WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced liquid metal

  1. Development of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future nuclear power plants should not only have the features of improved safety and economic competitiveness but also provide a means to resolve spent fuel storage problems by minimizing volume of high level wastes. It is widely believed that liquid metal reactors (LMRs) have the highest potential of meeting these requirements. In this context, the LMR development program was launched as a national long-term R and D program in 1992, with a target to introduce a commercial LMR around 2030. Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor, is currently under the conceptual design study with the target schedule to complete its construction by the mid-2010s. This paper summarizes the KALIMER development program and major technical features of the reactor system. (author)

  2. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Optimizing advanced liquid metal reactors for burning actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the process to design an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) for burning the transuranic part of nuclear waste is discussed. The influence of design parameters on ALMR burner performance is studied and the results are incorporated in a design schedule for optimizing ALMRs for burning transuranics. This schedule is used to design a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR burner to burn as much as possible transurancis. The two designs burn equally well. (orig.)

  4. Actinide transmutation in the advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored fast reactor design based on the Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by General Electric. The current reference design is a 471 MWt modular reactor loaded with ternary metal fuel. This paper discusses actinide transmutation core designs that fit the design envelope of the ALMR and utilize spent LWR fuel as startup material and makeup. Actinide transmutation may be accomplished in the ALMR by using either a breeding or burning configuration. Lifetime actinide mass consumption is calculated as well as changes in consumption behaviour throughout the lifetime of the reactor. Impacts on system operational and safety performance are evaluated in a preliminary fashion. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  5. The advanced liquid metal reactor actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current U.S. National Energy Strategy includes four key goals for nuclear policy: enhance safety and design standards, reduce economic risk, reduce regulatory risk, and establish an effective high-level nuclear waste program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Actinide Recycle System is consistent with these objectives. The system has the ability to fulfill multiple missions with the same basic design concept. In addition to providing an option for long-term energy security, the system can be effectively utilized for recycling of actinides in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel, provide waste management flexibility, including the reduction in the waste quantity and storage time and utilization of the available energy potential of LWR spent fuel. The actinide recycle system is comprised of (1) a compact liquid metal (sodium) cooled reactor system with optimized passive safety characteristics, and (2) pyrometallurgical metal fuel cycle presently under development of Argonne National Laboratory. The waste reduction of LWR spent fuel is accomplished by transmutation or fissioning of the longer-lived transuranic isotopes to shorter-lived fission products in the reactor. In this presentation the economical and environmental incentive of the actinide recycle system is addressed and the status of development including licensing aspects is described. 3 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  6. Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800 degree F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection

  7. Heavy Liquid Metal Corrosion of Structural Materials in Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M.; Woloshun, K.; Rubio, F.; Maloy, S. A.; Hosemann, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interest in advanced nuclear concepts using liquid metal coolant has increased in the past few years. Liquid metal coolants have been proposed for the next generation of small-sized nuclear reactors, which offer exceptional safety and reliability, sustainability, nonproliferation, and economic competitiveness. Heavy liquid metal coolants are investigated for advanced fast reactors that operate at high temperatures, reaching high efficiencies. Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolants are also proposed as coolants and targets of accelerator driven systems. High temperature, corrosive environment, high fast neutron flux, high fluence, and radiation damage, among other physical phenomena, challenge the integrity of materials in these advanced systems. Excellent compatibility with the liquid coolant is recognized as a key factor in the selection of structural materials for advanced concepts. In this article, we review materials requirements for heavy metal cooled systems with emphasis on lead and LBE materials corrosion properties. We describe experimental corrosion tests currently ongoing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Development of Lead Alloy Technical Applications (DELTA) loop. DELTA is a facility designed to study the long-term corrosive effects of LBE on structural materials under relevant conditions of chemistry, flow, and temperature. The research studies will provide data of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms in selected steel exposed to high velocity (above 2 m/s) in flowing LBE at 500°C. Fundamental research studies will help support conceptual design efforts and further the development of heavy liquid metals technology.

  8. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  9. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaut, V.; Debruyn, D. [SCK CEN, Mol (Belgium); Decreton, M. [Ghent Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  10. Advances in liquid metal cooled ADS systems, and useful results for the design of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Liquid metal cooled Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) have a lot of design commonalities with the design of IFMIF. The use of a powerful accelerator and a liquid metal spallation source makes it similar to the main features of the IFMIF irradiator. Developments in the field of liquid metal ADS can thus be very useful for the design phase of IFMIF, and synergy between both domains should be enhanced to avoid dubbing work already done. The liquid metal ADS facilities are developed for testing materials under high fast (> 1 MeV) neutron flux, and also for studying the transmutation of actinides as foreseen in the P and T (Partitioning and Transmutation) strategy of future fission industry. The ADS are mostly constituted of a sub-critical fission fuel assembly matrix, a spallation source (situated at the centre of the fuel arrangement) and a powerful accelerator targeting the spallation source. In liquid metal ADS, the spallation source is a liquid metal (like Pb-Bi) which is actively cooled to remove the power generated by the particle beam, spallation reactions and neutrons. Based on an advanced ADS design (e.g. the MYRRHA/XT-ADS facility), the paper shows the various topics which are common for both facilities (ADS and IFMIF) and highlights their respective specificities, leading to focused R and D activities. This would certainly cover the common aspects related to high power accelerators, liquid metal targets and beam-target coupling. But problems of safety, radioprotection, source heating and cooling, neutrons shielding, etc... lead also to common features and developments. Results already obtained for the ADS development will illustrate this synergy. This paper will therefore allow to take profit of recent developments in both fission and fusion programs and enhance the collaboration among the R and D teams in both domains. (authors)

  11. Comparative sodium void effects for different advanced liquid metal reactor fuel and core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of metal-, oxide-, and nitride-fueled advanced liquid metal reactor cores was performed to investigate the calculated differences in sodium void reactivity, and to determine the relationship between sodium void reactivity and burnup reactivity swing using the three fuel types. The results of this analysis indicate that nitride fuel has the least positive sodium void reactivity for any given burnup reactivity swing. Thus, it appears that a good design compromise between transient overpower and loss of flow response is obtained using nitride fuel. Additional studies were made to understand these and other nitride advantages. (author)

  12. US advanced liquid metal reactor design and safety enhancements through teamwork with the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a cost effective approach to providing electricity needs of the United States in the early 21st century through an integrated Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor System (ALMRS). The concept incorporates innovative design and passive safety features to achieve favourable safety and economics simultaneously. The synergistic components of the ALMRS, under development by the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), are described. A key aspect of the programme is continuing interaction with US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) toward standard design certification. This interaction, and the results to date, are also addressed. (author)

  13. Safety aspects of the US advanced LMR [liquid metal reactor] design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. This paper discusses the US regulatory framework for design of an ALMR, safety aspects of the IFR program at ANL, the IFR fuel cycle and actinide recycle, and the ALMR plant design program at GE. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG ampersand G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Advanced liquid metal reactor development at Argonne National Laboratory during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL'S) effort to pursue the exploitation of liquid metal cooled reactor (LMR) characteristics has given rise to the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, and has produced substantial technical advancement in concept implementation which includes demonstration of high burnup capability of metallic fuel, demonstration of injection casting fabrication, integral demonstration of passive safety response, and technical feasibility of pyroprocessing. The first half decade of the 90's will host demonstration of the IFR closed fuel cycle technology at the prototype scale. The EBR-II reactor will be fueled with ternary alloy fuel in HT-9 cladding and ducts, and pyroprocessing and injection casting refabrication of EBR-II fuel will be conducted using near-commercial sized equipment at the Fuel cycle Facility (FCF) which is co-located adjacent to EBR-II. Demonstration will start in 1992. The demonstration of passive safety response achievable with the IFR design concept, (already done in EBR-II in 1986) will be repeated in the mid 90's using the IFR prototype recycle fuel from the FCF. The demonstration of scrubbing of the reprocessing fission product waste stream, with recycle of the transuranics to the reactor for consumption, will also occur in the mid 90's. 30 refs

  16. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation report (SER) presents the final results of a preapplication design review for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid metal reactor (Project 673). The SAFR conceptual design was submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 FR 24643 which provides for the early Commission review and interaction). The standard SAFR plant design consists of four identical reactor modules, referred to as ''paks,'' each with a thermal output rating of 900 MWt, coupled with four steam turbine-generator sets. The total electrical output was held to be 1400 MWe. This SER represents the NRC staff's preliminary technical evaluation of the safety features in the SAFR design. It must be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this SER require approval by the Commission. During the NRC staff review of the SAFR conceptual design, DOE terminated work on this design in September 1988. This SER documents the work done to that date and no additional work is planned for the SAFR

  17. The advanced liquid metal reactor: Towards component protection based automatic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As advanced computing technology becomes part of the control system for power plants, the opportunity arises to address the real goals of plant control. Digital control systems are able to monitor more information and to accomplish more simultaneous tasks than human operators. In future nuclear plants, intelligent supervisory control systems should be responsible for maneuvering the plant in a fashion to minimize the component stress damage. The control system should generate strategies based on traditional operational objectives and on the current plant state and the stress history of various components and transients. In this paper, the authors elaborate on the desirability of including component mechanical stress information in digital control systems. Explicit consideration of stress constraints in the control strategy can significantly reduce the impact of transients on critical components, providing a significant contribution towards meeting current lifetime design goals of approximately 60 years. For illustration, one of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor design duty cycles events is discussed from this perspective for three hypothetical response scenarios. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Analysis of primary pipe break for Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A postulated break in the primary pump discharge pipe is analyzed to assure the inherent safety of Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor, a pool-type liquid metal-cooled reactor generating the 392 MWth of power in the core. The main concern of the analysis is the amount of increase in the fuel and the coolant temperatures. The stabilization of the transient due to reactivity feedback is also important. In the present analysis it is assumed that one of the four pipes connecting the pump discharge to core inlet plenum is broken. The break is located at 3.7m below the pump outlet and the diameter of the break is 0.4 m. It is also assumed that the reactor is not scrammed after the initiation of the break, therefore, the pumps keep on running during the accident. The analysis is performed with SSC-K code, which is developed for the analysis of the transient system response of a pool-type reactor. As soon as the break occurs, the core flow decreases drastically to 65 % full flow in the base case. A more conservative case is also analyzed in which the core flow is reduced artificially to 50 % full flow. The reactor power stabilizes by the reactivity feedback effects in about 10 minutes. The increase of the fuel and coolant temperatures due to the sudden reduction of the core flow are also mitigated with a large margin to coolant saturation temperature. The gas expansion module plays an important role to provide the dominant reactivity feedback when the core flow is reduced less than 50% full power. It is convinced from these results that both a sufficient subcooling margin more than 400 K and a stable system response are maintained in the KALIMER design during the primary pipe break accident, which guarantees the inherent safety of KALIMER against a pipe break. (author)

  19. Experimental testing of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings undertaken in support of the development of a seismic isolation concept for the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is described. A procurement specification applicable to both full-size and reduced-scale bearings was developed by the program participants and used to purchase bearings of four different designs from two manufacturers. The high-damping rubber isolators were subjected to horizontal, vertical, and failure tests designed to quantify their mechanical properties both within the range of design loads and displacements as well as to establish their margins before failure. The test results show that bearings from both manufacturers provide stable and repeatable behavior with minor variations in stiffness and damping as a function of loading frequency and load history. None of the bearings showed substantial variation in properties due to changes in axial load. All of the bearings exhibited exceptional behavior when loaded beyond the design level, with displacement margins greater than 3 and force margins greater than 4. This test program provides a thorough data-set for further analytical and experimental validations of the seismic isolation concept for the ALMR. (author)

  20. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  1. An advanced multidimensional method for structural and hydrodynamic analysis of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced multidimensional method for structural and hydrodynamic analysis of piping systems of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors under various accident loads is described. The method couples a two-dimensional finite difference hydrodynamic technique with a three-dimensional finite element structural dynamics program. In the analysis, an elbow hydrodynamic model has been developed to account for the effect of global elbow motion. Treatment is provided for calculating fluid motion in the vicinity of the isolated flow region, rigid obstacle, and baffle plates, which commonly occurs in the in-line components. Also, an implicit time-integration scheme has been developed for structural analysis under long-duration accident loads. Three sample problems are given, dealing with analyses of (a) multidimensional fluid-structure interaction, (b) hydrodynamics in the in-line components, and (c) seismic response of a pipe-elbow loop

  2. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen barriers are disclosed which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures. 2 claims, 3 figures

  3. A study on the development of advanced models to predict the critical heat flux for water and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Especially in the LWR application many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed. However, there are few correlations and models which are applicable to liquid metals. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture for boiling pattern. Therefore, the CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. In this work a mechanistic model to predict the CHF of water and a correlation for liquid metals are developed. First, a mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality was developed based on the liquid sublayer dryout mechanism. In this approach the CHF is assumed to occur when a vapor blanket isolates the liquid sublayer from bulk liquid and then the liquid entering the sublayer falls short of balancing the rate of sublayer dryout by vaporization. Therefore, the vapor blanket velocity is the key parameter. In this work the vapor blanket velocity is theoretically determined based on mass, energy, and momentum balance and finally the mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality is developed. The accuracy of the present model is evaluated by comparing model predictions with the experimental data and tabular data of look-up tables. The predictions of the present model agree well with extensive CHF data. In the latter part a correlation to predict the CHF for liquid metals is developed based on the flow excursion mechanism. By using Baroczy two-phase frictional pressure drop correlation and Ledinegg instability criterion, the relationship between the CHF of liquid metals and the principal parameters is derived and finally the

  4. Thermohydraulics in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottowski, H. M.

    Heat transfer problems in single-phase and two-phase liquid metal forced convection flow are reviewed. Liquid metal boiling heat transfer in pool flow; and dry out heat fluxes are considered. It is shown that in technological plants working with liquid metals, superheating up to 150 C occurs, and can lead to nonstationary hydraulic transition between the single-phase and established two-phase flows. Boiling phases relative to subcooled boiling and bubble boiling have no importance for technological processes. Piston, slug and annular flow patterns dominate. On the basis of the flow patterns observed during boiling, the separate flow model principle is the only one suitable for calculating the two-phase flow pressure drop. Using this model and total pressure drop measurements, a relationship for the two-phase frictional pressure characteristic, valid for tubular and annular geometry, can be determined.

  5. Design of the reactor vessel inspection robot for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and Oak Ridge National Laboratory designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in an advanced nuclear reactor. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a mock non-hostile environment and shown to perform as expected, as detailed in this report

  6. Liquid metal detection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensing instrument for use in detecting the presence or absence of liquid metal in a non-magnetic pipe or container comprises a pair of electromagnetic elements, each having a magnetic core and a primary induction coil, a third magnetic core bridging the end faces of the cores and a secondary induction coil wound about the third magnetic core on an axis normal to the axis of the pair of magnetic cores. Applied to nuclear reactors cooled by liquid metals eg. sodium or lead. (U.K.)

  7. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  8. Tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes a portion of a thorough series of tests on several different designs of reduced-scale high damping rubber isolators for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program. A formal procurement specification has been developed by the program participants for purchasing bearings of several different scale factors and designs. The reduced-scale bearings in the specification have geometric scale factors of 1/4 and 1/8 so that dynamic tests can be performed at realistic rates, The 1/8-scale bearings also have a range of rubber layer thicknesses so that the effects of shape factor on mechanical properties may be determined. Tests of bearings from two suppliers using one of the 1/8-scale bearing designs are summarized here. The test program includes horizontal shear tests to moderate and high shear strains at a range of axial loads and frequencies, as well as vertical tests and failure tests to quantify the margin of safety in the actual design. Load-History effects including short-term stiffness reduction and long-term stiffness recovery are also under study. The primary focus of these tests is on characterizing the behavior of the compounds proposed by the bearing suppliers

  9. Tests of reduced-scale seismic isolation bearings for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.W.; Aiken, I.D.; Kelly, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Earthquake Engineering Research Center; Gluekler, E.L. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Tajirian, F.F. [Bechtel National Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper summarizes a portion of a thorough series of tests on several different designs of reduced-scale high damping rubber isolators for the U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program. A formal procurement specification has been developed by the program participants for purchasing bearings of several different scale factors and designs. The reduced-scale bearings in the specification have geometric scale factors of 1/4 and 1/8 so that dynamic tests can be performed at realistic rates, The 1/8-scale bearings also have a range of rubber layer thicknesses so that the effects of shape factor on mechanical properties may be determined. Tests of bearings from two suppliers using one of the 1/8-scale bearing designs are summarized here. The test program includes horizontal shear tests to moderate and high shear strains at a range of axial loads and frequencies, as well as vertical tests and failure tests to quantify the margin of safety in the actual design. Load-History effects including short-term stiffness reduction and long-term stiffness recovery are also under study. The primary focus of these tests is on characterizing the behavior of the compounds proposed by the bearing suppliers.

  10. Liquid metal storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  11. Liquid-metal-cooled, curved-crystal monochromator for Advanced Photon Source bending-magnet beamline 1-BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive diffraction and spectroscopy in the 5--20 keV range, with a predicted focal spot size of ≤ 100 microm. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 x 32 x 0.8 mm crystal will be nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy. The liquid metal thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Calculated thermal profiles and anticipated focusing properties are discussed

  12. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960's worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected

  13. Data management and communication networks for Man-Machine Interface System in Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor : its functionality and design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DAta management and Communication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor(KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS

  14. Data management and communication networks for man-machine interface system in Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor : Its functionality and design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Gun Ok; Suh, Sang Moon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The DAta management and COmmunication NETworks(DACONET), which it is designed as a subsystem for Man-Machine Interface System of Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER MMIS) and advanced design concept is approached, is described. The DACONET has its roles of providing the real-time data transmission and communication paths between MMIS systems, providing the quality data for protection, monitoring and control of KALIMER and logging the static and dynamic behavioral data during KALIMER operation. The DACONET is characterized as the distributed real-time system architecture with high performance. Future direction, in which advanced technology is being continually applied to Man-Machine Interface System development of Nuclear Power Plants, will be considered for designing data management and communication networks of KALIMER MMIS. 9 refs., 1 fig. (Author)

  15. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius....

  16. The SAFR liquid metal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant would provide a viable alternate to light water reactors, especially for applications favoring small incremental capacity additions. SAFR is also a logical step to facilitate the later transition to LMFBRs. The SAFR plant concept employs multiple 350-MWe LMR Power Pak modules. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can be barge-shipped to the plant site for installation. The 350-MWe size allows SAFR to capitalize on all the inherent safety features provided by small reactors and factory fabrication, while still preserving some economy of scale. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and minimizes the overall plant construction schedule and capital cost. Each Power Pak consists of one reactor assembly and associated heat transfer equipment coupled to a single turbine generator. The reactor core employs mixed uranium-plutonium zirconium alloy metal fuel. The metal-alloy fuel (which has been used in EBR-II) has cost, safety, and safeguard advantages. The intrinsic properties of the sodium coolant (e.g., high boiling point, low vapor pressure, and strong natural convection), blended together with the pool-type LMR concept and the metal fuel, result in an inherently safe plant. Passive inherent features provide both public safety and plant investment protection. Refueling is carried out annually on each Power Pak, replacing one-fourth of the core over a 6-day refueling outage. A colocated pyroprocessing fuel cycle facility can be accommodated at the site such that no off-site shipments are required. (J.P.N.)

  17. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-12-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.

  18. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode

  19. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  20. Transverse excitations in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, S.; Munejiri, S.; Inui, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Shimojo, F.; Hoshino, K.

    2013-02-01

    The transverse acoustic excitation modes were detected by inelastic x-ray scattering in liquid Ga, Cu and Fe in the Q range around 10 nm-1 using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, although these liquid metals are mostly described by a simple hard-sphere liquid. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations clearly support this finding for liquid Ga. From the detailed analyses for the S(Q,ω) spectra with good statistic qualities, the lifetime of less than 1 ps and the propagating length of less than 1 nm can be estimated for the transverse acoustic phonon modes, which correspond to the lifetime and size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. The microscopic Poisson's ratio estimated from the dynamic velocities of sound is 0.42 for liquid Ga and about -0.2 for liquid transition metals, indicating a rubber-like soft and extremely hard elastic properties of the cage clusters, respectively. The origin of these microscopic elastic properties is discussed in detail.

  1. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors of the 'pool' type. In such reactors the core, the heat exchangers, and the coolant circulating pumps are submerged in a pool of liquid metal. In operation of the reactor it is necessary to be able to locate and identify components submerged in the pool, and before moving rotating shields in the roof of the pool-containing vault it is necessary to ensure that all the normally suspended absorber rods have been inserted in the core and released from their suspensions. Television cameras are unsuitable for use in the opaque liquid metal but ultrasound in the megahertz range has been used to give a television screen kind of display. There is some difficulty, however, in transmitting ultrasound signals from a transducer into the pool of coolant because the transducer must be protected from the high temperature environment of the coolant. This difficulty has been partially overcome, however, by transmitting the signals by way of a wave guide extending from the transducer into the coolant pool. Such a wave guide may comprise a column of liquid metal within a dip tube. The column of liquid coolant is uninterrupted by a supporting diaphragm. Such a system is here described. (U.K.)

  2. Metal pad instabilities in liquid metal batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A mechanical analogy is used to analyze the interaction between the magnetic field, electric current and deformation of interfaces in liquid metal batteries. It is found that, during charging or discharging, a sufficiently large battery is prone to instabilities of two types. One is similar to the metal pad instability known for aluminum reduction cells. Another type is new. It is related to the destabilizing effect of the Lorentz force formed by the azimuthal magnetic field induced by the base current and the current perturbations caused by the local variations of the thickness of the electrolyte layer.

  3. Liquid metal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented LMMHD cycles (Rankine MHD or Brayton MHD) show a potential superior to conventional power plants and their realisation is possible with available techniques. For the high temperature components ceramic materials can be used, which are compatible with alkali metals up to high temperatures. One can mention, that the greatest losses in the LMMHD cycles are localised in the two-phase flow region and especially in the separator. The calculations of the efficiencies of the separator are based on experimental results with low rates. Probably these efficiencies will be better for larger power installations, this could drive to an increased actual efficiency of η>0.50

  4. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  5. Casimir force between liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Escobar, J. V.

    2014-08-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the Casimir force between liquid metals at room temperature using as case studies mercury (Hg) and eutectic indium gallium (EInGa). The surface tension of the liquids creates surfaces of zero roughness that are truly equipotential, an ideal characteristic for Casimir force experiments. As we show the dielectric properties of Au, EInGa and Hg are very similar and the difference on the Casimir force between Au and EInGa and Au and Hg is less than 4%. Based on these results, a modification of the IUPUI experiment for detecting deviations of Newtonian gravity is proposed.

  6. Industrializing the liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial acceptance of the liquid metal reactor had its beginning with the Fermi reactor, over two decades ago. The pattern of industrialization since that time is discussed, contrasting domestic and foreign experience. The recent termination of the Clinch River reactor project marks a watershed in the U.S. approach towards commercialization. The increased emphasis on achieving cost competitive designs reflects an awareness that barriers to industrialization are institutional and financial, and not technological

  7. Crystalline 'Genes' in Metallic Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yang; Ye, Zhuo; Fang, Xiaowei; Ding, Zejun; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Mendelev, Mikhail I; Ott, Ryan T; Kramer, M J; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The underlying structural order that transcends the liquid, glass and crystalline states is identified using an efficient genetic algorithm (GA). GA identifies the most common energetically favorable packing motif in crystalline structures close to the alloy's Al-10 at.% Sm composition. These motifs are in turn compared to the observed packing motifs in the actual liquid structures using a cluster-alignment method which reveals the average topology. Conventional descriptions of the short-range order, such as Voronoi tessellation, are too rigid in their analysis of the configurational poly-types when describing the chemical and topological ordering during transition from undercooled metallic liquids to crystalline phases or glass. Our approach here brings new insight into describing mesoscopic order-disorder transitions in condensed matter physics.

