonkaria, Afifa Zafer, Kusum Lata Gaur, Ravindra Kumar Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutrition status of children was associated with maternal age, maternal education and spacing between children whereas it was not associated with maternal BMI, maternal occupation, maternal age at marriage, maternal age at consummation, maternal age at 1st child birth and maternal anemia.

  13. Advances in wine aging technologies for enhancing wine quality and accelerating wine aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; García, Juan Francisco; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed. PMID:24345051

  14. Adverse effects of maternal age, weight and smoking during pregnancy in Pleven, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Stefanova Kamburova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper aims to study the relationship between mothers’ age, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG and smoking and the risk for premature birth in Pleven, Bulgaria. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Pleven in 2007. The study was comprehensive for all premature children (N=58 and representative for full-term infants (N=192, or 10.4% of all of the 1827 full-term children born in 2007 at the University Hospital of Pleven and resident in the city of Pleven. Retrospective data on determinants under study were collected from all the mothers included in this study (N=250. Results: Mothers of premature children were more likely to be above 35 years old (27.6%, with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (23.1%, GWG below the recommended value (38.5% and to smoke during pregnancy (37.9%. The odds of being a smoker during pregnancy were five times higher among mothers with low birth weight (LBW newborns compared with their counterparts with normal birth weight newborns (OR=5.1, 95%CI=2.4-10.6. There was a positive association between BMI and LBW in infants whose mothers were overweight (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.0-4.0. The risk of LBW increased when GWG was less than recommended (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.0-3.1. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2, less than recommended GWG and smoking during pregnancy are risk factors for premature birth in Pleven region. Findings from this study suggest the need for active health and educational actions by health professionals in order to avoid premature births in Bulgaria.

  15. Maternal tobacco smoking in pregnancy and children's socio-emotional development at age 5: the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Hersi, Robleh; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Larroque, Béatrice; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Chollet, Aude; Galéra, Cédric

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is debate as to whether maternal tobacco use in pregnancy is related to offspring behaviour later on. We tested this association examining multiple aspects of children's behaviour at age 5 and accounting for parental smoking outside of pregnancy, as well as child and family characteristics.Methods : Data come from a prospective community based birth cohort study (EDEN; n = 1113 families in France followed since pregnancy in 2003–2005 until the child's 5th birthday). Materna...

  16. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sten-Anders Ivarsson; Heikki Hyöty; Åke Lernmark; Bengt Lindberg; Göran Sundkvist; Per Olofsson; Björn Jonsson; Sami Oikarinen; Johan Svensson; Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA...

  17. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study

    OpenAIRE

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Toft, Gunnar Vase; Bonde, Jens Peter; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys we...

  18. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  19. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  20. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  1. Maternal prepregancy BMI and lipid profile during early pregnancy are independently associated with offspring's body composition at age 5-6 years: the ABCD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike G J Gademan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that disturbances in maternal metabolism and, subsequently, intrauterine conditions affect foetal metabolism. Whether this has metabolic consequences in offspring later in life is not fully elucidated. We investigated whether maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI is associated with offspring's adiposity at age 5-6 years and whether this association is mediated by the mother's lipid profile during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were derived from a multi-ethnic birth cohort, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study (inclusion 2003-2004. During early gestation mothers completed a questionnaire during pregnancy (pBMI and random non-fasting blood samples were analysed for total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB and total free fatty acids (FFA in early gestation. At age 5-6 years, child's BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR and fat% were assessed. RESULTS: Only non-diabetic mothers with at term-born children were included (n = 1727. Of all women, 15.1% were overweight(BMI: 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 4.3% were obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2. After adjustments for confounders, every unit increase in pBMI was linearly associated with various offspring variables: BMI (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08-0.12, WHtR*100 (β 0.13; 95% CI 0.09-0.17, fat% (β 0.21; 95% CI 0.13-0.29 and increased risk for overweight (OR:1.15; 95% CI 1.10-1.20. No convincing proof for mediation by maternal lipid profile during early gestation was found. Moreover, maternal FFA was associated with the child's fat percentage, BMI and risk for overweight. Maternal ApoB and TC were positively associated with the offspring's fat percentage and maternal TG was positively associated with their children's WHtR. CONCLUSIONS: Both pBMI and maternal lipids during early pregnancy are independently related to offspring adiposity.

  2. Maternal Thyroid Function in Pregnancy may Program Offspring Blood Pressure, but not Adiposity at 20 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Andersen, Stine L; Bech, Bodil H; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Henriksen, Tine B; Laurberg, Peter; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence exists indicating that maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy may affect the metabolic set point and cardio-vascular function in the offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal thyroid function in week 30 of......-reported anthropometrics (N=645) and a clinically measured blood pressure (N=425). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal thyroid function and offspring BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure. RESULTS: Offspring of subclinical hypothyroid women had higher systolic blood...... circumference. CONCLUSION: Maternal thyroid function during 3rd trimester of pregnancy may affect long term blood pressure in the offspring.Pediatric Research (2016); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.56....

  3. Premature Aging of the Microcirculation in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Thang, Oanh H.D.; Serné, Erik H; Grooteman, Muriel P.C.; Smulders, Yvo M.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Tangelder, Geert-Jan; Nubé, Menso J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing age and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are both associated with an attenuated vasodilator response of the skin microcirculation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on microvascular reactivity in patients with advanced CKD. Methods Acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by iontophoresis combined with laser Doppler flowmetry. Mic...

  4. Development and evaluation of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester, William; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Fullam, Rachael S; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Hudson, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the quality of advance care planning (ACP) documents in use in residential aged care facilities (RACF) in areas of Victoria Australia prior to a systematic intervention; to report on the development and performance of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template used during the intervention. Design An audit of the quality of pre-existing documentation used to record resident treatment preferences and end-of-life wishes at participating RACFs; development and pilot ...

  5. Maternal perinatal mental health and offspring academic achievement at age 16:the mediating role of childhood executive function

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have investigated the association between perinatal maternal depression and poor academic achievement in adolescence. The pathways to explain the risks are also...

  6. Revisiting the Link between Maternal Employment and School-Aged Children Health Status in Developing Countries: An Instrumental Variable Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Risti Permani

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the link between maternal employment and the health status of the child. Using data from Indonesia, it uses mothers' risk averse measures, households' recent flood and drought experience, and the interactions between risk measures and experience of recent natural disasters to explain endogenous maternal employment as proxied by mothers' working hours. Critical values based on Stock and Yogo (2002) suggest that these are strong instruments. Moreover, the Hausman test sugges...

  7. Bone age advancement in prepubertal children with obesity and premature adrenarche: possible potentiating factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sopher, Aviva B.; Jean, Amy M.; Zwany, Sarah K.; Winston, Diana M.; Pomeranz, Christy B.; Bell, Jennifer J.; McMahon, Donald J.; Hassoun, Abeer; Fennoy, Ilene; Oberfield, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and premature adrenarche (PA) are both associated with bone age (BA) advancement of unclear etiology, which may lead to earlier puberty, suboptimal final height and obesity in adulthood. Our objective was to understand the hormonal and anthropometric characteristics of BA advancement in a spectrum of prepubertal children with and without obesity and PA.

  8. Management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in advanced age

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, M; Justice, AC; Lampiris, HW; Valcour, V

    2013-01-01

    Importance: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy now have increased life expectancy and develop chronic illnesses that are often seen in older HIV-negative patients. Objective: To address emerging issues related to aging with HIV. Screening older adults for HIV, diagnosis of concomitant diseases, management of multiple comorbid medical illnesses, social isolation, polypharmacy, and factors associated with end-of-life care are reviewed. Evi...

  9. Maternal Separation Anxiety and Child Care: Effects on Maternal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn

    Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…

  10. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tutik Ernawati; Saptawati Bardosono; Rini Sekartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, ...

  11. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philippe Humbert,1 Brigitte Dréno,2 Jean Krutmann,3 Thomas Anton Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 Sylvie Meaume,6 Sophie Seité71Research and Studies Centre on the Integument (CERT, Clinical Investigation Centre (CIC BT506, Department of Dermatology, Besançon University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 2Department of Dermato-Cancerology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany; 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5International Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois, France; 6Geriatric Service, Wounds and Healing, Rothschild Hôspital, Paris, France; 7La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories, Asnières, FranceAbstract: The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the

  12. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W; Kim, Ivana K

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  13. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Yonekawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  14. The Contribution of advanced glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; Schans, Cees van der; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative eff

  15. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are cross-sectionally associated with insulin secretion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Josephine M; Sourris, Karly C; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that chronic exposure to high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), in particular from dietary sources, can impair insulin secretion. In the present study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between AGEs and acute insulin secretion during an...

  16. PREFERENCE THEORY IN ADVANCED AGE AND THE OLDER CZECH WORKFORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vidovićová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we make use of preference theory developed by Hakim (2000 in the context of reconciling work and family to cover and explain different patterns of retirement exit paths and retirement satisfaction levels in the Czech Republic. We propose that lifestyle preferences and values may help to explain why some older workers continue to work while others are determined to retire as early as possible. Three types are identified among the 55–65 age group: work oriented, retirement oriented, and adaptive. The data shows that self-perception of the respondent as being active or more rest-oriented is associated with actual labour market activity of the respondent. Different types also perceive and evaluate labour market exit differently, and most importantly they differ in their reaction to various labour market and pension policies and family/partnership conditions. In the discussion we challenge the notion of active ageing as a general “one-size-fits-all” policy and urge that more attention be paid to the role of individual values and preferences when looking at the organisation of latter life roles.

  17. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  18. Effect of midwifery care on the progress of advanced maternal mode of delivery and birth process%助产护理对高龄产妇分娩方式及产程进展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the Nursing Midwifery intervention mode of delivery on maternal age and birth process signiifcance.Methods: in our hospital 80 advanced maternal age, they were randomLy divided into two groups, the intervention group and control group. The control group routine obstetric nursing measure parturient, on this basis, take the midwifery care interventions on maternal intervention group. Comparison of two groups of maternal labor time and mode of delivery.Results:in the duration of labor and the natural birth rate, mothers in the intervention group was signiifcantly lower than the control group, signiifcant difference statistically signiifcant (P< 0.05).Conclusion: taking midwifery nursing intervention can make the elderly primipara cesarean section rate decreased obviously, reduce the delivery risk, ensure the safety of mother and child.%目的:研究对高龄产妇的分娩方式和产程进行助产护理干预的意义。方法选取我院80位高龄产妇,将其随机分为两组,干预组和对照组。对对照组产妇实施常规产科的护理措施,在这个基础上,对干预组产妇采取助产护理干预措施。对两组产妇的产程时间和分娩方式进行比较。结果在产程时间和自然分娩率,干预组的产妇明显比对照组低,显著性差异,在统计学上意义(P<0.05)。结论采取助产护理干预措施可以使高龄初产妇的剖宫产率明显降低,降低分娩风险,确保母子的安全。

  19. Advanced Paternal Age and Risk of Musculoskeletal Congenital Anomalies in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that advanced paternal age increases the risk of musculoskeletal congenitalanomalies (CAs) in offspring, but findings are inconsistent. This study aims to investigate the risk of musculoskeletal CAsaccording to paternal age at birth in an unselected population...... riskof syndromic musculoskeletal CAs for fathers aged 40+ years. While associations between paternal age 50+ years andincreased risk of all subtypes of musculoskeletal CAs were indicated, advanced paternal age likely plays a minor role inthe etiology of these anomalies....... covering cohort of children. STUDY DESIGN: A register-based prospective study of 1,605,885 children born in Denmark, 1978–2004, using information from record-linked healthand administrative registers. The association between paternal age and overall musculoskeletal CAs, limb anomalies...

  20. Variation in the gaze, caloric test and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda Sarda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate age related changes on Caloric test, Gaze Test and Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (cVEMP. Materials and Methods: The participants included 50 individuals ranging from 20-70 years having no complaint of dizziness or any major illness. The basic audiological test battery was carried out followed by Caloric test, Gaze Test and the VEMP. Results: There was no consistent pattern seen on the caloric test and gaze test with advancing age while VEMP showed significant increase in latency and decrease in amplitude of both P13 and N23 as the age advances. Discussion: The comparison of the mean SPV values do not show an age related pattern because the caloric test does not challenge the semicircular canal system enough so as to reveal its defects. The age related changes in the cVEMP parameters could be attributed to the age related degeneration in the vestibular sense organ

  1. Relationship between breast development age of idiopathic central precocious puberty girl and maternal age at menarche and maternal height%特发性中枢性性早熟女童乳房发育年龄与母亲初潮年龄及身高相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冰; 李桂梅; 曲敬师; 马丽霞

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To study the association between breast development age of idiopathic central precocious puberty(ICPP) girl and maternal age at menarche and maternal Height.[Methods]1 ) ICPP group included 43 cases and SPT group included 41 cases and 30 cases as control group.2)Compared the maternal age at menarche and height among ICPP,SPT and control groups.3)Linear correlation analysis was made between the age of breast development and maternal age at menarche and height in ICPP girls.[Results]1)Maternal age at menarche in ICPP group were significantly lower than SPT group[(ll.66± l.35)ears vs (12.93±1.66)ears, P<0.01]and than control group[( 11.66± 1.35)ears vs (14.03 ± 0.58)ears,P<0.01 ).There was no significantly difference of them between SPT and control group(P>0.05).2)The maternal height in ICPP group was significantly lower than both SPT and control group[(154.13 ± 3.61 )cm vs (159.80 ± 4.71)cm, (154.13±3.61)cm vs (159.5±2.33)cm P<0.01 respectively].3)There were significanly linear correlation between the age at breast development and maternal age at menarche and height in ICPP(P<0.01, respectively).[Conclusions]1)Breast development age of idiopathic central precocious puberty(ICPP) girl has a large correlation with maternal age at menarche and maternal height.2)Short stature of ICCP girl and mother may have correlation with their early puberty or ICPP.%[目的]探讨特发性中枢性性早熟(idiopathic central precocious puberty,ICPP)女童乳房发育年龄与母亲初潮年龄及母亲身高间的关系.[方法]采用回顾性调查方法,并测查身高、体重第二性征、子宫卵巢、B超及促性腺激素释放激素刺激实验,对ICPP组、单纯性乳房早发育(simple premature thelarche,SPT)组及正常对照组进行研究,并进行相关性分析.[结果]1)ICPP女童的母亲月经初潮年龄(11.66±1.35)岁显著低于SPT组(12.93±1.66)岁和正常对照组(14.03±0.58)岁(P<0.01);2)ICPP女童母亲身高(154.13±3

  2. Psychobiological influences on maternal sensitivity in the context of adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegood, Eric D; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Hibel, Leah C; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated prospective longitudinal relations among an index of poverty-related cumulative risk, maternal salivary cortisol, child negative affect, and maternal sensitivity across the first 2 postpartum years. Participants included 1,180 biological mothers residing in rural and predominantly low-income communities in the United States. Multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that an index of cumulative risk was positively associated with maternal cortisol across the postpartum (study visits occurring at approximately 7, 15, and 24 months postpartum) over and above effects for African American ethnicity, time of day of saliva collection, age, parity status, having given birth to another child, contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and breastfeeding. Consistent with a psychobiological theory of mothering, maternal salivary cortisol was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity observed during parent-child interactions across the first 2 postpartum years over and above effects for poverty-related cumulative risk, child negative affect, as well as a large number of covariates associated with cortisol and maternal sensitivity. Child negative affect expressed during parent-child interactions was negatively associated with observed maternal sensitivity at late (24 months) but not early time points of observation (7 months) and cumulative risk was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity across the postpartum and this effect strengthened over time. Results advance our understanding of the dynamic, transactional, and psychobiological influences on parental caregiving behaviors across the first 2 postpartum years. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337514

  3. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  4. ADVANCE: research project of aging in wiring electric; ADVANCE: Proyecto de investigacion de envejecimiento en cableado electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Ruiz Rabanedo, S.; Testa, J.

    2013-07-01

    This document summarizes the project ADVANCE (Ageing Diagnostics and Pronostics of low-voltage I and C Cables) whose objective is to adapt, optimize and rating techniques of Condition Monitoring for nuclear power plants cables, enabling know the State of degradation of the cable along its length, and together with the establishment of acceptance criteria appropriate to estimate their residual life. In the paper outlines the main stages of the project and the current state of the same.

  5. 14省、市、自治区妇女妊娠年龄与妊娠期高血压疾病关系的探讨%Relationship between maternal age and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莉; 阮炎; 刘亚君; 张为远

    2015-01-01

    .The risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy increased in the 3 age groups above 30 years (OR:30-34 age group =1.3,35-39 age group =2.3,≥ 40 age group =3.3).The risks of chronic hypertension and pregnancy-induced hypertension increased gradually with maternal age.The risks of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia showed a U-type distribution.The risk was the lowest in the 25-29 age group and the highest in the ≥40 age group (OR =3.6 and 3.4).The rate of eclampsia was 0 in the ≥40 age group and the highest in the teenage group (OR =8.7).And it was higher in the 20-24 age group (OR =2.6).No significant difference existed between other age groups and the 25-29 age group.Conclusion The risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy increases gradually with age in pregnant women aged over 35 years.And the risks of preeclampsia and eclampsia rise in teenage pregnancy.Better management helps to reduce the incidence of eclampsia and improve the outcomes of pregnancy in pregnant women with advanced maternal age and teenages.

  6. Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Offspring Academic Achievement at Age 16: The Mediating Role of Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have…

  7. Maternal Responsiveness to Young Children at Three Ages: Longitudinal Analysis of a Multidimensional, Modular, and Specific Parenting Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Responsiveness defines the prompt, contingent, and appropriate reactions parents display to their children in the context of everyday exchanges. Maternal responsiveness occupies a theoretically central position in developmental science and possesses meaningful predictive validity over diverse domains of children's development, yet basic…

  8. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-02-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  9. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  10. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  11. Assessment of trace element concentration distribution in human placenta by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence: Effect of neonate weight and maternal age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element status in human placenta is dependent on maternal-neonatal characteristics. This work was undertaken to investigate the correlation between essential trace element concentrations in the placenta and maternal-neonatal characteristics. Placenta samples were collected from total 61 healthy mothers at gestation between 37 and 41 weeks. These samples were investigated with the restriction that the mother's age was 20-40 years old and the neonate's weight was 1-4 kg. Percent concentrations of trace elements were determined using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The placenta samples were prepared and analyzed without exposure to any chemical treatment. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in placenta tissues were found statistically to vary corresponding to the age of the mother and weight of the neonate. In the subjects, the concentration of Fe and Cu were increased in heavier neonates (p<0.05) and the concentration of Zn was increased with increasing mother age (p<0.05). Consequently, the Fe, Cu and Zn elements appear to have interactive connections in human placenta.

  12. The maternal age-related first trimester risks for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 based on Danish first trimester data from 2005 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, Tanja Schlaikjaer; Sørensen, Steen; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2016-01-01

    number of included women was 605,853. The total number of T21 cases was 1564, T18 cases was 401 and T13 cases was 157. The overall first trimester prevalence per 10,000 pregnancies was 25.8 for T21, 6.6 for T18 and 2.6 for T13. Boltzmann sigmoidal model (Y = Bottom + (top-bottom / (1-exp (V50-X......OBJECTIVES: Most currently used age-related risks of T21, T18 and T13 are based on estimates of the live-birth prevalence, and describe an exponential increase of risk by increased maternal age. We investigated the first trimester prevalence of T21, T18 and T13 in a large population of Danish women....... METHODS: From the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry we got the information of all pre- and postnatally diagnosed fetuses with T21, T18 or T13 between 2005 and 2014 in Denmark. Information on the total number of births and maternal age at birth were gathered from StatBank Denmark. RESULTS: The total...

  13. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia Castro

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24th and 36th weeks of gestation. Main Outcome Measures: Mater...

  14. The Contribution of Advanced Glycation End product (AGE) accumulation to the decline in motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse; Bunt, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan; Schans, Cees van der; Hobbelen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE’s) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative effect of AGE’s on the biomechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissues and the central nervous system have been previously described, the evidence regarding the effect on motor function is fragmen...

  15. 高龄产妇妊娠与分娩结局临床分析%advanced maternal pregnancy and delivery outcome ofclinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢秋云

    2014-01-01

    objective Full-term pregnancy and birth outcomes of clinical analysis. Methods Selected from July 2013 July 2013, is located in the obstetrics and gynecology hospital in maternal hospital as the research object, collected 60 cases. On two groups of maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes were retrospectively analyzed, and comparison research. results The age group of women during pregnancy maternal complications is obviously more than the normal group (P < 0.05); Mothers during pregnancy complications occurrence age group was obviously more than the normal group (P < 0.05); the maternal Age groups of different indicators and begat compared in normal group perinatals significant differences . conclusion In the perinatal period for women should pay attention to health care, prevention and treatment, and actively strengthen care during pregnancy and childbirth, to safety through pregnancy and during delivery.%目的:高龄产妇妊娠与分娩结局临床分析。方法选自2013年7月~2014年7月我院妇产科产妇作为研究对象,共收集60例。对两组产妇的妊娠情况和分娩结局进行回顾性分析,并进行对照研究。结果高龄组产妇在妊娠期间并发症、合并症发生情况明显多于正常组产妇差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高龄组围生儿各指标和正常组围生儿相比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高龄产妇在围生期要注意保健,并积极进行预防和治疗,加强妊娠期和分娩期的监护,以安全度过妊娠期和分娩期。

  16. Maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety is associated with child executive function at 6–9 years age

    OpenAIRE

    BUSS, C.; E. P. Davis; Hobel, C J; Sandman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Because fetal brain development proceeds at an extremely rapid pace, early life experiences have the potential to alter the trajectory of neurodevelopment, which may increase susceptibility for developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is evidence that prenatal maternal stress and anxiety, especially worries specifically related to being pregnant, influence neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the current prospective longitudinal study, we included 89 women for whom serial data were avai...