  8. Magneto-hydrodynamic converter with liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magneto-hydrodynamic converter with liquid metal contains a source of heat, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a liquid diffuser, a liquid metal cooler, a magneto-hydrodynamic generator and means for heating and compressing a liquid coming from the cooler, which are hydraulically connected and in sequence, and which form a closed circuit. A diffuser and a condenser which are hydraulically connected together, are connected between the separator and the means for heating and compressing the liquid metal coming from the cooler. The magneto-hydrodynamic converter with liquid metal can be used to genrate electricity in thermal and nuclear powerstations. (orig.)

  9. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  10. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high

  11. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Hu, Quanyin; Lin, Yiliang; Pacardo, Dennis B.; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ligler, Frances S.; Dickey, Michael D.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    To date, numerous inorganic nanocarriers have been explored for drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, the clinical application of inorganic formulations has often been hindered by their toxicity and failure to biodegrade. We describe here a transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine, based on a core-shell nanosphere composed of a liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium core and a thiolated polymeric shell. This formulation can be simply produced through a sonication-mediated method with bioconjugation flexibility. The resulting nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) have an average diameter of 107 nm and demonstrate the capability to fuse and subsequently degrade under a mildly acidic condition, which facilitates release of Dox in acidic endosomes after cellular internalization. Equipped with hyaluronic acid, a tumour-targeting ligand, this formulation displays enhanced chemotherapeutic inhibition towards the xenograft tumour-bearing mice. This liquid metal-based DDS with fusible and degradable behaviour under physiological conditions provides a new strategy for engineering theranostic agents with low toxicity.

  12. The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program has been restructured to take advantage of the opportunity today to carry out R and D on truly advanced reactor technology. The program gives particular emphasis to improvements to reactor safety. The new directions are based on the technology of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Much of the basis for superior safety performance using IFR technology has been experimentally verified and aggressive programs continue in EBR-II and TREAT. Progress has been made in demonstrating both the metallic fuel and the new electrochemical processes of the IFR. The FFTF facility is converting to metallic fuel; however, FFTF also maintains a considerable US program in oxide fuels. In addition, generic programs are continuing in steam generator testing, materials development, and, with international cooperation, aqueous reprocessing. Design studies are carried out in conjunction with the IFR technology development program. In summary, the US maintains an active development program in Liquid Metal Reactor technology, and new directions in reactor safety are central to the program

  13. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  14. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  15. Liquid metal plasma valve development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A program for the development of liquid-metal plasma valves (LMPVs) is discussed in detail. The program consisted of two tasks. The first was the development and testing of valves in the laboratory and the fabrication, instrumentation, testing and in-service operation of two valves at the Bonneville Power Adminstration (BPA) facilities of the Pacific Intertie HVDC Power Tansmission System at Celilo, Oregon. The second task was the design, development, fabrication, installation, and operation of a voltage and current monitoring station and the transient event recording system to go with it. Information is present on the design and development of converter valves; LMPV principles; and the testing of prototype valves. (LCL)

  16. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth, compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts

  17. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Structural sound absorption in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to structural sound absorption in liquid metals. The study of sound absorption in liquid metals shown that in all studied objects the structural absorption of sound was observed. The mechanism of structural relaxation in molten metal was revealed.

  19. The thermophysical properties of metallic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Iida, Takamichi

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of materials science and engineering is to make the best use of all the elements in the periodic table. This leads to the effective use and conservation of natural resources. For this purpose, in any liquid metallic processing operation, accurate data for the thermophysical properties of all metallic liquids (i.e. liquid metals, semimetals, and semiconductors) is needed. However, in addition, a clear understanding of the essence of their thermophysical properties, based on these data, is indispensable. The second volume continues from the first volume to provide explanations for the thermophysical properties of metallic liquids. The two volumes identify new dimensionless parameters, extracted from the velocity of sound. In spite of being simple parameters, they provide useful information on the nature and behaviour of metallic liquids. This volume covers several basic concepts needed to understand the thermophysical properties of metallic liquids and for developing reliable models to accurate...

  20. Liquid metals fire control engineering handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook reviews the basic requirements of the use of liquid metals with emphasis on sodium which has the greatest current usage. It delineates the concepts necessary to design facilities both radioactive and nonradioactive for use with liquid metals. It further reviews the state-of-the-art in fire extinguishers and leak detection equipment and comments on their application and sensitivity. It also provides details on some engineering features of value to the designer of liquid metal facilities

  1. Equipment for measuring liquid metal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equipment essentially consists of a bypass connected to the main pipe or to the liquid metal tank. The top part of the bypass is provided with a valve in whose bottom section an electromagnetic pump is installed. The pump forces the liquid metal from the space above the pump to the main pipe of to the tank. The liquid metal level above the pump depends on its pressure and is measured by a level gauge. The level is maintained at a constant height by controlling the operation of the electromagnetic pump. The liquid metal pressure is given by the current or intensity of the electromagnetic field. (M.S.)

  2. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Yeh, Minfang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  3. Radiopure metal-loaded liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper

  4. Liquid metal MHD generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic properties of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the model potentials to yield accurate thermodynamic properties of liquid metals is tested. The pressure and bulk moduli calculated by the homogeneous deformation (HD) method depend on the electron density derivative of the self energy. The latter is determined predominantly by the choice and specification of the bare ion form factor for q>2ksub(F). Most of the empirical model potentials in the literature have been tested to give good description only in the region 02ksub(F) and are not tested to give good description in this range. Therefore no meaningful calculation of the pressure and bulk moduli of liquid metals could be made at present by the HD method. The long wavelength (LW) method of calculating the bulk moduli involve only the pair potential, which is determined mainly by the choice and specification of the bare ion form factor in the region 0<=q<=2ksub(F). Therefore the LW method can give quantitative results for the compressibility. For Na and K, pair potentials calculated from Shaw's full non-local, energy dependent pseudo-potentials with the inclusion of appropriate effective masses and depletion hole charges is found to give remarkably good results for volume independent properties such as the packing fraction, entropy, constant volume specific heat, the long wavelength of the structure factor and the bulk modulus calculated by the LW method. The Ashcroft model potential is the best of all available local model potentials, but being a local one parameter potential can give only semi quantitative results for cohesive energy and bulk modulus calculated by the LW method. (author)

  6. Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani

    2009-06-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.

  7. Clusters in liquid metals – stable nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    V. Yu. Stetsenko

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that clusters in liquid metals are equilibrium nanocrystals. Stability of nanocrystals is confirmed by the rule of phases and is provided very low (in hundreds of times) with values of specific interphase superficial energy. It is shown that nanocrystals in liquid metals have the sizes more critical diameter.

  8. Diffusion in liquid metal systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical properties of twenty liquid metals are reported; some of the data on such liquid metal properties as density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity are summarized in graphical form. Data on laboratory handling and safety procedure are summarized for each metal; heat-transfer-correlations for liquid metals under various conditions of laminar and turbulent flow are included. Where sufficient data were available, temperature equations of properties were obtained by the method of least-squares fit. All values of properties given are valid in the given liquid phase ranges only. Additional tabular data on some 40 metals are reported in the appendix. Included is a brief description of experiments that were performed to investigate diffusion in liquid indium-gallium systems. (Author)

  9. Thermal electronic excitations in liquid metals

    OpenAIRE

    Chisolm, Eric D.; Bock, Nicolas; Rudin, Sven P.; Wallace, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal electronic excitations in metal crystals are calculated by starting with a reference structure for the nuclei: the crystal structure of the appropriate phase. Here we explain the corresponding theory for metal liquids, starting with an appropriate reference structure for a liquid. We explain the significance of these structures, and we briefly review how to find them and calculate their properties. Then we examine the electronic densities of states for liquid structures of Na, Al, and...

  10. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  11. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor construction is described comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant contained in a vessel which is housed in a concrete containment vault, the roof structure of the vault having thermal insulation comprising a series of super-imposed spaced plates, with baffles disposed so as to restrict convectional flow of metal vapour through the interspaces of the plates and between the uppermost plate or plates and the vault roof structure. (author)

  12. Directional Solidification Assisted by Liquid Metal Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; Langhong LOU

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the development and current status of the directional solidification process assisted by liquid metal cooling (LMC) has been presented in this paper. The driving force of the rapid development of the LMC process has been analyzed by considering the demands of (1) newer technologies that can provide higher thermal gradients for alleviated segregation in advanced alloy systems, and (2) better production yield of the large directionally solidified superalloy components. The brief history of the industrialization of the LMC process has been reviewed, followed by the discussion on the LMC parameters including selection of the cooling media, using of the dynamic baffle, and the influence of withdrawal rates and so on. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the traditional superalloys processed by LMC, as well as the new alloys particularly developed for LMC process were then described. Finally, future aspects concerning the LMC process have been summarized.

  13. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  14. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA; VLADIMIR YUFIT; STEFAAN SIMONS; Maskell, William C.; Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes) with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  15. Measurement of sound velocity in liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gathers, G.R.

    1979-05-10

    Present techniques for measuring sound velocity in liquid metals have been limited by transducers that cannot survive in extreme temperatures for the long periods these techniques require. The report describes work on a dynamic noncontacting method intended to measure sound velocity in liquid uranium. Measurements were successful with liquid lead, but not with liquid uranium. Flat slab specimens were found to give much better response than cylindrical shapes.

  16. Liquid Metal Coolant Technology for Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper presented are results of comparative analysis and the choice of liquid metal coolants for fast reactors, the current status of studies on the physical chemistry and technology of sodium coolants for fast neutron reactors and heavy liquid metal coolants, namely, lead-bismuth and lead for fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. There are descriptions of devices designed for control of the impurities in sodium coolants and their removal as well as methods of heavy liquid metal coolant quality control, removal of impurities from heavy liquid metal coolants and the steel surface of components of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and relevant equipment. Attention is given to the issues of modelling of impurity mass transfer in liquid metal coolants and designing new liquid metal coolants for NPPs. Results of the analysis of NPP abnormal operating conditions are presented. The adopted design approaches assure reliable protection against accidents. Up to now, about 200 reactor-years of sodium cooled fast reactor operation and about 80 reactor-years of submarine reactor operation have been gained. The new goals for sodium and heavy liquid metal coolant technology have been formulated as applied to the new generation fast reactors. (author)

  17. Thermotropic liquid crystals recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusammy

    2007-01-01

    Covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and and assesses their functional importance. This text includes chapters covering the applications of high-resolution methods, such as solid-state NMR, that have been used to understand the high-resolution structure, dynamics, orientation, and orientational order of these molecules.

  18. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi

  19. Corrosion by liquid metals - Application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this bibliographic review on the corrosion by liquid metals, the first part is devoted to the theoretical aspects of the problem and the second part concerns the corrosion of steels by liquid sodium, as example. Obvious the numerous works now published, the mechanisms are still leaving bad known

  20. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m2, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed

  1. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  2. Advances in liquid phase technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jijin, P.J.A. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH) process uses a slurry reactor to convert synthesis gas (primarily a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) to methanol. Through its superior heat management, the process is ultimately suitable to handle synthesis gas generated through gasification of natural gas and other materials, such as coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes and other environmentally disadvantaged hydrocarbon feedstocks. Apart from production of chemical grade methanol, the process provides economic advantages in the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation application. Coproduction of power and methanol via the IGCC and the LPMEOH process provides opportunities for energy storage for peak-shaving of electrical demand and/or clean fuel for export. The LPMEOH technology has been developed since the 1980`s, extensively proven in a process development unit in LaPorte, Texas and elected for demonstration under The Clean Coal Technology Program. The slurry reactor being demonstrated is also suitable for other exothermic synthesis gas conversion reactions, like synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and other alcohols/oxygenates. This paper presents an overview of LPMEOH and other liquid phase technology aspects and highlights the demonstration project at Eastman Chemical Company`s coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee. Commercial aspects of the LPMEOH process are also discussed.

  3. Overview of liquid-metal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic features of the two-phase liquid-metal MHD energy conversion under development at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The results of system studies on the Rankine-cycle and the open-cycle coal-fired cycle options are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD experimental facilities are described in addition to the system's major components, the generator, mixer and nozzle-separator-diffuser

  4. Mechanics and forming theory of liquid metal forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗守靖; 姜巨福; 王迎; 藤东东

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of steel liquid forging and aluminium alloy liquid forging, liquid metal forging was investigated, such as the assembly model, metal plastic flowing, the force-displacement curves, the harmonious equation, calculation of value of altitude deformation and determination of specific pressure of liquid metal forging. On the basis of the theory of metal plastic forming and the characteristics of liquid metal forging, the achievements on the mechanics and forming theory of liquid metal forging were given out by combining the theory and experiments systematically, and an important preparation for establishing liquid metal forging theory was suggested.

  5. Ionic liquid incorporating thiosalicylate for metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Mustafa, Fadwa Babiker; Romeli, Fatimah Julia

    2012-09-01

    Ionic liquids are a class of organic molten salts "designer solvents" that are composed totally of anions (inorganic and organic polyatomic) and organic cations. The replacement of volatile organic solvents from a separation process is of utmost importance since the use of a large excess of these solvents is hazardous and creates ecological problem. The new method for metal ion extraction is by using task-specific ionic liquids such as ionic liquids which incorporate thiosalicylate functionality. This paper looks at producing a new cluster of ionic liquids which incorporates thiosalicylate with pyridinium cation. Its thermophysical properties such as density and viscosity in single and binary mixtures are studied. The ionic liquids' capability in metal removal processes is evaluated.

  6. Flow measurement techniques in heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes several flow measurement systems qualified in the operation of different lead-bismuth loops in the KArslruhe Liquid Metal LAboratory (KALLA) during the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: these techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as an integral quantity like the flow rate. Since the knowledge of the flow rate acts in terms of the operational safety of nuclear liquid metal systems as one of the most crucial parameters, this aspect is discussed widely herein. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not possible. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturised permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. In this context especially the electromagnetic frequency flow meter (EMFM) is discussed as a prospective and reliable option to measure the flow rate without demanding extensive precognitions with respect to the fluid-wall interface behaviour. This article describes some of the techniques used in KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the typical results obtained using these techniques. Also the measurement accuracy as well as the temporal and spatial resolution of each device is discussed and typical error sources to be expected are illuminated. Moreover, some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment are given.

  7. Density Measurement of Liquid Metals Using Dilatometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianwen WANG; Qingsong MEI

    2006-01-01

    The dilatometer method for density measurement of liquid metals was improved to give a high measurement accuracy with simple operation. The density of liquid tin was measured and the results are in agreement with values in literature. The melting point density of liquid Sn was measured to be 6.966×103 Kg·m-3 and the temperature (T) dependence of the density (ρ) for liquid Sn can be well described by a polynomial equation ρ(T)=7.406 - 9.94 × 10-4T + 2.12 × 10-7T2.

  8. Fluid metals the liquid-vapor transition of metals

    CERN Document Server

    Hensel, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This is a long-needed general introduction to the physics and chemistry of the liquid-vapor phase transition of metals. Physicists and physical chemists have made great strides understanding the basic principles involved, and engineers have discovered a wide variety of new uses for fluid metals. Yet there has been no book that brings together the latest ideas and findings in the field or that bridges the conceptual gap between the condensed-matter physics relevant to a dense metallic liquid and the molecular chemistry relevant to a dilute atomic vapor. Friedrich Hensel and William Warren seek

  9. Experimental techniques for heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the most interesting measurement systems which were tested in the Pb-Bi loops of the KALLA laboratory in Karlsruhe with the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: These techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultra-Sound- Velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as global states like flow rate utilizing nozzles, orifices or turbines. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not given. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturized permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. This article describes some of the techniques used in the KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the results obtained using these techniques. Additionally a few words are spent with respect to the measurement errors to be expected and some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment. (authors)

  10. Challenges Related to the Use of Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants in Advanced Reactors. Report of the collaborative project COOL of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO aims at helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to jointly consider actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. One of the aims of INPRO is to develop options for enhanced sustainability through promotion of technical and institutional innovations in nuclear energy technology through collaborative projects among IAEA Member States. Collaboration among INPRO members is fostered on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Collaborative projects have been selected so that they complement other national and international R and D activities. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL on Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures investigated the technological challenges of cooling reactor cores that operate at high temperatures in advanced fast reactors, high temperature reactors and accelerator driven systems by using liquid metals and molten salts as coolants. The project was initiated in 2008 and was led by India; experts from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Italy and the Republic of Korea participated and provided chapters of this report. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL addressed the following fields of research regarding liquid metal and molten salt coolants: (i) survey of thermophysical properties; (ii) experimental investigations and computational fluid dynamics studies on thermohydraulics, specifically pressure drop and heat transfer under different operating conditions; (iii) monitoring and control of coolant

  11. Liquid metal target studies for high-power proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proton beams with an average beam power of several MW are needed to produce the high secondary particle flux required by future accelerator centres like neutrino factories or neutron spallation sources. In such scenarios, the secondary beams are produced via conversion targets and the high power involved imposes the need for advanced target concepts. The use of liquid metal is a natural solution to the stresses and fatigue, induced by the proton beam, that eventually lead to the destruction of most solid targets. A liquid jet would provide a 'new' target for each proton pulse if the material disrupted by the proton beam can be evacuated within the proton pulse interval. Such a target configuration is presently considered for the pion production target of a neutrino superbeam or a neutrino factory. We present experimental results on the impact of proton beam pulses on free-surface liquid metal targets. These tests were performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. (author)

  12. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  13. Developments in nuclear liquid metal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current trends in the nuclear technology either in fission fusion or structure of matter research towards component solutions with high power densities led to a renaissance of the liquid metal related thermal-hydraulic and material research. Since liquid metals independent if they belong to the high or low Z-range offer the unique capability to act both as neutron source and as coolant they facilitate simple and robust structures within the reaction zone enabling compact designs at low capital investment. Due to their high specific electric and thermal conductivity they allow unique measurement and pumping techniques minimizing the effort for in-service inspection issues at simultaneously relatively moderate temperatures and temperature gradients within the structure. But, both the thermo-physical and the thermochemical properties of liquid metals require specific adapted solutions in order to match the individual goals. In this context the KAlrsruhe Liquid metal LAboratory (KALLA) consisting of several stagnant and circulating liquid metal systems using both low and high Z- fluids has been erected and set into operation. KALLA is dedicated to investigate crucial thermal-hydraulic and material problems together with the development of adequate measurement and sensing techniques in the nuclear field. The aim of this article is to discuss significant developments conducted at KALLA supporting the research in the field of fusion. Moreover, it is aimed to overview the experiences gained with the operation of liquid metal facilities and to illustrate cross-cutting issues appearing not only in fusion research. The individual KALLA experimental facilities are now operated continuously since several years and a broad experience has been gained for components typically appearing in nuclear systems like pumps (both electromagnetic and mechanical), oxygen monitoring and control systems, etc. (orig.)

  14. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  15. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies supported on a diagrid and submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant within a containment vessel, the diagrid being of triple component construction and formed of a short cylindrical plenum mounted on a conical undershell and loosely embraced by a fuel store carrier. The plenum merely distributes coolant through the fuel assemblies, the load of the assemblies being carried by the undershell by means of struts which penetrate the plenum. The reactor core, fuel store carrier and undershell provide secondary containment for the plenum. (UK)

  16. Some Issues in Liquid Metals Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caturla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ten articles [1–10] included in this Special Issue on “Liquid Metals” do not intend to comprehensively cover this extensive field, but, rather, to highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are, to a large extent, due to the powerful theoretical tools in the hands of scientists, either semi-empirical [1,5,6] or ab initio (molecular dynamics, see [7]. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces is an everlasting field of fundamental research with important technological implications. The review of [2] is broad enough, as the work carried out at Grenoble covers almost all interesting matters in the field. Some issues of interest in geophysics and astrophysics are discussed in [3]. The recently discovered liquid–liquid transition in several metals is dealt with in [4]. The fifth contribution [5] discusses the role of icosahedral superclusters in crystallization. In [6], thermodynamic calculations are carried out to identify the regions of the ternary phase diagram of Al-Cu-Y, where the formation of amorphous alloys is most probable. Experimental data and ab initio calculations are presented in [7] to show that an optimal microstructure is obtained if Mg is added to the Al-Si melt before than the modifier AlP alloy. Shock-induced melting of metals by means of laser driven compression is discussed in [8]. With respect to recent discoveries, one of the most outstanding developments is that of gallium alloys that are liquid at room temperature [9], and that, due to the oxide layer that readily cover their surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. The last article in this Special Issue [10] describes nano-liquid metals, a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. A room-temperature nano-liquid metal

  17. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  18. Inducer pumps for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumps proposed for liquid metal reactor plants typically use centrifugal impellers as the rotating element and are required to maintain a relatively low speed to keep the suction specific speed low enough to operate at the available net positive suction head (HPSH) and to avoid cavitation damage. These low speeds of operation require that the pump diameter increase and/or multiple stages be used to achieve the design head. This frequently results in a large, heavy, complex pump design. In addition, the low speed results in a larger drive motor size so that the resultant penalty to the plant designer is multiplied. The heavier pump can also result in further complications as, e.g., the difficulty in maintaining the first critical speed sufficiently above the pump operating range to provide margin for rotor dynamic stability. To overcome some of these disadvantages, it was proposed the use of inducer pumps for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plants. This paper discusses some of the advantages of the inducer pump and the development history of designing and testing these pumps both in water and sodium. The inducer pump is seen to be a sound concept with a strong technology base derived from the aerospace and ship propulsion industries. The superior suction performance capability of the inducer offers significant system design advantages, primarily a smaller, lighter weight, less complex pump design with resulting saving in cost. Extensive testing of these pumps has been conducted in both sodium and water to demonstrate the long-life capability with no cavitation damage occurring in those designs based on Rockwell's current design criteria. These tests have utilized multiple inspection and measurement approaches to accurately assess and identify any potential for cavitation damage, and these approaches have all concluded that no damage is occurring. Therefore, it is concluded that inducer pumps can be safely designed for long life operation in sodium with

  19. Soft-sphere model for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A semi-empirical soft-sphere model of fluids is modified for application to the thermodynamic properties of liquid metals. Enthalpy, volume, and sound speed are computed as functions of temperature for 13 metals and compared with experimental data. Critical points and coexistence curves are also computed and compared with experimental data, where these have been measured. Strengths and weaknesses of the model are discussed

  20. Task-specific ionic liquids for solubilizing metal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Thijs, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this PhD thesis was to design new task-specific ionic liquids with the ability to dissolve metal compounds. Despite the large quantity of papers published on ionic liquids, not much is known about the mechanisms of dissolving metals in ionic liquids or about metal-containing ionic liquids. Additionally, many of the commercially available ionic liquids exhibit a very limited solubilizing power for metal compounds, although this is for many applications like electrodeposition a...

  1. AMC 2015 – Advanced Metallization Conference

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception as the Tungsten Workshop in 1984, AMC has served as the leading conference for the interconnect and contact metallization communities, and has remained at the leading edge of the development of tungsten, aluminum, and copper/low-K interconnects. As the semiconductor industry evolves, exciting new challenges in metallization are emerging, particularly in the areas of contacts to advanced devices, local interconnect solutions for highly-scaled devices, advanced memory device...

  2. Liquid metal cooling in thermal management of computer chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Kunquan; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid improvement of computer performance,tremendous heat generation in the chip becomes a major serious concern for thermal management.Meanwhile,CPU chips are becoming smaller and smaller with almost no room for the heat to escape.The total power-dissipation levels now reside on the order of 100 W with a peak power density of 400-500 W/cm2,and are still steadily climbing.As a result,it is extremely hard to attain higher performance and reliability.Because the conventional conduction and forcedair convection techniques are becoming incapable in providing adequate cooling for sophisticated electronic systems,new solutions such as liquid cooling,thermoelectric cooling,heat pipes,vapor chambers,etc.are being studied.Recently,it was realized that using a liquid metal or its alloys with a low melting point as coolant could significantly lower the chip temperature.This new generation heat transfer enhancement method raised many important fundamentals and practical issues to be solved.To accommodate to the coming endeavor in this area,this paper is dedicated to presenting an overall review on chip cooling using liquid metals or their alloys as coolant.Much more attention will be paid to the thermal properties of liquid metals with low melting points or their alloys and their potential applications in the chip cooling.Meanwhile,principles of several typical pumping methods such as mechanical,electromagnetic or peristaltic pumps will be illustrated.Some new advancement in making a liquid metal cooling device will be discussed.The liquid metal cooling is expected to open a new world for computer chip cooling because of its evident merits over traditional coolant.

  3. Liquid metal fast reactor transient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination has been made of how the currently available computing capabilities could be used to reduce Liquid Metal Fast Reactor design, manufacturing, and construction cost. While the examination focused on computer analyses some other promising means to reduce costs were also examined. (author)

  4. PFR liquid metals disposal at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay was shut down in 1994, the UKAEA commissioned a series of studies to determine the least cost, lowest risk option for dealing with the liquid metal coolants, i.e. the sodium from the primary and secondary circuits and the NaK from the decay heat removal system. The studies concluded that leaving the liquid metals in situ was not a viable option. Removing the liquid metals had three options, provision of long term external storage facilities, re-use in other projects or treatment for final disposal. The UKAEA invited companies to bid for the challenging task of disposing of more than 1500 t of liquid metals. In 1995 UKAEA awarded NNC Ltd. one of the largest decommissioning projects ever to be let competitively in the UK. During the first year of the contract, the challenges have focused on solving design problems and a number of innovative solutions have been developed by NNC and its subcontractors. From January 1997 the focus has moved to construction on site at Dounreay, and the manufacturing and installation of the mechanical components of the plant

  5. Supported liquid membranes technologies in metals removal from liquid effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Agreda, D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of liquid effluents containing organic and inorganic residues from industries present a potential hazardousness for environment and human health, being mandatory the elimination of these pollutants from the respective solutions containing them. In order to achieve this goal, several techniques are being used and among them, supported liquid membranes technologies are showing their potential for their application in the removal of metals contained in liquid effluents. Supported liquid membranes are a combination between conventional polymeric membranes and solvent extraction. Several configurations are used: flat-sheet supported liquid membranes, spiral wounds and hollow fiber modules. In order to improve their effectiveness, smart operations have been developed: non-dispersive solvent extraction, non-dispersive solvent extraction with strip phase dispersion and hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane. This paper overviewed some of these supported liquid membranes technologies and their applications to the treatment of metal-bearing liquid effluents.

    La generación, por parte de las industrias, de efluentes líquidos conteniendo sustancias orgánicas e inorgánicas, es un peligro potencial tanto para los humanos como para el medio ambiente, siendo necesaria la eliminación de estos elementos tóxicos de las disoluciones que los contienen. Para conseguir este fin, se están aplicando diversas técnicas y entre ellas las tecnologías de membranas líquidas soportadas, están demostrando sus aptitudes para la eliminación de metales contenidos en efluentes líquidos. Las membranas líquidas soportadas, resultan de la unión de las membranas poliméricas y de la tecnología de extracción líquido-líquido. Este tipo de membranas se pueden utilizar en diversas configuraciones: plana, módulo en fibra hueca y módulo en espiral y para aumentar su efectividad se están desarrollando las llamadas operaciones avanzadas: extracción no

  6. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior

  7. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 1, literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Radel, Ross F.; Hewson, John C.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-10-01

    Public safety and acceptance is extremely important for the nuclear power renaissance to get started. The Advanced Burner Reactor and other potential designs utilize liquid sodium as a primary coolant which provides distinct challenges to the nuclear power industry. Fire is a dominant contributor to total nuclear plant risk events for current generation nuclear power plants. Utilizing past experience to develop suitable safety systems and procedures will minimize the chance of sodium leaks and the associated consequences in the next generation. An advanced understanding of metal fire behavior in regards to the new designs will benefit both science and industry. This report presents an extensive literature review that captures past experiences, new advanced reactor designs, and the current state-of-knowledge related to liquid sodium combustion behavior.

  8. Status of the liquid metal reactor technology development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LMR development program was approved as a national long-term R and D program in 1992 by the Korea Atomic Energy Commission (KAEC) which decided to develop and construct a liquid metal reactor with the goal of developing an LMR which can serve as a long term power supplier with competitive economics and enhanced safety. Based upon the KAEC decision, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) according to the revised National Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan of June 1997. The basic design of KALIMER will be completed by 2006 and the construction will be considered sometime during the mid 2010s. This paper describes the recent changes in the workscope of the program and progress of technology development. (author)

  9. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  10. Liquid uranium contaimment in refractories metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were performed on metalic materials for liquid uranium containment up to 21000C. The materials Nb, Mo, Ta and W in the form of crucibles were tested at 21000C for one hour in the presence of flowing argon. After testing, the crucibles were etched using HCl and analysed by optical metallography and electron proble microanalysis. The results are discussed in terms of Berthoud equation and indicated that the solubility limit of the crucible material in uranium at the temperature controlls the crucible dissolution by liquid uranium. The various phases formed, the mechanism of dissolution and the possible material for future use are presented and discussed. (Author)

  11. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor with a nuclear fuel assembly in a coolant-containing primary vessel housed within a concrete containment vault, there is thermal insulation to protect the concrete, the insulation being disposed between vessel and concrete and being hung from metal structure secured to and projecting from the concrete, the insulation consisting of a plurality of adjoining units each unit incorporating a pack of thermal insulating material and defining a contained void co-extensive with said pack and situated between pack and concrete, the void of each unit being connected to the voids of adjoining units so as to form continuous ducting for a fluid coolant. (author)

  12. LIGHTBRIDGE corporation advanced metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightbridge Corporation is developing a metallic nuclear fuel which utilizes an innovative fuel rod geometry and composition to improve power plant economics and enhance the performance and safety of commercial light water reactors. The versatile fuel can utilize uranium or plutonium as the fissile component. The fuel is fully compatible with existing light water reactor designs and requires no major changes to reactor operations. The metallic fuel provides a durable solution that is also capable of operating at higher power density than existing fuels allowing for increased power output and cycle length compared to conventional oxide fuels. Lightbridge patented nuclear fuel technologies are designed to significantly enhance nuclear power industry economics and increase power output by: 1) extending fuel cycle length to 24 months or longer while simultaneously increasing power output by 10% or increasing power output by up to 17% with 18-month fuel cycles in existing pressurized water reactors (PWRs); 2) enabling increased reactor power output of up to 30% without changing core size in new build PWRs; and 3) reducing the volume of used fuel per kilowatt-hour as well as enhancing proliferation resistance of spent fuel. (author)

  13. Heavy liquid metal technologies development in Kalla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (Pb and Pb-Bi Eutectic) such as the low melting and high boiling temperatures, the chemical inertness in direct contact with typical reactor coolants, makes HLMs to relevant candidates as core coolant of critical and sub-critical nuclear systems. In addition the high neutron yield obtained by proton irradiation renders this material attractive for the development of neutron spallation sources. The practical use of HLM as core coolant and spallation material needs to be validated by experimental and computational activities. In this frame the KALLA (Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory) program, which consists of several stagnant and loop experiments, has been defined. Currently KALLA represents one of the most relevant infrastructures, which is in operation in Europe. The capabilities of KALLA make it possible to evaluate thermal-hydraulics parameters in complex geometries, to develop techniques for local and global quantities measurement, to assess the materials compatibility in different conditions and to evaluate basic chemical-physical data as for instance the wetting capability of the liquid metal. The aim of this article is to discuss the most significant development conducted at KALLA to support the activities of Accelerator Driven Transmutation Systems and to overview the experiences gained with the operation of liquid metal facilities. The loop experiments are now operated continuously since several years and a broad experience has been gained for the individual components typically appearing in reactors like pump systems (both electromagnetic and mechanical), oxygen monitoring and control systems, etc. (authors)

  14. Nanoporous metals for advanced energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art research in nanoporous metals for potential applications in advanced energy fields, including proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Li batteries (Li ion, Li-S, and Li-O2), and supercapacitors. The related structural design and performance of nanoporous metals as well as possible mechanisms and challenges are fully addressed. The formation mechanisms of nanoporous metals during dealloying, the microstructures of nanoporous metals and characterization methods, as well as miscrostructural regulation of nanoporous metals through alloy design of precursors and surface diffusion control are also covered in detail. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, graduate students, and government/industry officers who are in charge of R&D investments and strategy related to energy technologies.

  15. Gold metal liquid-like droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Evgeny; Scanlon, Micheál D; Momotenko, Dmitry; Vrubel, Heron; Méndez, Manuel A; Brevet, Pierre-Francois; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-09-23

    Simple methods to self-assemble coatings and films encompassing nanoparticles are highly desirable in many practical scenarios, yet scarcely any examples of simple, robust approaches to coat macroscopic droplets with continuous, thick (multilayer), reflective and stable liquid nanoparticle films exist. Here, we introduce a facile and rapid one-step route to form films of reflective liquid-like gold that encase macroscopic droplets, and we denote these as gold metal liquid-like droplets (MeLLDs). The present approach takes advantage of the inherent self-assembly of gold nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interfaces and the increase in rates of nanoparticle aggregate trapping at the interface during emulsification. The ease of displacement of the stabilizing citrate ligands by appropriate redox active molecules that act as a lubricating molecular glue is key. Specifically, the heterogeneous interaction of citrate stabilized aqueous gold nanoparticles with the lipophilic electron donor tetrathiafulvalene under emulsified conditions produces gold MeLLDs. This methodology relies exclusively on electrochemical reactions, i.e., the oxidation of tetrathiafulvalene to its radical cation by the gold nanoparticle, and electrostatic interactions between the radical cation and nanoparticles. The gold MeLLDs are reversibly deformable upon compression and decompression and kinetically stable for extended periods of time in excess of a year. PMID:25184343

  16. Coupled reactor physics and coolant dynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling of advanced nuclear designs with heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth eutectic offers the potential for plant simplifications and higher operating efficiencies compared to previously considered liquid metal coolants such as sodium or NaK. Such applications would however also introduce additional safety concerns and design challenges, therefore necessitating a verifiable computational tool for transient design-basis analysis of heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) systems. This capability would enable analysts to compare operational and safety characteristics of design alternatives, and to evaluate relative performance advantages with a consistent, deterministic measure

  17. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  18. Processing and properties of advanced metallic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Alan Harold

    Since the development of the first aluminum foams in the middle of the 20th century [178], great advances have been made in the processing and fundamental understanding of metallic foams. As a result of these advances, metallic foams are now penetrating a number of applications where their unique suite of properties makes them superior to solid materials, such as lightweight structures, packaging and impact protection, and filtration and catalysis [3]. The purpose of this work is to extend the use of metallic foams in such applications by expanding their processing to include more sophisticated base alloys and architectures. The first four chapters discuss replacement of conventional crystalline metal foams with ones made from high-strength, low-melting amorphous metals, a substitution that offers potential for achieving mechanical properties superior to those of the best crystalline metal foams, without sacrificing the simplicity of processing methods made for low-melting crystalline alloys. Three different amorphous metal foams are developed in these chapters, and their structures and properties characterized. It is shown for the first time that amorphous metal foams, due to stabilization of shear bands during bending of their small strut-like features, are capable of compressive ductility comparable to that of ductile crystalline metal foams. A two-fold improvement in mechanical energy absorption relative to crystalline aluminum foams is shown experimentally to result from this stabilization. The last two chapters discuss modifications in foam processing that are designed to introduce controllable and continuous gradients in local foam density, which should improve mass efficiency by mimicking the optimized structures found in natural cellular materials [64], as well as facilitate the bonding and joining of foams with solid materials in higher-order structures. Two new processing methods are developed, one based on replication of nonuniformly-compressed polymer

  19. Direct energy conversion using liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onea, Alexandru; Diez de los Rios Ramos, Nerea; Hering, Wolfgang; Stieglitz, Robert; Moster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Liquid metals have excellent properties to be used as heat transport fluids due to their high thermal conductivity and their wide applicable temperature range. The latter issue can be used to go beyond limitations of existing thermal solar energy systems. Furthermore, the direct energy converter Alkali Metal Thermo Electric Converter (AMTEC) can be used to make intangible areas of energy conversion suitable for a wide range of applications. One objective is to investigate AMTEC as a complementary cycle for the next generation of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The experimental research taking place in the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is focused on the construction of a flexible AMTEC test facility, development, test and improvement of liquid-anode and vapor-anode AMTEC devices as well as the coupling of the AMTEC cold side to the heat storage tank proposed for the CSP system. Within this project, the investigations foreseen will focus on the analyses of BASE-metal interface, electrode materials and deposition techniques, corrosion and erosion of materials brought in contact with high temperature sodium. This prototype demonstrator is planned to be integrated in the KArlsruhe SOdium LAboratory (KASOLA), a flexible closed mid-size sodium loop, completely in-house designed, presently under construction at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) within KIT.

  20. Liquid metal reactor core material HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state-of-the art is surveyed on the liquid metal reactor core materials HT9. The purpose of this report is to give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is planned for the year of 2010. In-core stability of cladding materials is important to the extension of fuel burnup. Austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) has been used as core material in the early LMR due to the good mechanical properties at high temperatures, but it has been found to show a poor swelling resistance. So many efforts have been made to solve this problem that HT9 have been developed. HT9 is 12Cr-1MoVW steel. The microstructure of HT9 consisted of tempered martensite with dispersed carbide. HT9 has superior irradiation swelling resistance as other BCC metals, and good sodium compatibility. HT9 has also a good irradiation creep properties below 500 dg C, but irradiation creep properties are degraded above 500 dg C. Researches are currently in progress to modify the HT9 in order to improve the irradiation creep properties above 500 dg C. New design studies for decreasing the core temperature below 500 dg C are needed to use HT9 as a core material. On the contrary, decrease of the thermal efficiency may occur due to lower-down of the operation temperature. (author). 51 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs

  1. Thermal convection in a liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuxin; Zikanov, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    Generation of thermal convection flow in the liquid metal battery, a device recently proposed as a promising solution for the problem of the short-term energy storage, is analyzed using a numerical model. It is found that convection caused by Joule heating of electrolyte during charging or discharging is virtually unavoidable. It exists in laboratory prototypes larger than a few centimeters in size and should become much stronger in larger-scale batteries. The phenomenon needs further investigation in view of its positive (enhanced mixing of reactants) and negative (loss of efficiency and possible disruption of operation due to the flow-induced deformation of the electrolyte layer) effects.

  2. EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID METAL ION SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Arimoto, H.; Komuro, M.

    1989-01-01

    Energy distributions of Au-Si-Be, Au-Si, Pd-Ni-Si-Be-B, and Pt-Si liquid metal alloy ion sources were investigated, being focused on behaviors of Si++ and Si+. We found that the energy spreads of the Si++ and Si+ were kept constant at 6 to 7.5 eV, even at an extremely low emission current (50 nA). This saturation results in a decrease in the figure of merit, (dI/dΩ)/ (ƊE)2, for an ion probe forming. (dI/dΩ : angular current density, ƊE : energy spread) The energy distribution profiles suggest...

  3. Thermal convection in a liquid metal battery

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Generation of thermal convection flow in the liquid metal battery, a device recently proposed as a promising solution for the problem of the short-term energy storage, is analyzed using a numerical model. It is found that convection caused by Joule heating of electrolyte during charging or discharging is virtually unavoidable. It exists in laboratory prototypes larger than a few cm in size and should become much stronger in larger-scale batteries. The phenomenon needs further investigation in view of its positive (enhanced mixing of reactants) and negative (loss of efficiency and possible disruption of operation due to the flow-induced deformation of the electrolyte layer) effects.

  4. Liquid metals in solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of solar radiation to electricity can be effected with photovoltaic devices or with thermodynamic cycles. It can be shown, that for central receiver power plants total efficiencies of more than the theoretical limit of 17-20% for solar cells can be achieved by raising the operating temperature to above 5000 C. This temperature range will not be suited for the application of water vapor cycles. The correspondingly high heat fluxes in the receiver demand a liquid metal e.g. sodium as the heat transfer medium. For the thermodynamic conversion system a potassium topping cycle as a binary or Treble Rankine Cycle (TRC) proposed earlier is investigated. Total efficiencies in excess of 30% seem possible with this system. For the decoupling of insolation and energy production the salts of alkali metals are especially attractive as latent heat storage devices when they can be integrated into the condenser/evaporator components of Multi Rankine Cycle Systems. (Auth.)

  5. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  6. Liquid metal embrittlement dependence on the characters of environment-deformed metal interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities in the liquid metal effect on strained solid metal have been investigated. Processes dominating under specified conditions (at preset temperatures, deformation rate, properties of interacting metal components) have been defined. Iron and liquid gallium may serve as an example of such a pair of metals for which the liquid metal embrittlement (LME) doesn't occur due to the solid solution formation in a wide concertration range. It has been shown that diffUsive penetration of a liquid-metal medium into the metal being deformed and formation of solid solution most probably reduces the LME absorption effect whereas selective corrosion intensifies it

  7. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  8. Impact Dynamics of Oxidized Liquid Metal Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2013-01-01

    With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during the impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number $We^{\\star}$ is employed that uses an effective surface...

  9. Material testing for liquid metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Liquid metal coolants such as liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid lead are considered to be used as spallation source targets and coolants as well as nuclear reactor coolants. The advantage of using these systems is high heat transport capability, good radiation properties and high safety due to low pressure in the system. The difficulty in using them is finding containing materials and beam window materials which can be used at high temperature, in an irradiation environment and are corrosion resistant against its containing media. Here, results of corrosion tests on possible window materials which were performed in the delta loop (LBE loop) at LANL will be presented as well as the capability of the new high-temperature (800 C) liquid lead loop. The new Irradiation and Corrosion Experiment (ICE) facility at LANL, where liquid metal corrosion tests can be performed in an irradiation (proton) environment, is presented as are its recent results. Experimental tests. Possible candidate materials for LBE containments and beam windows were widely tested in the delta loop under different conditions. These materials were ferritic/ martensitic materials as well as austenitic materials. After testing they were analysed using XPS, SEM, WDX, nano indentation and optical microscopy. The most promising materials are also tested in the ICE facility. A thin sample (40-100 μm) will be exposed to a 5-6 MeV proton beam while it is also exposed to LBE at elevated temperatures and different conditions. Therefore the influence of proton irradiation on the corrosion phenomena can be studied and the most irradiation and corrosion resistant material can be determined which leads to the optimal window material. Presented results. The SEM and nano indentation results of the LBE tests on T91, HT9 and 316L laser peened and un-peened are presented. The multi-oxide layer composition of these materials is shown, as are the mechanical properties such as

  10. ALS liquid hydrogen turbopump: Advanced Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimp, Nancy R.; Claffy, George J.

    1989-01-01

    The point of departure (POD) turbopump concept was reviewed and finalized. The basis for the POD was the configuration presented in the Aerojet proposal. After reviewing this proposal concept, several modifications were made. These modifications include the following: (1) the dual pump discharge arrangement was changed to a single discharge; (2) commonality of the turbine inlet manifold with the advanced launch system (ALS) liquid oxygen (LOX) TPA was dropped for this program; (3) the turbine housing flange arrangement was improved by relocating it away from the first stage nozzles; (4) a ten percent margin (five percent diameter increase) was built into the impeller design to ensure meeting the required discharge pressure without the need for increasing speed; (5) a ten percent turbine power margin was imposed which is to be obtained by increasing turbine inlet pressure if required; and (6) the backup concept, as an alternative to the use of cast impellers, now incorporates forged/machined shrouded impellers, rather than the unshrouded type originally planned.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid Metal Power Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of various MHD liquid metal power conversion systems is presented. This investigation has been accomplished using a general representation of thermodynamic properties termed a ''perfect thermodynamic vapour'' which allows an analytic description of the various cycles considered. Three cycles are considered in which the gas phase is separated from the liquid phase before condensation of the gas phase and return to the high pressure side of the cycle. These cycles are considered both when the liquid and gas are the same substance and when the liquid and gas are different substances: monofluid and bi fluid cases. Two high-speed condenser arrangements are also considered in which the whole liquid vapour mixture is passed through the condenser and the kinetic energy of the mixture preserved during condensation. The ''perfect thermodynamic concept'' allows, for the first time, an analytical analysis of these various cycles, a consistent comparison between them, and an easy identification of the effect of the vapour properties. The ''perfect thermodynamic vapour'' is a vapour equivalent of the perfect gas and describes a vapour in which (1) the gas phase obeys the perfect gas law and (2) the specific volume of the gas is much larger than the liquid. This model allows the properties of the vapour to be described using a characteristic temperature and density and a ratio of liquid to gas phase specific heat. The properties of the power conversion cycles can now be described in analytic form using these vapour properties. An important quantity in any of these cycles is the work ratio, the ratio of compression work to expansion work. In any cycle that involves a high-speed separator or condenser, through which the kinetic energy of the flow should be conserved, the efficiency of the device is also very important. It is shown that the value of the work ratio and the high-speed separator efficiency depend critically on the volume flow ratio of gas to liquid at

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Metal Hydrides

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    In the last five years, the study of metal hydrides has ex­ panded enormously due to the potential technological importance of this class of materials in hydrogen based energy conversion schemes. The scope of this activity has been worldwide among the industrially advanced nations. There has been a consensus among researchers in both fundamental and applied areas that a more basic understanding of the properties of metal/hydrogen syster;,s is required in order to provide a rational basis for the selection of materials for specific applications. The current worldwide need for and interest in research in metal hydrides indicated the timeliness of an Advanced Study Insti­ tute to provide an in-depth view of the field for those active in its various aspects. The inclusion of speakers from non-NATO coun­ tries provided the opportunity for cross-fertilization of ideas for future research. While the emphasis of the Institute was on basic properties, there was a conscious effort to stimulate interest in the applic...

  13. Steering liquid metal flow in microchannels using low voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Lin, Yiliang; Joshipura, Ishan D; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Dickey, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    Liquid metals based on gallium, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, have been integrated as static components in microfluidic systems for a wide range of applications including soft electrodes, pumps, and stretchable electronics. However, there is also a possibility to continuously pump liquid metal into microchannels to create shape reconfigurable metallic structures. Enabling this concept necessitates a simple method to control dynamically the path the metal takes through branched microchannels with multiple outlets. This paper demonstrates a novel method for controlling the directional flow of EGaIn liquid metal in complex microfluidic networks by simply applying a low voltage to the metal. According to the polarity of the voltage applied between the inlet and an outlet, two distinct mechanisms can occur. The voltage can lower the interfacial tension of the metal via electrocapillarity to facilitate the flow of the metal towards outlets containing counter electrodes. Alternatively, the voltage can drive surface oxidation of the metal to form a mechanical impediment that redirects the movement of the metal towards alternative pathways. Thus, the method can be employed like a 'valve' to direct the pathway chosen by the metal without mechanical moving parts. The paper elucidates the operating mechanisms of this valving system and demonstrates proof-of-concept control over the flow of liquid metal towards single or multiple directions simultaneously. This method provides a simple route to direct the flow of liquid metal for applications in microfluidics, optics, electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26279150

  14. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics

  15. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.)

  16. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  17. On the dynamics of liquid metal ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Ganetsos, Th. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Panepistimiopolis, Zographos, Athens (Greece); Aidinis, C.J. [University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Applied Physics, Panepistimiopolis, Zographos, Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: caidinis@cc.uoa.gr; Bischoff, L. [Research Center Rossendorf Inc, Institute of Ion Beam and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

    2002-06-21

    The mechanisms governing the formation of the liquid metal cone that constitutes the basis of a liquid metal ion source (LMIS) are investigated. Cone formation times ranging from <20 ns up to several hundreds of ms have been reported in the literature. This paper attempts to explain these differences by devising a theoretical model that encompasses inertial and flow effects. (author)

  18. Contactless Inductive Bubble Detection in a Liquid Metal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundrum, Thomas; Büttner, Philipp; Dekdouk, Bachir; Peyton, Anthony; Wondrak, Thomas; Galindo, Vladimir; Eckert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The detection of bubbles in liquid metals is important for many technical applications. The opaqueness and the high temperature of liquid metals set high demands on the measurement system. The high electrical conductivity of the liquid metal can be exploited for contactless methods based on electromagnetic induction. We will present a measurement system which consists of one excitation coil and a pickup coil system on the opposite sides of the pipe. With this sensor we were able to detect bubbles in a sodium flow inside a stainless steel pipe and bubbles in a column filled with a liquid Gallium alloy. PMID:26751444

  19. Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Tihiro

    1981-01-01

    A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

  20. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Rao

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  1. Liquid Propellants for Advanced Gun Ammunitions

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Rao; A. S. Bartakke; R.G.K. Nair

    1987-01-01

    With constant improvements, the conventional solid propellants for guns have almost reached their limit in performance. Liquid gun propellants are promising new comers capable of surpassing these performance limits and have numerous advantages over solid propellants. A method has been worked out to predict the internal ballistics of a liquid propellant gun and illustrated in a typical application.