  17. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained

  18. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ

  20. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  1. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  2. Maternal glycated haemoglobin, pre-gestational weight, pregnancy weight gain and risk of large-for-gestational-age babies: a Danish cohort study of 209 singleton Type 1 diabetic pregnacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.L.; Dethlefsen, Claus; Møller, M.;

    2007-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between maternal glycated haemoglobin in the second half of diabetic pregnancies and the relative risk of delivering large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies, controlling for maternal body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, weight gain, age, White class and smoking...... habits. Methods We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County, Denmark from 1985 to 2003. Data on HbA1c values from the 20th gestational week to term were collected from medical records and the babies were classified as large, normal or small for gestational age. The association...

  3. Maternal age, birth order and other early-life factors: a family-level approach to exploring exceptional survival. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research|Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2013 11|

    OpenAIRE

    Gagnon, Alain; Bourbeau, Robert; Jarry, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides increasing empirical support for the idea that early-life experiences can greatly shape someone’s future health and longevity. Besides shared early-life conditions, within-family variation in maternal age at time of childbirth and birth order have been found to be related to later-life survival. In this study, we examine whether there is a persisting effect of maternal age and birth order on survival to age 104 when both variables are considered and adjusted for season...

  4. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayward Irene

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative

  5. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  6. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Jessica A.; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M.; Powers, Brian E.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Strupp, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) lessens hippocampal dysfunction and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1 g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0 g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17 months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial learning and memory followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing powerful support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for the trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large. PMID:24932939

  7. Changing perspectives of infectious causes of maternal mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ajay; Vijayselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infections significantly contribute to maternal mortality. There is a perceived change in the spectrum of such infections. This study aims to estimate the contribution of various types of infections to maternal mortality. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of maternal death cases that took place between 2003 and 2012 in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality was used to classify the causes of deaths and World Health Organization near-miss criteria were used to identify organ dysfunction that occurred before death. Infections during pregnancy were divided into three groups, i.e., pregnancy-related infections, pregnancy-unrelated infections, and nosocomial infections. Results In this study, 32.53% of maternal deaths were because of some type of infection as the primary cause. The contribution of pregnancy-related infections was comparable with that of pregnancy-unrelated infections (16.03% vs. 16.50%). Metritis with pelvic cellulitis, septic abortions, tuberculosis, malaria, scrub typhus, and H1N1 influenza (influenza A virus subtype) were among the most commonly encountered causes of maternal death due to infections. Another 7.07% of cases developed severe systemic infection during the course of illness as nosocomial infection. A significant majority of mothers were below 30 years of age, were primiparae, had advanced gestational age, and had operative delivery. Cardiovascular and respiratory system dysfunctions were the most common organ dysfunctions encountered. Conclusion The contribution of pregnancy-unrelated infections to maternal deaths is significant. Control of these diverse community-acquired infections holds the key to a reduction in maternal mortality along with the promotion of clean birthing practices. Nosocomial infections should not be underestimated as a contributor to maternal mortality. PMID:26692770

  8. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFranke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain MRIs. The Brain Age Gap Estimation (i.e., BrainAGE score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM completed an MRI at 3T, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001, whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034, whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor (TNFα levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe depression. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019 and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025. In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM.

  9. A test of maternal human chorionic gonadotropin during pregnancy as an adaptive filter of human gestations

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckner, Tim A; Saxton, Katherine B.; Pearl, Michelle; Currier, Robert; Kharrazi, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The risk of abnormalities and morbidity among live births increases with advanced maternal age. Explanations for this elevated morbidity invoke several maternal mechanisms. The relaxed filter stringency (RFS) hypothesis asserts that mothers, nearing the end of their reproductive lifespan, reduce the stringency of a screen of offspring quality in utero based on life-history traits of parity and interbirth interval (IBI). A separate line of research implicates human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...

  10. Role of maternal serum ferritin as a predictive marker in intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Bindal; Zeepee Godha; Reema Kohli; V. K. Kadam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is most common and distressing complication for both obstetrician and neonatologist. Measurement of maternal serum ferritin has also been used as a predictive marker of increase risk of IUGR. In pregnancy, ferritin level decreases with advancing gestation. Its lowest level is seen around 30-32 weeks of gestational age after which its concentration reaches plateau level. Methods: Total 326 antenatal women enrolled in the study. Maternal ser...

  11. Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Tomé

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition in a cohort of Brazilian schoolchildren from 1987 to 1989. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of 8- to 10-year-old schoolchildren born in Ribeirão Preto in 1978/79. We considered children with a BMI <5th percentile (P5 to be malnourished, children with P5³BMImaternal smoking during pregnancy, marital status, and schooling and type of school using nominal logistic regression. A total of 2797 schoolchildren were evaluated. There was a significant prevalence of malnutrition (9.5% and excess weight already tended to increase (15.7%, while 6.4% of the children were obese. Excess weight was more prevalent among children attending private schools (odds ratio, OR = 2.27 and firstborn children (OR = 1.69. Maternal smoking during pregnancy protected against malnutrition (OR = 0.56, while children with lower birth weight were at higher risk for malnutrition (OR = 4.23. We conclude that a nutritional transition was under way while malnutrition was still present, but excess weight and related factors were already emerging.

  12. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction

  13. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J. [Department of Stomatology, Air Force General Hospital PLA, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  14. Evolution of maternal effect senescence

    OpenAIRE

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Nussey, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory underpins our understanding of the aging process. The many aspects of reproduction that decline with maternal age in animals include number of offspring born, offspring size, and neonatal survival. Current theories of aging ignore potential differences in the evolutionary pressures on these traits. Here, we combine two important branches of evolutionary theory to allow consideration of age-dependent selection at both offspring and maternal levels. We show that we should ac...

  15. Advanced age decreases local calcium signaling in endothelium of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, Erika M; Everhart, Jesse E; Segal, Steven S

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with vascular dysfunction that impairs tissue perfusion, physical activity, and the quality of life. Calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) is integral to vasomotor control, exemplified by localized Ca(2+) signals within EC projections through holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Within these microdomains, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization is integral to smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation via coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. However, the effects of aging on local EC Ca(2+) signals (and thereby signaling between ECs and SMCs) remain unclear, and these events have not been investigated in vivo. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aging affects either the number or the size of IEL holes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that local EC Ca(2+) signaling is impaired with advanced age along with a reduction in IEL holes. In anesthetized mice expressing a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent protein (GCaMP2) selectively in ECs, our findings illustrate that for mesenteric arteries controlling splanchnic blood flow the frequency of spontaneous local Ca(2+) signals in ECs was reduced by ∼85% in old (24-26 mo) vs. young (3-6 mo) animals. At the same time, the number (and total area) of holes per square millimeter of IEL was reduced by ∼40%. We suggest that diminished signaling between ECs and SMCs contributes to dysfunction of resistance arteries with advanced age.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/aging-impairs-endothelial-ca2-signaling/. PMID:26945073

  16. Serum folate levels among healthy infants aged 6–8 months: relation to infants’ nutritional status indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ernawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 6–8 months and the relation to infants’ nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A cross–sectional design was implemented in infants aged 6–8 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a one–month semi–quantitative FFQ and a 24–hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infant’s feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folate–rich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status

  17. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children’s BMI at 7 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children’s BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children’s BMI or risk of overweight.

  18. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change. PMID:26965507

  19. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  20. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  1. A REVIEW ON ADVANCED GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS (AGE AND THEIR ROLE IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRTESH RAUT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex and heterogeneous group of compounds known as “Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE” have been associated with diabetes related complications. Till date it is not known if they are the cause or consequence of the complications observed. The chemistry of AGE formation and their patho-biochemistry particularly related to the diabetic microvascular complications of nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy also their role in the accelerated vasculopathy observed in diabetes are discussed. Also, the concept of carbonyl stress as a cause of AGE toxicity and the alterations in the concentrations of AGE in the body, particularly in relation to diabetes and its complications such as nephropathy are also mentioned and also along with age. We have also highlighted the problems relating to current methods of AGE detection and measurement which include the lack of a universally established method of detection or unit of measurement. A review of the agents used for the treatment of advanced glycation end-products accumulation is also mentioned.

  2. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during on...

  3. Depressão materna e a saúde mental de escolares Maternal depression and school-age mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vilela Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A depressão materna tem sido apontada como uma condição pouco favorecedora ao desenvolvimento infantil, mostrando-se associada a dificuldades emocionais e comportamentais. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e analisar na literatura indexada artigos que abordem o impacto da depressão materna para as crianças em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se à pesquisa nos indexadores Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, Psyc Info, considerando a produção dos últimos cinco anos (2002-2007. Foram identificados e analisados 30 artigos empíricos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se distribuição semelhante quanto aos delineamentos longitudinais e transversais, características das amostras e formas de avaliação. As coletas de dados foram realizadas em contextos diversos com uma variedade de recursos e informantes. Depressão materna associou-se a dificuldades apresentadas pelas crianças, tais como problemas comportamentais, sintomas depressivos, prejuízos cognitivos e sociais, independentemente do momento de primeira exposição à depressão materna e dos delineamentos adotados, sendo o prejuízo potencializado na presença de comorbidades psiquiátricas. CONCLUSÕES: A depressão materna configurou-se como fator de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil, com impacto negativo para as crianças em idade escolar. Do ponto de vista da saúde mental, considera-se relevante maior atenção às crianças que convivem com tal condição, visando à detecção precoce das eventuais dificuldades como forma de instrumentar práticas preventivas.BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has been identified as a possibly harmful condition for child development, showing to be associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties. OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyze articles in the indexed literature addressing the impact of maternal depression for school-age children. METHODS: The procedure was made via the electronic databases Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Index Psi, and Psyc Info

  4. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  5. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  6. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  7. 高龄产妇妊娠晚期血脂水平与围产结局%Serum lipid levels in Advanced maternal during late pregnancy and perinatal outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 王超; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高龄产妇妊娠血脂水平与围产结局。方法:将在本院住院治疗的113例妊娠晚期高龄孕产妇(研究组)作为观察对象,与同期妊娠的孕产妇(对照组)比较,对两组妊娠期孕产妇的晚期血脂水平与围产结局进行观察。结果:妊娠晚期高龄产妇较正常组血清血脂水平在总胆固醇(TC),低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C),高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C),统计学上差异无意义(P>0.05);而在甘油三酯(TG)方面差异明显(P0.05);while it had significant difference in the triglyceride (TG) (P<0.05). It also had significant differences in the perinatal outcome of fetal distress, cesarean section and pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes and other complications (P<0.05). Conclusion:The effective control of serum lipid levels can improve the perinatal outcome of women with advanced maternal age.

  8. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care. PMID:20175680

  9. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26–31 weeks) and late (32–41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16–25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) pmother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26701122

  10. Effect of maternal Schistosoma mansoni infection and praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni infection and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tweyongyere

    Full Text Available Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years.In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott, offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years.Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4% had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not.We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood schistosomiasis. This might have

  11. Edad materna y defectos del tubo neural: evidencia para un efecto mayor en espina bífida que anencefalia Influence of maternal age on the risk for neural tube defects, a meta analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent evidence from birth order data suggest that maternal factors can differently influence anencephaly and spina bifida. Aim: To study the influence of maternal age on the risk for neural tube defects. Material and methods: A meta-analysis of published data on neural tube defects (NTDs was carried out to determine whether there is an increased risk to have a child with NTDs for younger and older mothers and if this risk differs depending on the type of NTD. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by maternal age (five- or ten-year intervals were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Results: The analysis supports the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of having an offspring with NTDs for mothers 40 years of age or older. However, this effect is stronger for spina bifida than for anencephaly. There is also evidence that mothers 19 years old or younger have a higher risk for having a child with spina bifida. Conclusions: Maternal age influences the risk of having an offspring with neural tube defects (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 62-70

  12. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  13. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  14. Premature dyad separation in meiosis II is the major segregation error with maternal age in mouse oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Y.; Lane, SIR; Jones, KT

    2014-01-01

    As women get older their oocytes become susceptible to chromosome mis-segregation. This generates aneuploid embryos, leading to increased infertility and birth defects. Here we examined the provenance of aneuploidy by tracking chromosomes and their kinetochores in oocytes from young and aged mice. Changes consistent with chromosome cohesion deterioration were found with age, including increased interkinetochore distance and loss of the centromeric protector of cohesion SGO2 in metaphase II ar...

  15. Age Affects the Expression of Maternal Care and Subsequent Behavioural Development of Offspring in a Precocial Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Florent; Coignard, Maud; Houdelier, Cécilia; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Lumineau, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study ai...

  16. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  17. The effects of maternal depression and use of antidepressants during pregnancy on risk of a child small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Mørch; Grøn, Randi; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Andersen, Per Kragh; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder.......Use of antidepressants during pregnancy has been associated with an increased rate of children small for gestational age (SGA), but it is unclear whether this is due to an effect of the underlying depressive disorder....

  18. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  19. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  20. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: The role of preschool talk exposure,maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Veslemoy; Grover, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua Fahey

    2013-01-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children’s second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twenty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in th...

  1. Edad materna y defectos del tubo neural: evidencia para un efecto mayor en espina bífida que anencefalia Influence of maternal age on the risk for neural tube defects, a meta analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Silvia Castillo Taucher

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence from birth order data suggest that maternal factors can differently influence anencephaly and spina bifida. Aim: To study the influence of maternal age on the risk for neural tube defects. Material and methods: A meta-analysis of published data on neural tube defects (NTDs) was carried out to determine whether there is an increased risk to have a child with NTDs for younger and older mothers and if this risk differs depending on the type of NTD. All data available ...

  2. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  3. Transfer entropy analysis of maternal and fetal heart rate coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Endo, Miyuki; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-08-01

    Although evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous model-based studies, knowledge about the mechanism and patterns of the coupling during gestation is still limited. In this study, a model-free method based on Transfer Entropy (TE) was applied to quantify the maternal-fetal heart rate couplings in both directions. Furthermore, analysis of the lag at which TE was maximum and its changes throughout gestation, provided more information about the mechanism of coupling and its latency. Experimental results based on fetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and maternal ECG showed the evidence of coupling for 62 out of 65 healthy mothers and fetuses in each direction, by statistically validating against the surrogate pairs. The fetuses were divided into three gestational age groups: early (16-25 weeks), mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation. The maximum TE from maternal to fetal heart rate significantly increased from early to mid gestation, while the coupling delay on both directions decreased significantly from mid to late gestation. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information about the changes in fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26738115

  4. New Perspectives on Rodent Models of Advanced Paternal Age: Relevance to Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including autism and schizophrenia. With respect to biological mechanisms for this association, there are many more germline cell divisions in the life history of a sperm relative to that of an oocyte. This leads to more opportunities for copy error mutations in germ cells from older fathers. Evidence also suggests that epigenetic patterning in the sperm from older men is altered. Rodent models provide an experimental platform to examine the association between paternal age and brain development. Several rodent models of advanced paternal age (APA have been published with relevance to intermediate phenotypes related to autism. All four published APA models vary in key features creating a lack of consistency with respect to behavioural phenotypes. A consideration of common phenotypes that emerge from these APA-related mouse models may be informative in the exploration of the molecular and neurobiological correlates of APA.

  5. The effects of female age on fecundity and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, D; Balen, A H

    2001-01-01

    In industrialized countries worldwide, women are delaying childbearing for a variety of reasons, including pursuit of career, greater financial independence, improved and more accessible contraception and longer life expectancy. In terms of fertility and maternity, those aged > or = 35 years are considered to be of advanced maternal age and there are usually marked reductions in both the fecundity rate for spontaneous conceptions and the success rates with assisted conception. These decreases are thought to be due mainly to oocyte ageing, and the established success of oocyte donation from younger individuals to older recipients supports this contention. For those who achieve a pregnancy at an advanced maternal age there is a greater likelihood of aneuploidy (assuming conception with the woman's own oocytes), hypertensive and other medical disorders, birth by Caesarean section and maternal mortality. However, most of the complications associated with advanced maternal age are caused by age-related confounding variables, and older premenopausal women in good health should not require special attention. The data on perinatal mortality rates are encouraging and in the absence of congenital abnormalities perinatal mortality is probably not much increased, if at all, in older mothers. Pregnancy is now possible for postmenopausal women with the application of oocyte donation, but these individuals have a significantly higher likelihood of cardiovascular ageing and should be considered at increased risk of vascular complications during pregnancy. PMID:11591256

  6. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  7. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    A1c values after 20th gestational week were collected. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the effect various predictors of birthweight in both entire cohort (n=501) and in a subset with available weight of sibling (n=139). Sibling weight was calculated as relative to expected weight...... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....

  8. Successful Advanced Maternal Age Pregnancy with Mosaic Turner Syndrome Conceived after Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Murakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC. The patient’s ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  9. Social Competitiveness and Plasticity of Neuroendocrine Function in Old Age: Influence of Neonatal Novelty Exposure and Maternal Care Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Akers, Katherine G.; Yang, Zhen; DelVecchio, Dominic P.; Reeb, Bethany C.; Romeo, Russell D.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Tang, Akaysha C.

    2008-01-01

    Early experience is known to have a profound impact on brain and behavioral function later in life. Relatively few studies, however, have examined whether the effects of early experience remain detectable in the aging animal. Here, we examined the effects of neonatal novelty exposure, an early stimulation procedure, on late senescent rats' ability to win in social competition. During the first 3 weeks of life, half of each litter received daily 3-min exposures to a novel environment while the...

  10. Differential effects of exposure to maternal obesity or maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in the sheep on insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle of the offspring at 4 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Nicholas

    Full Text Available Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation.

  11. Infant emotional distress, maternal restriction at a home meal, and child BMI gain through age 6years in the Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Johnson, Cassandra; Tripicchio, Gina; Faith, Myles S

    2016-04-01

    Infant temperament and parental feeding practices may be risk factors for childhood obesity, however most studies have relied upon parent-report assessments. We tested whether infant emotional distress and maternal restrictive feeding at 12-months of age, assessed observationally at a home feeding interaction, predicted child BMI through age 6years. We conducted a prospective observational study of 86 children (34 girls and 52 boys, from 55 adoptive and 31 non-adoptive families) enrolled in the Colorado Adoption Project. Mother-infant feeding interactions were video-recorded during a home snack or meal at year 1, and child anthropometrics (length or height, and weight) were assessed at years 1 through 6. The main outcome measures were child weight-for-length at year 1 and body mass index (BMI: kg/m(2)) at years 2-6. Results of generalized linear models indicated that greater infant emotional distress at 12-months predicted greater increases in child weight status through age 6years, B=0.62 and odds ratio (OR)=1.87. In separate analyses, restrictive feeding interacted with child sex in predicting weight status trajectories (p=.012). Male infants whose mothers displayed any compared to no restriction at year 1 showed a downward BMI trajectory from 2 to 6years; for female infants, exposure to any compared to no restriction prompts predicted increasing BMI from 4 to 6years. In sum, early obesity prevention strategies should pay greater attention to infant temperament, especially distress and negative affect, and how parents respond to such cues. Additionally, 'responsive feeding' strategies that provide an alternative to restriction warrant greater research during infancy. PMID:26872074

  12. The HI HOPES data set of deaf children under the age of 6 in South Africa: maternal suspicion, age of identification and newborn hearing screening

    OpenAIRE

    Störbeck, Claudine; Young, Alys

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of deafness before 3 months of age substantially improves the socio-linguistic and cognitive development of deaf children. Existing studies demonstrating the feasibility of newborn hearing screening in South Africa have used small samples unrepresentative of general population characteristics. This study establishes the characteristics of the largest data set of deaf infants and their families in South Africa on which there is baseline and longitudinal data (n = 532)...

  13. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Zhang; Jonas Bacelis; Candice Lengyel; Kari Teramo; Mikko Hallman; Øyvind Helgeland; Stefan Johansson; Ronny Myhre; Verena Sengpiel; Pål Rasmus Njølstad; Bo Jacobsson; Louis Muglia

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Soon after the birth of a baby, doting parents send messages to friends and relatives or post information on social media sites to let everyone know when their new baby boy or girl was born. They may also post information about how heavy he/she was at birth and his/her length. These pregnancy outcomes, together with gestational age at birth (the length of time that a baby has spent developing in its mother’s womb), affect the baby’s immediate health and survival. I...