  2. Electro-Hydrodynamic Shooting Phenomenon of Liquid Metal Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.

  3. Modeling infinite/axisymmetric liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic free surface flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, as part of the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) project, liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) film and jet flows have been modeled using the assumption of axisymmetry to simplify the governing equations to a more tractable two-dimensional (2D) form. The results of these 2D simulations as they pertain to liquid wall and divertor flows is presented here. The effect of toroidal field gradient on the flow thickness is shown to be rather small for thin fast first wall (FW) flows on electrically insulated backwalls, but streamwise currents generated by flow across the toroidal field gradient can interact with radial magnetic field components to produce toroidal motion with strong shear across the flow depth. The drag effects from flow across the toroidal field gradients become much stronger if thicker flows are considered. Concerns about surface stability due to forces trying to pull the liquid off the backwall also become much more severe for thicker flows or flows with conducting walls. Plans for continued work with three-dimensional models are discussed

  4. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2016-09-01

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  5. Liquid metal actuation-based reversible frequency tunable monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Pierce, Richard G.; Henderson, Rashaunda; Doo, Seok Joo; Yoo, Koangki; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2014-12-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a reversible resonant frequency tunable antenna based on liquid metal actuation. The antenna is composed of a coplanar waveguide fed monopole stub printed on a copper-clad substrate, and a tunnel-shaped microfluidic channel linked to the printed metal. The gallium-based liquid metal can be injected and withdrawn from the channel in response to an applied air pressure. The gallium-based liquid metal is treated with hydrochloric acid to eliminate the oxide layer, and associated wetting/sticking problems, that arise from exposure to an ambient air environment. Elimination of the oxide layer allows for reliable actuation and repeatable and reversible tuning. By controlling the liquid metal slug on-demand with air pressure, the liquid metal can be readily controllable to connect/disconnect to the monopole antenna so that the physical length of the antenna reversibly tunes. The corresponding reversible resonant frequency changes from 4.9 GHz to 1.1 GHz. The antenna properties based on the liquid metal actuation were characterized by measuring the reflection coefficient and agreed well with simulation results. Additionally, the corresponding time-lapse images of controlling liquid metal in the channel were studied.

  6. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  7. Intrinsically Stretchable Biphasic (Solid–Liquid) Thin Metal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Arthur Edouard; Michaud, Hadrien Olivier; Gerratt, Aaron Powers; Mulatier, Séverine; Lacour, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable biphasic conductors are formed by physical vapor deposition of gallium onto an alloying metal film. The properties of the photolithography-compatible thin metal films are highlighted by low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω sq−1) and large stretchability (400%). This novel approach to deposit and pattern liquid metals enables extremely robust, multilayer and soft circuits, sensors, and actuators.

  8. Intrinsically Stretchable Biphasic (Solid-Liquid) Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Arthur; Michaud, Hadrien O; Gerratt, Aaron P; de Mulatier, Séverine; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2016-06-01

    Stretchable biphasic conductors are formed by physical vapor deposition of gallium onto an alloying metal film. The properties of the photolithography-compatible thin metal films are highlighted by low sheet resistance (0.5 Ω sq(-1) ) and large stretchability (400%). This novel approach to deposit and pattern liquid metals enables extremely robust, multilayer and soft circuits, sensors, and actuators. PMID:26923313

  9. Space-resolved Resistive Measurement of Liquid Metal Wall Thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhoseini, S M H

    2016-01-01

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for mxn electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3x1 electrodes. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to Lithium or other liquid metals.

  10. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  11. Liquid metal collector and separator device in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention applies to a fast reactor including a rotational symmetrical vessel around a vertical axis, a core immersed in liquid metal filling the vessel as also liquid metal circulating pumps and heat exchangers immersed in this liquid metal, and arranged vertically in the vessel nearly at nearly the same distance from the axis of this one. The present device, described in detail in this patent, allows to simplify and to get a less expensive internal structure for the reactor vessel and to improve its resistance to earthquakes

  12. Liquid metal folding patterns induced by electric capillary force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental phenomenon regarding spontaneous formation of symmetrical folding patterns induced on liquid metal free surface with circular shape features was disclosed. The occurrence and evolution processes of the patterns were demonstrated and interpreted. The electric capillary force imposed on liquid metal due to surface tension gradient was found responsible for producing a variety of surface folding patterns like wheel-shape, dual concentric ring-shape, and so on. All the patterns display a property of axial symmetry and could be analogue to the Rayleigh-Benard convection which produces hexagonal patterns. This finding on liquid metal flow folding refreshes knowledge of classical fluid kinematics.

  13. Liquid-Liquid Structure Transition in Metallic Melts: Experimental Evidence by Viscosity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Qing; WU Yu-Qin; BIAN Xiu-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of viscosity for more than ten kinds of metallic melts is analysed based on viscosity measurements. An obvious turning point is observed on the Arrhenius curves. Since viscosity is one of the physical properties sensitive to structure, its discontinuous change with temperature reveals the possible liquidliquid structure transition in the metallic melts. Furthermore, an integrated liquid structure transition diagram of the Sn-Bi system is presented. The universality of liquid-liquid structure transition is also discussed simply.

  14. Advances in Liquid Phase{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology builds on the successful development by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. of the slurry phase bubble column technology. Air Products and Chemicals Liquid Phase{trademark} technology embodies several chemical processes including Liquid Phase Methanol{trademark} (LPMEOH{trademark}) and the Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether{trademark} (LPDME{trademark}) and other alcohols/oxygenates. The LPMEOH{trademark} technology was developed during the 1980's with the financial support of the US department of Energy (DOE). The concept was proven in over 7,400 hours of test operation in a DOE-owned, 3,200 gallons (US) of methanol per day process development unit located at LaPorte, Texas. The first commercial-scale demonstration plant for the technology has been constructed, commissioned, and is now being operated at Eastman Chemical Company's coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee under the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. Construction began in October of 1995 and was completed in January of 1997. After commissioning and startup activities were completed, operation began in April of 1997. Currently, the LPMEOH{trademark} plant is producing 80,000 gallons of methanol per day. Over the next four years, a program of operation will demonstrate the commercial advantages of the technology to include simulations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coproduction of power and methanol application. This paper reviews the: Commercial Application for the LPMEOH{trademark} process technology; Operational Plans to demonstrate the commercial advantages of the plant; LPMEOH{trademark} Plant-Status, highlighting the integration of the LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, and the accomplishments during the initial operating period; and Highlights of other Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology Developments.

  15. Advances in Liquid Phase{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1998-04-01

    The {open_quotes}Liquid Phase{trademark} Technology{close_quotes} builds on the successful development by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. of the slurry phase bubble column technology. Air Products and Chemicals Liquid Phase{trademark} technology embodies several chemical processes including Liquid Phase Methanol{trademark} (LPMEOH{trademark}) and the Liquid Phase DiMethyl Ether{trademark} (LPDME{trademark}) and other alcohols/oxygenates. The LPMEOH{trademark} technology was developed during the 1980`s with the financial support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The concept was proven in over 7,400 hours of test operation in a DOE-owned, 3,200 gallons (U.S.) of methanol per day process development unit located at LaPorte, Texas. The first commercial-scale demonstration plant for the technology has been constructed, commissioned, and is now being operated at Eastman Chemical Company`s coal gasification facility in Kingsport, Tennessee under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program. Construction began in October of 1995 and was completed in January of 1997. After commissioning and startup activities were completed, operation began in April of 1997. Currently, the LPMEOH{trademark} plant is producing 80,000 gallons of methanol per day. Over the next four years, a program of operation will demonstrate the commercial advantages of the technology to include simulations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coproduction of power and methanol application. Air Products and Eastman formed the {open_quotes}Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P.{close_quotes} partnership to execute the commercial-scale demonstration project. Most of the product methanol is refined to chemical-grade quality (99.85 wt% purity via distillation) and used by Eastman as chemical feedstock in the commercial facility. A portion of the product methanol will be withdrawn prior to purification (about 98 wt% purity) and used in off-site product-use tests.

  16. Advanced Metal Foam Structures for Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, Jay; Johnson, William; Peker, Atakan

    2005-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use advanced materials especially bulk metallic glass (BMG) foams in structural components of spacecraft, lunar habitats, and the like. BMG foams, which are already used on Earth in some consumer products, are superior to conventional metal foams: BMG foams have exceptionally low mass densities and high strength-to-weight ratios and are more readily processable into strong, lightweight objects of various sizes and shapes. These and other attractive properties of BMG foams would be exploited, according to the proposal, to enable in situ processing of BMG foams for erecting and repairing panels, shells, containers, and other objects. The in situ processing could include (1) generation of BMG foams inside prefabricated deployable skins that would define the sizes and shapes of the objects thus formed and (2) thermoplastic deformation of BMG foams. Typically, the generation of BMG foams would involve mixtures of precursor chemicals that would be subjected to suitable pressure and temperature schedules. In addition to serving as structural components, objects containing or consisting of BMG foams could perform such functions as thermal management, shielding against radiation, and shielding against hypervelocity impacts of micrometeors and small debris particles.

  17. Marangoni convection in fuel elements with liquid metal sublayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of heat- and mass-transfer in liquid metal sublayer of fuel element in the presence of gas bubbles is conducted. Analysis of the effects related with developing Marangoni convection is done. Assessed values are present for liquid metal flow velocities, temperature nonuniformity on inner side of fuel element cladding and in fuel pellets depending on gap size, physical properties of liquid metal in the gap, on heat generation rate and on average temperature in liquid-metal sublayer. It is shown that Marangoni convection can lead to fast corrosion on inner surface of the cladding. It is pointed out that at high values of convection rate the mechanism of material erosion also can be initiated

  18. Apparatus for use in a liquid alkali metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is described for use in a liquid alkali metal environment consisting of components having complementary bearing surfaces in which one of the components has a bearing surface of stainless steel and another of the components has an aluminised complementary bearing surface. Examples are given of the use of the invention in heat exchange apparatus in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors; one example is in connection with the fuel subassembly in such a reactor. (U.K.)

  19. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-10-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  20. Thermohydraulic safety issues for liquid metal cooled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, Gunter; Stefani, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Fluid Dynamics; Eckert, Sven

    2016-05-15

    In this paper recent developments of various techniques for single-phase and two-phase flow measurements with relevance to liquid metal cooled systems will be presented. Further, the status of the DRESDYN platform for large-scale experiments with liquid sodium is sketched.

  1. A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals

    OpenAIRE

    Yongliang Geng; Chunao Zhu; Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liqui...

  2. The formation of metal/metal-matrix nano-composites by the ultrasonic dispersion of immiscible liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppens, V.M.; Mandrus, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rankin, J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been used to disperse one liquid metallic component in a second immiscible liquid metal, thereby producing a metallic emulsion. Upon lowering the temperature of this emulsion below the mp of the lowest-melting constituent, a metal/metal-matrix composite is formed. This composite consists of sub-micron-to-micron- sized particles of the minor metallic phase that are embedded in a matrix consisting of the major metallic phase. Zinc-bismuth was used as a model system, and ultrasonic dispersion of a minor Bi liquid phase was used to synthesize metal/metal-matrix composites. These materials were characterized using SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis.

  3. Metallotropic liquid crystals formed by surfactant templating of molten metal halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James D; Keary, Cristin L; Thornton, Todd A; Novotnak, Mark P; Knutson, Jeremey W; Folmer, Jacob C W

    2006-04-01

    Liquid crystals consist of anisotropic molecular units, and most are organic molecules. Materials incorporating metals into anisotropic molecules, described as metallomesogens, have been prepared. Anisotropic structures such as one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional layers are frequently observed in solid-state inorganic materials, however, little is understood about structural organization in melts of such materials. Achieving liquid-crystalline behaviour in inorganic fluids should be possible if the anisotropic structure can be retained or designed into the molten phase. We demonstrated the ability to engineer zeolite-type structures into metal halide glasses and liquids. In this work we have engineered lamellar, cubic and hexagonal liquid-crystalline structure in metal-halide melts by controlling the volume fraction and nature of the inorganic block (up to 80 mol%) with respect to alkylammonium surfactants. The high metal content of these liquid-crystalline systems significantly advances the field of metallomesogens, which seeks to combine magnetic, electronic, optical, redox and catalytic properties common to inorganic materials with the fluid properties of liquid crystals. PMID:16547520

  4. Liquid metal technology for concentrated solar power systems: Contributions by the German research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wetzel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power (CSP systems can play a major role as a renewable energy source with the inherent possibility of including a thermal energy storage subsystem for improving the plant dispatchability. Next-generation CSP systems have to provide an increased overall efficiency at reduced specific costs and they will require higher operating temperatures and larger heat flux densities. In that context, liquid metals are proposed as advanced high temperature heat transfer fluids, particularly for central receiver systems. Their main advantages are chemical stability at temperatures up to 900 ℃ and even beyond, as well as largely improved heat transfer when compared to conventional fluids like oil or salt mixtures, primarily due to their superior thermal conductivity. However, major issues here are the corrosion protection of structural materials and the development of technology components and control systems, as well as the development of indirect storage solutions, to circumvent the relatively small heat capacity of liquid metals. On the other hand, using liquid metals might enable alternative technologies like direct thermal-electric conversion or use of solar high-tem­perature heat in chemical processes. This article aims at describing research areas and research needs to be addressed for fully evaluating and subsequently utilizing the potential of liquid metals in CSP systems. A second aim of the article is a brief overview of the liquid metal research capabilities of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, their background and their relation to CSP and the aforementioned research pathways.

  5. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs

  6. Ionic Liquids as Advanced Lubricant Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-José Carrión

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS, the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases.

  7. Recent advances in magnetic liquid sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, K.; Stahl, P.; Bottenberg, W.; True, D.; Martis, G.; Zook, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent work in design and testing of two special magnetic liquid seals extending the state-of-the-art of ferrofluidic sealing is discussed. These custom seals are a moving belt edge seal and an exclusion seal. The first seal provides a hermetic barrier to solid particulates expected to be present in enclosed nuclear environments. The second seal is used on a magnetic disk drive spindle and reduces the particulate contaminants in the memory disk pack area by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, bearing life in the spindle is found to be doubled due to reduction of operating temperature. The fundamentals of magnetic fluid sealing are presented in terms of magnetic circuit design and physical properties of ferrofluids.

  8. Adaption of a smelting furnace to immersion experiments of solid metals in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaption of existing smelting furnace, to immersion experiments of solid metals in liquid metals, is described. The modifications include a Wilson seal, a stainless-steel feed-through, to which a molybdenum rod is adjoined with a metal sheet made in the form of a cylinder or a scoop attached to the latter by means of a tantalum wire. The metal sheet is immersed, in a controlled way, in the liquid metal which is contained in a magnesia-stabilized zirconia crucible held in a protective graphite crucible. The results of a few immersion experiments are given. (Author)

  9. Impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, J.; Gotoh, Y.; Tsuji, H.; Takagi, T.

    We have developed an impregnated-electrode-type liquid metal ion source whose tip is a sintered-porous structure made of a refractory metal such as tungsten. By this structure the ratio of the liquid metal surface area facing the vacuum to the volume is low, which decreases useless metal evaporation from the surface. The maximum vapour pressure of the metal in operation for this ion source is 10 -1-10 0 Torr, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that for the needle type. Therefore, useful metal ions such as Ga +, Au +, Ag +, In +, Si 2+, Ge 2+, and Sb 2+ can be extracted from single element metals or alloys. The porous structure of the tip has also an effect on the positive control of the liquid metal flow rate to the tip head. Thus, a stable operation with a high current of a few hundreds of μA can be obtained together with a low current high brightness ion beam. Therefore, this ion source is suitable not only for microfocusing but also for a general use as a metal ion source.

  10. Liquid metal film evolution in the high electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physical model is proposed for liquid metal film at the metal tip surface evolution during the formation of thermo-field ion source (TFIS). According to our model the liquid metal film evolution passes through some steps before the stationary conditions are achieved. At the first stage the conditions for TFIS functioning must be realized: 1) The surface temperature (at the tungsten tip with curvature radius 1 mcm) must be sufficient for surface melting, according to our data, it must be about 2/3 of the bulk melting temperature. 2) Th electric field strength must be sufficient for Tailor cone formation. At the second stage the liquid metal protrusion is formed at the Tailor cone apex with 1 nm curvature radius (nano-protrusion). At the third stage the explosive destruction of this nano-protrusion takes place with plasma generation. At this stage the ions flow to the extractor and the electrons to the emitter. As the result, the liquid metal is forced out to the periphery and crater is formed. The new feature of our model is the electron flow pressure the taking into account. So, the equilibrium state is achieved. The flow of film bombarding electrons, fed with the field, thermionic, thermo-field ionization both of the liquid film atoms and the emitted atoms. The experimental evidence of this behavior is the great increase of the ion current as the conventional extractor is substituted with the sharp edges extractor. These sharp edges directed toward the cathode work as field emission electron source enhancing the electron pressure onto the liquid meal surface. According to this physical model an adequate mathematical one is developed. The stationary and kinetic characteristics of the liquid metal layer-metal tip are computed. (Authors)

  11. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-06-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, {Delta}T, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to {approx}550{degrees}C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to {approx}650{degrees}C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above {approx}600{degrees}C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150{degrees}C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material.

  12. Instability of the Liquid Metal-Pattern Interface in the Lost Foam Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, W. D.; Ainsworth, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the liquid metal-pattern interface during mold filling in the Lost Foam casting of aluminum alloys was investigated using real-time X-ray radiography for both normal expanded polystyrene, and brominated polystyrene foam patterns. Filling the pattern under the action of gravity from above or below had little effect on properties, both cases resulting in a large scatter of tensile strength values, (quantified by their Weibull Modulus). Countergravity filling at different velocities demonstrated that the least scatter of tensile strength values (highest Weibull Modulus) was associated with the slowest filling, when a planar liquid metal-pattern interface occurred. Real-time X-ray radiography showed that the advancing liquid metal front became unstable above a certain critical velocity, leading to the entrainment of the degrading pattern material and associated defects. It has been suggested that the transition of the advancing liquid metal-pattern interface into an unstable regime may be a result of Saffman-Taylor Instability.

  13. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  14. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  15. Polonium evaporation from dilute liquid metal solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzi, Matthias; Eichler, Robert; Türler, Andreas; Mendonça, Tania Melo; Stora, Thierry; Gonzalez Prieto, Borja; Aerts, Alexander; Schumann, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    The evaporation behavior of polonium as one of the most hazardous radionuclides produced in spallation based neutron sources with liquid lead-bismuth targets has been quantified in this study. The normalized apparent vapor pressure, i.e. the Henry constant of polonium over liquid lead-bismuth eutectic was determined in the temperature range relevant for operation of such targets, i.e. 164-500 degrees C. For comparison and better fundamental understanding, the Henry constant of polonium over pure liquid bismuth was determined in a temperature range of 300-500 degrees C. The Henry constants of polonium in this temperature range were found to be orders of magnitude higher than expected from earlier studies at higher temperatures. Possible mechanisms responsible for this unexpected behavior are discussed.

  16. Polonium evaporation from dilute liquid metal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaporation behavior of polonium as one of the most hazardous radionuclides produced in spallation based neutron sources with liquid lead–bismuth targets has been quantified in this study. The normalized apparent vapor pressure, i.e. the Henry constant of polonium over liquid lead–bismuth eutectic was determined in the temperature range relevant for operation of such targets, i.e. 164–500 °C. For comparison and better fundamental understanding, the Henry constant of polonium over pure liquid bismuth was determined in a temperature range of 300–500 °C. The Henry constants of polonium in this temperature range were found to be orders of magnitude higher than expected from earlier studies at higher temperatures. Possible mechanisms responsible for this unexpected behavior are discussed

  17. Separation of metals by supported liquid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1990-12-31

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  18. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  19. Seismic isolation for a modular liquid metal reactor concept (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the development of a conceptual design for an advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactor with features to reduce plant construction and operating costs and to further enhance plant passive safety features. A standardized modular construction approach with extensive, high quality factory fabrication of plant modules will be employed for the nine reactor module plant arranged in three 465 MWe power blocks. Inherent plant safety characteristics were optimized to provide self-correction of abnormal plant states independent of operator intervention or external power supply. A seismic isolation system for the individual reactor modules has been included to enhance structural margins and to support plant standardization. The isolators are high damping, steel laminated rubber bearings which efficiently decouple the reactor module from the horizontal earthquake ground motion and provide a rigid body, first mode response at the selected isolator frequency of 0.75 Hz with significantly reduced horizontal loads. No vertical isolation of the small diameter, compact, and vertically very stiff reactor module is required. In this paper, its key advantages, site selection considerations, and the status of the qualification program are described

  20. A large economic liquid metal reactor for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States has demonstrated its ability to build and operate small and medium sized liquid metal reactors and continues to operate the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate long life fuel designs. Similar-sized liquid metal reactors in Europe have been followed by a step-up to the 1200 MWe capacity of the Superphenix plant. To permit the United States to make a similar step-up in capacity, a 1320 MWe liquid metal reactor plant has been designed with the main emphasis on minimizing the specific capital cost in order to be competitive with light water reactor plant and fossil plant alternatives. The design is based on a four parallel heat transport loops arrangement and complies with current regulatory requirements. The primary heat transport loops are now being integrated into the reactor vessel to achieve further reduction in the capital cost

  1. Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs

  2. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseob Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm to 6.4 cm.

  3. A study on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel in liquid metals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between austenitic stainless steel, AISI 316L, and gallium liquid metal at a high temperature, for the potential application to advanced fast reactor coolants. Test specimens of AISI 316L were exposed to static gallium at 500 °C for up to 700 h in two different cover-gas conditions, including air and vacuum. Similar experimental tests were conducted in gallium alloy liquid metal environments, including Ga–14Sn–6Zn and Ga–8Sn–6Zn, in order to study the effect of addition of alloying elements. The results have shown that the weight change and metal loss of specimens were generally reduced in Ga–14Sn–6Zn and Ga–8Sn–6Zn compared to those in pure gallium at a high temperature.

  4. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-10-26

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel(II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxides, as well as aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide. The metals can be stripped from the ionic liquid by treatment of the ionic liquid with an acidic aqueous solution. After transfer of the metal ions to the aqueous phase, the ionic liquid can be recycled for reuse. Betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide forms one phase with water at high temperatures, whereas phase separation occurs below 55.5 degrees C (temperature switch behavior). The mixtures of the ionic liquid with water also show a pH-dependent phase behavior: two phases occur at low pH, whereas one phase is present under neutral or alkaline conditions. The structures, the energetics, and the charge distribution of the betaine cation and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion, as well as the cation-anion pairs, were studied by density functional theory calculations. PMID:17048916

  5. Film boiling of R-11 on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interesting problem is the effect of an immiscible liquid heating surface on the process of film boiling. Such surfaces raise questions concerning interface stability to disturbances, effects of gas bubbling, and vapor explosions in layered systems. The specific motivation for this study was to investigate film boiling from a liquid surface with application to cooling of molten reactor core debris by an overlying pool of reactor coolant. To investigate this phenomenon, and apparatus consisting of a nominal six-inch diameter steel vessel to hold the liquid metal and boiling fluid was constructed; coolant reservoirs, heaters, controllers, and allied instrumentation were attached. A transient energy balance was performed on the liquid metal pool by a submerged assembly of microthermocouples in the liquid metal and an array of thermocouples on the wall of the test vessel. The thermocouple data were used to determine the boiling heat flux as well as the boiling superheat. On an average basis, the deviation between the prediction of the Berenson model and the experimental data was less than one percent when Berenson was corrected for thermal radiation effects. Evidence from visualization tests of R-11 in film boiling over molten metal pools to superheats in excess of 600 K supports this conclusion. 13 refs

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of liquid metals as heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrated solar power, and in particular central receiver systems, can play a major role as a renewable energy source with the inherent possibility of including a thermal energy storage subsystem for improving the plant dispatchability. While current commercial projects are dominated by direct steam generation and molten nitrate salt concepts, next-generation systems will require higher operating temperature and larger heat-flux densities in order to increase the efficiency and reduce costs. In that context, liquid metals are proposed in this work as advanced heat transfer fluids that can face those challenges. The main advantages, regarding higher temperature and improved heat transfer performance, are discussed and quantified using simplified models. Indirect thermal storage solutions are proposed for compensating their relatively small heat capacity. Overall, provided that some practical challenges can be overcome, liquid metals present large potential as efficient heat transfer fluids. -- Highlights: • Liquid metals (sodium and LBE) are studied as advanced HTFs. • Larger heat transfer rates lead to an improved receiver performance. • High operating temperature above 1000 °C is possible. • Advanced high-temperature power conversion cycles are investigated

  7. Current collector geometry and mixing in liquid metal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan; Kelley, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal batteries are emerging as an efficient and cost effective technology for large-scale energy storage on electrical grids. In these batteries, critical performance related factors such as the limiting current density and life cycle are strongly influenced by fluid mixing and transport of electrochemical species to and from the electrode-electrolyte interface. In this work, ultrasound velocimetry is used to investigate the role of negative current collector location on the induced velocity, flow pattern, and mixing time in liquid metal electrodes. Ultrasound velocity measurements are obtained at a range of operating current densities. Furthermore, a comparison between velocity profiles produced by current collectors with different sizes is also presented.

  8. Research advances in heavy metal biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of heavy metal has wide applications. The mechanisms of heavy metal biosorption, including complexation, ion exchange, microprecipitation and oxidation reduction, are presented. Thermodynamics and dynamics of biosorption are also discussed. Key factors of influencing biosorption, such as pH values, coexistence ions and temperature are explained. The research directions are explored. (authors)

  9. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.;

    2013-01-01

    The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells...... tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  10. Electrical resistivity of liquid noble metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the dependence of the electrical resistivity in liquid Ag-Au, Cu-Ag, Cu-Au binary alloys on composition are reported. The structure of the binary alloy is described as a hard sphere system. A one-parameter local pseudopotential, which incorporates s-d hybridization effects phenomenologically, is employed in the resistivity calculation. A reasonable agreement with experimental trends is observed in cases where experimental information is available. (author)

  11. Vertical liquid film impinged on advanced reactor downcomer wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are conducted to study the vertical film width and downcomer gap effects on impingement upon the vertical flat wall simulating the core barrel in the APR-1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). This work is being carried out in ALPHA (Accelerated Liquid Phase Hydrodynamics Apparatus) at the Seoul National University. The results are to be integrated into a system code THEOS (Thermomechanics Hydrodynamics Eutectics Online Simulator). At larger distances from stagnation to the injection nozzle, the gap effect falls off. The data suggest that, for impingement nearing the stagnation point, the flow velocities can be computed by applying a turbulent correction factor to the laminar value calculated for velocities having the same pressure distribution as that present in the impingement region. To find the correction factor, one needs to obtain the liquid film thickness and breakup factors related to the turbulent flow. This is in contrast to the laminar flow, in which the liquid film thickness is uniform and the breakup is nonexistent. This work is particularly concerned with the liquid film thickness. Previous ALPHA experiments with varying nozzle diameters advocate that the correction factor is found to be a function of the injection speed rather than the Reynolds number. This paper documents on measurement of the radial liquid film thickness fluctuations and their point wise values at the same vertical height. It additionally reports on results of numerical calculation for the liquid film profiles. (authors)

  12. Critical packing fraction in multicomponent, glass forming metallic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass forming Ni59.5Nb40.5 and Ni60Nb34.8Sn5.2 have been investigated in their equilibrium liquid by quasielastic neutron scattering. These liquids exhibit extraordinary high packing fraction. Structural relaxation shows stretching in time and extent of stretching depends on the temperature of the liquid. The self-diffusivity decreases about two orders of magnitude within 360 K. From the β-relaxation, τ-scaling analysis of self-diffusion and mean relaxation times of the α-process the critical packing fraction of these liquids have been derived. Our results provide, for the first time, an experimentally observed value for the critical packing fraction in the glass forming metallic liquids and is in good agreement with mode-coupling theory prediction

  13. A sliding cell technique for diffusion measurements in liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Geng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The long capillary and shear cell techniques are the usual methods for diffusion measurements in liquid metals. Here we present a new “sliding cell technique” to measure interdiffusion in liquid alloys, which combines the merits of these two methods. Instead of a number of shear cells, as used in the shear cell method, only one sliding cell is designed to separate and join the liquid diffusion samples. Using the sliding cell technique, the influence of the heating process (which affects liquid diffusion measurements in the conventional long capillary method can be eliminated. Time-dependent diffusion measurements at the same isothermal temperature were carried out in Al-Cu liquids. Compared with the previous results measured by in-situ X-ray radiography, the obtained liquid diffusion coefficient in this work is believed to be influenced by convective flow. The present work further supports the idea that to obtain accurate diffusion constants in liquid metals, the measurement conditions must be well controlled, and there should be no temperature gradients or other disturbances.

  14. Ionic Liquid Technology in Metal Refining: Dissolution of Metal Oxides and Separation by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wellens, Sil

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids form a relatively new class of solvents entirely composed by ions that have specific properties such as low volatility, low flammability, large electrochemical window, broad liquidus range and a high thermal stability. These properties make ionic liquids very attractive for applications in a wide variety of fields. In the field of metal processing, ionic liquids have been used as extraction media in solvent extraction and promising results have already been reported. Nevertheles...

  15. An Integrated Liquid Cooling System Based on Galinstan Liquid Metal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2016-01-27

    The continued miniaturization of electronic components demands integrated liquid cooling systems with minimized external connections and fabrication costs that can be implanted very close to localized hot spots. This might be challenging for existing liquid cooling systems because most of them rely on external pumps, connecting tubes, and microfabricated heat sinks. Here, we demonstrate an integrated liquid cooling system by utilizing a small droplet of liquid metal Galinstan, which is placed over the hot spot. Energizing the liquid metal droplet with a square wave signal creates a surface tension gradient across the droplet, which induces Marangoni flow over the surface of droplet. This produces a high flow rate of coolant medium through the cooling channel, enabling a "soft" pump. At the same time, the high thermal conductivity of liquid metal extends the heat transfer surface and facilitates the dissipation of heat, enabling a "soft" heat sink. This facilitates the rapid cooling of localized hot spots, as demonstrated in our experiments. Our technology facilitates customized liquid cooling systems with simple fabrication and assembling processes, with no moving parts that can achieve high flow rates with low power consumption. PMID:26716607

  16. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  17. Sensor for thickness measurement of a liquid metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description, calibration and measuring method of a sensor for the measure of thin liquid metal depths in a temperature range of 0-5000C and for shift frequencies from 0 to 100 Hz; these sensors are based on the principle of induction-coil impedance variation, as a function of the thickness of an electrical conductor matter placed in the coil magnetic field

  18. Experimental demonstration of gas entrainment into liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrainment of cover gas into the liquid metal coolant is one of the essential safety issues in the design of innovative liquid metal-cooled fast reactors. We present experimental studies of this phenomenon in low-melting metals. Ultrasonic and X-ray were considered as diagnostic tools for a visualization of gas entrainment at the free surface of the melt. Laboratory experiments were conducted using the eutectic alloy GaInSn which is liquid at room temperature. The vortex activated entrainment of air at the free surface of a rotating flow was disclosed by means of ultrasonic techniques. The X-ray radioscopy was used to visualize the behaviour of Argon bubbles inside a slit geometry. The measurements reveal distinct differences between water and GaInSn especially with respect to the process of bubble formation, the coalescence and the breakup of bubbles. Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation. (author)

  19. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-06-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer.

  20. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  1. Contact angles of liquid metals on quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetting with μm-sized Pb droplets on thin polycrystalline films of decagonal Al13Co4 is reported. The films were prepared under high vacuum conditions in order to have Pb droplets lying on a clean surface. The method used is sequential deposition and annealing of specific stackings of Al and Co layers of nanometric thicknesses. A 300 nm thick Pb slab was then deposited on top of the films and dewetting experiments were followed in situ in a scanning Auger microprobe. The contact angle between the Pb droplet and the surface of the film is measured to be 49 deg. ± 7 deg. Further investigation performed by cross section transmission electron microscopy allows us to better characterize the interface. Taking into account the rugosity of the film, it is concluded that there is partial wetting of the film, which corresponds to a smaller contact angle. The comparison with other results obtained either with pure metals or with a cubic AlCo compound leads to the conclusion that the wetting behaviour of Pb on the surface of a decagonal compound is close to that of a metal with a high melting point and not significantly different from that of a crystalline compound with a small unit cell

  2. Self-Running Liquid Metal Drops that Delaminate Metal Films at Record Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed; Sundaresan, Rishi; Dickey, Michael D

    2015-10-21

    This paper describes a new method to spontaneously accelerate droplets of liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) to extremely fast velocities through a liquid medium and along predefined metallic paths. The droplet wets a thin metal trace (a film ∼100 nm thick, ∼ 1 mm wide) and generates a force that simultaneously delaminates the trace from the substrate (enhanced by spontaneous electrochemical reactions) while accelerating the droplet along the trace. The formation of a surface oxide on EGaIn prevents it from moving, but the use of an acidic medium or application of a reducing bias to the trace continuously removes the oxide skin to enable motion. The trace ultimately provides a sacrificial pathway for the metal and provides a mm-scale mimic to the templates used to guide molecular motors found in biology (e.g., actin filaments). The liquid metal can accelerate along linear, curved and U-shaped traces as well as uphill on surfaces inclined by 30 degrees. The droplets can accelerate through a viscous medium up to 180 mm/sec which is almost double the highest reported speed for self-running liquid metal droplets. The actuation of microscale objects found in nature (e.g., cells, microorganisms) inspires new mechanisms, such as these, to manipulate small objects. Droplets that are metallic may find additional applications in reconfigurable circuits, optics, heat transfer elements, and transient electronic circuits; the paper demonstrates the latter. PMID:26423030

  3. The Bonding Forces In Liquid Metals And Ultrasonic Field Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of the liquid metals properties is still imperfect. Assuming that the liquids are isotropic and show some elasticity properties, there are no physical reasons for rejecting the applicability of the fundamental ideas of the Debye theory to the description of the properties of liquid state. The approach is intended to relate the temperature Debye to the intensity of bonding forces between neighboring atoms and, in turn, to correlate this with the high power ultrasonic field action.In order to highlight the effect of the ultrasonic wave on the Debye temperature values, the experiments were carried out under similar conditions both with and without sonication. The relationship between the Debye temperature for both liquid and solid state is ΘDsolid / ΘDliquid = 0.85

  4. Corrosion behavior of surface treated steel in liquid sodium negative electrode of liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghyeon; Shin, Sang Hun; Lee, Jung Ki; Choi, Sungyeol; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-03-01

    While liquid metal batteries are attractive options for grid-scale energy storage applications as they have flexible siting capacities and small footprints, the compatibility between structural materials such as current collectors and negative electrode such as sodium is one of major issues for liquid metal batteries. Non-metallic elements such as carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen in the liquid sodium influence the material behaviors of the cell construction materials in the battery system. In this study, the compatibility of structural materials with sodium is investigated in high temperature liquid sodium, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to monitor in-situ the corrosion behavior at the surface of materials in sodium. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coatings of SiC and Si3N4 are applied as protective barriers against dissolution and corrosion on the steel surface. The results show that CVD coating of Si compounds can delay corrosion of steel in high temperature liquid sodium comparing to the result of as-received specimens, while SiC coating is more durable than Si3N4 coating in high temperature liquid sodium.

  5. Mechanical behaviour of the T91 martensitic steel under monotonic and cyclic loadings in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the mechanical properties in liquid metals of the T91 martensitic steel, a candidate material for the window of an accelerating driven system (ADS). Two main questions are examined, the risk of liquid metal embrittlement and the accelerated fatigue damage by a liquid metal. It is found that the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour induced by a liquid metal is possible as a result of a decrease in surface energy caused by the adsorbed liquid metal. The embrittlement can occur only with a hard microstructure and a nucleation of very sharp defects inside the liquid metal. Under cycling straining, the fatigue resistance of the standard T91 steel is decreased by a factor of about 2 in the liquid metal as compared to air. It is proposed that short crack growth is promoted by the liquid metal which weakens the microstructural grain boundary barriers and skip the microcrack coalescence stage

  6. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  7. Melting and liquid structure of polyvalent metal halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review is given of recent progress in determining and understanding liquid structure types and melting mechanisms for halides of polyvalent metals. The nature of the preferred local coordination for the polyvalent metal ion in the melt can usually be ascertained from data on liquid mixtures with halogen-donating alkali halides. The stability of these local coordination states and the connectivity that arises between them in the approach to the pure melt determines the character of its short-range and possible medium-range order. A broad classification of structural and melting behaviours can be given on the basis of measured melting parameters and transport coefficients for many compounds, in combination with the available diffraction data on the liquid structure of several compounds. Correlations have been shown to exist with a simple indicator of the nature of the chemical bond and also with appropriate parameters of ionic models, wherever the latter are usefully applicable for semiquantitative calculations of liquid structure. Consequences on the mechanisms for valence electron localization in solutions of metallic elements into strongly structured molten salts are also briefly discussed. (author). 46 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl-, NO3-, C2O42-) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu2+, Zn2+, UO22+, Fe3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Th4+) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author)

  9. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  10. IWGFR specialists' meeting on properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains 16 abstracts to the following topics: 1. Creep-rupture behaviour of structural materials in liquid metal environment; 2. Behaviour of materials in liquid metal environments under off-normal conditions; 3. Fatigue and creep-fatigue of structural materials in liquid environment and 4. Crack propagation in liquid sodium. (MM)

  11. Task-specific ionic liquid for solubilizing metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Pittois, Stijn; Thoen, Jan; Glorieux, Christ; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Kirchner, Barbara; Binnemans, Koen

    2006-01-01

    Protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide is an ionic liquid with the ability to dissolve large quantities of metal oxides. This metal-solubilizing power is selective. Soluble are oxides of the trivalent rare earths, uranium(VI) oxide, zinc(II) oxide, cadmium(II) oxide, mercury(II) oxide, nickel( II) oxide, copper(II) oxide, palladium(II) oxide, lead(II) oxide, manganese(II) oxide, and silver(I) oxide. Insoluble or very poorly soluble are iron(III), manganese(IV), and cobalt oxide...

  12. Metallic fuels: The EBR-II legacy and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Porter; Steven L. Hayes; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-09-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) metallic fuel was qualified for high burnup to approximately 10 atomic per cent. Subsequently, the electrometallurgical treatment of this fuel was demonstrated. Advanced metallic fuels are now investigated for increased performance, including ultra-high burnup and actinide burning. Advances include additives to mitigate the fuel/cladding chemical interaction and uranium alloys that combine Mo, Ti and Zr to improve alloy performance. The impacts of the advances—on fabrication, waste streams, electrorefining, etc.—are found to be minimal and beneficial. Owing to extensive research literature and computational methods, only a modest effort is required to complete their development.

  13. Advanced metal-membrane technology-commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    The gasification of coal offers a potentially significant source of hydrogen for use in clean power generation and as a primary chemical feedstock. However, hydrogen derived from coal continues to be more expensive than hydrogen derived from natural gas or petroleum, due in large part to the expense of separating hydrogen from the mixture of gases produced during gasification. At Bend Research, we have been developing a novel hydrogen-permeable metal membrane that promises to be economical for hydrogen separation and purification, including the purification of hydrogen derived from gasifying coal. Furthermore, the membrane is ideally suited for use at high temperatures (200{degrees} to 500{degrees}C), making it feasible to produce pure hydrogen directly from hot gas streams. Through a partnership with Teledyne Wah Chang, we are proceeding with scale-up of prototype membrane modules and field tests to demonstrate the technology to potential users. Additionally, we are working with potential customers to estimate capital savings and operating costs for integrated systems. In this paper, we present some of the operating characteristics of the metal membrane, including its use to drive equilibrium-limited reactions toward complete conversion (e.g., the water-gas-shift reaction). We also describe our activities for commercializing this technology for a variety of applications.

  14. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, N.; Pasturel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to “real” liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy. PMID:26862002

  15. Excess Entropy Scaling Law for Diffusivity in Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, N; Pasturel, A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dynamic properties depend on the structure and thermodynamics in liquids is a long-standing open problem in condensed matter physics. A very simple approach is based on the Dzugutov contribution developed on model fluids in which a universal (i.e. species-independent) connection relates the pair excess entropy of a liquid to its reduced diffusion coefficient. However its application to "real" liquids still remains uncertain due to the ability of a hard sphere (HS) reference fluid used in reducing parameters to describe complex interactions that occur in these liquids. Here we use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to calculate both structural and dynamic properties at different temperatures for a wide series of liquid metals including Al, Au, Cu, Li, Ni, Ta, Ti, Zn as well as liquid Si and B. From this analysis, we demonstrate that the Dzugutov scheme can be applied successfully if a self-consistent method to determine the packing fraction of the hard sphere reference fluid is used as well as the Carnahan-Starling approach to express the excess entropy. PMID:26862002

  16. Effect of Liquid Ga on Metal Surfaces: Characterization of Morphology and Chemical Composition of Metals Heated in Liquid Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the effect of liquid gallium (Ga) on metal foils made of titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and molybdenum (Mo). The Ti, Nb, and Mo foils were heated in liquid Ga at 120°C for a maximum of two weeks. After heating, the changes in the morphology and the chemical composition of the metal foils were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The results of the analysis indicated that the Nb foil showed the minimum adhesion of liquid Ga to the surface while the maximum amount of liquid Ga was observed to adhere to the Ti foil. In addition, the Nb foil was oxidized and the Mo foil was reduced during the heating process. Considering these effects, we conclude that Mo may be used as an alternative encapsulation material for Ga in addition to Nb, which is used as the conventional encapsulation material, due to its chemical resistance against oxidation in hot liquid Ga.

  17. Effect of Liquid Ga on Metal Surfaces: Characterization of Morphology and Chemical Composition of Metals Heated in Liquid Ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Je Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of liquid gallium (Ga on metal foils made of titanium (Ti, niobium (Nb, and molybdenum (Mo. The Ti, Nb, and Mo foils were heated in liquid Ga at 120°C for a maximum of two weeks. After heating, the changes in the morphology and the chemical composition of the metal foils were analyzed by using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The results of the analysis indicated that the Nb foil showed the minimum adhesion of liquid Ga to the surface while the maximum amount of liquid Ga was observed to adhere to the Ti foil. In addition, the Nb foil was oxidized and the Mo foil was reduced during the heating process. Considering these effects, we conclude that Mo may be used as an alternative encapsulation material for Ga in addition to Nb, which is used as the conventional encapsulation material, due to its chemical resistance against oxidation in hot liquid Ga.

  18. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m3. (author)

  19. Experimental evidence for Tayler instability in a liquid metal column

    CERN Document Server

    Seilmayer, Martin; Gundrum, Thomas; Weier, Tom; Gerbeth, Gunter; Gellert, Marcus; Ruediger, Guenther

    2011-01-01

    In the current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability (TI) a sufficiently strong azimuthal magnetic field becomes unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. The TI has been discussed as a possible ingredient of the solar dynamo mechanism and a source of the helical structures in cosmic jets. It is also considered as a size limiting factor for liquid metal batteries. We report on a liquid metal TI experiment using a cylindrical column of the eutectic alloy GaInSn to which electrical currents of up to 8 kA are applied. We present results of external magnetic field measurements that indicate the occurrence of the TI in good agreement with numerical predictions. The interference of TI with the competing large scale convection, resulting from Joule heating, is also discussed.

  20. Liquid metal cooling issues for fusion and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metal application to nuclear power plants was initiated in a design of fast reactors with using sodium or lead bismuth eutectic, and developed into a sodium fast breeder reactor and lead bismuth fast reactor. In the development stage, Na and NaK were carefully compared and the former was chosen. In the nuclear fusion application, liquid metals of Li or LiPb will be used as a coolant and tritium breeder. A nuclear reactor requires two materials of moderator and coolant. Water or sodium satisfies double duty, leading to the oligopoly situation by LWR or Na-FBR. The success of these reactors depends on the selection of coolant material that works as a moderator. On an analogy of this history, fusion power plant should be integrated to employ a coolant that works as tritium breeder, such as Li or LiPb. Technology progresses in the system design are introduced, which will have synergy effect for fusion

  1. Liquid metal cooling issues for fusion and fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiike, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: horiike@nucl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Konishi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji City, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kondo, H.; Yamaguchi, A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Liquid metal application to nuclear power plants was initiated in a design of fast reactors with using sodium or lead bismuth eutectic, and developed into a sodium fast breeder reactor and lead bismuth fast reactor. In the development stage, Na and NaK were carefully compared and the former was chosen. In the nuclear fusion application, liquid metals of Li or LiPb will be used as a coolant and tritium breeder. A nuclear reactor requires two materials of moderator and coolant. Water or sodium satisfies double duty, leading to the oligopoly situation by LWR or Na-FBR. The success of these reactors depends on the selection of coolant material that works as a moderator. On an analogy of this history, fusion power plant should be integrated to employ a coolant that works as tritium breeder, such as Li or LiPb. Technology progresses in the system design are introduced, which will have synergy effect for fusion.

  2. Liquid metal coolants for space nuclear power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration is given to the results of investigations conducting in IPPE from the 1950s on the technology and heat transfer of liquid metal coolants (lithium and sodium-potassium eutectic alloy) of space nuclear power plants (SNPP). The advantage of lithium coolant is its low density, splendid heat-transfer properties, high boiling point, low saturated vapor pressure, low activation when passing through reactor core, etc. Its disadvantage is high melting point and the higher corrosion activity than sodium-potassium alloy one. Prospects of lithium coolant use in developing current powerful SNPP are shown. Reliable operation of liquid metal part (with sodium-potassium coolant) of SNPP of low power and limited life at satellites launching in the USSR in 1970-80s is pointed out

  3. Harvesting human kinematical energy based on liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible human energy harvesting generator - Liquid Metal Magnetohydrodynamics Generator (LMMG) is proposed and fabricated. Conceptual experiments were performed to investigate this electricity harvesting principle. Theoretical analysis predicts that the present method is promising at converting otherwise wasted human kinematical energy via a directional selective generation paradigm. In vitro experiment demonstrates output of 1.4 V/3.61 μW by 5.68 g Ga62In25Sn13 liquid metal with a rather high efficiency of more than 45%. The in vivo experiment actuated by a wrist swing during brisk walking with the plastic valve to rectify the flow, verified the potentiality of unidirectional actuation. This concept based on the flexible movement of LMMG is robust to supply electricity which would be important for future wearable micro/nano devices as a voltage constrained charge provider

  4. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-08-27

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field.