  14. Maternal Responsiveness Predicts Child Language at Ages 3 and 4 in a Community-Based Sample of Slow-to-Talk Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sophie; Levickis, Penny; Down, Kate; Nicholls, Ruth; Wake, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal responsiveness has been shown to predict child language outcomes in clinical samples of children with language delay and non-representative samples of typically developing children. An effective and timely measure of maternal responsiveness for use at the population level has not yet been established. Aims: To determine…

  15. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body ma...

  16. Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products as a Molecular Mechanism for Aging as a Risk Factor in Osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J. de; Verzijl, N.; Wenting-Wijk, M.J.G. van; Jacobs, K.M.G.; El, B. van; Roermund, P.M. van; Bank, R.A.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Lafeber, F.P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and disabling chronic conditions affecting the elderly. Its etiology is largely unknown, but age is the most prominent risk factor. The current study was designed to test whether accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which

  17. Well-Being Affects Changes in Perceptual Speed in Advanced Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence for a Dynamic Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstorf, Denis; Lovden, Martin; Rocke, Christina; Smith, Jacqui; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2007-01-01

    This study examined competing hypotheses about dynamic cross-domain associations between perceptual speed and well-being in advanced old age. We applied the bivariate dual change score model (J. J. McArdle & F. Hamagami, 2001) to 13-year incomplete longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 516, 70-103…

  18. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  19. Advanced Age and Mild Thyrotoxicosis are Associated with Nodular Goiter in Graves Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Yener

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate predictors of nodular goiter in Graves Disease (GD.Materials and Methods: A total of 202 consecutive patients (mean age: 45; 145 female, 57 male were enrolled. All patients were treated with antithyroid drugs as initial therapy. TSH, FT3, FT4, TRAb, ATPO, and ATG were measured. Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid ultrasonography were performed, and thyroid volume and nodule diameter were assessed. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration was performed on thyroid nodules ≥8mm. Results: Diffuse goiter was detected in 51% of patients. Solitary nodules were detected in 16%, and multi-nodular disease in 33%. Mean nodule diameter was 8.82 mm. Nodular disease was slightly more common in women (p=0.063. Patients with nodular GD were older (p=0.004, had lower levels of FT3 (p=0.016 and TRAB (p=0.002 when compared with subjects with diffuse GD. Age (OR:6.867 was the independent variable predicting nodular GD. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of nodules was associated with advanced age and milder thyrotoxicosis. Apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells due to excess iodine might interfere with nodule formation, and lead to diffuse goiter in severe thyrotoxicosis. Because of increased rate if malignancy in GD, comprehensive evaluation of thyroid nodules of any size is mandatory. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 1-4

  20. Contingent negative variation in the aged with memory impairment in the course of advance towards dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Yianjian; Jiang Zhanglin; Wu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Aim To investigate the feature and general trend of the contingent negativc variation (CNV) in the aged with memory iapairment(AMI) in the course of advance towards dementia. Method CNV and Hasegawa's dementia scale for the aged(HDS)in 69 of AMI(serving as the study group) and 22 of normal elderly subjects selected from well-matched in age(serving as the control group) were examined at first. 2-3 years later, 22 of the stuty group were examined again. The wave forms and relevant indexes of CNV were observed and analyzed. Results The results showed that the RT and the time of the PINY was longer, the amplitudes and the areas of the EW and the whole wave of the CNV decreased along with the development of the memory and cognitive dysfunction in AMI. Conclusion A significant relationship was observed between severity of cognitive dysfunction, and the reduction degree of amplitude, prolongatia of RT on CNV. The CNV could constitute a valuable clue for the study of pathophysiological brain function in the early stage of mental deterioration and useful for dynamically observing the course and degree of the cognitive dysfunction in AMI.

  1. Maternal Enterovirus Infection during Pregnancy as a Risk Factor in Offspring Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes between 15 and 30 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elfving

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal enterovirus infections during pregnancy may increase the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether gestational enterovirus infections increase the offspring's risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. Serum samples from 30 mothers without diabetes whose offspring developed type 1 diabetes between 15 and 25 years of age were analyzed for enterovirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies and enterovirus genome (RNA, and compared to a control group. Among the index mothers, 9/30 (30% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and none was positive for enterovirus RNA. In the control group, 14/90 (16% were enterovirus IgM-positive, and 4/90 (4% were positive for enterovirus RNA (n.s.. Boys of enterovirus IgM-positive mothers had approximately 5 times greater risk of developing diabetes (OR 4.63; 95% CI 1.22–17.6, as compared to boys of IgM-negative mothers (P<.025. These results suggest that gestational enterovirus infections may be related to the risk of offspring developing type 1 diabetes in adolescence and young adulthood.

  2. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  3. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  4. The Effect of Midwifery Care for Aged Maternal on the Mode of Delivery and Birth Process%高龄产妇中实施助产护理干预后对分娩方式、产程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新侠

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究高龄产妇中实施助产护理干预后对分娩方式和产程的影响。方法选取我院2013年6月~2014年10月收治的高龄产妇80例为对象,将其随机分为2组,观察组40例,对照组40例。对照组采用常规护理的方式,观察组采用助产护理的方式,对产妇分娩时的方式、产程进行对比分析。结果观察组的护理效果优于对照组。结论对高龄产妇实施助产护理有利于提高产妇的自然分娩率,缩短生产时间。%Objective To discuss the effect of midwifery care for aged maternal on the mode of delivery and birth process.MethodsFrom June 2013 to October 2014, 80 cases of elderly women were taken as the object and randomly divided into two groups, 40 cases in observation group of, 40 cases in the control group. Control group received routine nursing care, observation group received nursing and midwifery, analyzed child birth and birth process.Results The nursing effect of the observation group was signiifcantly better than that of the control group.Conclusion Midwifery care for patients with advanced maternal age can greatly improve the rate of natural delivery of maternal, shorten production time.

  5. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  6. Maternal age, education level and migration: Socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy in a field study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanik Feride A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy has been associated with socioeconomic determinants and it is recognized as the most important preventable risk factor for an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. Turkey has national data on the prevalance of smoking during pregnancy; however there is no data on the characteristics of the high-risk population. This is a field study that aims to identify socioeconomic determinants for smoking during pregnancy as well as differentiating the daily and occasional smokers. Method Cross sectional study was conducted among women with 0-5 year old children living in the area served by Primary Health Care Center (PHCC in Burhaniye, Turkey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the researchers during January-March 2008 at the home of the participants with 83.7% response rate (n = 256. The relation of "smoking during pregnacy" and "daily smoking during pregnancy" with the independent variables was determined with χ2 tests. Women's age, educational level, number of previous births, place of origin, migration, partner's educational level, poverty, perceived income, social class were evaluated. Statistical significance was achieved when the p value was less than 0.05. The variables in relation with the dependent variables in the χ2 tests were included in the forward-stepwise logistic analysis. Results Prevalance of smoking during pregnancy was 22.7%. The majority (74.1% were daily smokers. Young mothers ( Conclusions Systematic attention should be paid to socioeconomic determinants in smoking for pregnant women, especially in countries like Turkey with high rates of infant and mother mortality and substantial health inequalities. Young mothers (

  7. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs Accumulation by Pyridoxamine Modulates Glomerular and Mesangial Cell Estrogen Receptor α Expression in Aged Female Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira-Simon

    Full Text Available Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2 replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous. We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE accumulation, an important source of oxidant stress, contributes to these glomerular ER expression alterations. We treated 19-month old ovariectomized female mice with pyridoxamine (Pyr, a potent AGE inhibitor, in the presence or absence of E2 replacement. Glomerular ERα mRNA expression was upregulated in mice treated with both Pyr and E2 replacement and TGFβ mRNA expression decreased compared to controls. Histological sections of kidneys demonstrated decreased type IV collagen deposition in mice receiving Pyr and E2 compared to placebo control mice. In addition, anti-AGE defenses Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 and advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1 were also upregulated in glomeruli following treatment with Pyr and E2. Mesangial cells isolated from all groups of mice demonstrated similar ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression changes to those of whole glomeruli. To demonstrate that AGE accumulation contributes to the observed age-related changes in the glomeruli of aged female mice, we treated mesangial cells from young female mice with AGE-BSA and found similar downregulation of ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression. These results suggest that inhibition of intracellular AGE accumulation with pyridoxamine may protect glomeruli against age-related oxidant stress by preventing an increase of TGFβ production and by regulation of the estrogen receptor.

  8. Advanced age and the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implan-tation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama Alsara; Ahmad Alsarah; Heather Laird-Fick

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is common in the elderly. Although surgical replacement of the valve has been the gold standard of management, many patients have been excluded from surgery because they were very old, frail, or had co-morbidities that increased operative risks. In the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a new treatment option suitable for these patients. This article reviews the available literature on the role of TAVI in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis. Published studies showed that elderly individuals who underwent TAVI experienced better in-hospital recovery, and similar short and mid-term mortality compared to those underwent surgical treatment of AS. However, long-term outcomes of TAVI in elderly patients are still unknown. The available data in the literature on the ef-fect of advanced age on clinical outcomes of TAVI are limited, but the data that are available suggest that TAVI is a beneficial and tolerable procedure in very old patients. Some of the expected complications after TAVI are reported more in the oldest patients such as vascular in-jures. Other complications were comparable in TAVI patients regardless of their age group. However, very old patients may need closer monitoring to avoid further morbidities and mortality.

  9. Parental age effects on cortical morphology in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P; Gilliam, M; Malek, M; Rodriguez, N; Greenstein, D; Clasen, L; Evans, A; Rapoport, J; Giedd, J

    2012-06-01

    The age at which a parent has a child impacts the child's cognition and risk for mental illness. It appears that this risk is curvilinear, with both age extremes associated with lower intelligence and increased prevalence of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known of the neural mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon. We extracted lobar volumes, surface areas, and cortical thickness from 489 neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired on 171 youth. Using linear mixed model regression, we determined the association between parental age and offspring's neuroanatomy, adjusting for offspring's age, sex, intelligence, and parental socioeconomic class. For gray matter volumes, quadratic paternal and maternal age terms contributed significantly (maternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.2, P = 0.03; paternal quadratic age effect: t = -2.4, P = 0.02) delineating an inverted "U" relationship between parental age and gray matter volume. Cortical volume increased with both advancing paternal and maternal age until around the early 30s after which it fell. Paternal age effects were more pronounced on cortical surface area, whereas maternal age impacted more on cortical thickness. There were no significant effects of parental age on white matter volumes. These parental age effects on cerebral morphology may form part of the link between parental age extremes and suboptimal neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21817090

  10. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  11. Effects of pregnancy on maternal work tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Glenn, Nicole M; Heenan, Aaron P; Davies, Gregory A L

    2005-04-01

    This review summarizes current information on the tolerance of healthy pregnant women and their fetuses to acute strenuous exertion. Maximal aerobic power, expressed in L x min(-1), is not significantly affected in women who maintain an active lifestyle, whereas values expressed in ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) decline with advancing gestational age in relation to maternal/fetal weight gain. Efficiency during standard exercise testing and the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (Tvent) also appear to be unaffected by pregnancy, but the ability to utilize carbohydrate and exercise anaerobically during brief strenuous exercise may be reduced. Fetal responses to short strenuous exercise are usually moderate and revert to baseline values within approximately 30 min postexercise. Future studies should examine alveolar gas exchange kinetics at the start of exercise and during recovery from both moderate and strenuous exertion. Existing studies of the responses of pregnant women to prolonged exercise have focused primarily on substrate utilization and glucose homeostasis. Other maternal responses to prolonged exercise that should be examined include acid-base regulation, temperature regulation, fluid and electrolyte balance, and perception of effort. Fetal reactions should also be examined in relation to maternal responses. Until evidence-based, occupation-specific guidelines become available, it is recommended that pregnant women use the Joint SOGC/CSEP Clinical Practice Guideline: Exercise in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period, published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2003). PMID:15981789

  12. Understanding the meaning of past, present and future in advanced age : very old person's experiences of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Margareta

    2000-01-01

    The overall aim of the thesis was to understand elderly people's lived experiences of ageing and their life situation in very old age. The participating persons have been involved in and followed through all studies in the thesis. In study I some characteristics of quality of life in old age were illustrated by means of empirical data and Allardt's definition of the concept. To the elderly people investigated, quality of life meant contentment and a peaceful life, independen...

  13. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Berghella; Alessandro Ghidini; Giancarlo Mari; Mariarosaria Di Tommaso; Silvia Vannuccini; Filiberto Maria Severi; Felice Petraglia

    2013-01-01

    The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregn...

  14. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age--A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Torres-Espinola

    Full Text Available Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring.The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life.This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56, obese (n:64, gestational diabetic (n:79, and healthy normal weight controls (n:132. At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment.At 6 months (n=215, we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035 for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197, the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups.Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts further confirmative studies to explore

  15. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  16. The most extensive Holocene advance in the Stauning Alper, East Greenland, occurred in the Little Ice Age

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Brenda L.; Baroni, Carlo; Denton, George H.

    2008-01-01

    We present glacial geologic and chronologic data concerning the Holocene ice extent in the Stauning Alper of East Greenland. The retreat of ice from the late-glacial position back into the mountains was accomplished by at least 11 000 cal years B.P. The only recorded advance after this time occurred during the past few centuries (the Little Ice Age). Therefore, we postulate that the Little Ice Age event represents the maximum Holocene ice extent in this part of East Greenland.

  17. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  18. Prenatal ultrasound assessment of 738 cases of advanced maternal fetal growth status%产前超声评估738例高龄孕妇胎儿生长发育状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海军; 薛丽华

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察产前超声评估高龄孕妇胎儿生长发育状况,总结其临床诊断价值。方法:选取我院2002年10月~2012年10月738例高龄孕妇,均进行产前超声检查,对其胎儿的超声检查结果进行回顾性分析。结果:738例孕妇胎儿中有17例胎儿生长发育异常,跟踪随访;738例高龄孕妇胎儿经分娩及引产证实共有19例异常,超声检出率达89.5%。结论:产前超声对评估高龄孕妇胎儿生长发育状况具有很高的准确性,能够协助临床尽可能早期发现胎儿畸形,及时处理,从而降低胎儿出生缺陷的发生率。%Objective:To observe the fetal growth status of prenatal ultrasound assessment of advanced maternal, and summarize the clinical diagnostic value of it. Methods: 738 cases of advanced maternal in our hospital from October 2002 to October 2012 were selected; those patients were given prenatal ultrasound assessment, fetal ultrasound results were retrospective analyzed. Results: In 738 cases, 17 cases of pregnant women and fetal growth abnormalities follow up after prenatal ultrasound assessment. 738 cases of advanced maternal fetal through childbirth and abortion were 19 cases confirmed that have abnormal; ultrasound detection rate was 89.5%. Conclusion:Prenatal ultrasound assessment with high accuracy in fetal growth and development of advanced maternal, as far as possible to assist clinicians in the early detection of fetal malformations, timely treatment, thereby reduces the incidence of birth defects in the fetus.

  19. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  20. Plasma advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and NF-κB activity are independent determinants of diastolic and pulse pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; Dougherty, Sonia L;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: High levels of circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can initiate chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) with each of these factors independently associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Therefore, our objective was to...

  1. Maternal intelligence-mental health and child neuropsychological development at age 14 months Inteligencia y salud mental maternas y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Forns

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal intelligence-mental health and neuropsychological development at age 14 months in a normal population, taking into account maternal occupational social class and education. Methods: We prospectively studied a population-based birth cohort, which forms part of the INMA (Environment and Childhood Project. Cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed at 14 months using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Maternal intelligence and mental health were assessed by the Cattell and Cattell test and the General Health Questionnaire-12 respectively. Results: We observed a crude association between maternal intelligence and cognitive development in children at 14 months but this association disappeared when maternal education was included. The associations were stratified by maternal education and occupational social class. Within the manual maternal occupational social class, there was a significant difference in cognitive development between children whose mothers scored in the highest tertile of maternal IQ and those whose mothers scored in the lowest tertile. In contrast, no differences were observed among children whose mothers were in the non-manual occupational social class. Conclusions: The association between maternal intelligence and child cognitive development differed by occupational social class. While this association was not confounded by education or other variables in manual occupational social classes, maternal education explained this association among advantaged occupational social classes.Objetivos: Este estudio exploró la relación entre inteligencia y salud mental materna y desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil a los 14 meses de edad en población normal, teniendo en cuenta la clase social basada en la ocupación y el nivel educativo maternos. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de cohortes de nacimiento englobado dentro del proyecto INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. El

  2. Estudo da morbidade e da mortalidade perinatal em maternidades: II - mortalidade perinatal segundo peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e hábito de fumar da mãe A study of perinatal morbidity and mortality in maternity hospitals: II - perinatal mortality according to birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and maternal smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a influência de variáveis como peso ao nascer, idade materna, assistência pré-natal e tabagismo materno. Do estudo dos 12.999 nascimentos (vivos e mortos ocorridos em nove maternidades no período de um ano, verificou-se que a mortalidade perinatal é muito maior para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso (665,3 ‰ para peso até 1.500 g, diminuindo à medida que aumenta o peso ao nascer. Também nos casos de mães jovens (menores de 15 anos ou mães com idade superior a 35 anos esse coeficiente foi mais elevado (45,5 ‰ para mães com menos de 15 anos e 47,0 ‰ para mães entre 35 a 39 anos. A faixa imediatamente superior - 40 a 44 anos - apresentou a mais alta mortalidade perinatal: 61,3 ‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. O número de consultas realizadas no pré-natal tem importância para a diminuição da gestação de alto risco. Mães que fizeram 7 ou mais consultas no pré-natal tiveram a menor mortalidade no período (17,7‰ nascidos vivos e nascidos mortos. Já o hábito materno de fumar influencia a mortalidade quando a quantidade é de mais de 10 cigarros por dia. A mortalidade perinatal dos produtos de mães que fumavam menos de 10 cigarros por dia não diferiu das taxas de mortalidade para as mães não-fumantes.The influence of birth weight, maternal age, prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy are analysed. Of 12,999 births (live and stillbirths ocurring in nine maternity hospitals during one year, the greatest perinatal mortality rate (PM was that of low birth weight babies (665.3 ‰ for those weighing less than 1,500 g. The PM decreases with increasing weight. Young mothers (less than 15 years of age and women aged 35 or more also had higher Perinatal Mortality rates - 45.5 ‰ for the former and 47.0 ‰ for the latter. Prenatal care is important for the decrease of high risk in pregnancy. Mothers who had made 7 or more consultations during pregnancy had the lowest PM (17.7 ‰ live and stillbirths

  3. Protein and folic acid content in the maternal diet determine lipid metabolism and response to high-fat feeding in rat progeny in an age-dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Stachowiak, Monika; Gawecki, Jan; Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Ewa; Tubacka, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diet during gestation can exert a long-term effect on the progeny’s health by programming their developmental scheme and metabolism. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of maternal diet on lipid metabolism in 10- and 16-week-old rats. Pregnant dams were fed one of four diets: a normal protein and normal folic acid diet (NP-NF), a protein-restricted and normal folic acid diet (PR-NF), a protein-restricted and folic-acid-supplemented diet (PR-FS), or a normal protein and ...

  4. Diabetic kidney disease: a role for advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Aowen; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients are postulated to be in a perpetual state of oxidative stress and inflammation at sites where chronic complications occur. The accumulation of AGEs derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources (such as the diet) have been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic complications, particularly nephropathy. There has been some interest in investigating the potential for reducing the AGE burden in chronic disease, through the action of AGE "clearance" receptors, such as the advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1). Reducing the burden of AGEs has been linked to attenuation of inflammation, slower progression of diabetic complications (in particular vascular and renal complications) and has been shown to extend lifespan. To date, however, there have been no direct investigations into whether AGE-R1 has any role in modulating normal kidney function, or specifically during the development and progression of diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge around the mechanistic function of AGE-R1 and the implications of this for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:27270766

  5. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Saeki, Tomoko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Nishino, Hoyoku; Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2006-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has manifold biological activities including immunomodulative and antioxidative effects. It is used as a major component of nonprescription tonics and cold-prevention medicines or dietary supplements. Advanced-cancer patients decline in immune functions and quality of life (QOL). The study's subjects were patients with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer. In a randomized double-blind trial, AGE was administered to one group and a placebo was administered to another for 6 mo. The primary endpoint was a QOL questionnaire based on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The subendpoints were changes in the natural-killer (NK) cell activity the salivary cortisol level from before and after administering AGE. Out of 55 patients invited to participate in the trial, 50 (91%) consented to enroll. They consisted of 42 patients with liver cancer (84%), 7 patients with pancreatic cancer (14%), and 1 patient with colon cancer (2%). Drug compliance was relatively good in both the AGE and placebo groups. Although no difference was observed in QOL, both the number of NK cells and the NK cell activity increased significantly in the AGE group. No adverse effect was observed in either group. The study showed that administering AGE to patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved NK cell activity, but caused no improvement in QOL. PMID:16484572

  6. Impact of change in maternal age composition on the incidence of Caesarean section and low birth weight: analysis of delivery records at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, 1999–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact on annual Caesarean section (CS and low birth weight deliveries (LBWT at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Methods We conducted data analysis of 91,699 singleton deliveries that took place in the hospital between 1999 and 2005. The data were extracted from the obstetric data base. Annual proportions of individual age groups were calculated and their trends over the years studied. Multiple logistic analyses were conducted to ascertain trends in the risks of CS and LBWT. The impact of age composition changes on CS and LBWT was estimated by calculating annual numbers of these outcomes with and without the major changes in age composition, all others remaining equal. In all statistics, a p value Results The proportion of teenage mothers (12–19 years progressively decreased over time while that of 30–34 years age group increased. From 1999, the risk of Caesarean delivery increased steadily to a maximum in 2005 [adjusted OR = 1.7; 95%CI (1.6–1.8] whereas that of LBWT declined to a minimum in 2005 (adjusted OR = 0.76; 95% CI (0.71–0.82. The current major changes in age trend were responsible for shifts in the number of CS of up to206 cases per year. Likewise, the shift in LBWT was up to 158 cases per year, but the 30–34 years age group had no impact on this. Conclusion The population of mothers giving birth at MNH is progressively becoming older with substantial impact on the incidence of CS and LBWT. Further research is needed to estimate the health cost implications of this change.