  5. Surface oxidability of pure liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the oxygen-liquid metal interaction is a topic of particular technological interest. A deep knowledge of the kinetics and transport mechanisms involved in the oxidation phenomena is necessary: the effect of oxidation reactions taking place in the gas phase and the evaporation of oxides must be considered. This paper aims to review our works in order to provide a systematic analysis of the oxidation of pure metals and determine the most likely to keeping oxygen-free the surface in a binary alloy. In addition, the upgrading of this theoretical approach, here briefly described, is addressed to give a contribution to a better understanding of the evolution of oxidation phenomena close to the solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  6. Surface oxidability of pure liquid metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arato, E.; Bernardi, M.; Giuranno, D.; Ricci, E.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the oxygen-liquid metal interaction is a topic of particular technological interest. A deep knowledge of the kinetics and transport mechanisms involved in the oxidation phenomena is necessary: the effect of oxidation reactions taking place in the gas phase and the evaporation of oxides must be considered. This paper aims to review our works in order to provide a systematic analysis of the oxidation of pure metals and determine the most likely to keeping oxygen-free the surface in a binary alloy. In addition, the upgrading of this theoretical approach, here briefly described, is addressed to give a contribution to a better understanding of the evolution of oxidation phenomena close to the solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  7. Surface oxidability of pure liquid metals and alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arato, E., E-mail: Elisabetta.Arato@dicat.unige.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15 - 16145 Genoa (Italy); Institute for Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini, 6 - 16149 Genoa (Italy); Bernardi, M. [Paul Wurth Italia, via di Francia,1 - 16149 Genoa (Italy); Giuranno, D.; Ricci, E. [Institute for Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini, 6 - 16149 Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    The analysis of the oxygen-liquid metal interaction is a topic of particular technological interest. A deep knowledge of the kinetics and transport mechanisms involved in the oxidation phenomena is necessary: the effect of oxidation reactions taking place in the gas phase and the evaporation of oxides must be considered. This paper aims to review our works in order to provide a systematic analysis of the oxidation of pure metals and determine the most likely to keeping oxygen-free the surface in a binary alloy. In addition, the upgrading of this theoretical approach, here briefly described, is addressed to give a contribution to a better understanding of the evolution of oxidation phenomena close to the solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  8. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  9. Interpretation of X-ray diffraction from liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that, near freezing, the peaks in the liquid structure factors of Na and K reflect the ordering of a body-centred cubic lattice. Therefore, we have considered the modifications introduced into the electron distribution of a body-centred cubic, nearly-free electron, metal by destruction of the long-range order. Use of the Wannier representation, as has been pointed out by Matthai et al. leads naturally in a metal to bond charges at the centres of near-neighbour, next-near neighbour, etc. bonds. Because of the absence of long-range order in the nuclei of liquid Na and K, it is argued that only near-neighbour and perhaps next-near neighbour bond charges remain meaningful. Thus, whereas in crystalline Na and K, the totality of the bond charge distributions, including however many longer and longer bonds, adds up to an almost constant electron density of the valence electrons, in the liquid the local angularity of the electron density is significant. We find then that a model which can explain the observed reflections, which are characteristic of a face-centred-cubic lattice, can be built up by: (a) using local sp3 type bonding charges, with Pauling resonance invoked between occupied and unoccupied bonds; (b) assuming, once local electron co-ordination characteristic of such bonds is formed, Wigner-type lattice ordering can propagate the face-centred lattice over distances of 30 to 40 A. The differences to be expected between nearly-free electron metals and tight-binding metals in the liquid state are finally stressed. (author)

  10. Forced convection along a wall. Liquid metals application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the experimental results in pipes, heated with constant wall heat flux, the dynamical and thermal structure of the wall region of a turbulent flow is studied. We can show that, for high values of Reynolds and Peclet numbers, logarithmic profiles of velocity and temperature exist. A continuous description of the wall is obtained with the use of simple modelisation. The study of the thermal wall region structure is then made in the case of a liquid metal flow

  11. Heat capacities of liquid metals above 1500 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margrave, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Heat capacity data are presented for liquid transition metals for temperatures close to the melting point and for 3000, 4000, and 5000 K. The data have been obtained by summarizing the results of levitation, exploding-wire, and drop-calorimetry measurements reported in the literature and by providing analytical estimates where experimental data are not available. The data given here are useful in assigning heat loads and predicting structure survival during extreme temperature excursions caused by nuclear, laser, or particle irradiations.

  12. Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun: Insight Relative to Coronal Holes, Sunspots, and Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While mankind will always remain unable to sample the interior of the Sun, the presence of sunspots and coronal holes can provide clues as to its subsurface structure. Insight relative to the solar body can also be gained by recognizing that the Sun must exist in the condensed state and support a discrete lattice structure, as required for the production of its continuous spectrum. In this regard, the layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice advanced as a condensed model of the Sun (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, 35–47; Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, in press provides the ability to add structure to the solar interior. This constitutes a significant advantage over the gaseous solar models. In fact, a layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice and the associated intercalation of non-hydrogen elements can help to account for the position of sunspots and coronal holes. At the same time, this model provides a greater understanding of the mechanisms which drive solar winds and activity.

  13. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja; Jirsa, Franz; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-08-15

    This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1-24h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1M CaCl2) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P66614][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P66614][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P66614][BTB] exclusively. PMID:27131456

  14. High-temperature liquid--metal MHD generator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed data were obtained for the world's first high-temperature two-phase liquid--metal MHD generator under open-circuit conditions. Both single-phase (sodium) and two-phase (sodium and nitrogen) flows were used in the temperture range of approx. 490 to approx. 7400K. The data presented includes pressures, voltages, and slip ratios (ratio of gas velocity to liquid velocity). The two-phase pressure--gradient data were predicted well by a simplified two-phase MHD correlation that includes the effect of a pure-liquid shunt layer between the electrodes. The slip ratio is shown to decrease with increasing temperature, implying higher generator and system efficiencies; this anticipated result was a prime reason for performing these experiments

  15. Experiments for liquid metal embrittlement of fusion reactor materials by liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid metal embrittlement behaviour of two martensitic-ferritic steels [X22CrMoV121 (Nr. 1.4923) and X18CrMoVNb 121 (Nr. 1,4914)] and one austenite chromium-nickel-steel X5CrNi189 (Nr. 1.4301) was investigated. Tensile tests in liquid lithium at 200 and 2500C with two different strain rates on precorroded samples (1000 h at 5500C in lithium) were carried out. Reference values were gained from tensile tests in air (RT, 2500C). It is concluded that there is sufficient compatibility of the austenitic steel with liquid lithium. The use of the ferritic-martensitic steels in liquid lithium on the other hand, especially at temperatures of about 5500C, seems to be problematic. The experimental results led to a better understanding of LME, applying the theory of this material failure. (orig./IHOE)

  16. Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Qing Zhang; Chun-Fang Tang; Shi-Zhi Wen; Yun-Guo Liu; Ke-Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.

  17. The state of art for the buckling analysis of liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the initial stage of the buckling analysis application for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor), the domestic design code of buckling analysis has not yet been provided for KALIMER. It was necessary to review the buckling design codes of the reactor and containment vessels in foreign advanced countries in order to establish the buckling design criteria and evaluate the buckling of KALIMER. In this report, the buckling design codes of the advanced nations such as France, Japan and USA are studied. In France, buckling design rules is RCC-MR RB 3113, 3270 and appendix 7 which describe the classification of analysis methods and procedures. In Japan, seismic buckling design guideline was provided in 1995 and is being supplemented, which is based on the experimental results and provides the simplified equation. In USA, buckling and instability design code is ASME section III division 1 subsection NH and code case N284-1. (author)

  18. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, B. J.; Christiansen, N.; Schauperl, R.; Prenninger, P.; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Klemensø, Trine; Ramousse, Severine; Kromp, A.; Weber, A.

    2013-01-01

    The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells (M...... tolerance to thermal cycles and load cycles. These and other key outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation.......The EU‐sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements toward implementing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC. Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Energy Conversion's research into planar metal supported cells...... (MSCs) has produced an advanced cell design with high performance and mechanical robustness. At low operation temperatures (650 °C), these cells have shown low Area‐specific resistances (ASRs): 0.35 Ω cm2 in cell tests (16 cm2 active area) and under 0.3 Ω cm2 in button cells (0.5 cm2 active area...

  19. Liquid-metal-gas heat exchanger for HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a liquid metal heat exchanger (HE) for a helium-cooled high temperature reactor. A tube-type heat exchanger is considered as well as two direct exchangers: a bubble-type heat exchanger and a heat exchanger according to the spray principle. Experiments are made in order to determine the gas content of bubble-type heat exchangers, the dependence of the droplet diameter on the nozzle diameter, the falling speed of the droplets, the velocity of the liquid jet, and the temperature variation of liquid jets. The computer codes developed for HE calculation are structured so that they may be used for gas/liquid HE, too. Each type of HE that is dealt with is designed by accousting for a technical and an economic assessment. The liquid-lead jet spray is preferred to all other types because of its small space occupied and its simple design. It shall be used in near future in the HTR by the name of lead/helium HE. (GL)

  20. Qualification measurement techniques for flow quantities in heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the transmutation of radioactive waste. Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are under investigation in European research projects. One of the explored concepts utilizes the heavy liquid metals (HLM) lead or lead-bismuth as coolant for such a system. The thermohydraulic design as well as the future operation demands measurement techniques to acquire relevant flow quantities within HLM flows. Because of the differences of HLM compared to sodium regarding the physical and chemical properties, the knowledge from the previously developed technology can not generally be transferred. Thus, a systematic investigation of different physical principles for the measurement of flow rate and local velocity fields were performed in the Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory (KALLA) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Volumetric, magnetic inductive and ultrasound transit time methods for the flow rate measurement, a differential pressure pitot probe and the ultrasound doppler velocimetry (UDV) for local velocity measurements were investigated in a fully developed turbulent lead-bismuth pipe flow. During the application of the flow rate measurement techniques in liquid lead-bismuth primarily technological problems were solved, whereas for the measurement of the local velocity field a considerable progress was achieved especially related to the attainable resolution in position and time compared to available liquid metal measurement techniques. Particularly, the ultrasound doppler velocimetry allowed to measure velocities in the viscous sublayer of the turbulent boundary layer as well as the determination of statistical quantities of the turbulent there. The main result of this report is the availability of qualified measurement techniques for heavy liquid metal operated loop systems. (orig.)

  1. Advances in Metal Supported Cells in the METSOFC EU Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Brandon J.; Christiansen, Niels; Schauperl, Richard;

    2012-01-01

    metal supported cells (MSCs) having low ASR at low temperature, incorporation into small stacks of powers approaching ½kW, and stack tolerance to various operation cycles. DTU Energy Conversion's (formerly Risø DTU) research into planar MSCs has produced an advanced cell design with high performance......Employing a mechanically robust metal support as the structural element in SOFC has been the objective of various development efforts. The EU-sponsored project “METSOFC”, completed at the end of 2011, resulted in a number of advancements towards implementing this strategy. These include robust...... outcomes of the METSOFC consortium are covered, along with associated work supported by the Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation....

  2. Dynamic neutron computer tomography technique for velocity measurement in liquid metal flow - Fundamental PTV experiment -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this development is to visualize and measure the velocity distribution in liquid metal flow using the neutron beam with the high-speed imaging technique, computer tomography (CT) technique and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Final research purpose is to obtain the velocity distribution and flow profile data of liquid metal flow in a heated rod bundle for development of the advanced fast breeder reactor (FBR) core. In this paper, visualization and measurement method using the high intensity and large size neutron beam port of the research reactor JRR-4, design and manufacturing of the experimental apparatus, spring model PTV method for this technique and results of the fundamental PTV experiment were reported. The test section for the fundamental experiment was a revolving aluminum column with cadmium tracers which simulated the liquid metal flow. As the result, cadmium tracers buried in the column with the speed of 1.5 revolving per second could be visualized as the 3D movie under 125Hz and 250Hz sampling conditions, the profile of the tracer could be traced, and fundamental velocity distribution measurement method could be conformed.

  3. Freezing of liquid alkali metals as screened ionic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Wigner crystallization of the classical ionic plasma and the liquid-solid transition of alkali metals is examined within the density wave theory of freezing. Freezing of the classical plasma on a rigid neutralizing background into the bcc structure is first re-evaluated, in view of recent progress in the determination of its thermodynamic functions by simulation and of the known difficulties of the theory relating to the order parameter at the (200) star of reciprocal lattice vectors. Freezing into the fcc structure is also considered in this context and found to be unfavoured. On allowing for long-wavelength deformability of the background, the ensuing appearance of a volume change on freezing into the bcc structure is accompanied by reduced stability of the fluid phase and by an increase in the entropy of melting. Freezing of alkali metals into the bcc structure is next evaluated, taking their ionic pair structure as that of an ionic plasma reference fluid screened by conduction electrons and asking that the correct ionic coupling strength at liquid-solid coexistence should be approximately reproduced. The ensuring values of the volume and entropy changes across the phase transition, as estimated from the theory by two alternative routes, are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The order parameters of the phase transition, excepting the (200) one, conform rather closely to a Gaussian behaviour and yield a Lindemann ratio in reasonable agreement with the empirical value for melting of bcc crystals. It is suggested that ionic ordering at the (200) star in the metal may be (i) assisted by medium range ordering in the conduction electrons, as indicated by differences in X-ray and neutron diffraction intensities from the liquid, and/or (ii) quite small in the hot bcc solid. Such a possible premelting behaviour of bcc metals should be worth testing experimentally by diffraction. (author). 48 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies. (paper)

  5. Steam water cycle chemistry of liquid metal cooled innovative nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Target Program (FTP) of Russian Federation 'Nuclear Energy Technologies of the New Generation for 2010-2015 and for Perspective up to 2020' is aimed at development of advanced nuclear energy technologies on the basis of closed fuel cycle with fast reactors. There are advanced fast reactor technologies of the 4. generation with liquid metal cooled reactors. Development stages of maturity of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia includes experimental reactors BR-5/10 (1958-2002) and BOR-60 (since 1969), nuclear power plants (NPPs) with BN-350 (1972-1999), BN-600 (since 1980), BN-800 (under construction), BN-1200 (under development). Further stage of development of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia is commercialization. Lead-bismuth eutectic fast reactor technology has been proven at industrial scale for nuclear submarines in former Soviet Union. Lead based technology is currently under development and need for experimental justification. Current status and prospects of State Corporation 'Rosatom' participation in GIF activities was clarified at the 31. Meeting of Policy Group of the International Forum 'Generation-IV', Moscow, May 12-13, 2011. In June, 2010, 'Rosatom' joined the Sodium Fast Reactor Arrangement as an authorized representative of the Russian Government. It was also announced the intention of 'Rosatom' to sign the Memorandum on Lead Fast Reactor based on Russia's experience with lead-bismuth and lead cooled fast reactors. In accordance with the above FTP some innovative liquid metal cooled reactors of different design are under development in Russia. Gidropress, well known as WER designer, develops innovative lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactor SVBR-100. NIKIET develops innovative lead cooled reactor BRESTOD-300. Some other nuclear scientific centres are also involved in this activity, e.g. Research and Development Institute for Power Engineering (RDIPE). Optimum

  6. A New Concept for Advanced Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Oxide-supported metal catalysts, having always nano-sized structures in which the metal catalysts are prepared as highly dispersed nano-crystals (typically 1-20 nm) on support oxide particles that are often one to several orders of magnitude larger than the metal nano-particles, are an important class of heterogeneous metal catalysts that finds many applications in chemical/petrochemical industries, in environmental protection, in chemical sensors and in the manufacture of fine and special chemicals. It is believed that catalysis by supported metals is the oldest application of nanotechnology. The literature has been rich in nano-size effect of metal nanoparticles in the metal/oxide catalysts. However, it is until recently that the development of size-controlled synthesis of oxide nanoparticles has made it possible to study the nano-size effect of oxide-support particles. When the particle sizes of an oxide support are reduced to become comparable to the sizes of the active metal nanoparticles, the oxide could deviate dramatically from its function as a conventional support. Such metal/oxide catalysts consisting of comparably sized metal and oxide nanocrystals are better called metal/oxide nanocomposite catalysts or catalytic nanoarchitectures.In this presentation, several attempts with reducing the particle size of oxide supports (ZrO2, TiO2,MgO, Al2O3) to approach the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept will be discussed to emphasize the importance of the support size effect. Examples will be given on characteristics of nanocomposite Ni/oxide catalysts for the reforming of natural gas with CO2 and/or steam, and on Au/oxide catalysts for CO oxidation and hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. It will be emphasized that systematic investigations into the size effects of both the metal and oxide nanoparticles approaching the metal/oxide nanocomposite concept can lead to advanced heterogeneous metal catalysts.Moreover, intensive practice of the nanocomposite

  7. The Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Toxic Metals (Cd, Hg and Pb by Calixarenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Max Roundhill

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals (Cd, Hg and Pb are mostly present in the environment due to natural phenomenon and human activities as well. Exposure of these non-essential elements in the environment causes severe effects. They are known to cause problems in humans as well as in aquatic life. In this work, we demonstrate various studies regarding liquid-liquid extraction of selected ions with different functionalized calixarenes. This review article briefly discusses several molecular designs of calixarenes for divalent ion (Cd2+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ recognition; as well as the relationship between structure and selectivity of the macrocycles is elaborated. The article does not, however, attempt to cover all of the different approaches to these toxic metal ions extraction.

  8. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  9. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diameter (df) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  10. Effects of pulsed power input into a liquid metal target

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, L; Spitzer, H

    1999-01-01

    In order to validate the computations of stress generated in the target container by the sudden input of a large amount of power in the liquid metal of a high-power spallation target, first experimental investigations were carried out in an international collaboration. Temperature and beam profile measurements showed that up to 61% of the incoming beam power was deposited in the target. The spatial power distribution was reconstructed from the experimental data. A computational model with consideration of fluid-structure interface was employed to simulate the pressure waves in the liquid and the resulting dynamic stress on the container. The maximum stress on the container was found to be 13.6 MP. Although experimental data are still very preliminary, a comparison of the measured stress and deformation data with the computational results showed reasonable agreement in the amplitudes, which are the most important data for engineering design. Although the methods developed to measure the strain on the target su...

  11. Impinging jet separators for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    In many liquid metal MHD power, cycles, it is necessary to separate the phases of a high-speed liquid-gas flow. The usual method is to impinge the jet at a glancing angle against a solid surface. These surface separators achieve good separation of the two phases at a cost of a large velocity loss due to friction at the separator surface. This report deals with attempts to greatly reduce the friction loss by impinging two jets against each other. In the crude impinging jet separators tested to date, friction losses were greatly reduced, but the separation of the two phases was found to be much poorer than that achievable with surface separators. Analyses are presented which show many lines of attack (mainly changes in separator geometry) which should yield much better separation for impinging jet separators).

  12. Present status of liquid metal research for a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, Francisco L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of solid materials as targets of divertor plasmas in magnetic fusion research is accepted as the standard solution for the very challenging issue of power and particle handling in a fusion reactor, a generalized feeling that the present options chosen for ITER will not represent the best choice for a reactor is growing up. The problems found for tungsten, the present selection for the divertor target of ITER, in laboratory tests and in hot plasma fusion devices suggest so. Even in the absence of the strong neutron irradiation expected in a reactor, issues like surface melting, droplet ejection, surface cracking, dust generation, etc., call for alternative solutions in a long pulse, high efficient fusion energy-producing continuous machine. Fortunately enough, decades of research on plasma facing materials based on liquid metals (LMs) have produced a wealth of appealing ideas that could find practical application in the route to the realization of a commercial fusion power plant. The options presently available, although in a different degree of maturity, range from full coverage of the inner wall of the device with liquid metals, so that power and particle exhaust together with neutron shielding could be provided, to more conservative combinations of liquid metal films and conventional solid targets basically representing a sort of high performance, evaporative coating for the alleviation of the surface degradation issues found so far. In this work, an updated review of worldwide activities on LM research is presented, together with some open issues still remaining and some proposals based on simple physical considerations leading to the optimization of the most conservative alternatives.

  13. Flow stability of liquid metal flow under transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stability analysis of a viscous incompressible liquid metal flow in an annular linear induction electromagnetic pump for sodium coolant circulation of LMR (Liquid Metal Reactors ) is carried out when transverse magnetic fields permeate an electrically conducting sodium fluid across the narrow annular gap. Due to a negligible skin effect, the radial magnetic field is assumed to be constant over the narrow channel gap, and the steady state solution of an axial velocity is obtained as a function of radius r. Small perturbations for MHD fields in the form of f(r)ej(wt-k·r), where w is the angular frequency and k is the wave vector of perturbation, are considered and perturbed MHD equations are linearized. The solutions of the perturbed equations are sought in the form of linear combination of independent orthogonal functions {ψn(ζ)n=0∞} in the non-dimensional radial interval (0,1) and each orthogonal function is chosen to satisfy boundary conditions of adhesion at the solid walls of the channel. Under assumption that solutions of the equations are not oscillated rapidly according to radial coordinate r, finite numbers of orthogonal polynomials are considered. As a result, simultaneous equations with coefficients of steady-state solutions are arranged and dispersion relations between angular frequency and wave number of perturbed state are sought. The imaginary part of the angular frequency (wi) is taken into consideration from the condition of the existence of nontrivial solution of the system, which yields the relation between critical Reynolds number (Recr) and Hartmann number (Hα). In the present study, critical Reynolds number and Wave numbers are plotted on the Hartmann number for long wave perturbation, thus, it is shown that a magnetic field has a significant stabilizing effect on liquid metal flow. (author)

  14. Advanced nanoparticle generation and excitation by lasers in liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcikowski, Stephan; Compagnini, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    Today, nanoparticles are widely implemented as functional elements onto surfaces, into volumes and as nano-hybrids, resulting for example in bioactive composites and biomolecule conjugates. However, only limited varieties of materials compatible for integration into advanced functional materials are available: nanoparticles synthesized using conventional gas phase processes are often agglomerated into micro powders that are hard to re-disperse into functional matrices. Chemical synthesis methods often lead to impurities of the nanoparticle colloids caused by additives and precursor reaction products. In the last decade, laser ablation and nanoparticle generation in liquids has proven to be a unique and efficient technique to generate, excite, fragment, and conjugate a large variety of nanostructures in a scalable and clean manner. This editorial briefly highlights selected recent advancements and critical aspects in the field of pulsed laser-based nanoparticle generation and manipulation, including exemplary strategies to harvest the unique properties of the laser-generated nanomaterials in the field of biomedicine and catalysis. The presented critical aspects address future assignments such as size control and scale-up. PMID:23138867

  15. The stress analysis of a heavy liquid metal pump impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X. D.; Li, X. L.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Li, C. J.; Gao, S.

    2016-05-01

    Lead-based coolant reactor is a promising Generation-IV reactor. In the lead-based coolant reactor, the coolant is liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. The main pump in the reactor is a very important device. It supplies force for the coolant circulation. The liquid metal has a very large density which is about ten times of the water. Also, the viscosity of the coolant is small which is about one sixth of the water. When the pump transports heavy liquid, the blade loading is heavy. The large force can cause the failure of the blade when the fatigue stress exceeds the allowable stress. The impeller fraction is a very serious accident which is strictly prohibited in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, the numerical method is used to simulate the flow field of a heavy liquid metal pump. The SST k-w turbulent model is used in the calculation to get a more precise flow structure. The hydraulic force is obtained with the one way fluid solid coupling. The maximum stress in the impeller is analyzed. The stress in the liquid metal pump is compared with that in the water pump. The calculation results show that the maximum stress of the impeller blade increases with increase of flow rate. In the design of the impeller blade thickness, the impeller strength in large operating condition should be considered. The maximum stress of the impeller blade located in the middle and near the hub of the leading edge. In this position, the blade is easy to fracture. The maximum deformation of the impeller firstly increase with increase of flow rate and then decrease with increase of flow rate. The maximum deformation exists in the middle of the leading edge when in small flow rate and in the out radius of the impeller when in large flow rate. Comparing the stress of the impeller when transporting water and LBE, the maximum stress is almost one-tenth of that in the LBE impeller which is the same ratio of the density. The static stress in different medium is proportional to the pressure

  16. Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented

  17. Under sodium viewing technique for liquid metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Seok Hun; Lee, Jae Han

    2003-08-01

    LMR reactor core and internal structures submerged in sodium could not be visually examined due to the opaque liquid metal sodium. The under sodium viewing technique using ultrasonic wave should be developed and applied for the identification of fuel assembly location, the detection of core deformation due to fast neutron irradiation and the in-service inspection of reactor internals. The under sodium viewing technique has a limitation for the application of LMR due to the high temperature and irradiation environment. In this report, the status of development of under sodium viewing technique and high temperature ultrasonic sensor has been investigated and summarized.

  18. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  19. Design guide for category IV reactors: liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of liquid metal cooled fast reactor (Category IV reactor) structures, components, and systems

  20. Solid-liquid solvent extraction of metal ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Peng; Haiyan Fan; Jinzhang Gao

    2003-01-01

    An overview of extraction of some trace metal ions using molten solvent (low melting substance) during last two decadesis presented. The development of this technique since its inception is briefly traced. The comparison of extraction efficiency, thermo-dynamics and kinetics mainly involving extraction of rare earth ions between molten solvent extraction at high temperature and usualliquid-liquid extraction at room temperature are discussed in detail. The various parameters obtained from the previous and presentstudies such as equilibrium extraction constant Kex, pH1/2, thermodynamic and kinetic data are displayed in tabular form. Finally, thecurrent demands, disadvantages and future prospects are also evaluated.

  1. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor construction of the pool kind in which the primary vessel incorporates an annular yoke fabricated from arcuate segments. The yoke is suspended from the roof structure of the vault by a first annular series of tie straps arranged outside the primary vessel whilst a strongback on which the fuel assembly sits inside the primary vessel is supported from the yoke by a second series of tie straps. The yoke has upwardly and downwardly extending legs which are extended by upper and lower strakes respectively of the primary vessel. (U.K.)

  2. Blanket management method for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for reducing thermal striping in liquid metal fast breeder reactors by reducing temperature gradients between adjacent fuel and blanket assemblies by shuffling blanket assemblies at each refueling outage so as to progressively shuffle the blanket assemblies to the core periphery through multiple moves and to generally locate fresh blanket assemblies adjacent to exposed fuel assemblies and exposed blanket assemblies adjacent to fresh fuel. Additionally, assembly orificing is altered to provide less flow to blanket assemblies needing less flow due to an otherwise decreased temperature gradient and providing additional flow to fuel assemblies which need more flow to sufficiently reduce temperature gradients to prevent thermal striping. (author)

  3. Compensation effect for impurity solubility in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data of different authors on impurity solubility in lead are analyzed. It is shown that the slope of compensatory dependences for Pb-Me (Me - Al, Cu, Co, Mn, Ge, U) systems is near in absolute magnitude to the melting points of corresponding impurity. The physical interpretation of compensation effect for impurity solubility in liquid metals is suggested, it is that the slope of compensatory dependence is determined by physical properties of the phase under saturation (stratification), and its shift by impurity activity coefficient in the solution

  4. Beam dynamics of a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RMS emittance growth of liquid metal ion sources is studied. Processes included are nonlinear expansion through extractor and accelerator fringe fields, nonlinear beam space charge, plasma effects near needle, and waves (either ion-acoustic or space charge limited as considered by V.I. Dudnikov). This investigation consists of 2-D analysis of appropriate Vlasov-Poisson equations in both steady-state and time-dependent formulations. Various geometries will be considered such as some used by G. Alton of ORNL. 2 refs., 7 figs

  5. Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm≈34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the rings Ri/Ro≈0.36 and the spiral pitch angle 54.7°. In a setup of two copper rings with the thickness of 3 cm, Ri=10 cm and Ro=30 cm, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at a critical rotation frequency around 10 Hz

  6. The novel metallic states of the cuprates: topological Fermi liquids and strange metals

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdev, Subir

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a talk by S.S. at the Nambu Memorial Symposium at the University of Chicago. We review ideas on the nature of the metallic states of the hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors, with an emphasis on the connections between the Luttinger theorem for the size of the Fermi surface, topological quantum field theories (TQFTs), and critical theories involving changes in the size of the Fermi surface. We begin with the derivation of the Luttinger theorem for a Fermi liquid, using momentum balance during a process of flux-insertion in a lattice electronic model with toroidal boundary conditions. We then review the TQFT of the Z2 spin liquid, and demonstrate its compatibility with the toroidal momentum balance argument. This discussion leads naturally to a simple construction of `topological' Fermi liquid states: the fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*) and the algebraic charge liquid (ACL). We present arguments for a description of the pseudogap metal of the cuprates using Z2-FL* or Z...

  7. PREFACE: 13th International Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy; Son, Leonid; Sabirzjanov, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    The state of the art in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys is regularly updated through two series of complementary international conferences, the LAM (Liquid and Amorphous Metals) and the RQ (Rapidly Quenched Materials). The first series of the conferences started as LM-1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semi conductors, quasicrystals etc, were accepted as well. The conference tradition strongly encourages the participation of junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU) and held on 8-13 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). There were 242 active and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries who attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale (25 min) and brief (15 min) oral reports. The program included 10 sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A) Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B) Phase transitions; C) Structure; D) Atomic dynamics and transport; E) Thermodynamics; F) Modelling, simulation; G) Surface and interface; H) Mechanical properties

  8. Metal ion adsorption at the ionic liquid-mica interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Samila; Elbourne, Aaron; Warr, Gregory G; Atkin, Rob

    2016-01-14

    Mica has been employed in many studies of ionic liquid (IL) interfaces on account of its atomic smoothness and well defined surface properties. However, until now it has been unclear whether ions dissolved in ILs can compete with the IL cation and adsorb to mica charge sites. In this work amplitude modulated atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has been used to probe metal ion adsorption at the interface of mica with propylammonium nitrate (PAN), a room temperature IL. Lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium nitrate salts were added to PAN at a concentration of ∼60 mM. Aluminum nitrate was also investigated, but only at 5 mM because its solubility in PAN is much lower. The AM-AFM images obtained when the metal ions were present are strikingly different to that of pure PAN, indicating that the ions compete effectively with the propylammonium cation and adsorb to negatively charged sites on the mica surface despite their much lower concentration. This is a consequence of electrostatic attractions between the mica charge sites and the metal ions being significantly stronger than for the propylammonium cation; compared to the metal ions the propylammonium charged group is relatively constrained sterically. A distinct honeycomb pattern is noted for the PAN + Al(3+) system, less obviously for the divalent ions and not at all for monovalent ions. This difference is attributed to the strength of electrostatic interactions between metal ions and mica charge sites increasing with the ion charge, which means that divalent and (particularly) trivalent ions are located more precisely above the charged sites of the mica lattice. The images obtained allow important distinctions between metal ion adsorption at mica-water and mica-PAN interfaces to be made. PMID:26661934

  9. A MODEL FOR THE CALCULATION OF SURFACE ENERGY AND SURFACE TENSION OF LIQUID METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Amokrane, S.; Badiali, J.; Rosinberg, M.; Goodisman, J.

    1980-01-01

    Surface energy and surface tension of liquid metals are calculated by applying to liquid surface a simple appropriate form of the Lang and Kohn's approach. Resulting values are in reasonable agreement with experiments.

  10. Structural properties of low-density liquid alkali metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Akande; G A Adebayo; O Akinlade

    2005-12-01

    The static structure factors of liquid alkali metals have been modelled at temperatures close to their melting points and a few higher temperatures using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. The positions of 5000 atoms in a box, with full periodicity, were altered until the experimental diffraction data of the structure factor agrees with the associated model structure factor within the errors. The model generated is then analysed. The position of the first peak of the pair distribution function () does not show any significant temperature dependence and the mean bond lengths can be approximated within an interval of 3.6–5.3 Å, 4.5–6.6 Å, 4.8–6.7 Å and 5.1–7.3 Å for Na, K, Rb and Cs respectively. The cosine bond distributions show similar trend with the flattening up of the first peak with increase in temperature. In addition, the coordination numbers of these liquid metals are high due to the presence of non-covalent bonding between them. On the average, we surmise that the coordination number decreases with increase in temperature.

  11. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Liquid metal-to-gas leak-detection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is desirable for liquid-metal-cooled reactors that small liquid metal-to-gas leaks be reliably detected. Testing has been performed on a number of detection systems to evaluate their sensitivity, response time, and performance characteristics. This testing has been scheduled in three phases. The first phase was aimed at screening out the least suitable detectors and optimizing the performance of the most promising. In the second phase, candidates were tested in a 1500 ft3 walk-in type enclosure in which leaks were simulated on 24-in. and 3-in. piping. In the third phase of testing, selected type detectors were tested in the 1500-ft3 enclosure with Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) pipe insulation configurations and detector tubing configuration with cell gas recirculation simulated. Endurance testing of detection equipment was also performed as part of this effort. Test results have been shown that aerosol-type detectors will reliably detect leaks as small as a few grams per hour when sampling pipe insulation annuli

  13. Resistive sensor and electromagnetic actuator for feedback stabilization of liquid metal walls in fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhoseini, S H M

    2016-01-01

    Liquid metal walls in fusion reactors will be subject to instabilities, turbulence, induced currents, error fields and temperature gradients that will make them locally bulge, thus entering in contact with the plasma, or deplete, hence exposing the underlying solid substrate. To prevent this, research has begun to actively stabilize static or flowing liquid metal layers by locally applying forces in feedback with thickness measurements. Here we present resistive sensors of liquid metal thickness and demonstrate jxB actuators, to locally control it.

  14. Metal hydride hydrogen compression: recent advances and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Mykhaylo; Linkov, Vladimir; Grant, David; Stuart, Alastair; Eriksen, Jon; Denys, Roman; Bowman, Robert C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is one of the more important applications of the MHs. The present paper reviews recent advances in the field based on the analysis of the fundamental principles of this technology. The performances when boosting hydrogen pressure, along with two- and three-step compression units, are analyzed. The paper includes also a theoretical modelling of a two-stage compressor aimed at describing the performance of the experimentally studied systems, their optimization and design of more advanced MH compressors. Business developments in the field are reviewed for the Norwegian company HYSTORSYS AS and the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry. Finally, future prospects are outlined presenting the role of the MH compression in the overall development of the hydrogen-driven energy systems. The work is based on the analysis of the development of the technology in Europe, USA and South Africa.

  15. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; Festersen, S; Magnussen, O M

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation. PMID:27301317

  16. The Atomic scale structure of liquid metal-electrolyte interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. M.; Festersen, S.; Magnussen, O. M.

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical interfaces between immiscible liquids have lately received renewed interest, both for gaining fundamental insight as well as for applications in nanomaterial synthesis. In this feature article we demonstrate that the atomic scale structure of these previously inaccessible interfaces nowadays can be explored by in situ synchrotron based X-ray scattering techniques. Exemplary studies of a prototypical electrochemical system - a liquid mercury electrode in pure NaCl solution - reveal that the liquid metal is terminated by a well-defined atomic layer. This layering decays on length scales of 0.5 nm into the Hg bulk and displays a potential and temperature dependent behaviour that can be explained by electrocapillary effects and contributions of the electronic charge distribution on the electrode. In similar studies of nanomaterial growth, performed for the electrochemical deposition of PbFBr, a complex nucleation and growth behaviour is found, involving a crystalline precursor layer prior to the 3D crystal growth. Operando X-ray scattering measurements provide detailed data on the processes of nanoscale film formation.

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute International Advanced Course on The Liquid State and Its Electrical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Christophorou, L; Luessen, L

    1988-01-01

    As the various disciplines of science advance, they proliferate and tend to become more esoteric. Barriers of specialized terminologies form, which cause scientists to lose contact with their colleagues, and differences in points-of-view emerge which hinder the unification of knowledge among the various disciplines, and even within a given discipline. As a result, the scientist, and especially the student, is in many instances offered fragmented glimpses of subjects that are funda­ mentally synthetic and that should be treated in their own right. Such seems to be the case of the liquid state. Unlike the other states of matter -- gases, solids, and plasmas -- the liquid state has not yet received unified treatment, probably because it has been the least explored and remains the least understood state of matter. Occasionally, events occur which help remove some of the barriers that separate scientists and disciplines alike. Such an event was the ASI on The Liquid State held this past July at the lovely Hotel T...

  18. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  19. Gas bubble detection in liquid metals by means of the ultrasound transit-time-technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metals are used in nuclear energy technology and a precise knowledge of the distribution of the gas bubbles and their behaviour inside liquid metals is very useful. In this work the ultrasound-transit time technique is introduced as a versatile method to analyze the bubble dynamics in liquid-metal-gas flows. After discussing the principle of operation and the implementation of the technique, the methods used to extract the positions of the bubbles, their velocities, or their diameters are explained. Finally, the performance of the method is demonstrated for a liquid-metal-gas flow with and without a magnetic field. (authors)

  20. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  1. Reactive liquid/liquid extraction of heavy metals from landfill seepage waters. Its characterisation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the applicability of liquid-liquid extraction by means of the commercial complexers LIX26R and LIX84R to heavy metal removal from waste waters. The composition of this oil-soluble complex is MeR2, where Me denotes Hg2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ni2+, and R denotes LIX84R. This composition makes the complex electrically neutral, and all polar groups are located inside the molecule. The extraction efficiency of the complexer LIX84R for the various metal ions is evident in the succession Cu2+, Ni2+ >> Zn2+ > Hg2+ > Cd2+. These heavy metal ions are even readily extractable at chloride concentrations of up to 1 mol/l. As the structure of the complexer is that of an oil-soluble surfactant with complexing properties, it accumulates at the phase boundary between oil and water. Measurement of interfacial tension in various solvent systems showed that the polar solvent chloroform permits only a weak accumulation of the complexer (400 nmol/m2), whereas the unpolar solvent kerosine permits greater accumulation specifically on the water side of the phase boundary (1958 nmol/m2). Organic solvents solvate the complexer so well, that it is even removed from the air side of the phase boundary. The differing accumulation of the complexer at the water/oil phase boundary explains the differing increase of phase separation time for polar and unpolar solvents. (orig.)

  2. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Incommensurate Crystals, Liquid Crystals, and Quasi-Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, N

    1988-01-01

    In this NATO-sponsored Advanced Research Workshop we succeeded in bringing together approximately forty scientists working in the three main areas of structurally incommensurate materials: incommensurate crystals (primarily ferroelectric insulators), incommensurate liquid crystals, and metallic quasi-crystals. Although these three classes of materials are quite distinct, the commonality of the physics of the origin and descrip­ tion of these incommensurate structures is striking and evident in these proceedings. A measure of the success of this conference was the degree to which interaction among the three subgroups occurred; this was facili­ tated by approximately equal amounts of theory and experiment in the papers presented. We thank the University of Colorado for providing pleasant housing and conference facilities at a modest cost, and we are especially grate­ ful to Ann Underwood, who retyped all the manuscripts into camera-ready form. J. F. Scott Boulder, Colorado N. A. Clark v CONTENTS PART I: INCO...

  3. Current advances in precious metal core–shell catalyst design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precious metal nanoparticles are commonly used as the main active components of various catalysts. Given their high cost, limited quantity, and easy loss of catalytic activity under severe conditions, precious metals should be used in catalysts at low volumes and be protected from damaging environments. Accordingly, reducing the amount of precious metals without compromising their catalytic performance is difficult, particularly under challenging conditions. As multifunctional materials, core–shell nanoparticles are highly important owing to their wide range of applications in chemistry, physics, biology, and environmental areas. Compared with their single-component counterparts and other composites, core–shell nanoparticles offer a new active interface and a potential synergistic effect between the core and shell, making these materials highly attractive in catalytic application. On one hand, when a precious metal is used as the shell material, the catalytic activity can be greatly improved because of the increased surface area and the closed interfacial interaction between the core and the shell. On the other hand, when a precious metal is applied as the core material, the catalytic stability can be remarkably improved because of the protection conferred by the shell material. Therefore, a reasonable design of the core–shell catalyst for target applications must be developed. We summarize the latest advances in the fabrications, properties, and applications of core–shell nanoparticles in this paper. The current research trends of these core–shell catalysts are also highlighted. (review)

  4. Development of metal loaded liquid scintillators for future detectors to investigate neutrino properties

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Several future neutrino experiments call for metal loaded liquid scintillators for neutrino detection. The challenge in the development of such scintillators is how to dissolve large amounts of the metal in an organic liquid scintillator without degrading the optical properties. A promising new approach is the use of metal ß-diketonates. Different to earlier approaches which resulted in non-stable metal loaded scintillators, long term stability of optical and chemical properties is expected. ...

  5. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Friedel, G. (Internationale Atomreaktorbau GmbH (INTERATOM), Bergisch Gladbach (Germany, F.R.)); Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Moreau, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)); Perks, M. (UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment (UK)

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. MHD Generators Operating with Two-Phase Liquid Metal Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified one- component liquid metal MHD cycle which utilizes two-phase mixtures passing directly through the generator has been proposed and is being studied. Analysis indicates that a nuclear dual-cycle power system utilizing the proposed liquid metal conversion scheme as a topping cycle has overall efficiencies that are comparable to a plasma dual-cycle system at much lower,temperatures. The key to the potential of this cycle is the performance of the MHD generator operating with two-phase mixtures. A large NaK-N2 loop capable of accommodating both d.c. conduction or a.c. induction generators operating with either single-phase or two-phase flows has been built and recently put into operation. Recirculating NaK flow rates up to 200 gal/min and gas flows of 750 ft3/min can be obtained. The efficiency of a generator operating with two-phase flow will depend upon the nature of the flow and the degree to which the total entering liquid flow.interacts with the magnetic field. Because the flow pattern of a two-phase mixture changes from a dispersion of gas in liquid to a dispersion of liquid in gas as the mixture quality is increased, two different types of generators are proposed and are being studied. In the first generator, referred to as a film generator, the two-phase mixture enters at a slight angle to the lower surface of the generator. The liquid is separated by impingement. The high-velocity free surface liquid film that is formed interacts with a transverse magnetic film. The efficiency of this type of generator is a function of the separation ratio, skin friction and momentum losses. A 2 kW version of the generator has been built and is currently being run. Initial tests up to 250 W have been made, which have shown that the generator concept is feasible and that the flow is stable. This generator has run with inlet qualities to 0.05 and magnetic fields up to 12 kG. Measured voltages and amperages have ranged to 0.60 V and 60 A. It is planned to continue

  7. Hydrodynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant processes and filtering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: To optimize the design of filters for cleaning heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) from suspended impurities and choose appropriate filter material, the contribution is considered of different mechanisms of delivery and retention of these impurities from the coolant flow, which is governed by its specificity as a thermodynamically instable disperse system to a large extent. It is shown that the buildup of deposits in the filter is favored by the hydrodynamic regime with minimum filtration rates being due to the predominance in the suspension of the fine-dispersed solid phase (oxides Fe3O4, Cr2O3 and so on). With concentrating the last mentioned phase in filter material pores or stagnant zones, coagulation structuration is possible, which is accompanied by sharp local increase in the viscosity and strength of the solid phase medium being built from liquid metal, i.e. slag sedimentary deposits. In rather extended pores, disintegration of such structures is possible, which is accompanied by sedimentation of large particles produced due to sticking together at coagulation. The analytical solution of the problem of particle sedimentation due to diffusion indicated that in the case under consideration, this mechanism takes place for particles less than ∼ 0,05 μm in size, which is specified by the fact that the time of their delivery to the filter material surface is longer than that of the coolant being in the filter. The London-Van-der-Waals molecular forces play a crucial role in the stage of retention of a separate particle. The constant of the molecular interaction between a spherical particle and the flat surface has been estimated for the chosen value of the gap between the contacting bodies, being dependent on the wetting angle. The sufficient condition for dp-diameter particle capture by the adhesion force field (with a gap of H ≅ 30 nm) is that it be brought by the appropriate forces at a distance from the wall equal to S

  8. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  9. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  10. James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    James Lee Fergason (1934 - 2008) focused his research on the liquid crystals. His studies correspond to a relevant part of the history of soft matter science and technology of liquid crystals. Here a discussion of some of his researches.

  11. Advanced Ionic Liquid Monopropellant for Payload Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a monopropellant replacement for hydrazine using eutectic mixtures of ionic liquids (EILs). These liquids offer us the ability to tailor fluid...

  12. Treatment of low level liquid waste by modified advanced liquid waste distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes are generated mostly during mining and processing of ores, nuclear fuel cycle operation and production. Classification of these wastes is very helpful throughout their management phases from generation through collection, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, transportation to final disposal. Treatment is an important phase in the management of radioactive wastes, it aims to reduce the volume of generated wastes to enhance the safety and to reduce the costs of further management phases. A distillation unit is being installed for the treatment of low level liquid waste treatment at AFFF. Distillation rate must be high to treat such a large amount of liquid waste. The output rate of existing distillation unit is very slow due to natural cooling of condensing coil. For fast distillation rate a new system has been designed, fabricated and installed inside the glove box. The high output rate, air cooling condensation, high decontamination factor and inherently safe operation makes system an advanced one. This paper highlights the design aspects, optimization of operating parameters, safety considerations and the operational experience of the same. Approximately 400 liters of low level liquid waste having radioactivity level ∼ 10-1μCi/ml was treated and discharged into sump tanks after monitoring activity (gross alpha) and pH (Technical Specification Document, AFFF, BARC (T), 2013). The concentrate ∼ 3-4 liters has been solidified and de-nitrated in a glove box adapted muffle furnace. The solidified mass could be analyzed for Pu content by neutron well coincidence counting (NWCC) system or by WD-XRF method

  13. Gallium-Based Room Temperature Liquid Metals and its Application to Single Channel Two-Liquid Hyperelastic Capacitive Strain Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanliangzi

    Gallium-based liquid metals are of interest for a variety of applications including flexible electronics, soft robotics, and biomedical devices. Still, nano- to microscale device fabrication with these materials is challenging because of their strong adhesion to a majority of substrates. This unusual high adhesion is attributed to the formation of a thin oxide shell; however, its role in the adhesion process has not yet been established. In the first part of the thesis, we described a multiscale study aiming at understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing wetting and adhesion of gallium-based liquid metals. In particular, macroscale dynamic contact angle measurements were coupled with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging to relate macroscopic drop adhesion to morphology of the liquid metal-surface interface. In addition, room temperature liquid-metal microfluidic devices are also attractive systems for hyperelastic strain sensing. Currently two types of liquid metal-based strain sensors exist for inplane measurements: single-microchannel resistive and two-microchannel capacitive devices. However, with a winding serpentine channel geometry, these sensors typically have a footprint of about a square centimeter, limiting the number of sensors that can be embedded into. In the second part of the thesis, firstly, simulations and an experimental setup consisting of two GaInSn filled tubes submerged within a dielectric liquid bath are used to quantify the effects of the cylindrical electrode geometry including diameter, spacing, and meniscus shape as well as dielectric constant of the insulating liquid and the presence of tubing on the overall system's capacitance. Furthermore, a procedure for fabricating the two-liquid capacitor within a single straight polydiemethylsiloxane channel is developed. Lastly, capacitance and response of this compact device to strain and operational issues arising from complex hydrodynamics near liquid-liquid and liquid

  14. Clustomesogens: Liquid Crystalline Hybrid Nanomaterials Containing Functional Metal Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molard, Yann

    2016-08-16

    Inorganic phosphorescent octahedral metal nanoclusters fill the gap between metal complexes and nanoparticles. They are finite groups of metal atoms linked by metal-metal bonds, with an exact composition and structure at the nanometer scale. As their phosphorescence internal quantum efficiency can approach 100%, they represent a very attractive class of molecular building blocks to design hybrid nanomaterials dedicated to light energy conversion, optoelectronic, display, lighting, or theragnostic applications. They are obtained as AnM6X(i)8X(a)6 ternary salt powders (A = alkali cation, M = Mo, Re, W, X(i): halogen inner ligand, X(a) = halogen apical ligand) by high temperature solid state synthesis (750-1200 °C). However, their ceramic-like behavior has largely restricted their use as functional components in the past. Since these last two decades, several groups, including ours, started to tackle the challenge of integrating them in easy-to-process materials. Within this context, we have extensively explored the nanocluster ternary salt specificities to develop a new class of self-organized hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials known as clustomesogens. These materials, combine the specific properties of nanoclusters (magnetic, electronic, luminescence) with the anisotropy-related properties of liquid crystals (LCs). This Account covers the research and development of clustomesogens starting from the design concepts and synthesis to their introduction in functional devices. We developed three strategies to build such hybrid super- or supramolecules. In the covalent approach, we capitalized on the apical ligand-metal bond iono-covalent character to graft tailor-made organic LC promoters on the {M6X(i)8}(n+) nanocluster cores. The supramolecular approach relies on the host-guest complexation of the ternary cluster salt alkali cations with functional crown ether macrocycles. We showed that the hybrid LC behavior depends on the macrocycles structural features

  15. Carbonate-coordinated metal complexes precede the formation of liquid amorphous mineral emulsions of divalent metal carbonates†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephan E.; Müller, Lars; Barrea, Raul; Kampf, Christopher J.; Leiterer, Jork; Panne, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    During the mineralisation of metal carbonates MCO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Cd, Pb) liquid-like amorphous intermediates emerge. These intermediates that form via a liquid/liquid phase separation behave like a classical emulsion and are stabilized electrostatically. The occurrence of these intermediates is attributed to the formation of highly hydrated networks whose stability is mainly based on weak interactions and the variability of the metal-containing pre-critical clusters. Their existence and compositional freedom are evidenced by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Liquid intermediates in non-classical crystallisation pathways seem to be more common than assumed. PMID:21218241

  16. Heterogeneous fragmentation of metallic liquid microsheet with high velocity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    An-Min, He; Pei, Wang; Jian-Li, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets with high velocity gradient. Dynamic fragmentation of the system involves the formation of a network of fragments due to the growth and coalescence of holes, decomposition of the network into filaments, and further breakup of the filaments into spherical clusters. The final size distribution of the fragmented clusters in the large volume limit is found to obey a bilinear exponential form, which is resulted from the heterogeneous breakup of quasi-cylindrical filaments. The main factors contributing to fragmentation heterogeneity are introduced, including strain rate inhomogeneity and matter distribution nonuniformity of fragments produced during decomposition of the network structure. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0201010 and 2015B0201039) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402032).