  7. Advancing paternal age is associated with deficits in social and exploratory behaviors in the offspring: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. METHODS: C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young and 10 months (old, and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group. Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02 and exploratory (p = 0.02 behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. CONCLUSIONS: Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors.

  8. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development. PMID:23442820

  9. Concurrent hippocampal induction of MHC II pathway components and glial activation with advanced aging is not correlated with cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonntag William E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related cognitive dysfunction, including impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, affects approximately half of the aged population. Induction of a variety of neuroinflammatory measures has been reported with brain aging but the relationship between neuroinflammation and cognitive decline with non-neurodegenerative, normative aging remains largely unexplored. This study sought to comprehensively investigate expression of the MHC II immune response pathway and glial activation in the hippocampus in the context of both aging and age-related cognitive decline. Methods Three independent cohorts of adult (12-13 months and aged (26-28 months F344xBN rats were behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze testing. Expression of MHC II pathway-associated genes identified by transcriptomic analysis as upregulated with advanced aging was quantified by qPCR in synaptosomal fractions derived from whole hippocampus and in hippocampal subregion dissections (CA1, CA3, and DG. Activation of astrocytes and microglia was assessed by GFAP and Iba1 protein expression, and by immunohistochemical visualization of GFAP and both CD74 (Ox6 and Iba1. Results We report a marked age-related induction of neuroinflammatory signaling transcripts (i.e., MHC II components, toll-like receptors, complement, and downstream signaling factors throughout the hippocampus in all aged rats regardless of cognitive status. Astrocyte and microglial activation was evident in CA1, CA3 and DG of intact and impaired aged rat groups, in the absence of differences in total numbers of GFAP+ astrocytes or Iba1+ microglia. Both mild and moderate microglial activation was significantly increased in all three hippocampal subregions in aged cognitively intact and cognitively impaired rats compared to adults. Neither induction of MHCII pathway gene expression nor glial activation correlated to cognitive performance. Conclusions These data demonstrate a

  10. Maternal care

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In June 2000 a distinguished group of obstetricians, midwives, general practitioners, and medical statisticians came together to discuss maternal care. Chaired by Professor James Drife from Leeds, discussion ranged over many topics, including: the changing role of the obstetrician, general practitioners, and the increasing status and responsibility of midwives. Other subjects include the induction of labour, obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia, and debates about the place and kind of delivery...

  11. Maternal Microchimerism

    OpenAIRE

    Kanold, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Microchimerism refers to one individual harboring cells or DNA at a low level that derive from another individual. The most common source is pregnancy when cells from the fetus and the mother pass the placenta bidirectionally, and give rise to maternal microchimerism (cells from the mother in the fetus) and fetal microchimerism (cells from the fetus in the mother). The cells persist in the individual, at least until middleage. Several hypotheses have addressed the consequences ...

  12. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  13. Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

    2012-01-01

    Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patien...

  14. MATERNAL DEATHS REVIEW: AN APPROACH TOWARDS IMPROVING MATERNAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Anupama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG adopted at the 2000 Millennium Summit, there are two targets for assessing progress in improving maternal health (MDG 5: Reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 and achieving universal access to reproductive health by 2015. Closer examination of maternal mortality level is needed to inform planning of reproductive health programs, to guide advocacy efforts and research at the national and international levels, and to inform decision-making. The audit for the reasons for maternal mortality in a resource poor country is extremely helpful in not only identifying the reasons but also in identifying the preventable causes of maternal mortality. AIMS & OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine the causes of maternal mortality in NSCB Medical College and Hospital of Jabalpur. 2. To study the various socio-demographic factors associated with maternal mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a record based study conducted at Obs and Gynae Dept of NSCB medical College, Jabalpur. Mortality Data from January 2012 to December 2012 was analyzed including for all pregnancy-related deaths, their demographic profile, including age, parity, antenatal care record, type of delivery, status of patient i.e., booked or not booked, diagnosis during admission, duration of the hospital stay, and cause of death by reviewing case sheet records. Gynaecological deaths were excluded in this study. Data entry as well analysis was done in Microsoft Excel. RESULTS: Eighty nine maternal deaths were recorded during study period. Most of the deaths were 87(98% unbooked. Majority of the deaths were ANC primi i.e. 57(64%. The major direct cause for deaths were eclampsia 39(44% followed by pre eclampsia 10(11% and haemorrhage 7(8%. Severe anaemia 14(16% followed by hepatitis 5(6% were the most common indirect causes. Maternal mortality ratio was 2182/100,000 live births (89/4078. Antenatal care

  15. Pregnancy, microchimerism, and the maternal grandmother.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary S Gammill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A WOMAN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE OFTEN HARBORS A SMALL NUMBER OF FOREIGN CELLS, REFERRED TO AS MICROCHIMERISM: a preexisting population of cells acquired during fetal life from her own mother, and newly acquired populations from her pregnancies. An intriguing question is whether the population of cells from her own mother can influence either maternal health during pregnancy and/or the next generation (grandchildren. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microchimerism from a woman's (i.e. proband's own mother (mother-of-the-proband, MP was studied in peripheral blood samples from women followed longitudinally during pregnancy who were confirmed to have uncomplicated obstetric outcomes. Women with preeclampsia were studied at the time of diagnosis and comparison made to women with healthy pregnancies matched for parity and gestational age. Participants and family members were HLA-genotyped for DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci. An HLA polymorphism unique to the woman's mother was identified, and a panel of HLA-specific quantitative PCR assays was employed to identify and quantify microchimerism. Microchimerism from the MP was identified during normal, uncomplicated pregnancy, with a peak concentration in the third trimester. The likelihood of detection increased with advancing gestational age. For each advancing trimester, there was a 12.7-fold increase in the probability of detecting microchimerism relative to the prior trimester, 95% confidence intervals 3.2, 50.3, p<0.001. None of the women with preeclampsia, compared with 30% of matched healthy women, had microchimerism (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that microchimerism from a woman's own mother is detectable in normal pregnancy and diminished in preeclampsia, supporting the previously unexplored hypothesis that MP microchimerism may be a marker reflecting healthy maternal adaptation to pregnancy.

  16. Maternal-fetal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

    2000-03-01

    Advances in prenatal care have brought about a greater understanding as to the special status of the fetus to the point that it is considered a patient in its own regard. Pregnant women generally follow the medical recommendations of their physicians that are intended for the benefit of their baby. Any situation where maternal well-being or wishes contradict fetal benefit constitutes a maternal-fetal conflict. Such situations include a broad range of possible interventions, non-interventions, and coercive influences. In such cases, the attending physician is expected to attain an attitude that involves either the respect of the woman's autonomy and right to privacy, which precludes any approach other than to accept her decision, or to modify this absolute for the beneficence of the fetus. Current ethical viewpoints range from absolute respect for maternal autonomy with no persuasion allowed, to gentle persuasion and to others which permit intervention and overriding of the woman's autonomy. Court-ordered decisions enforcing the pregnant woman to undergo a procedure in order to improve fetal outcome have been criticized as an invasion of a woman's privacy, limitation of her autonomy, and taking away of her right to informed consent. PMID:10733034

  17. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica E Radoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  18. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting;

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at...... advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...

  19. Serum carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product, and age-related macular degeneration: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; Cotch, Mary Frances; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Sun, Kai; Klein, Ronald; Jonasson, Fridbert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schaumberg, Debra A

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Advanced glycation end products have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major circulating advanced glycation end product, and AMD in older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 4907 older adults (aged ≥66 years) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study in Iceland. EXPOSURES Serum CML and risk factors for AMD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early or late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45° digital camera and grading for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS Of the 4907 participants, 1025 (20.9%) had early AMD and 276 (5.6%) had late AMD. Mean (SD) serum CML concentrations among adults with no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD (exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy) were 618.8 (195.5), 634.2 (206.4), and 638.4 (192.0) ng/mL, respectively (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.00489; P = .07). Log serum CML (per 1-SD increase) was not associated with any AMD (early and late AMD) (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04; P = .44) or with late AMD (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08; P = .36) in respective multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and renal function. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher serum CML concentration had no significant cross-sectional association with prevalent AMD in this large population-based cohort of older adults in Iceland. PMID:24481410

  20. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  1. Maternal-infant relationship quality and risk of obesity at age 5.5 years in a national US cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Sarah E.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Whitaker, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother’s or the child’s contribution to the relationship quality. Methods We analyzed data (n = 5650) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of U.S. chil...

  2. Clinical comparative analysis between advanced maternal age and normal maternal age%高龄与适龄初产妇分娩方式及妊娠并发症的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕璇

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较分析35岁以上高龄与适龄初产妇间的分娩方式及妊娠并发症发生情况.方法 2008年3月-2012年8月,随机抽取35岁以上高龄初产妇90例为研究组,25~34岁适龄初产妇90例为对照组.对两组产妇的分娩方式、相关并发症及围生儿结局进行比较.结果 在分娩方式方面,研究组的剖宫产率高于对照组(P<0.05);在相关并发症方面,研究组中产妇合并妊娠期高血压病、糖尿病,并发早产、前置胎盘、自然流产及子宫肌瘤发生率均高于对照组(P<0.05);两组间的胎儿畸形发生率、新生儿出生体重、胎儿生长受限(FGR)发生率无差异(P>0.05).结论 高龄初产妇的相关并发症及合并症是围产期防治重点.

  3. 198Au grain implantation for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy using 198Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, 198Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I–II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using 192Ir pins because of an advanced age (≥75 years) or poor performance status (≥2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the 198Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the 192Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, 198Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

  4. Maternal Cocaine Use and Mother-Toddler Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig; Veira, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and mother-toddler aggression in an interactive context at 2 years of child age. We hypothesized that in addition to direct effects of cocaine exposure on maternal and child aggression, the association between maternal cocaine use and mother-toddler aggression may be indirect via higher maternal psychiatric symptoms, negative affect, or poor infant autonomic regulation at 13 months. Particip...

  5. Feto-placental adaptations to maternal obesity in the baboon

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Darren; Tejero, Maria E; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Higgins, Paul B.; Cox, Laura; Werner, Sherry L.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Li, Cun; Choi, Jaehyek; Dick, Edward J.; Hubbard, Gene B.; Frost, Patrice; Dudley, Donald D.; Ballesteros, Brandon; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is present in 20–34% of pregnant women and has been associated with both intrauterine growth restriction and large-for-gestational age fetuses. While fetal and placental functions have been extensively studied in the baboon, no data are available on the effect of maternal obesity on placental structure and function in this species. We hypothesize that maternal obesity in the baboon is associated with a maternal inflammatory state and induces structural and functional changes ...

  6. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  7. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  8. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  9. Effect of advancing age on pulmonary functions in petrol pump workers of Cuttack: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Priyadarshini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental pollution is a worldwide phenomenon. Petrol pump workers are exposed to toxic substances present in petrol and diesel and also to various air pollutants. Long term exposure of these chemical vapours leads to deleterious effects on respiratory functions that range from mild cough to lung cancer. In the present study an attempt has been made to find out the correlation of advancing age and toxic effects of vapours on respiratory system by comparing pulmonary function tests in petrol pump workers and subjects not exposed to petrol. Methods: The study comprised of 60 petrol pump workers in age group 30-60 years working for more than 1 year. 60 healthy age matched male served as controls. Age, smoking habits, duration of exposure and health conditions of each subject were recorded. The pulmonary function was assessed in all subjects by Medspiror having Helios 401 software. The pulmonary function parameters studied were FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75%, PEFR and MVV. The parameters were compared by using Student’s t-test, ANOVA and multiple comparison Bonferroni tests. Results: A statistically significant decline in FEV1, FVC, PEFR, FEF25-75% and MVV was observed in petrol pump workers with advancing age. However, decline in FEV1/FVC was significant in elderly age of 50 to 60 years. Conclusion: Elder workers were more susceptible to harmful effects of benzene and other gaseous pollutants on pulmonary functions. Early recognition and removal of susceptible workers from work place before chronic impairment develops will prove to be beneficial.

  10. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods. PMID:27061958

  11. Clinical analysis of pregnancy outcomes in advanced age pregnant woman and pregnancy complications%高龄孕妇妊娠结局与妊娠并发症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌莉

    2015-01-01

    .28%,and 40.00% v s 4.92% (P<0.05).The incidence of gestational hypertension in pluripara was higher than that in appropriate age group at proportion of 42.11%v s 4.76%(P<0.05). Conclusion The incidences of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in primipara at advanced age.Targeted prevention in clinic is necessary in order to guarantee maternal and child safety.

  12. Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  13. Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfield Mark A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available on intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and factors related to increased consumption of these compounds. Methods Using survey and dietary intake information from control women (with deliveries of live births without major congenital malformations during 1997-2004 who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS, we examined the relation between various maternal characteristics and intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines from dietary sources. Estimated intake of these compounds was obtained from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire as adapted for the NBDPS. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the consumption of these compounds by self-reported race/ethnicity and other maternal characteristics. Results Median intake per day for nitrates, nitrites, total nitrites (nitrites + 5% nitrates, and nitrosamines was estimated at 40.48 mg, 1.53 mg, 3.69 mg, and 0.472 μg respectively. With the lowest quartile of intake as the referent category and controlling for daily caloric intake, factors predicting intake of these compounds included maternal race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, household income, area of residence, folate intake, and percent of daily calories from dietary fat. Non-Hispanic White participants were less likely to consume nitrates, nitrites, and total nitrites per day, but more likely to consume dietary nitrosamines than other participants that participated in the NBDPS. Primary

  14. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  15. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBFCPT/rest), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBFCPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  16. Implications of Advancing Paternal Age: Does It Affect Offspring School Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson A, Abel KM, Dalman C, Magnusson C

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts...

  17. An Investigation into the Gender and Age Differences in the Social Coping of Academically Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Regan Clark; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2006-01-01

    In certain contexts, some academically advanced students employ coping strategies that manipulate the visibility of their ability. These strategies may include denying giftedness, hiding giftedness, gaining favor by helping others, denying the negative impact on peer acceptance, conforming to mask giftedness, and minimizing focus on popularity.…

  18. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  19. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  20. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  1. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20-90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (Ppatterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  5. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP)-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Saffery, Richard; Reischl, Eva; Covic, Marcela; Wahl, Simone; Grote, Veit; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm) profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS), are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K). An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201), CNTNAP2 (cg25949550), and FRMD4A (cg11813497) showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR) criteria (q-valuechildhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation. PMID:27171005

  6. Maternal Risk Factors for Congenital Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in children. In spite of major advances in medical technology, the etiology of CP is still not well understood. There is growing evidence that brain damage leading to CP development occurs during pregnancy and that maternal phenotype contributes to this intrauterine environment. We hypothesized that maternal factors such as infections, smoking, comorbidities and genetics can increase the risk of CP in children. Additionally...

  7. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Sukanta Saha; Barnett, Adrian G; Claire Foldi; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W.; Buka, Stephen L.; McGrath, John J

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Over the last few decades, changes in society in the developed world have made it increasingly common for couples to wait until their late thirties to have children. In 1993, 25% of live births within marriage in England and Wales were to fathers aged 35–54 years, but by 2003 it was 40%. It is well known that women's fertility declines with age and that older mothers are more likely to have children with disabilities such as Down's syndrome. In contrast, many men ...

  8. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  9. Maternal immune markers in serum during gestation and in breast milk and the risk of asthma-like symptoms at ages 6 and 12 months: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Ramírez Nelís

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of breast milk on the risk of childhood asthma is in dispute. The aim of this prospective study is to determine the relationship of immune markers in maternal serum during gestation and breast milk to asthma-like symptoms (AS in infancy. Methods Pregnant women were recruited in Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. Blood (median: three weeks before delivery and breast milk (three weeks after delivery samples were collected. Concentrations of interferon (IFN-γ, IFN gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10 or CXCL10, CCL11, interleukin (IL 1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, IL-12(p70, IL-13, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, and immunoglobulin (Ig A in both maternal serum and milk whey were determined via immunoassays. Asthma-like symptoms (AS of the infant were ascertained at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Generalized estimating equations assessed relative risks (RRs of immune markers for repeated measurements of AS, considering intra-individual correlations and adjusting for confounders. To provide comparable risk estimates, quartiles of the immune markers were used, except for IL-5 in whey and IgA in serum, which were dichotomized. Results Of 178 women, 161 provided blood and 115 breast milk samples. IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, and CCL11 in serum and in whey were not further considered for the statistical analyses since the proportion of non-detectable values was high. Most immune markers in serum and milk whey were moderately or highly correlated; however, IgA was negatively correlated. Infants in the highest quartile of IL-13 in both serum and whey were at a higher risk of AS (RR = 3.02 and 4.18; respectively compared to infants in the first quartile. High levels of IL-5 in serum and whey was also identified as a risk. In addition, increased secretory IgA and TGF-β1 in breast milk reduced the risks of AS. Conclusions Maternal serum and whey levels of IL-5 and IL-13 are risk markers for AS; whey IgA and TGF

  10. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Whincup, P H; Cook, D G; Papacosta, O

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  11. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  12. Paternal age and offspring congenital heart defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Xiu Juan; Yuan, Wei; Huang, Guo Ying;

    2015-01-01

    Paternal age has been associated with offspring congenital heart defects (CHDs), which might be caused by increased mutations in the germ cell line because of cumulated cell replications. Empirical evidences, however, remain inconclusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether all subtypes of CHDs are.......17-2.43). We observed similar results when subanalyses were restricted to children born to mothers of 27-30 years old. After taking into consideration of maternal age, our data suggested that advanced paternal age was associated with an increased prevalence of one subtype of offspring congenital heart defects...

  13. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  14. Colorectal cancer treatment in an ageing world - Technical advances, treatment decisions and multidisciplinary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, A.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has risen in recent years and currently over 50% of patients are over 70 years of age. Many questions regarding the optimal management of the growing group of elderly colorectal cancer patients are still unanswered. The research presented in this thesis focuses on

  15. Advanced brain aging: relationship with epidemiologic and genetic risk factors, and overlap with Alzheimer disease atrophy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habes, M; Janowitz, D; Erus, G; Toledo, J B; Resnick, S M; Doshi, J; Van der Auwera, S; Wittfeld, K; Hegenscheid, K; Hosten, N; Biffar, R; Homuth, G; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J; Hoffmann, W; Davatzikos, C

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compared structural imaging patterns of advanced brain aging (ABA) in the general-population, herein defined as significant deviation from typical BA to those found in Alzheimer disease (AD). The hypothesis that ABA would show different patterns of structural change compared with those found in AD was tested via advanced pattern analysis methods. In particular, magnetic resonance images of 2705 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania (aged 20–90 years) were analyzed using an index that captures aging atrophy patterns (Spatial Pattern of Atrophy for Recognition of BA (SPARE-BA)), and an index previously shown to capture atrophy patterns found in clinical AD (Spatial Patterns of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Alzheimer's Disease (SPARE-AD)). We studied the association between these indices and risk factors, including an AD polygenic risk score. Finally, we compared the ABA-associated atrophy with typical AD-like patterns. We observed that SPARE-BA had significant association with: smoking (P<0.05), anti-hypertensive (P<0.05), anti-diabetic drug use (men P<0.05, women P=0.06) and waist circumference for the male cohort (P<0.05), after adjusting for age. Subjects with ABA had spatially extensive gray matter loss in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes (false-discovery-rate-corrected q<0.001). ABA patterns of atrophy were partially overlapping with, but notably deviating from those typically found in AD. Subjects with ABA had higher SPARE-AD values; largely due to the partial spatial overlap of associated patterns in temporal regions. The AD polygenic risk score was significantly associated with SPARE-AD but not with SPARE-BA. Our findings suggest that ABA is likely characterized by pathophysiologic mechanisms that are distinct from, or only partially overlapping with those of AD. PMID:27045845

  16. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  17. Palliative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients 80 years of age and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, P.; Sud, S.; Zhang, T.; Asmis, T.; Wheatley-Price, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (crc) has a median diagnostic age of 68 years. Despite significant progress in chemotherapy (ctx) options, few data on outcomes or toxicity from ctx in patients 80 years of age and older are available. We investigated ctx in such patients with metastatic crc (mcrc), hypothesizing high rates of hospitalization and toxicity. Methods A retrospective chart review identified patients 80 years of age and older with mcrc who initiated ctx between 2005–2010 at our institution. Patient demographics and ctx data were collected. Endpoints included rates of hospitalization, ctx discontinuation because of toxicity, and overall survival. Results In 60 patients, ctx was initiated on 88 occasions. Median age in the cohort was 83 years; 52% were men; 72% lived with family; 53% had a modified Charlson comorbidity index of 2 or greater; and 31% were taking 6 or more prescription medications at baseline. At baseline, 33% of the patients were anemic (hemoglobin 11×109/L), and 48% had renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). In 53%, ctx was given as first-line treatment. The initial ctx dose was adjusted in 67%, and capecitabine was the most common chemotherapeutic agent (45%). In 19 instances (22%), the patient was hospitalized during or within 30 days of ctx; in 26 instances (30%), the ctx was discontinued because of toxicity, and in 48 instances (55%), the patient required at least 1 dose reduction, omission, or delay. Median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% confidence interval: 14.3 to 20.8 months). Conclusions In the population 80 years of age and older, ctx for mcrc is feasible; however, most recipients will require dose adjustments, and a significant proportion will be hospitalized or stop ctx because of toxicity. Prospective research incorporating geriatric assessment tools is required to better select these older patients for ctx. PMID:27330342

  18. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland twenty-07 prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Whitley; Deary, Ian J; Der, Geoff; G David Batty; Michaela Benzeval

    2012-01-01

    Background: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age.Methods: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4) test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT).Results: There was no evidence of a parental age association wi...

  19. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and

  20. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  1. Continuity and change in friendships in advanced old age: findings from the Berkeley older generation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, D

    1999-01-01

    A longitudinal study of friendships between young-old and old-old adults found far more continuity than change in amount of contact with friends. Nevertheless, activities with casual friends more often occurred in groups, whereas activities with close friends were more often concerned with exchanging confidences, with sharing interesting experiences and thoughts, and with helping each other. Gender differences are more pronounced than life-course differences. Men declined in number of new friends, in their desire for close friendships, in the less intimate nature of their interactions with friends, and in involvement in beyond-family activities, while women did not change. Questions about closest friends revealed only a trivial difference between men and women in young-old age; but in old-old age, men (but not women) had declined in many measures of friendship. PMID:10498019

  2. Severe asthma in school-age children: evaluation and phenotypic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverstone, Andrea; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Although the majority of children with asthma have a favorable clinical response to treatment with low to moderate doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), a small subset of children have "severe" asthma characterized by ongoing symptoms and airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of ICS and even oral corticosteroids. Although there is symptom heterogeneity in the affected children, children with severe asthma share the risk for adverse outcomes, including recurrent and potentially life-threatening exacerbations, which contribute to substantial economic burden. This article reviews current knowledge of severe asthma in school-age children (age 6-17 years) with a focus on recent literature published after January 2012. Clinical management approaches for children with severe asthma are discussed as well as current phenotyping efforts and emerging phenotypic-directed therapies that may be of benefit for subpopulations of children with severe asthma in the future. PMID:26134431

  3. Elemental Music and Dance Pedagogy (EMDP: Artistic and Pedagogical Opportunities for People in Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schönherr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and ageing are issues of high significance in our times, and lead us to ask how this prolonged lifespan can be spent in a most self-determined, meaningful and satisfying way. The author’s personal approach to working with this age group is described and complemented by personal reflections on this subject. The many objectives include non-musical goals as well as music-oriented objectives which can instigate valuable and satisfying musical experiences of a high quality. Fundamental principles include: becoming a player – taking an active part; the interplay of music, speech, movement and dance; improvisation and forms. Important parts of sessions are described as well as their goals: the greeting ritual is of importance and warm-up exercises can be offered using movement or body percussion. Singing well-known songs as well as new ones, and playing Orff instruments are valuable activities. Movement is also an important part of the sessions where diverse objects such as gloves, sticks or peacock feathers are used. The Orff approach has the wonderful advantage of being multifaceted, putting emphasis on improvisation and individual creativity which allows making music according to one’s own abilities – something that is important for elderly people – and offering many different impulses to feel, to live and physically express music.

  4. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  5. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rzehak

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS, are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K. An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201, CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, and FRMD4A (cg11813497 showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR criteria (q-value<0.05. Whereas cg25949550 showed decreased methylation (-2% DNAm ß-value, increased methylation was observed for the other probes (9%: cg12803068; 5%: cg22132788; 4%: cg19089201 and 4%: cg11813497 in exposed relative to non-exposed subjects. This study thus replicates previous findings in children ages 3 to 5, 7 and 17 and confirms the postnatal stability of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A differential methylation. The role of this differential methylation in mediating childhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation.

  6. 高龄孕妇早发型重度先兆子痫对新生儿及围生结局影响分析%THE EFFECT OF EARLY ONSET SEVERE PRE- ECLAMPSIA OF ADVANCED AGE PREGNANT WOMEN ON NEONATAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡水珍; 叶春波

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析高龄孕妇早发型重度先兆子痫对新生儿及围生结局的影响.方法 回顾性分析1997年1月-2010年1月早发型重度先兆子痫孕妇86例,其中年龄>35岁40例,设为研究组,年龄0.05).终止妊娠时间及孕妇严重并发症,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).研究组围生儿病死率及颅内出血,新生儿窒息明显高于对照组(P<0.01).研究组新生儿出生体质量及新生儿Apgar评分明显小于对照组(P<0.01).结论 年龄>35岁孕妇发生早发性重度子痫,更易导致孕妇及围生儿预后不良.%Objective To analyze the effect of early onset severe pre - eclampsia( EOSP ) of advanced age pregnant women on neonatal and perinatal outcomes. Methods Eighty - six pregnant women with EOSP from Jan 1997 to Jan 2010 were chosen and analysed. According to the maternal age, 86 pregnant women with EOSP were classified into two groups, research group( the maternal age was up to 35 years and 40 patients were involved ) and control group( the maternal age was under 35 years and 46 patients were involved ). The parity, gestational age on admission, systolic pressure( SP ) and diastolic pressure( DP ) were recorded. And the pregnant outcomes of gravidas ( such as placental abruption, pneumonedema, heart failure ) and complications of perineal infants( such as perinatal mortality ratio, low birth weight, intracranial hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, Apgar score ) were recorded and compared between two groups. Results The parity, gestational age on admission, SP and DP had no different between two groups( P > 0.05 ). The duration of pregnancy termination and severe complication were different between two groups (P < 0. 01 ). Compared to control group, the perinatal mortality ratio, intracranial hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia in research group were higher ( P < 0.01 ), and the birth weight, Apgar score in research group were lower ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The EOSP of advanced age pregnant women could

  7. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  8. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  9. Relationship Between Maternal Behavior During Pregnancy, Birth Outcome, and Early Childhood Development: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kai; Poirier, Dale J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between maternal behavior during pregnancy, birth outcomes, and early childhood development. Specifically, in the context of four measures of maternal behavior during pregnancy (maternal smoking, drinking, prenatal care, and maternal weight gain), three measures of birth outcome (gestational age, birth length, and birth weight), and 32 exogenous covariates observed during pregnancy, we investigate the importance of maternal choices during pregnancy and bir...

  10. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  11. The Effects of Maternal Employment and Non-Maternal Infant Care on Development at Two and Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Sandra; Thompson, William W.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed effects of maternal employment on infants with mothers working 20 or more hours per week or fewer than 20 hours per week. Found that neither differences in maternal employment during child's first year, nor child's entry into nonmaternal care before age one, predicted differences in cognitive and socioemotional development at ages two and…

  12. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks

  13. Lipoic acid entrains the hepatic circadian clock and lipid metabolic proteins that have been desynchronized with advanced age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Dove; Finlay, Liam; Butler, Judy [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Gómez, Luis; Smith, Eric [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States); Moreau, Régis [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Hagen, Tory, E-mail: Tory.Hagen@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Biochemistry Biophysics Department, Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • 24 month old rats were supplemented with 0.2% lipoic acid in the diet for 2 weeks. • Lipoic acid shifts phase of core circadian clock proteins. • Lipoic acid corrects age-induced desynchronized lipid metabolism rhythms. - Abstract: It is well established that lipid metabolism is controlled, in part, by circadian clocks. However, circadian clocks lose temporal precision with age and correlates with elevated incidence in dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in older adults. Because our lab has shown that lipoic acid (LA) improves lipid homeostasis in aged animals, we hypothesized that LA affects the circadian clock to achieve these results. We fed 24 month old male F344 rats a diet supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) LA for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice and quantified hepatic circadian clock protein levels and clock-controlled lipid metabolic enzymes. LA treatment caused a significant phase-shift in the expression patterns of the circadian clock proteins Period (Per) 2, Brain and Muscle Arnt-Like1 (BMAL1), and Reverse Erythroblastosis virus (Rev-erb) β without altering the amplitude of protein levels during the light phase of the day. LA also significantly altered the oscillatory patterns of clock-controlled proteins associated with lipid metabolism. The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was significantly increased and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were both significantly reduced, suggesting that the LA-supplemented aged animals are in a catabolic state. We conclude that LA remediates some of the dyslipidemic processes associated with advanced age, and this mechanism may be at least partially through entrainment of circadian clocks.

  14. MATERNAL NEAR MISS: AN EXPERIENCE IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health care system. As the mortality rates are consistently decreasing the focus is shifted on maternal near miss which describes severe maternal morbidity which shares the common pathway as mortality. Maternal near miss indicators are relevant in developing world and low resource setting as it indicates the gaps in the health system. In 2009 WHO working group has standardized the criteria for selecting these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is performed in rural medical college between October 2012 to september2014 and maternal near miss cases are identified according to WHO criteria. Variables related to age, parity, gestational age, intensive care unit admission, ventilator support, requirement of massive blood transfusion were analyzed. Further the events leading to maternal near miss were studied. Finally the indices like maternal near miss incidence ratio, maternal near miss: maternal mortality ratio and mortality index were calculated. RESULTS: during the study period 2409 deliveries were conducted of which 2385 were live births. Potentially life threatening conditions were identified to be 265 and maternal near miss cases were 22. Maternal near miss incidence ratio was 9.2per 1000 live births, maternal near miss to maternal mortality ratio was 11:1 and mortality index was 8.3%. The leading causes of maternal near miss were abruption and rupture uterus requiring emergency hysterectomy. The morbidity was high in unbooked cases. CONCLUSION: maternal near miss is good alternative indicator of health care system. Lacunae between grass root level and tertiary centers should be filled.

  15. Patient-Specific Age: The Other Side of the Coin in Advanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Magdalena M; Marozin, Sabrina; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration. In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage, or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-vs.-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage. Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies? PMID:26696897

  16. Patient-specific age: the other side of the coin in advanced mesenchymal stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Schimke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are present as a rare subpopulation within any type of stroma in the body of higher animals. Prominently, MSC have been recognized to reside in perivascular locations, supposedly maintaining blood vessel integrity. During tissue damage and injury, MSC/pericytes become activated, evade from their perivascular niche and are thus assumed to support wound healing and tissue regeneration.In vitro MSC exhibit demonstrated capabilities to differentiate into a wide variety of tissue cell types. Hence, many MSC-based therapeutic approaches have been performed to address bone, cartilage or heart regeneration. Furthermore, prominent studies showed efficacy of ex vivo expanded MSC to countervail graft-versus-host-disease. Therefore, additional fields of application are presently conceived, in which MSC-based therapies potentially unfold beneficial effects, such as amelioration of non-healing conditions after tendon or spinal cord injury, as well as neuropathies. Working along these lines, MSC-based scientific research has been forged ahead to prominently occupy the clinical stage.Aging is to a great deal stochastic by nature bringing forth changes in an individual fashion. Yet, is aging of stem cells or/and their corresponding niche considered a determining factor for outcome and success of clinical therapies?

  17. The influence of advanced age on the morbi-mortality of gastric cancer after curative surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mayol-Oltra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer (GC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Spain after lung, colorectal, breast and prostate tumours. Surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment in localized gastric cancer. Objective: the aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the clinical and surgical aspects, development of postoperative complications and outcomes of patients over 75 years old compared with younger patients in our centre. Material and methods: comparative retrospective study, from March 2003 to June 2011. We diagnosed 166 cases of GC, 109 (65 % underwent curative surgery. Two groups were settled: group M: ≥ 75 years (41 patients and group m: < 75 years (68 patients. We analyzed age, sex, comorbidities, tumour location, clinical stage, perioperative chemotherapy, surgical technique, postoperative complications, recurrence and mortality from cancer. Results: a more frequent presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and a greater postoperative mortality by medical causes were the only significant differences between both groups. Also, a lower proportion of patients in group M received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent D1 lymphadenectomy. However, the rate of local and systemic recurrence and overall survival were similar in both groups. Conclusions: age should not be considered a contraindication for curative surgery on GC. The general condition and comorbidities are more important to contraindicate surgical treatment.

  18. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C;

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p......BACKGROUND: Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods.......c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two...

  19. Maternal Postpartum Distress and Childhood Overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Ajslev, Teresa A.; Andersen, Camilla S.; Ingstrup, Katja G.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    Objective We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21 121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information ...

  20. Sex and age-dependent effects of a maternal junk food diet on the mu-opioid receptor in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Bae, Sung Eun; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2016-03-15

    Perinatal junk food exposure increases the preference for palatable diets in juvenile and adult rat offspring. Previous studies have implicated reduced sensitivity of the opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences; however it is not known when during development these changes in opioid signalling first emerge. This study aimed to determine the impact of a maternal junk food (JF) diet on mu-opioid receptor (MuR) expression and ligand binding in two key regions of the reward pathway, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats during the early suckling (postnatal day (PND) 1 and 7) and late suckling/early post-weaning (PND 21 and 28) periods. Female rats were fed either a JF or a control diet for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. MuR expression in the VTA was significantly reduced in female JF offspring on PND 21 and 28 (by 32% and 57% respectively, Pfood exposure on MuR mRNA expression or binding were detected at these time points in male offspring. These findings provide evidence that the opioid signalling system is a target of developmental programming by the end of the third postnatal week in females, but not in males. PMID:26718219

  1. Effect of maternal steroid on developing diaphragm integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Antenatal steroids reduce the severity of initial respiratory distress of premature newborn babies but may have an adverse impact on other body organs. The study aimed to examine the effect of maternal steroids on postnatal respiratory muscle function during development and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the potential myopathy in newborn rats. Pregnant rats were treated with intramuscular injections of 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone 7 d and 3 d before birth. Newborn diaphragms were dissected for assessment of contractile function at 2 d, 7 d or 21 d postnatal age (PNA, compared with age-matched controls. The expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and atrophy-related genes and activity of intracellular molecular signalling were measured using quantitative PCR and/or Western blot. With advancing PNA, neonatal MHC gene expression decreased progressively while MHC IIb and IIx isoforms increased. Protein metabolic signalling showed high baseline activity at 2 d PNA, and significantly declined at 7 d and 21 d. Antenatal administration of betamethasone significantly decreased diaphragm force production, fatigue resistance, total fast fibre content and anabolic signalling activity (Akt and 4E-BP1 in 21 d diaphragm. These responses were not observed in 2 d or 7 d postnatal diaphragm. Results demonstrate that maternal betamethasone treatment causes postnatal diaphragmatic dysfunction at 21 d PNA, which is attributed to MHC II protein loss and impairment of the anabolic signalling pathway. Developmental modifications in MHC fibre composition and protein signalling account for the age-specific diaphragm dysfunction.

  2. Advanced age is a risk factor for proximal adenoma recurrence following colonoscopy and polypectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, H-C; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas may identify patients who could benefit from individual surveillance strategies. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for recurrence of colorectal adenomas in a high-risk population. METHODS: Data were used...... from a randomized clinical trial that showed no effect of aspirin-calcitriol-calcium treatment on colorectal adenoma recurrence. Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer who had one or more sporadic colorectal adenomas removed during colonoscopy were followed up for 3 years. Independent risk factors...... associated with recurrence and characteristics of recurrent adenomas were investigated in a generalized linear model. RESULTS: After 3 years, the recurrence rate was 25·8 per cent in 427 patients. For younger subjects (aged 50 years or less), the recurrence rate was 19 per cent; 18 of 20 recurrent adenomas...

  3. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  4. Laser-Assisted Hatching of Embryos in Women of Advanced Age after in Vitro Fertilization: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Gwo Horng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: For infertile women aged over 37 years, failure of the zona pellucida to ruptureis believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitrofertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. It has beensuggested that assisted hatching of embryos will increase the pregnancy ratewith IVF by means of mechanically facilitating the hatching process.Methods: One hundred twenty cycles of IVF/ICSI in females aged over 37 years wereanalyzed. Women included in this study were allocated into 2 groups. Ingroup I, embryos were cultured and transferred without laser-assisted hatching(LAH, whereas embryos of group II were examined and treated withLAH just before being transferred. Laser manipulations were performedusing a 1.48-μm (infrared diode laser (Fertilase. The laser was aimed at thezona to create openings of about 20 μm in diameter.Results: The mean ages of women in groups I and II were 38.8¡ 1.8 and 39.5¡ 1.6years, respectively ( p = 0.17. The number of retrieved oocytes, endometrialthickness, and number and quality of transferred embryos did not significantlydiffer between the 2 groups. Rates of implantation (7.3% and 6.7%,respectively, p = 0.89, pregnancy (16.3% and 17.5%, respectively, p = 0.86,and early pregnancy loss did not differ between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our data failed to demonstrate any benefit of LAH in improving implantationor pregnancy rates in women of advanced age, suggesting that factorsother than laser drilling of the zona should be considered.

  5. Modelling 3D crack propagation in ageing graphite bricks of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, crack propagation in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) graphite bricks with ageing properties is studied using the eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM). A parametric study for crack propagation, including the influence of different initial crack shapes and propagation criteria, is conducted. The results obtained in the benchmark study show that the crack paths from X-FEM are similar to the experimental ones. The accuracy of the strain energy release rate computation in a heterogeneous material is also evaluated using a finite difference approach. Planar and non-planar 3D crack growth simulations are presented to demonstrate the robustness and the versatility of the method utilized. Finally, this work contributes to the better understanding of crack propagation behaviour in AGR graphite bricks and so contributes to the extension of the AGR plant lifetimes in the UK by reducing uncertainties. (author)

  6. Reproductive health for refugees by refugees in Guinea III: maternal health.

    OpenAIRE

    Blankhart David; Kollie Sarah; Souare Yaya; Woodward Aniek; Howard Natasha; von Roenne Anna; Borchert Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mortality can be particularly high in conflict and chronic emergency settings, partly due to inaccessible maternal care. This paper examines associations of refugee-led health education, formal education, age, and parity on maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices among reproductive-age women in refugee camps in Guinea. Methods Data comes from a 1999 cross-sectional survey of 444 female refugees in 23 camps. Associations of reported maternal health outcomes wi...

  7. Morphometric Evaluation of the Blood Pressure Related Organs in Nili-Ravi Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis With Advancing Age

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    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy buffaloes of either sex were divided into two age-groups of equal size i.e., young (12-42 months and adult (48-96 months. Histological sections were prepared by routine method and stained by H&E. AutoCAD® image analysis software and ocular micrometer were used for the morphometric evaluations. Studies revealed that the adrenal cortex of buffalo was divided into four zones, zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. The zona fasciculata was recorded as the widest and zona reticularis narrowest zone of the adrenal cortex. The volume of cardiomyocytic nuclei (μm3, volume of renal corpuscles (μm3×103, volume of nuclei of cells of zona glomerulosa (μm3, thickness of the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia and zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in adult buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01 higher as compared to their younger counterparts. It is conceivable that the development of blood related parameters showed an increase parallel to the advancing age in order to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process in buffalo.

  8. Advanced age, altered level of consciousness and a new diagnosis of diabetes are independently associated with hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic crisis

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    Ogbera Anthonia O

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited literature on hypernatreamia in the setting of hyperglycaemic crisis. This is despite the fact that the presence of hypernatreamia may impact on the classification of hyperglycaemic crisis and its management particularly with regards to the nature of fluid therapy. We determined the prevalence of hypernatreamia and its associated factors at presentation for hyperglycaemic crisis. Methods This was a retrospective review of data for hyperglycaemic crisis admissions in Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. The prevalence of hypernatreamia (uncorrected Serum Sodium at presentation >145 mmol/L was determined. Hyperosmolality was defined by calculated effective osmolality >320 mosmols/Kg. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken using variables that were statistically significant in univariate analysis to ascertain those that were independently associated (Odds Ratio (OR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI with hypernatreamia. Results The prevalence of hypernatreamia in our admissions for hyperglycaemic crisis was 11.7% (n = 32/273 including 171 females and 102 males. All admissions with hypernatreamia met the criteria for hyperosmolality. Age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.9 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P = 0.018, Altered level of consciousness (OR = 8.8 95% CI 2.3-32.8; P Conclusion The prevalence rate of hypernatreamia in hyperglycaemic admissions was high with all hypernatreamic admissions meeting the criteria for hyperosmolality. Advanced age, altered conscious level and a new diagnosis of diabetes were independently associated with hypernatreamia.

  9. A distinct subtype of ''metatropic dysplasia variant'' characterised by advanced carpal skeletal age and subluxation of the radial heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. ''Metatropic dysplasia variants'' are a group of bone dysplasias whose skeletal abnormalities are similar to, but milder than, those of classical metatropic dysplasia. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity has not been thoroughly elucidated. Objective. The objective was to designate a distinct subtype of these metatropic dysplasia variants. Materials and methods. The subjects were four Japanese patients, two sporadic cases and two siblings, who all had identical skeletal changes. The radiological features in these patients were compared with those of previously reported metatropic dysplasia variants. Results. Moderate platyspondyly with pear-shaped and/or anterior-tongued vertebral bodies, halberd pelvis, and dumbbell deformity of the tubular bones were regarded as hallmarks of metatropic dysplasia variants. The peculiar skeletal change in our patients was advanced carpal skeletal age in childhood, unlike most patients reported as metatropic dysplasia variants who manifest delayed carpal ossification. Another hallmark was congenital dislocation of the radial heads. A description of a patient with similar skeletal changes was found in the literature. Conclusion. These patients are considered to represent a distinct subgroup of metatropic dysplasia variants. It remains unknown whether the present siblings represent an autosomal recessive trait or an autosomal dominant trait with germinal mosaicism related to increased paternal age. (orig.)

  10. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting;

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at...... interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles, and the research on the effects of nutrigenomics interactions could potentially be useful for rejuvenation therapies in the clinic or associated healthy aging intervention programs.......Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality at...... advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...

  11. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

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    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  12. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age...

  13. Early Maternal Psychosocial Factors Are Predictors for Adolescent Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, S.; Lee, W; Albert, J.M.; Singer, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of early maternal enabling and psychosocial factors on subsequent adolescent caries experience. In this retrospective cohort study of 224 adolescents, we hypothesized that the causal pathway between early maternal enabling factors (education, cognitive abilities, psychological distress) and adolescent caries experience (DMFT) at age 14 yrs is mediated by maternal psychosocial factors (stress, coping, social support) and adolescent dental behavior/access....

  14. Associação entre idade, classe social e hábito de fumar maternos com peso ao nascer The association of maternal age, social class and smoking with birthweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A.M. da Silva

    1992-06-01

    higher in the group of women below 20 years of age. There was no statistical difference in the smoking habit as between different social classes. A larger number of low birthweight children were observed in nonsmoking women of the working class than among women smokers of the middle class. A log model was adjusted to the data in order to study the possible multiple association of smoking, maternal age and social class with birthweight. The results indicated that maternal smoking, maternal age and social class had independent effects on birthweight. The was no interaction between them. These findings suggest that the higher prevalence of low birthweight in nonsmoking mothers of the working class in relation to smoking mothers of the middle class probably reflects clustering of other risk factors-such as poor education inadequate prenatal care, high parity and differences in reproductive behavior in women of the working class.

  15. A CLINICAL STUDY OF MATERNAL DEATHS DUE TO PPH

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    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality is a global problem, facing every country in the world. Target specific interventions are needed for specific population. Fifth millennium development goal (MDG is to reduce maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015, worthwhile investment for every case provider, results that investing on mothers

  16. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  17. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  18. Maternal influences on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ronna L; Olshan, Andrew F; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Daniels, Julie L; Peterson, Herbert B; Martin, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVP) are common among pregnant women, but whether some women are more likely than others to experience these symptoms has not been well established. We examined potential risk factors for NVP symptom severity, timing of onset, and duration. We included 2,407 newly pregnant women who participated in a prospective cohort study on early pregnancy health between 2000 and 2004 in three U.S. cities. Data on NVP and other health information were collected through telephone interviews, early gestation ultrasound, and medical record abstractions. Generalized linear models were used to model possible risk factors for each NVP characteristic. Eighty-nine percent of women had NVP; for 99% of these, symptoms started in the first trimester. None of the characteristics examined were associated with having NVP. Among those with NVP, increasing risk of delayed symptoms onset was associated with advancing maternal age; increased risks were also seen among non-Hispanic Black [Risk ratio (RR) = 4.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6,11.6] and Hispanic women (RR = 2.3, 95% CI:0.4,11.5). NVP symptoms for multigravidae were more likely to last beyond the first trimester with each additional pregnancy. Most pregnant women experienced NVP. Nearly all of them, regardless of characteristics examined, had symptoms beginning in the first trimester. Maternal age, race/ethnicity, and gravidity were associated with delayed onset and symptoms that persisted into the second trimester. PMID:20012346

  19. Human maternal plasma proteomic changes with parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Significance: Proteomic technology is constantly advancing, and the latest techniques enable gel-free analysis of minimally preprocessed, complex biological samples, enabling simultaneous identification and quantification of many hundreds of proteins. The technique of TMT labelling and Orbitrap mass spectrometry is applicable to the analysis of serial maternal plasma samples in order to identify potential markers of the onset of labour.

  20. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations. PMID:26805771

  1. Analysis of 200 Cases of Pathological Pregnancy of Advanced Maternal Age%高龄产妇200例病理妊娠分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉琼

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过实验讨论研究高龄产妇的病理性妊娠产生时的状况.方法将高龄孕妇200例和年龄<35岁产妇200例配合搭对两组妊娠发生状况.结果高龄孕妇组妊娠期间患有高血压等几率显著大于对照组.结论高龄产妇病理妊娠产生机会比率大,应强化高龄产妇期间护理.

  2. Práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses e fatores maternos associados Feeding habits of children aged 6 to 12 months and associated maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina D. M. Saldiva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar as práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses de idade e sua associação com fatores maternos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de delineamento transversal, no qual foram analisados os dados do Projeto Amamentação e Municípios de 2004, conduzido em 136 municípios do estado de São Paulo com 24.448 crianças. O padrão de consumo de alimentos foi avaliado segundo a freqüência de crianças que receberam leite materno e outros alimentos nas últimas 24 horas, e a probabilidade de consumo dos alimentos, nas faixas de idade, foi estimada por meio da análise de probitos. RESULTADOS: O consumo de alimentos revelou que 50% receberam leite materno, 77% outros tipos de leite, 63% mingau, 87% frutas, 78% sopas, 64% comida de panela, 58% comida com feijão e 36% sopa ou comida com carne. A probabilidade de a criança, aos 6 meses de idade, consumir sopas é elevada (78%, comida de panela é baixa (39%, e a probabilidade dela receber leite materno é de 59%, inferior aos outros leites (70% e mingau (63%. Encontrou-se associação entre consumo de refeições lácteas e mães primíparas, que trabalhavam fora e com maior escolaridade. Semelhantes achados foram observados para consumo de sopas, acrescido à idade da mãe superior a 20 anos. O consumo de comida de panela associou-se a mães com menos de 20 anos, que não trabalhavam fora, com menor escolaridade e multíparas. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se consumo excessivo de alimentos líquidos e semi-sólidos e a necessidade do aconselhamento adequado em alimentação complementar, considerando idade, primiparidade, escolaridade e trabalho materno.OBJECTIVE: To identify the feeding practices of children aged 6 to 12 months of age and associated maternal factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the 2004 Breastfeeding and the Municipalities Project, which was implemented in 136 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 24,448 children

  3. Maternal 75-g OGTT glucose levels as predictive factors for large-for-gestational age newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankica, Krstevska; Valentina, Velkoska Nakova; Slagjana, Simeonova Krstevska; Sasha, Jovanovska Mishevska

    2016-02-01

    Objective Our goal was to investigate which glucose measurement from the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has more capability of predicting large for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and methods The study group consisted of 118 consecutively pregnant women with singleton pregnancy, patients of Outpatients Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Disorders Clinic. All were prospectively screened for GDM between 24th and 28th week of pregnancy and followed to delivery. Outcome measures included: patients' ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI before delivery, FPG, 1 and 2 hour OGTT glucose values, haemoglobin A1c at third trimester, gestational week of delivery, mode of delivery and baby birth weight. Results From 118 pregnancies, 78 (66.1%) women were with GDM, and 40 (33.9%) without GDM. There were statistically significant differences (30.7 versus 5.0%, p Gestation week of delivery and fasting glucose levels were independent predictors for LGA (Beta = 0.58 and Beta = 0.37 respectively, p pregnancies. PMID:26909480

  4. Maternal and Child Predictors of Preschool Children's Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Marissa L.; Kim, Do-Yeong

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined child and maternal predictors of children's social competence in preschool. One hundred ten mothers and their preschool-aged children participated. Mothers completed parent reports of child temperament and self-regulation, and self-reports of maternal separation anxiety. Mothers' interactional style was coded from…

  5. Infant Stunting Is Associated With Short Maternal Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Hambidge, K Michael; Mazariegos, Manolo; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Cristobal-Perez, Christina; Juárez-García, Lucrecia; Westcott, Jamie E; Goco, Norman; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the range of maternal height associated with growth velocity of older infants and the magnitude of this association in an indigent population. Maternal height and infant length-for-age z scores (LAZ) were positively correlated at both 6 (n=412, r=0.324) and 12 (n=388, r=0.335) months (P

  6. Prediction of Elevated Cord Blood IgE Levels by Maternal IgE Levels, and the Neonate's Gender and Gestational Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-An Liu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevation of cord blood immunoglobulin E (IgE is used to predict childhoodatopy. In an effort to catch such problems at an earlier time, we sought toidentify the impact of parental atopy as well as gestational age, the baby'sgender, and the season of delivery on cord blood IgE levels.Methods: The allergic history of parents was collected during pregnancy. Blood samplesfrom parents were collected in the third trimester. Cord blood was collectedimmediately after birth. Total and specific IgE levels were determinedusing the Pharmacia CAP system.Results: In total, 437 core family blood samples were collected. Male babies had asignificantly higher IgE level (0.535

  7. Maternal mortality inquiry in a rural community of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Sharma, A K; Barik, S; Kumar, V

    1989-08-01

    Community inquiry on maternal mortality was conducted in a rural area of North India. Maternal deaths were identified by multiple informants and investigated by doctors. Amongst 257 deaths registered in women in the 15-44 year age group, 55(21.4%) were maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio was 230 per 100,000 live births. Major causes were antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage (18.2%), puerperal sepsis (16.4%), severe anemia (16.4%), abortion (9.1%) and obstructed labor (7.3%). This rapid, simple and low cost method is recommended for application in areas where vital registration system is unsatisfactory. PMID:2571532

  8. Effect of PKC-β Signaling Pathway on Expression of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in Different Cell Models in Response to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisienny C. T. Rempel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are compounds classified as uremic toxins in patients with chronic kidney disease that have several pro-inflammatory effects and are implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To explore the mechanisms of AGEs–endothelium interactions through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE in the PKC-β pathway, we evaluated the production of MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in human endothelial cells (HUVECs, monocytes, and a coculture of both. AGEs were prepared by albumin glycation and characterized by absorbance and electrophoresis. The effect of AGEs on cell viability was assessed with an MTT assay. The cells were also treated with AGEs with and without a PKC-β inhibitor. MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in the cell supernatants were estimated by ELISA, and RAGE was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. AGEs exposure did not affect cell viability, but AGEs induced RAGE, MCP-1, and VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs. When HUVECs or monocytes were incubated with AGEs and a PKC-β inhibitor, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 expression significantly decreased. However, in the coculture, exposure to AGEs and a PKC-β inhibitor produced no significant effect. This study demonstrates, in vitro, the regulatory mechanisms involved in MCP-1 production in three cellular models and VCAM-1 production in HUVECs, and thus mimics the endothelial dysfunction caused by AGEs in early atherosclerosis. Such mechanisms could serve as therapeutic targets to reduce the harmful effects of AGEs in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  9. Quantitative analysis of DNA levels in maternal plasma in normal and Down syndrome pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stejskal David

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated fetal and total DNA levels in maternal plasma in patients bearing fetuses affected with Down syndrome in comparison to controls carrying fetuses with normal karyotype. Methods DNA levels in maternal plasma were measured using real-time quantitative PCR using SRY and β-globin genes as markers. Twenty-one pregnant women with a singleton fetus at a gestational age ranging from 15 to 19 weeks recruited before amniocentesis (carried out for reasons including material serum screening and advanced material age, and 16 pregnant women bearing fetuses affected with Down syndrome between 17 to 22 weeks of gestation were involved in the study. Results The specificity of the system reaches 100% (no Y signal was detected in 14 women pregnant with female fetuses and the sensitivity 91.7% (SRY amplification in 22 of 24 examined samples. The median fetal DNA levels in women carrying Down syndrome (n=11 and the controls (n=13 were 23.3 (range 0–58.5 genome-equivalents/ml and 24.5 (range 0–47.5 genome-equivalents/ml of maternal plasma, respectively (P = 0.62. The total median DNA levels in pregnancies with Down syndrome and the controls were 10165 (range 615–65000 genome-equivalents/ml and 7330 (range 1300–36750 genome-equivalents/ml, respectively (P = 0.32. The fetal DNA proportion in maternal plasma was 0%-6 % (mean 0.8% in women carrying Down syndrome and 0%-2.6 % (mean 0.7 % in the controls, respectively (P=0.86. Conclusions Our study revealed no difference in fetal DNA levels and fetal DNA: maternal DNA ratio between the patients carrying Down syndrome fetuses and the controls.

  10. Avaliação da idade materna, paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal para fissura lábio-palatina Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Reis Barbosa Martelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fissuras do lábio e/ou palato representam as anomalias congênitas craniofaciais mais comuns. OBJETIVO: Avaliar fatores de risco ambientais em pacientes com fissuras lábio-palatinas não-sindrômicas, em um Serviço de Minas Gerais. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Realizou-se estudo caso-controle, avaliando 100 crianças com fissuras e 100 crianças sem alterações clínicas. As dimensões de análise (idade, cor de pele, sexo, classificação das fissuras, idade materna e paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal foram obtidas a partir de um questionário, sendo posteriormente construído banco de dados e as análises realizadas pelo programa SPSS 17.0. Os resultados foram analisados com risco relativo para cada variável, para estimar odds ratios com intervalo de confiança de 95% seguido de análise bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 crianças, 54% foram do sexo masculino e 46% do feminino. Com relação à cor da pele, houve predomínio de parda, branca e preta, respectivamente. Entre os tipos de fissuras, as mais comuns foram as fissuras lábio-palatinas (54%, seguidas pela fissura labial (30% e fissura palatina (16%. CONCLUSÃO: Embora com uma população limitada, verificou-se associação entre idade materna e risco aumentado para fissuras lábio-palatinas, porém idade paterna, ordem de paridade e intervalo interpartal não foram significantes.Cleft lip and palate (CL/P are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. AIM: To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval, obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the

  11. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Responsiveness: Associations with Social Context, Maternal Characteristics, and Child Characteristics in a Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Haynes, O. Maurice; Painter, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined unique associations of multiple distal context variables (family socioeconomic status [SES], maternal employment, and paternal parenting) and proximal maternal (personality, intelligence, and knowledge; behavior, self-perceptions, and attributions) and child (age, gender, representation, language, and sociability)…

  12. Shifting paradigms in diminished ovarian reserve and advanced reproductive age in assisted reproduction: customization instead of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Beverly G; Babayev, Samir N; Bukulmez, Orhan

    2015-05-01

    As women are increasingly delaying childbearing into their 30s and beyond, diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) and advanced reproductive age (ARA) patients are bound to become a large proportion of all assisted reproductive technology practices. Traditional controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols for DOR and/or ARA have had some limited success, but pregnancy rates are lower and cycle cancellation rates are higher than their younger counterparts with normal ovarian reserve. Though many physicians have a selection of favorite standard protocols that they use, patients with DOR may require closer monitoring and customization of the treatment cycle to address the common problems that come with low ovarian reserve. Frequent issues that surface in women with DOR and/or ARA include poor follicular response, premature luteinizing hormone surge, and poor embryo quality. Limited published evidence exists to guide treatment for DOR. However, use of minimal or mild doses of gonadotropins, avoidance of severe pituitary suppression, and consideration for luteal phase stimulation and a "freeze all" approach are possible customized treatment options that can be considered for such patients who have failed more traditional COS protocols. PMID:26036898

  13. Relationship between GDM maternal advanced glycation end products level and fetal birth defects and it's clinical significance%GDM孕妇血清晚期糖基化终产物水平与其胎儿出生缺陷的关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤栩文; 林斯; 谢晓斌

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇血清及脐血血清中晚期糖基化终产物(AGE)的水平,并观察胎盘组织中AGE受体(RAGE)的表达,探讨AGE与胎儿出生缺陷的关系及其在产前筛查中的临床意义.方法:选择经产前筛查诊断为胎儿畸形或胎死宫内的GDM孕妇作为病例组(42例),随机选择GDM无胎儿异常孕妇作为GDM组(30例),无妊娠合并症的健康孕妇作为健康对照组(30例).采用酶联免疫法检测孕妇血清及脐血血清AGE水平;采用免疫组化方法检测胎盘组织中RAGE蛋白的表达.结果:病例组、GDM组、健康对照组脐血血清AGE水平分别为(223.9±54.6),(160.7±37.2),(108.3+15.8) μg/L,三组差异显著(P<0.05);病例组、GDM组、健康对照组孕妇血清AGE水平分别为(169.1±14.3),(105.4±17.2),(80.6±11.4) μg/L,三组亦有显著差异(P<0.05);病例组孕妇血清与脐血血清中AGE水平呈正相关(r=0.863,P<0.01);病例组、GDM组及健康对照组胎盘组织中RAGE的阳性表达率分别为87.5%、53.1%、29.6%,三组差异显著(P<0.05).结论:GDM孕妇高AGE血症是导致出生缺陷的危险因素,孕妇血清AGE水平可作为GDM出生缺陷的产前筛查指标.%Objective:To detect serum advanced glycation end products(AGE) level in gestation diabetic mother( GDM) gestational period and fetal cord blood, and observe the RAGE protein expression in placenta. To explore the clinical significance of relationship be-tween fetal birth defects and AGE levels in prenatal screening. Methods: Gestational diabetes pregnant woman confirmed fetalmalformation or fetal death by prenatal diagnosis were enrolled as the study group, total of 42 cases; Randomly selected the GDM fetal normalities pregnant women,as the GDM group,30 cases;another 30 cases of the normal pregnant women wre select-ed randomly as healthy control group. Maternal peripheral blood and the specimens of fetal cord blood specimens were collected to detect AGE

  14. Impacto da idade materna sobre os resultados perinatais e via de parto Impact of maternal age on perinatal outcomes and mode of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete Helena Nascimento dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    ício tardio e menor número de consultas no pré-natal, uso de abortivo no início da gestação, baixa escolaridade, ausência de companheiro, baixo peso ao nascer, prematuridade e menor incidência de desproporção céfalo-pélvica e pré-eclâmpsia. No grupo de gestantes com idade avançada houve maior freqüência de diabetes, pré-eclâmpsia, ruptura prematura das membranas, índice de Apgar no quinto minuto menor que sete e maior frequência de parto operatório cesáreo.PURPOSE: to analyze the association of the mother's age, the perinatal outcome and the delivery route. METHODS: information about all the patients attended at the Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a tertiary university hospital in Maranhão, from July to December 2006, was analyzed. Patients have been allocated in three groups: adolescents (10 to 19 years old, adults (20 to 34 years old, and aged women (>35 years old. Variables studied were: skin color, schooling, marital status, family income, parity, number of appointments during pre-natal care, gestational age at the onset of pre-natal care, delivery route, Apgar index at the fifth minute and birth weight. Data were processed by the Epi-info program, version 3.4.1, and the association among the variables was analyzed by the Odds Ratio (OR or the cross product ratio, with confidence intervals (CI of 95%. The significance level was 0.05. RESULTS: among 2,196 patients, 25% of deliveries occurred in adolescents, 69% in adults and 6% in aged women. Among the adolescents, there was higher risk of prematurity (OR=1.46; CI95%=1.14-1.88, and low birth weight (OR=1.47; CI95%=1.13- 1.90, higher incidence of normal delivery as compared to the other groups (65.2%, besides the association with late onset of pre-natal care (OR=1.86; CI95%=1.43-2.43, lower number of appointments (OR=2.03; CI95%=1.57-2.63, and use of abortive procedures at the onset of gestation (OR=2.34; CI95%=1.38-3.98. Among aged women, there was strong association with diabetes mellitus

  15. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  16. A RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF CENTRAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana Yadav; Arpita Namdeo; Meena Bhargava

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was maternal death audit in rural tertiary care centre, GMH Rewa, to find out avoidable/unavoidable factors in each death and use information thus generated to reduce maternal mortality. Methods: Medical records of all maternal deaths occurring over a period of 4 years between Jan 2006 to Oct. 2009 were reviewed and from Nov. 2009 to Dec. 2010 all maternal deaths were followed and studied in details in respect to maternal age, parity, booking status, deliv...

  17. Does Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5…

  18. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 5: Radioactive waste disposal; Decontamination and decommissioning; Aging assessment and license renewals; Global advances in nuclear codes and standards; Major component reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings from this conference are divided into five volumes. This volume is divided into the following sections: spent fuel and nuclear waste processing; transportation and characterization of nuclear wastes; spent fuel and high level waste storage and disposal; D and D (decontamination and decommissioning) of reactors; D and D of nonreactor facilities; D and D related techniques and technology; assessment and management of aging, degradation, and damage; aging effects on failures; license extension and regulatory issues; assessment of aging effects; global advances in nuclear codes and standards; steam generator reliability; and reliability of reactor vessels and internals. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  19. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes. PMID:26827819

  20. A case of maternal tetanus in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong Hyeon; Park, Jung Ho; Jung, Phil Jin; Lee, Sang Rok; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Sei Jong

    2002-01-01

    Tetanus is uncommon in Korea due to the introduction of vaccination programs and advances in public health. A case of maternal tetanus occurred on the 9 day postpartum in a 29-yr-old woman, who had not received a 10-yr-booster of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid after receiving the primary series of tetanus-toxoid-containing vaccine. There has hitherto been no reports on maternal tetanus in Korea. This case illustrates that tetanus remains a medical problem, principally among non- and under-immunize...

  1. 妊娠中期唐氏筛查在高龄孕妇产前诊断中必要性探讨%Approach the necessary of prenatal screening about down syndrome from of advanced materal age in pregnancy trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋桂宁; 梁梅英; 张颜秋; 张璘; 徐红; 任梅宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective Approach the meaning of prenatal screening about down syndrome in prenatal diagnosis form pregnant women of advanced maternal age. Methods Amniocentesis were performed in 899 pregantwomen of advanced materal age with the indiations of prenatal diagnosis during 17-24 gestationalweeks and fetal chromom alkarynotypeswere examined in amniotic fluid.Results 6 abnomal chromosomal karyotypes were found in146 pregnantwomen with an increased risk of DS(≥1/270)(chose alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)and free E3 (uE3)and free β-hCG) .Patients with an increased risk of DS(≥1/270).(.Trisomy 21 was 4.11%(6/146 ) .12 abnomal chromosomal karyotypes were found in 753 pregnantwomen without prenatal screening.Trisomy 21 was 0.67%(5/750 ) .Conclusion It is higher effectiness among women of advanced maternal age about prenatal screening than without prenatal screening among women of advanced maternal age in pregnancy trimester.To suggest prenatal screening among women of advanced materal age in pregnancy trimester.%目的 探讨唐氏筛查在高龄孕妇产前诊断中的意义. 方法有产前诊断指征的高龄孕妇899人,孕中期17-24周行羊膜腔穿刺,取羊水检查胎儿染色体.结果 发现染色体异常6例在146例唐氏综合症筛查阳性(即孕妇血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)和游离性雌三醇(uE3)以及游离人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-hCG)三联指标检测,将三联指标测定值输入唐氏综合征风险计算软件,以1/270为高危切割值,≥1/270确定为唐氏综合征筛查阳性)的高龄孕妇中,发现染色体异常6例唐氏综合征发生率为4.11%(6/146),高龄孕妇中未行唐氏筛查人数750人次,染色体异常人数12人,唐氏综合征发生率0.67%(5/750). 结论对高龄孕妇行孕中期血清血液筛查胎儿唐氏综合征,其筛查效率高于孕中期未行血清血液筛查的高龄孕妇,建议对高龄孕妇行孕中期胎儿唐氏综合征产前筛查.

  2. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Judy van de Venne; Kay Bradford; Catherine Martin; Megan Cox; Hatim A. Omar

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years) and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly as...

  3. Investigating Maternal Mortality in a Public Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezegwui, HU; Onoh, RC; Ikeako, LC; Onyebuchi, A; Umeora, OUJ; Ezeonu, P; Ibekwe, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has remained high and this is a reflection of the poor quality of maternal services. Aim: To determine the causes, trends, and level of maternal mortality rate in Abakaliki, Ebonyi. Materials and Methods: This was a review of the records of all maternal deaths related to pregnancy over a ten-year period, that is, January 1999 to December 2008. Relevant information on number of deaths, booking status, age, parity, educational level of women,...

  4. Associação entre estrutura familiar, nível de escolaridade e emprego da mãe com estilo de vida sedentário em crianças em idade escolar primária Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2013-04-01

    level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. METHOD: Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5th percentile 95th percentile. For the analysis, overweight was defined as BMI at or above the 85th percentile for each gender. Adjusted odds ratios (adjusted ORs for physical inactivity were determined using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 40.7%, and of sedentary lifestyle, 57.2%. The percentage of non-intact families was 23.5%. Approximately 48.7% of the mothers had a non-acceptable educational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.04-2.66 is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. CONCLUSION: Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children.

  5. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  6. Breastfeeding and maternal diet in atopic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Tina Y.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Question Many children are affected by atopic dermatitis (AD) at a very young age. I often consider whether nonpharmacologic interventions could prevent or mitigate the development of AD. Do breastfeeding or changes to the maternal diet help prevent the development of childhood AD?

  7. Recent advances towards a theory of catchment hydrologic transport: age-ranked storage and the Ω-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Models that faithfully represent spatially-integrated hydrologic transport through the critical zone at sub-watershed scales are essential building blocks for large-scale models of land use and climate controls on non-point source contaminant delivery. A particular challenge facing these models is the need to represent the delay between inputs of soluble contaminants (such as nitrate) at the field scale, and the solute load that appears in streams. Recent advances in the theory of time-variable transit time distributions (e.g. Botter et al., GRL 38(L11403), 2011) have provided a rigorous framework for representing conservative solute transport and its coupling to hydrologic variability and partitioning. Here I will present a reformulation of this framework that offers several distinct advantages over existing formulations: 1) the derivation of the governing conservation equation is simple and intuitive, 2) the closure relations are expressed in a convenient and physically meaningful way as probability distributions Ω(ST)Omega(S_T) over the storage ranked by age STS_T, and 3) changes in transport behavior determined by storage-dependent dilution and flow-path dynamics (as distinct from those due only to changes in the rates and partitioning of water flux) are completely encapsulated by these probability distributions. The framework has been implemented to model to the rich dataset of long-term stream and precipitation chloride from the Plynlimon watershed in Wales, UK. With suitable choices for the functional form of the closure relationships, only a small number of free parameters are required to reproduce the observed chloride dynamics as well as previous models with many more parameters, including reproducing the observed fractal 1/f filtering of the streamflow chloride variability. The modeled transport dynamics are sensitive to the input precipitation variability and water balance partitioning to evapotranspiration. Apparent storage-dependent age

  8. Age-related accumulation of advanced glycation end-products-albumin, S100β, and the expressions of advanced glycation end product receptor differ in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kuk Hui; Son, Myeongjoo; Ahn, Hyosang; Oh, Seyeon; Yum, Yoonji; Choi, Chang Hu; Park, Kook Yang; Byun, Kyunghee

    2016-08-19

    Visceral fat induces more inflammation by activating macrophages than subcutaneous fat, and inflammation is an underlying feature of the pathogeneses of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), S100β, and their receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), lead to macrophage activation. However, little information is available regarding the differential accumulations of AGE-albumin (serum albumin modified by AGEs), S100β, or expressions of RAGE in different adipocyte types in fat tissues. In this study, the authors investigated whether age-related AGE-albumin accumulations S100β level, and RAGE expressions differ in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were harvested from 3- and 28-week-old rats. Macrophage activation was confirmed by Iba1 staining, and AGE-albumin accumulations and RAGE expressions were assessed by confocal microscopy. S100β were analyzed by immunoblotting. It was found that activated macrophage infiltration, AGE-albumin accumulation, and S100β in visceral fat was significantly greater in 28-week-old rats than in 3-week-old rats, but similar in subcutaneous fat. The expression of RAGE in visceral fat was much greater in 28-week-old rats, but its expression in subcutaneous fat was similar in 3- and 28-week-old rats. Furthermore, inflammatory signal pathways (NFκB, TNF-α) and proliferation pathways (FAK) in visceral fat were more activated in 28-week-old rats. These results imply that age-related AGE-albumin accumulation, S100β, and RAGE expression are more prominent in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, suggesting that visceral fat is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced diseases in the elderly. PMID:27301641

  9. Relationship between pre-pregnant body mass index, maternal weight gain and small for gestational age%孕前体重指数及孕期增重与小于胎龄儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婷婷; 岳福娟; 王芳; 冯永亮; 邬惟为; 王素萍; 张亚玮; 杨海澜

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨孕前BMI、孕期增重与小于胎龄儿(small for gestational age,SGA)的关系,为预防小于胎龄儿的发生提供理论依据.方法 以2012年3月至2014年7月在山西医科大学第一医院产科分娩的4 754例单胎孕妇为研究对象,收集其一般人口学特征及健康状况、分娩情况等资料,测量其孕前身高、体重和分娩前体重,计算孕前BMI及孕期增重并分组,收集新生儿出生结局,了解孕前BMI和孕期增重对SGA的影响.结果 SGA发生率为9.26%(440/4 754).孕前体重较低组、正常组及超重/肥胖组SGA发生率为9.85%、8.54%和9.45%,调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕前BMI过高和超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇(OR=0.714,95%CI:0.535 ~ 0.953);不同孕期增重组SGA发生率分别为孕期增重低于美国医学研究所(IOM)建议范围下限组12.20%、增重在建议范围组9.23%、增重超过建议范围上限组8.45%;调整孕妇年龄、孕产史等因素后,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限增加SGA的发生风险(OR=1.999,95%CI:1.487~ 2.685),无论是孕前BMI较低、适宜还是超重/肥胖,分别以增重适宜作为参照,孕期增重低于IOM建议范围下限均增加SGA的发生风险,OR值分别为2.558(95%CI:1.313~ 4.981)、1.804(95%CI:1.258~2.587)、3.108(95%CI:1.237 ~ 7.811).孕前高BMI和孕期增重不足间未发现相加和相乘交互作用.结论 孕前BMI超重/肥胖者SGA发生率低于孕前BMI正常范围的孕妇,孕期增重不足增加SGA的发生风险,无论孕前BMI较低、正常还是超重/肥胖的孕妇增重均应避免低于IOM推荐的增重范围下限,以减少SGA的发生.%Objective To investigate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index,weight gain during pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) birth so as to provide evidence for the development of comprehensive prevention programs on SGA birth.Methods Between

  10. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis caused by maternal autoimmune hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Miguel Fragata; Maria, Ana Teresa; Prado, Sara; Limbert, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal immune hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It occurs in 1-5% of infants born to women with Graves' disease (GD). In most of the cases it is due to maternal antibodies transferred from the mother into the fetal compartment, stimulating the fetal thyroid by binding thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor. We present a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis due to maternal GD detected at 25 days of age and discuss the potential pitfalls in the diagnosis. PMID:25750228

  11. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  12. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring. PMID:16140895

  13. Clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy for super-elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. Comparison with patients under 80 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the clinical outcomes of helical tomotherapy in 23 patients aged ≥80 years with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer and compared the results with data from 171 patients under 80 years. All patients received helical tomotherapy in our hospital between September 2009 and October 2012. The median follow-up periods were 35 months in the aged group and 34 months in the younger group. The median prescribed dose in helical tomotherapy was 78 Gy in 39 fractions (range, 72–78 Gy). The 3-year overall survival and biochemical relapse-free rates were 92% and 96% in the aged group and 99.4% and 97.3% in the younger group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the biochemical relapse-free rates. The 3-year cumulative incidences of late Grade 2 or higher rectal toxicity and urinary toxicity were 13% and 4.8% in the aged group and 7.0% and 1.2% in the younger group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the aged group and the younger group in the cumulative incidence rates of rectal toxicity or urinary toxicity. No patients exhibited Grade 4 or higher toxicity, and all patients improved with conservative therapy. Helical tomotherapy in super-elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer had good biochemical control rates without severe late toxicity. Definitive helical tomotherapy may be the treatment of choice for patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer, even in those older than 80 years of age. (author)

  14. An autopsy study of maternal mortality: A tertiary healthcare perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchabhai T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An audit of autopsies of maternal deaths is important for the establishment of accurate cause of maternal deaths and to determine the contribution of various etiologies responsible in a given community. Aim: To study the causes of maternal deaths as determined by a pathological autopsy. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of all the cases of maternal deaths that underwent a pathological autopsy in a tertiary healthcare center from January 1998 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: The autopsy records with clinical notes were retrieved; gross and histopathology specimens and slides were studied to establish the accurate cause of maternal deaths. The variables like age (years, stay in the hospital, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy and method of delivery were used to classify and analyze the data from the autopsies. The causes of maternal deaths were divided in to direct and indirect; each being classified into subgroups based on the most evident pathology on autopsy. Results: The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR over a nine-year period (1998-2006 was 827/100000 live births (471 maternal deaths against 56944 live births. An autopsy was performed in 277 cases (58.8%. In the autopsy group, the most common causes of maternal mortality were pre-ecclampsia/ecclampsia (40 of 277, 14.44% and hemorrhage (32 of 277; 11.55%; However, indirect causes like infectious diseases (27 of 277; 9.75% and cardiac (27 of 277; 9.75% disease also contributed to maternal deaths. Conclusion: Indirect causes like rheumatic heart disease and infections like tuberculosis, malaria or leptospirosis and nutritional anemia are still major causes of maternal mortality in developing countries like India. Intensive efforts need to be taken in these areas to reduce the maternal mortality in developing countries like India.

  15. Maternal transmission of Alzheimer's disease: Prodromal metabolic phenotype and the search for genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosconi Lisa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After advanced age, having a parent affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most significant risk factor for developing AD among cognitively normal (NL individuals. Although rare genetic mutations have been identified among the early-onset forms of familial AD (EOFAD, the genetics of the more common forms of late-onset AD (LOAD remain elusive. While some LOAD cases appear to be sporadic in nature, genetically mediated risk is evident from the familial aggregation of many LOAD cases. The patterns of transmission and biological mechanisms through which a family history of LOAD confers risk to the offspring are not known. Brain imaging studies using 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET have shown that NL individuals with a maternal history of LOAD, but not with a paternal family history, express a phenotype characterised by a pattern of progressive reductions of brain glucose metabolism, similar to that in AD patients. As maternally inherited AD may be associated with as many as 20 per cent of the total LOAD population, understanding the causes and mechanisms of expression of this form of AD is of great relevance. This paper reviews known genetic mutations implicated in EOFAD and their effects on brain chemistry, structure and function; epidemiology and clinical research findings in LOAD, including in vivo imaging findings showing selective patterns of hypometabolism in maternally inherited AD; possible genetic mechanisms involved in maternal transmission of AD, including chromosome X mutations, mitochondrial DNA and imprinting; and genetic mechanisms involved in other neurological disorders with known or suspected maternal inheritance. The review concludes with a discussion of the potential role of brain imaging for identifying endophenotypes in NL individuals at risk for AD, and for directing investigation of potential susceptibility genes for AD.

  16. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  17. Advance: research project on aging electrical wiring in nuclear power plants; Advance: proyecto de investigacion de envejecimiento en cableado electrico en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, J. C.; Ruiz, S.

    2013-07-01

    As Nuclear Power Plants get older it is more important to know the real condition of low voltage, instrumentation, power and control cables. Additionally, as new plants are being built, the election of cables and the use of in-situ monitoring techniques to get reliable aging indicators, can be very useful during the plant life. The goal of this Project is to adapt, optimize and asses Condition Monitoring techniques for Nuclear Power Plants cables. These techniques, together with the appropriate acceptance criteria, would allow specialists to know the state of the cable over its entire length and estimate its residual life. In the Project, accelerated ageing is used in cables installed in European NPPs in order to evaluate different techniques to detect local and global ageing. Results are compared with accepted tests to validate its use for the estimation of cables residual life. This paper describes the main stages of the Project and some results. (Author)

  18. Maternal Age and Birth Defects in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Fariba; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Birth defect is a global health problem with more severe consequences in low and middle income countries (LMICs), where it is estimated that more than 94% of severe defects and 95% of affected children\\'s death occur

  19. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  20. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Conti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted. Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age.

  1. Mom knows best: the universality of maternal microbial transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Funkhouser

    Full Text Available The sterile womb paradigm is an enduring premise in biology that human infants are born sterile. Recent studies suggest that infants incorporate an initial microbiome before birth and receive copious supplementation of maternal microbes through birth and breastfeeding. Moreover, evidence for microbial maternal transmission is increasingly widespread across animals. This collective knowledge compels a paradigm shift—one in which maternal transmission of microbes advances from a taxonomically specialized phenomenon to a universal one in animals. It also engenders fresh views on the assembly of the microbiome, its role in animal evolution, and applications to human health and disease.

  2. Tracking fetal development through molecular analysis of maternal biofluids☆

    OpenAIRE

    Edlow, Andrea G; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2012-01-01

    Current monitoring of fetal development includes fetal ultrasonography, chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis for chromosome analysis, and maternal serum biochemical screening for analytes associated with aneuploidy and open neural tube defects. Over the last 15 years, significant advances in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) via cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids in maternal plasma have resulted in the ability to determine fetal sex, RhD genotype, and aneuploidy. Cff nucleic acids ...

  3. What do we know about the nutritional status of the very old? Insights from three cohorts of advanced age from the UK and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tom R; Mendonça, Nuno; Granic, Antoneta; Siervo, Mario; Jagger, Carol; Seal, Chris J; Kerse, Ngaire; Wham, Carol; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2016-08-01

    Very old people (referred to as those aged 85 years and over) are the fastest growing age segment of many Western societies owing to the steady rise of life expectancy and decrease in later life mortality. In the UK, there are now more than 1·5 million very old people (2·5 % of total population) and the number is projected to rise to 3·3 million or 5 % over the next 20 years. Reduced mobility and independence, financial constraints, higher rates of hospitalisation, chronic diseases and disabilities, changes in body composition, taste perception, digestion and absorption of food all potentially influence either nutrient intake or needs at this stage of life. The nutritional needs of the very old have been identified as a research priority by the British Nutrition Foundation's Task Force report, Healthy Ageing: The Role of Nutrition and Lifestyle. However, very little is known about the dietary habits and nutritional status of the very old. The Newcastle 85+ study, a cohort of more than 1000 85-year olds from the North East of England and the Life and Living in Advanced Age study (New Zealand), a bicultural cohort study of advanced ageing of more than 900 participants from the Bay of Plenty and Rotorua regions of New Zealand are two unique cohort studies of ageing, which aim to assess the spectrum of health in the very old as well as examine the associations of health trajectories and outcomes with biological, clinical and social factors as each cohort ages. The nutrition domain included in both studies will help to fill the evidence gap by identifying eating patterns, and measures of nutritional status associated with better, or worse, health and wellbeing. This review will explore some of this ongoing work. PMID:27165559

  4. Is maternal serum triple screening a better predictor of Down syndrome in female than in male fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, A; Spong, C Y; Grier, R E; Walker, C N; Pezzullo, J C

    1998-02-01

    Among euploid gestations, female fetuses have been reported to have significantly lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and higher human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels than male fetuses. Since in maternal serum triple screening, low MSAFP and high hCG MOM independently confer greater risk of a Down syndrome fetus, we investigated the hypothesis that maternal serum triple screening is more efficacious at detecting female than male Down syndrome fetuses. A database containing all karyotypes from amniocentesis performed between August 1994 and August 1996 was accessed. All trisomy 21 cases were identified. The male-to-female ratio among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis after abnormal maternal serum triple screening was compared with that among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis for advanced maternal age (AMA), which served as the control group. Statistical analysis utilized chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Forty-nine trisomy 21 fetuses were detected in the women who underwent amniocentesis because of abnormal triple screening and 311 were detected in the control group. The proportion of male fetuses among the triple screening group was not significantly different from that of the AMA group (55 per cent vs. 57 per cent; P=0.9). Our study had a power of 80 per cent to detect a difference of 25 per cent in the male-to-female ratio (alpha=0.05, beta=0.20). The reported differences in MSAFP and hCG levels between male and female euploid fetuses do not appear to affect the sex ratio among Down syndrome fetuses detected because of an abnormal maternal serum triple screening. PMID:9516012

  5. Maternal deaths: the need to rethink coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze maternal deaths and present the Maternal Mortality Ratio in the city of Fortaleza, in the Northeast region of Brazil, from 2008-2010. This is a descriptive study. Data collection occurred in the Mortality Information System and in the maternal death investigation files of the Local Health Department. Fifty-six maternal deaths were investigated with a Maternal Mortality Ratio of 39.75/100,000 live births. The prevalent age group was 20-29 years (50.0%. Hypertensive disorders (50.0% were the most prevalent causes of direct obstetric deaths. As for indirect obstetric deaths, infectious and parasitic diseases (28.1% prevailed. Nearly all deaths were considered preventable or possibly preventable (91.1%. Thus, it can be assumed that most deaths could have been avoided by ensuring the quality of prenatal care.

  6. Maternal immunization efforts of the National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Fran A; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Isaacs, Maggie Brewinski; Piper, Jeanna; Read, Jennifer; Nesin, Mirjana

    2015-11-25

    Over the last 35 years, efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to protect mothers and their infants against infectious diseases have involved a bench-to-bedside approach. Basic and translational research that provided a foundation for clinical trials of vaccines in pregnancy include natural history and vaccine antigen identification studies. Development of laboratory assays and reagents have been funded by NIAID; these are critical for the advancement of vaccine candidates through the preclinical and clinical steps along the maternal immunization research pathway to support vaccine efficacy. Animal models of maternal immunization have been developed to evaluate efficacy of vaccine candidates. Clinical studies required development of maternal immunization protocols to address specific pregnancy related issues, for enrollment and safety assessment of mothers and their infants. NIH has organized and participated in meetings, workshops and other collaborative efforts with partners have advanced maternal immunization efforts. Partners have included many institutes and offices at NIH as well as other Department of Health and Human Services agencies and offices (Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Vaccine Program Office), World Health Organization, academic investigators, Biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and nonprofit organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. These research and development partnership are essential for advancing maternal immunization. Continued efforts are needed to promote maternal immunization to protect pregnant women and their infants against vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially in resource-limited settings where the burden of infections is high. PMID:26458798

  7. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-γ, it increased the PPAR-γ transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-γ activation.

  8. Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, inhibits advanced glycation end product (AGE)-elicited mesangial cell damage by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume 830-0011 (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2009-07-24

    The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptor RAGE mediates the progressive alteration in renal architecture and loss of renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative stress generation and inflammation also play a central role in diabetic nephropathy. This study investigated whether and how nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), blocked the AGE-elicited mesangial cell damage in vitro. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, down-regulated RAGE mRNA levels and subsequently reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in AGE-exposed mesangial cells. AGE increased mRNA levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in mesangial cells, both of which were prevented by the treatment with nifedipine, but not amlodipine. The beneficial effects of nifedipine on AGE-exposed mesangial cells were blocked by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}). Although nifedipine did not affect expression levels of PPAR-{gamma}, it increased the PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in mesangial cells. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGE by suppressing RAGE expression in cultured mesangial cells via PPAR-{gamma} activation.

  9. Role of the Small Intestine in Developmental Programming: Impact of Maternal Nutrition on the Dam and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Allison M; Caton, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Small-intestinal growth and function are critical for optimal animal growth and health and play a major role in nutrient digestion and absorption, energy and nutrient expenditure, and immunological competence. During fetal and perinatal development, the small intestine is affected by the maternal environment and nutrient intake. In ruminants, altered small-intestinal mass, villi morphology, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, vascularity, and gene expression have been observed as a result of poor gestational nutrition or intrauterine growth restriction. Although many of these data come from fetal stages, data have also demonstrated that nutrition during mid- and late gestation affects lamb small-intestinal growth, vascularity, digestive enzyme activity, and gene expression at 20 and 180 d of age as well. The small intestine is known to be a highly plastic tissue, changing with nutrient intake and physiological state even in adulthood, and the maternal small intestine adapts to pregnancy and advancing gestation. In ruminants, the growth, vascularity, and gene expression of the maternal small intestine also adapt to the nutritional plane and specific nutrient intake such as high selenium during pregnancy. These changes likely alter both pre- and postnatal nutrient delivery to offspring. More research is necessary to better understand the role of the offspring and maternal small intestines in whole-animal responses to developmental programming, but programming of this plastic tissue seems to play a dynamic role in gestational nutrition impacts on the whole animal. PMID:27180380

  10. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function. PMID:26933035

  11. The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A New Audiotaped Measure of Maternal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5?years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure--called the Maternal…

  12. Children's Emotionality Moderates the Association Between Maternal Responsiveness and Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey N; Evans, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    high and low maternal responsiveness on allostatic load, a physiological indicator of chronic stress. Participants were 226 mother and child dyads. Mothers reported on children's emotionality at child age 9. Maternal responsiveness was measured at age 13 using self-reports and behavioral observation...

  13. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  14. Analysis Negative Influence on the Clinical Pregnancy Rate of Intrauterine Insemination in Infertility Women with Advancing Age%高龄不孕妇女IUI临床妊娠的不利影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孟循; 马文敏; 朱莉; 吴雅琴; 司徒艳球; 谭晓慧

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析影响高龄不孕妇女IUI获临床妊娠的不利因素,并找出高龄妇女转变助孕方式的时机。方法回顾佛山市妇幼保健院生殖中心自2008年1月~2012年1月行IUI助孕325对夫妇550个IUI周期的资料,统计分析女方不同年龄段、不孕类型、不孕年限、接受IUI的周期数、3种促排卵周期和自然周期对高龄妇女IUI临床妊娠率的影响。结果≧40岁组临床妊娠率明显低于35~36岁组(=0.028);≧5年组临床妊娠率明显低于1~2年组(=0.037);HMG/丽申宝促排卵周期临床妊娠率明显高于自然周期和CC/CC+HMG周期(P值分别为0.012、0.020),40岁及以上患者使用CC/CC+HMG促排卵共21周期,未见有临床妊娠,而HMG/丽申宝促排卵周期临床妊娠率为9.0%(6/67);≧40岁且不孕年限≧5年妇女行IUI助孕共有33周期,仅有1例获临床妊娠,妊娠率为3.0%(1/33);≧40岁妇女接受第3次及以上助孕周期共15周期,未有获临床妊娠者。结论不孕年限及促排卵方案是影响高龄妇女IUI获临床妊娠的重要因素,40岁以上患者通过IUI的获临床妊娠率机会低下。高龄妇女行IUI建议使用Gn促排卵,避免使用CC,进行2个周期的IUI助孕治疗后可考虑转其他助孕方式,特别是对不孕年限≧5年或40岁及以上妇女;不孕年限达5年或者以上,并且患者≧40岁,则建议直接行IVF/ICSI助孕。%Objective To investigate and analyze factors that influence pregnancy rate of intrauterine insemination (IUI)with husband sperm in women of advancing age,to find the best timing to change assisted reproductive technology.Methods The clinical data of 325 infertile couples undergoing 550 IUI were analyzed in Center,Foshan Maternal &Children Health Hospital.Relationships between pregnancy rate and maternal age,infertile types,infertile time,natural cycle and 3 types of ovulation induction cycle were investigated.Results The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly lower in

  15. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. → GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression via PPARγ activation.

  16. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  17. Laser-Assisted Hatching of Embryos in Women of Advanced Age after in Vitro Fertilization: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Gwo Horng; Chia-Lin Chang; Hsien-Ming Wu; Chia-Woei Wang; Chun-Kai Cheng; Hung-Yuan Huang; Hsin-Shih Wang; Yoong-Kuei Soong

    2002-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 37 years, failure of the zona pellucida to ruptureis believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitrofertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). It has beensuggested that assisted hatching of embryos will increase the pregnancy ratewith IVF by means of mechanically facilitating the hatching process.Methods: One hundred twenty cycles of IVF/ICSI in females aged over 37 years wereanalyzed. Women included in th...

  18. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association. PMID:21470265

  19. The analysis of advanced age pregnancy and Down′s screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities in the prenatal%高龄妊娠与唐氏筛查高风险的产前诊断染色体异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丹; 李海军; 李志华; 陈敏; 孙筱放

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore if the high‐risk of Down′s screening can predict the fetal chromosomal abnormalities for the advanced age pregnant women ,provide a scientific basis for the advanced age pregnant women to select the Down′s screening .Meth‐ods Reviewed the patients which had the indications of prenatal diagnostic because of advanced age and the high‐risk of Down′s screening from January 2010 to June 2013 ,a total of 2 335 cases .All the maternal age were ≥35 years old and the average age was 37 .43 ± 2 .93 .All the cases were carried out karyotype analysis that the samples were from amniotic fluid ,umbilical cord blood or villus ,the training success rate is 99 .5% .Results We found 177 cases abnormal fetal chromosome in the 2 335 cases advanced age women ,the abnormal rate is 7 .58% .The greater the age ,the higher of the chromosomal abnormalities rate in the unusual cases .In addition to chromosomal polymorphism ,the trisomy of the chromosome and inversions between chromosome arms are the most common chromosomal abnormalities .Conclusion Conducted the Down′s screening in the advanced age women can improve the screening rates of the fetal chromosomal abnormalities .It is necessary for the high‐risk of Down′s screening in advanced age preg‐nant women to have the prenatal diagnosis to investigate the fetal chromosomal abnormalities .%目的:探讨唐氏筛查高风险对高龄妊娠染色体异常是否具有预测意义,为高龄孕妇选择唐氏筛查筛选染色体异常提供科学依据。方法回顾该院2010年1月至2013年6月因高龄妊娠唐氏筛查高风险有产前诊断指征前来咨询的病例共2335例,所有孕妇年龄均大于或等于35岁,平均(37.43±2.93)岁。病例均进行了羊水或脐带血细胞绒毛培养染色体核型分析,培养成功率99.5%,然后对染色体核型结果进行分析。结果2335例高龄孕妇中产前诊断染色体结果异常的共有177

  20. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Sites Search Help? Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... should know? How is it used? Maternal serum screening is used in the second trimester of pregnancy ...

  1. Linking Prenatal Maternal Adversity to Developmental Outcomes in Infants: The Role of Epigenetic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Catherine; Spicer, Julie; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal stress, anxiety, and depression can have lasting effects on infant development with consequences for risk of psychopathology. Though the impact of prenatal maternal distress has been well documented, the potential mechanisms through which maternal psychosocial variables shape development have yet to be fully elucidated. Advances in molecular biology have highlighted the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene activity, neurobiology, and behavior and the ...

  2. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans. Pt. 3.. Personal characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents) and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. T. 3. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren (Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern) und geographische Unterschiede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Kinderheilkunde

    2001-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of personal characteristics, like gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents, and geographic origin, on the neonatal pollution with these harmful substances. Methods: Cord blood samples were taken from 200 full-term, healthy neonates born in Fulda or Duesseldorf, respectively, in 1998. The samples were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored at-20 C up to analysis, which was performed in 1999. The parents must have lived life-long in each town and should never accidentally or at their working places have been exposed to high concentrations of PCBs or HCB. Six PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) and HCB were analysed with capillary gas-chromatography with electron capture detection. Results: We could demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between the prenatal uptake of PCBs and HCB and the gestational age of the newborns as well as the maternal age in the study group of 199 newborns (one child was excluded because of unusually high PCB values). Thereby, neonates born in the 42. week had 3.5-fold higher PCB values than children born in the 38. week, and newborns of a 50-year-old mother showed up to 500% higher values than children of a 20-year-old woman (p < 0.0001). A correlation with birth weight was not found. Furthermore, newborns of active smoking women exhibited significantly higher PCB and HCB values than children of passive smoking or non-smoking mothers. Prenatal uptake of PCBs was not different with regard to the geographic origin of the newborns, i.e. Fulda or Duesseldorf, whereas newborns from Duesseldorf showed about 62% higher HCB concentrations. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss personenbezogener Charakteristika, wie des Gestationsalters, des Geburtsgewichts, des muetterlichen Alters und des Tabakkonsums der Eltern, sowie geographischer Unterschiede auf die neonatale Schadstoffbelastung zu

  3. Maternal Styles of Talking about Child Feeding across Sociodemographic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Pesch, Megan H.; Harrell, Kristina J.; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Kate; Lumeng, Julie C

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify maternal styles of talking about child feeding from a semi-structured interview and to evaluate associated maternal and child characteristics. Mothers of preschool-aged children (n = 133) of diverse race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) (45 lower SES black, 29 lower SES white, 32 lower SES Hispanic, 15 middle to upper SES white, 12 middle to upper SES Asian) participated in a semi-structured interview about feeding. Interviews were audio-taped and transcr...

  4. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN PULMONARY FUNCTION WITH ADVANCING AGE AND THE EFFECT OF SMOKING IN MALES OF NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny George

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the life expectancy is rising virtually in all proportions throughout the world, awareness of the basic changes in respiratory physiology associated with aging and their clinical implication is important for clinicians. Similarly Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has emerged as a major health condition worldwide and cigarette smoking has been clearly documented as a risk factor for it. We made an attempt to assess the changes in the pulmonary function with age and also to assess the effect of smoking in males of 18-85 years from North Kerala . The pulmonary function tests were assessed on a computerized spirometer in 247 male subjects, outof which 127 were nonsmokers and 121 were smokers . The results showed a strong negative correlation between various age groups indicating a statistically significant decrease in all pulmonary function parameters as age increases(p<0.01. All the pulmonary function parameters were also significantly decreased in smokers when compared to nonsmokers of the same age groups (p<0.01. The percentage of smokers having airflow limitation (33.1% was more than 5 times that of the nonsmokers (5.6%. Thus by spirometry airflow limitation can be measured at an early stage so that subsequent morbidity can be minimized by life style changes and more targeted smoking cessation programmes.

  5. [New data on maternal mortality in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    A survey was carried out in urban and rural areas of the district of Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh state, India, between July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985 by a team of 6 interviewers and 1 supervisor to identify investigate, and study the causative factors/characteristics of the causes of maternal deaths. They visited each of the 15 hospitals in the district collecting information about maternal deaths that occurred in the reproductive age range of 15-49 years. 22 health centers and 50% of subcenters were also visited, registers were examined, and staff and families were also interviewed. The hospitals and centers served 569,500 people. During the 1st phase in the rural area all main village centers, 181 village subcenters, and 1192 other villages in the district with a total population of 1,090,640 were covered. During the 2nd phase all towns in the urban zones, 10 primary centers, 65 subcenters, and 135 others were visited. The maternal mortality rate was 7.9/1000 live births, well above the national average. 36% of female mortality occurred in women in reproductive age, but fewer than 1/2 of these deaths were registered and only 1/3 figured in center and subcenter records. In rural areas maternal mortality was 8.3/1000, ahead of the urban rate of 5.4/1000. 63% of 284 deaths detailed were related to live births, 14% to stillbirths, 10% to abortions, and 13% to obstructed labor. 19% of total maternal deaths occurred before birth, 12% during labor, and 69% after delivery. Among clinical causes of death sepsis accounted for 36%, hemorrhage for 12%, eclampsia for 9%, retention of placenta for 7%, and infectious hepatitis for 10%. 80% of these deaths could have been avoided by timely antenatal care, treatment of previous complaints, and medical attention and hospitalization at the right time. PMID:12179349

  6. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Schou Andersen, Camilla; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal distress during pregnancy increases the intrauterine level of glucocorticoids, which may have long-term health consequences for the child. Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated......, depressed, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during...... appeared to have limited, if any, influence on the risk of overweight in offspring at 7 years of age....

  7. Varicella during pregnancy. Maternal and fetal effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, V L; Kuller, J A; McMahon, M J; Warren, M A; Wells, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of maternal varicella at our institution, we reviewed all cases of primary varicella in pregnancy. Using a perinatal database that summarizes all obstetric admissions, we reviewed the medical records of women with varicella infections during pregnancy. Over a 5 1/2-year period, 31 pregnancies were affected by varicella infection among 11,753 deliveries. The mean age of those patients was 19.6 years, significantly different from our overall population of 25.3 y...

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATERNAL AND CHILD OVERWEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Madalena; Albuquerque, Carlos; Duarte, João; Bonito, Jorge; Franco, Vitor; Rodrigues, Vitor; Oliveira, António; Aparício, Graça

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: It is recognized that overweight in childhood as a multifactorial etiology, and parent’s obesity, particularly mother’s obesity is actually known to be an important predictor of the development of obesity in their children. Objectives: To classify the children’s and the mother’s BMI and assess the relationship between maternal and child overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional and observational study comprising 1424 preschool children, average age 4.58 years old (SD=0.990) and...

  9. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie A. Segovia; Vickers, Mark H.; Clint Gray; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue devel...

  10. Effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Mitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters on neonatal anthropometry. Materials and Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2009 at a single tertiary care center. Maternal anthropometry and metabolic parameters like fasting serum insulin, lipid profile, and random blood glucose were estimated in 50 pregnant women at term. Detailed anthropometry of the neonates was performed. Results:Large for gestational age (LGA babies had higher maternal body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, and cord blood insulin levels, and lower maternal high density lipoprotein (HDL compared to appropriate for gestational age (AGA group (P < 0.001. Among the maternal parameters, BMI, gestational age, fasting serum insulin, and random blood sugar (RBS had significant positive correlation, while HDL had negative correlation with birth weight (P < 0.05. However, only maternal BMI was the significant predictor of neonatal birth weight on multiple regression analysis (ß = 0.340, P = 0.01. Conclusion:The BMI of glucose-tolerant mother is more important than metabolic parameters in determining the birth weight of term babies.

  11. Causes of maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh, 1976-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauveau, V; Koenig, M A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, A I

    1988-01-01

    Of a total of 1037 women of reproductive age who died during the period 1976-85 in the Matlab area that was under demographic surveillance, 387 (37%) were maternal deaths. The mean maternal mortality over the 10-year period was 5.5 per 1000 live births (101 per 100 000 women of reproductive age). Major causes of maternal death, which were assessed using a combination of record review and field interviews, included postpartum haemorrhage (20%), complications of abortion (18%), eclampsia (12%), violence and injuries (9%), concomitant medical causes (9%), postpartum sepsis (7%), and obstructed labour (6.5%). Deaths caused by postpartum haemorrhage were positively associated with both maternal age and parity, whereas those caused by eclampsia and injuries were more common among young and low-parity women. If maternal deaths arising from complications of abortion are disregarded, 20% of all maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy, 44% during labour and the two days following delivery, and 36% during the remaining postpartum period.These findings support the need to develop a service strategy to address the risks of childbearing and childbirth in areas such as rural Bangladesh, where almost all deliveries take place at home. This strategy must be based not only on preventive and educational interventions, including family planning and antenatal care, but also on systematic attendance at home deliveries by trained professional midwives, backed up by an effective chain of referral. PMID:3264766

  12. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeili; Nazanin Vaezzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Hamideh Azimi; Robabeh Sabbaghi; Mousa Esmaeil; Zohreh Shahhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child age...

  13. The use of an advanced risk-based asset management system for evaluation of rehabilitation options for an aging hydroelectric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced risk-based asset management system, designed to assist in collating rehabilitation/ replacement options for individual components of an electric power plant was described. Application of the technique to determine rehabilitation options for an aging hydroelectric power station in Northern Ontario, was demonstrated. The method helped to assess a wide range of complex alternatives, the direct and indirect costs associated with delayed implementation of the alternatives, partial or full rehabilitation of the site, and the construction of an entirely new replacement facility.3 refs., 8 figs., 3 photos

  14. Aging, mitochondria and male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-12-01

    The rise in life expectancy over the last century, together with higher maternal and paternal ages and have highlighted the issue of reduced fertility with advancing age. Aging of the male reproductive system is incited by multi-factorial changes at molecular, cellular and regulatory levels, and individual characteristics are highly variable, although strongly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors. Damage accumulated with age leads to progressive deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing changes in target organs such as the testis, penis and prostate. Elderly human males produce less testosterone, have fewer motile sperm and a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction and prostate disorders, all of which contribute to lower fertility. Cellular aging can manifest itself at several levels. Aging cells progressively accumulate "waste" products, resulting in a decreased functionally. Changes to mitochondria are among the most remarkable features observed in aging cells and several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely in terms of the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles may play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. Furthermore, mitochondrial energy metabolism is also crucial for male reproductive function and mitochondria may therefore constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:20021411

  15. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  16. The influence of patients age, type of tumor growth, hematocrit, and radiation-induced tumor regression on the prognosis of advanced uterine cervix carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age of patients, type of tumor growth, pretreatment hematocrit, and radiation-induced tumor regression were evaluated as possible prognostic factors in 222 patients with advanced cervical cancer treated at the Institute of Clinical Oncology in Bratislava in the period from 1960 through 1980. The five-year disease-free survival rate for Stage IIb patients was 50%, for Stage III patients 23.1%, and for Stage IV patients 13%. Radiatoin-induced tumor regression and type of tumor growth were noted to be a significant prognostic factor with regard to the control of disease in the pelvis. Age of the patients and pretreatment hematocrit were found to be a weak prognostic factor. (author). 4 figs., 6 tabs., 25 refs

  17. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  18. Recent advances in measuring cerebral blood flow and metabolism in human aging, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, sleep and the epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 133Xe inhalation method, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, X-ray transmission tomography by inhalation of 37.5% stable xenon gas during CT scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques contributions to knowledge of normal aging, cerebrovascular disorders, the dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, normal and abnormal sleep, migraine and cluster headache are summarized. 62 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Methodical aspects of ultrasonic research of cervical intervertebral disk and spiral canal children of the advanced school age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held ultrasound intervertebral discs (MPD), the spinal canal (PC) with the level of C2-C3 to C7-TH1 67 healthy children in the age groups 13-15 and 16-18 years. In the sagittal and axial projections defined sizes MPD PC dural spaces, radicular channels. Studied echo structure nucleus pulposus, the contours of the fibrous ring

  20. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…