  17. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  18. Cleavage crystallography of liquid metal embrittled aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, A. P.; Stoner, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The crystallography of liquid metal-induced transgranular cleavage in six aluminum alloys having a variety of microstructures has been determined via Laue X-ray back reflection. The cleavage crystallography was independent of alloy microstructure, and the cleavage plane was 100-plane oriented in all cases. It was further determined that the cleavage crystallography was not influenced by alloy texture. Examination of the fracture surface indicated that there was not a unique direction of crack propagation. In addition, the existence of 100-plane cleavage on alloy 2024 fracture surfaces was inferred by comparison of secondary cleavage crack intersection geometry on the 2024 surfaces with the geometry of secondary cleavage crack intersections on the test alloys.

  19. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  20. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR coolant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. s.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, S. D.; Kang, Y. H.; Maeng, Y. Y.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. J.; Cha, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, S. K.; Park, C. G.; Hong, S. H.; Lee, K. H.; Chun, M. H.; Moon, H. T.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, D. N.

    1997-07-15

    Following studies have been performed during last three years as the 1.2 phase study of the mid and long term nuclear technology development plan. First, the small scale experiments using the sodium have been performed such as the basic turbulent mixing experiment which is related to the design of a compact reactor, the flow reversal characteristics experiment by natural circulation which is necessary for the analysis of local flow reversal when the electromagnetic pump is installed, the feasibility test of the decay heat removal by wall cooling and the operation of electromagnetic pump. Second, the technology of operation mechanism of sodium facility is developed and the technical analysis and fundamental experiments of sodium measuring technology has been performed such as differential pressure measuring experiment, local flow rate measuring experimenter, sodium void fraction measuring experiment, under sodium facility, the free surface movement experiment and the side orifice pressure drop experiment. A new bounded convection scheme was introduced to the ELBO3D thermo-hydraulic computer code designed for analysis of experimental result. A three dimensional computer code was developed for the analysis of free surface movement and the analysis model of transmission of sodium void fraction was developed. Fourth, the small scale key components are developed. The submersible-in-pool type electromagnetic pump which can be used as primary pump in the liquid metal reactor is developed. The SASS which uses the Curie-point electromagnet and the mock-up of Pantograph type IVTM were manufactured and their feasibility was evaluated. Fifth, the high temperature characteristics experiment of stainless steel which is used as a major material for liquid metal reactor and the material characteristics experiment of magnet coil were performed. (author). 126 refs., 98 tabs., 296 figs.

  1. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following studies have been performed during last three years as the 1.2 phase study of the mid and long term nuclear technology development plan. First, the small scale experiments using the sodium have been performed such as the basic turbulent mixing experiment which is related to the design of a compact reactor, the flow reversal characteristics experiment by natural circulation which is necessary for the analysis of local flow reversal when the electromagnetic pump is installed, the feasibility test of the decay heat removal by wall cooling and the operation of electromagnetic pump. Second, the technology of operation mechanism of sodium facility is developed and the technical analysis and fundamental experiments of sodium measuring technology has been performed such as differential pressure measuring experiment, local flow rate measuring experimenter, sodium void fraction measuring experiment, under sodium facility, the free surface movement experiment and the side orifice pressure drop experiment. A new bounded convection scheme was introduced to the ELBO3D thermo-hydraulic computer code designed for analysis of experimental result. A three dimensional computer code was developed for the analysis of free surface movement and the analysis model of transmission of sodium void fraction was developed. Fourth, the small scale key components are developed. The submersible-in-pool type electromagnetic pump which can be used as primary pump in the liquid metal reactor is developed. The SASS which uses the Curie-point electromagnet and the mock-up of Pantograph type IVTM were manufactured and their feasibility was evaluated. Fifth, the high temperature characteristics experiment of stainless steel which is used as a major material for liquid metal reactor and the material characteristics experiment of magnet coil were performed. (author). 126 refs., 98 tabs., 296 figs.

  2. Automated scoping methodology for liquid metal natural circulation small reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Automated scoping methodology for natural circulation small modular reactor is developed. • In-house code is developed to carry out system analysis and core geometry generation during scoping. • Adjustment relations are obtained to correct the critical core geometry out of diffusion theory. • Optimized design specification is found using objective function value. • Convex hull volume is utilized to quantify the impact of different constraints on the scope range. - Abstract: A novel scoping method is proposed that can automatically generate design variable range of the natural circulation driven liquid metal cooled small reactor. From performance requirements based upon Generation IV system roadmap, appropriate structure materials are selected and engineering constraints are compiled based upon literature. Utilizing ASME codes and standards, appropriate geometric sizing criteria on constituting components are developed to ensure integrity of the system during its lifetime. In-house one dimensional thermo-hydraulic system analysis code is developed based upon momentum integral model and finite element methods to deal with non-uniform descritization of temperature nodes for convection and thermal diffusion equation of liquid metal coolant. In order to quickly generate critical core dimensions out of given unit cell information, an adjustment relation that relates the critical geometry estimated from one-group diffusion and that from MCNP code is constructed and utilized throughout the process. For the selected unit cell dimension ranges, burnup calculations are carried out to check the cores can generate energy over the reactor lifetime. Utilizing random method, sizing criteria, and in-house analysis codes, an automated scoping methodology is developed. The methodology is applied to nitride fueled integral type lead cooled natural circulation reactor concept to generate design scopes which satisfies given constraints. Three dimensional convex

  3. Analysis of two-phase liquid metal MHD induction converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made on the performance characteristics of a liquid-metal MHD induction converter with liquid-gas two-phase mixture as working fluid. The equivalent electrical conductivity and the velocity vary along the generator channel in this kind of induction converter. Two important parameters which represent the variations of the equivalent electrical conductivity and the velocity respectively are defined. With these parameters the induction equation is analytically solved with the perturbation technique. Quantities representing generator performance, such as power densities and generator efficiency, are obtained from the perturbed magnetic field and the parameters mentioned above. Suitable combination of values for these parameters will tend to let the effects brought by the variations of electrical conductivity and of velocity cancel each other, and the relation between these parameters is analytically derived that assures the non-perturbation of the magnetic field and of the gross output power density. In this condition of non-perturbation, the generator efficiency approaches that for the unperturbed case when the velocity variation and the inlet slip ratio are small. (auth.)

  4. A successful gallium liquid-metal ion source for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Focused Ion Beam (FIB) machine is based on the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS). In our attempts to develop improved gallium sources, and better understand their behaviour, we have measured/investigated the following. (1) LMIS current/voltage characteristics. (2) How the probe diameter changes as a function of emission current. (3) HVTEM images of LMIS behaviour. (4) Theories of liquid supply and ionization, and of LMIS minimum current. (5) Electrohydrodynamic effects in the LMIS. (6) The role of emitter shape and preparation. (7) The role of secondary electrons. (8) The role of feedback in the control of emission current. Aspects of these investigations will be described. It has been possible to optimise the FIB current profile. A gallium probe has been developed, with transported current around 5 pA, that is predicted to generate a beam spot about 8 nm in diameter. This should help the FIB machine become one of the 'top-down' tools of nanofabrication. (author)

  5. Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry Measurements in Turbulent Liquid Metal Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Michel; Jian, Dandan; Karcher, Christian; Cuevas, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Control of molten metal flow using magnetic fields is important in industrial applications. The Electromagnetic Flow Control Channel (EFCO) is an experimental test facility, located at Ilmenau University of Technology, for the development of such kind of control systems. The working fluid is the low-melting liquid metal alloy GaInSn in eutectic composition. In this channel, flow control is realized by combining and coupling the non-contact flow driving technology of electromagnetic pumps based on rotating permanent magnets and the non-contact flow rate measurement technology termed Lorentz Force Velocimetry (LFV). The flow rate is adjusted by controlling the rotation rate of the permanent magnet system. Physically, LFV is based on measuring the force acting on a magnet system. This force is induced by the melt flow passing through the static magnetic field generated by the system and is proportional to the flow. To calibrate such flow meters, we apply UDV technique to measure and analyse both turbulent hydrodynamic and MHD flow profiles in EFCO at various Reynolds numbers.

  6. Approaches to measurement of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture considers instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, and sodium purity. It is divided into three major parts: (1) measurement requirements for sodium cooled reactor systems, (2) in-core and out-of-core measurements in liquid metal systems, and (3) performance measurements of water steam generators

  7. Usage of Liquid Metals in the Positron Production System of Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhailichenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this publication we collected descriptions of some installations with liquid metals which could be used for high-energy colliders, ILC particularly, for the purposes of targeting, collimation, cooling, collection of secondary particles etc. Some important components of the system with liquid metals, such as pumps, nozzles, windows, and the fluid dynamics in the Lithium lens are described also.

  8. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  9. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX [Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX (Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Rupture character of steels with ferrite-pearlite structure under influence of liquid metallic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of liquid metal environment (gallium base alloy with melting point of 5 deg C) on mechanical properties and fracture mode was studied for ferritic-pearlitic steels with 0.03-0.8 % C under static and cyclic loading. Liquid metal medium was found to assist plastic deformation in a surface layer and to change fracture mode. It was revealed that the liquid of metal deteriorated steel properties in case of static loads but this effect weakened when passing from ferrite to pearlite. In ferritic steel under cycling loading the liquid metal affected so that shifted cracking resistance value to the region of lower stress intensity factors and promoted transition from intragranular fracture to intergranular one. Pearlitic steels behaved alike under cyclic loading both in liquid metal and in the air

  12. A study on accident prevention of liquid metal reactors through operating experience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor), called as KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor), has been being developed as part of the nuclear mid and long-term projects of the government since 1997. To ensure the safety of the KALIMER, the capability to cope with accidents must be enhanced by incorporating means and measures to prevent and mitigate accidents into the design of the KALIMER. The means and measures can be found out through analyzing operating experience in LMRs. Therefore, operating experience reported in published literature was collected and analyzed for the following 9 foreign LMRs: MONJU, Superphenix, Phenix, PFR, JOYO, EBR-II, FFTF, BN-350, BN-600. The analyses results show that accidents can be categorized into the following major groups: sodium leakage, sodium fire, sodium-water reaction, abnormal decrease of core reactivity, components vibrations, sodium aerosol deposits. Based on the results of accident cause analysis for each category, the means and measures to prevent and mitigate the each accident category were obtained

  13. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future. PMID:26996438

  14. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ''Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a laser cutting

  15. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a

  16. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  17. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of the ITER project for the construction and operation are to perform the test related to the neutronics, blanket module, tritium treatment technology, advanced plasma technology, and to test the heat extraction and tritium breeding in the test blanket for the fusion reactor. Other parties have been developing the Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in the ITER for these purposes. Through this project, we can secure the TBM design and related technology, which will be used as the core technology for the DEMO construction, our own fusion reactor development. In 1st year, the optimized design procedure was established with the existing tools, which have been used in nuclear reactor design, and the optimized HCML TBM design was obtained through iteration method according to the developed design procedure. He cooling system as a TBM auxiliary system was designed considering the final design of the KO HCML TBM such as coolant capacity and operation pressure. Layout for this system was prepared to be installed in the ITER TCWS vault. MHD effect of liquid Li breeder by magnetic flux in ITER such as much higher pressure drop was evaluated with CFD-ACE and it was concluded that the Li breeder should have a slow velocity to reduce this effect. Most results were arranged in the form of DDD including preliminary safety analysis report. In 2nd year, the optimized design procedure was complemented and updated. In performance analysis on thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical one, full 3D meshes were generated and used in this analysis in order to obtain the more exact temperature, deformation, and stress solution. For liquid Li breeder system, design parameters were induced before the detailed design of the system and were used in the design of the liquid Li test loop. LOCA analysis, activation analysis in LOCA, EM analysis were performed as a preliminary safety analysis. In order to develop the manufacturing technology, Be+FMS and FMS to FMS joining conditions

  18. A Study on Corrosion Behaviors of SS 316L in Liquid Metals for Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Choi, Kyung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Since liquid metals such as sodium and lead or LBE are excellent heat transfer agents, extensive researches have been performed for the use as coolants of fast breeder reactors. While sodium has been challenged by its high chemical activity with water and air, lead or LBE have known to have issues related to corrosion with structural alloys at high temperature and Po-generation in Pb-Bi cooled nuclear systems. This study suggests gallium as potential coolant for the primary or secondary circuit of advanced nuclear systems. Gallium possesses a low melting point (29 .deg. C), a high boiling point (2204 .deg. C) and no issue of chemical activity and radioactivity increase by irradiation. However, the absorption cross section of gallium is rather high, 2.2 barns per atom, which is a drawback, but it can be manageable to a certain degree because the cross section could be reduced by proper alloying with elements with lower absorption cross section. Meanwhile, stainless steels have been used for structural materials in various industries including nuclear energy system because of its favorable mechanical and material properties. If there is no corrosion problem with liquid gallium, stainless steels can be good structural materials for the application. For the prevention of liquid gallium corrosion, an active control of oxygen partial pressure which has been extensively studied for preventing Pb or LBE corrosion with structural materials can be adopted

  19. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  20. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  1. Usage of liquid metals in nuclear, thermonuclear engineering and other innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants (alkali metals, lead, bismuth and their eutectics) are described. These coolants are used in various nuclear power facilities, including that for submarines and spaceships. It is pointed out that lithium and its alloy with lead are perspective for using in thermonuclear power engineering where they may be not only coolants but also may be tritium breeding media. The practical experience of liquid metal coolants use in nuclear, thermonuclear power engineering and innovation technologies is under consideration

  2. Theoretical investigation of liquid metal MHD free surface flows for ALPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free surface plasma facing components (PFCs) offer the potential to solve the lifetime issues limiting current solid surface designs for tokamak fusion reactors by eliminating the problems of erosion and thermal stresses accompanying solid surface designs. The moving PFC free surfaces provide the possibility of absorbing impurities and possibly helium for removal outside of the plasma chamber. Free surface PFCs may also offer more creative possibilities for heat removal and higher thermal conversion efficiencies for the entire system. Design requirements for PFCS include handling approximately50% of the plasma heat flux and 90% of the ion flux. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) liquid metal flows with free surfaces are discussed with reference to Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program. Specific MHD issues for the jet divertor are outlined. Results for the rivulet flow and for the thermocapillary flow in a jet are presented

  3. Review of algorithms for modeling metal distribution equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, L. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on general guidelines to be considered for application of least-squares routines and artificial neural networks (ANN in the estimation of metal distribution equilibria in liquid-liquid extraction process. The goal of the procedure in the statistical method is to find the values of the equilibrium constants (Kj for the reactions involved in the metal extraction which minimizes the differences between experimental distribution coefficient (Dexp and theoretical distribution coefficients according to the mechanism proposed (Dtheor- In the first part of the article, results obtained with the most frequently routine reported in the bibliography are compared with those obtained using the algorithms previously discussed. In the second part, the main features of a single back-propagation neural network for the same purpose are discussed, and the results obtained are compared with those obtained with the classical methods.

    El trabajo presenta las líneas generales a considerar para la estimación del equilibrio de distribución de metales en procesos de extracción líquido-líquido, según dos métodos: algoritmo clásico de mínimos cuadrados y redes neuronales artificiales. El objetivo del procedimiento, en el caso del método estadístico, es encontrar los valores de las constantes de equilibrio (Kj para las reacciones involucradas en la extracción del metal, que minimizan las diferencias entre el coeficiente de distribución experimental y el coeficiente de distribución teórico, de acuerdo al mecanismo propuesto. En la primera parte del artículo se comparan los resultados obtenidos a partir de los algoritmos usados más habitualmente en la bibliografía, con los datos obtenidos mediante el algoritmo previamente descrito. En la segunda parte, se presentan las características fundamentales para aplicar una red neuronal sencilla con algoritmo back-propagation y los

  4. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study on splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplets in air. • Oxidation and temperature effects of droplets on flow impact dynamics were disclosed. • Distinctions between metal and water flow dynamics were comparatively investigated. • Results are critical for liquid metal spraying cooling and printed electronics etc. - Abstract: In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet striking onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was systematically investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and transient flow behavior were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from the instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. According to the energy analysis, it was disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  7. DRESDYN - A new platform for liquid metal thermohydraulic studies and measurement technique developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The save operation of liquid metal systems in innovative reactor concepts requires appropriate measuring systems and instrumentation, both for the liquid metal single-phase flow as well as for gas bubble liquid metal two-phase flows. At HZDR the large-scale liquid sodium facility DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies) is under construction that will comprise experiments with geo- and astrophysical background as well as experiments for thermohydraulic studies of sodium flows. The development of flow measurement techniques has a long tradition at HZDR. It covers contactless flow-rate sensors, local velocity measurements such as the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV), the Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT), as well as X-ray visualizations of liquid metal two-phase flows, which all will be exploited and further developed at an In-Service-Inspection experiment in the framework of DRESDYN. (author)

  8. Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-06-15

    Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

  9. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor: an environmental and economic critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and environmental arguments made by the AEC and others for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) as a central component of the U. S. electrical energy system are discussed. The LMFBR appears to have no environmental advantage over the currently operating light water reactor and especially not over the high temperature gas reactor. The principle environmental argument for the rapid introduction of LMFBRs is that they will provide a virtually inexhaustible fuel source, and reduce the demand for strip-mining the limited reserves of high grade U ore. A 20-yr delay in the construction of LMFBRs would result in an increase of only 50 mi2 of strip mining over the next 50 yr, and the cost of reclamation of this land would be about 0.1 mill/kw-hr. Uranium from which fuel has been extracted for use by nonbreeder reactors can still be used by breeders, thus breeders could still be introduced in the future, if fusion is not developed in time, and extract the same overall energy from a given supply of U as if they had been introduced earlier. Economic arguments in favor of the LMFBR are based on models highly sensitive to changes on some of the most critical input variables: nuclear power plant capital costs, fuel cycle costs, performance characteristics of LMFBR designs, electrical energy demand, and U ore costs. There is no basis for concluding that the LMFBR will be economical in the 1980s or early 1990s. (Pollut. Abstr.)

  10. Study of liquid metal mixed convection in cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has enabled some results to be obtained on the flow of liquid metals in cavities. The effects of different adimensional parameters characteristic of mixed convection flows were experimentally demonstrated. In the case of a roof heated cavity, three zones were distinguished: the mixing zone at the channel exit, a quasi constant temperature recirculation zone and a stratified zone at the top of the cavity. The thickness of this last region depends on natural convection effects: it disappears completely in a pure forced convection regime. A simple model using a critical Richardson number concept was developed in order to be able to predict the thickness of this region. Heat transfer correlation formulas were established both for the heated roof and forward direction heated wall cases. Some data was also obtained on temperature fluctuations for both cases. The different topics investigated are useful for defining heat transfers in certain regions of fast neutron sodium cooled reactors. A more extensive program is currently being developed in order to be able to investigate a wider range of variations in the above mentioned parameters and to more closely approximate reactor vessels

  11. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations

  12. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  13. On the self-diffusion process in liquid metals and alloys by the radioactive tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical and experimental study of self-diffusion process in liquid metals and alloys is presented. There are only a few pure metals for which diffusion coefficients in a liquid state are known. The thesis aims at increasing the number of liquid metals for which diffusion coefficients are available, by determining these values for liquids: Cd, Tl, Sb and Te. The self-diffusion coefficients of Te in some tellurium based liquid alloys such as Tl2Te, PbTe and Bi90Te10 were also determined. Self-diffusion coefficients have been measured using two radioactive tracer methods: a) the capillary-reservoir method; b) the semi-infinite capillary method. The self-diffusion coefficients were derived from the measured radioactive concentration profile, using the solutions of Fick's second law for appropriate initial and limit conditions. The temperature dependence study of self-diffusion coefficients in liquids Cd, Tl, Sb and Te, was used to check some theoretical models on the diffusion mechanism in metallic melts. The experimental diffusion data interpreted in terms of the Arrhenius type temperature dependence, was used to propose two simple empiric relations for determining self diffusion coefficients of group I liquid metals and for liquid semi-metals. It was established a marked decrease of self-diffusion coefficients of liquid Te close to the solidification temperature. The diffusivity of Te in liquid Tl2Te points to an important decrease close to the solidification temperature. A simplified model was proposed for the diffusion structural unit in this alloy and the hard sphere model for liquid metals was checked by comparing the theoretical and experimental self-diffusion coefficients. (author)

  14. The influence of liquid metal infiltration on the superconducting characteristics of niobium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prepared a fully stabilized, multifilamentary, NbN superconductor using a combination of physical vapor deposition of NbN on graphite fibers followed by liquid metal infiltration using copper or aluminum. The resulting superconductor is in a finely divided multifilamentary form, embedded in a matrix of conductive copper or aluminum. The geometry provides high stability to flux jumps and high quench protection. The effects of liquid metal infiltration and process variables on the electrical properties of NbN have been investigated. Critical current vs field, and stabilizer residual resistivity ratio are discussed as well as the effect of liquid metal infiltration on NbN layer performance

  15. Preliminary Analysis of Liquid Metal MHD Pressure Drop in the Blanket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳; 吴宜灿; 何晓雄

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary analysis and calculation of liquid metal Li17Pb83 magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the blanket for the FDS have been presented to evaluate the significance of MHD effects on the thermal-hydraulic design of the blanket. To decrease the liquid metal MHD pressure drop, Al2O3 is applied as an electronically insulated coating onto the inner surface of the ducts. The requirement for the insulated coating to reduce the additional leakage pressure drop caused by coating imperfections has been analyzed. Finally, the total liquid metal MHD pressure drop and magnetic pump power in the FDS blanket have been given.

  16. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  17. METAL:LIC target failure diagnostics by means of liquid metal loop vibrations monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target mock-up, developed as an European Spallation Source comparative solution, (METAL:LIC) has been tested in a dedicated lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) loop in the Institute of Physics at the University of Latvia. In particular, the feasibility of diagnostic vibration monitoring has been investigated. The loop parameters were: operation temperature 300°C; tubing ∅100 mm, overall length 8 m; electromagnetic pump based on permanent magnets, flow rate 180 kg/s. With sufficient static pressure of a few bars, cavitation was avoided. The vibrations in the loop were measured and analyzed. Several vibrational characteristics of the set-up were derived including resonance frequencies and the dependence of excited vibrations on flow conditions and the pump rotation speed. A high sensitivity to obstructions in the loop has been confirmed, and several indicators for target failure diagnostics were tested and compared. A problem in the electromagnetic pump's gear box has been detected in a very early state long before it manifested itself in the operation of the loop. The vibration monitoring has been demonstrated as a sensitive and reliable probe for the target failure diagnostics. (author)

  18. Advanced remedial methods for metals and radionuclides in vadose zone environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport or toxicity of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in arid environments where the vadose zone can be up to hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges that limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of the contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to underlying aquifers prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Shear-thinning fluids (i.e., surfactants) can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting reactive remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 20% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory

  19. Advanced Remedial Methods for Metals and Radionuclides in Vadose Zone Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport or toxicity of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in arid environments where the vadose zone can be up to hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges that limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of the contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to underlying aquifers prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Shear-thinning fluids (i.e., surfactants) can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting reactive remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 20% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory

  20. Laser- synthesis of metal sulphides in sulphurous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser processing of materials in chemically reactive surrounding mediums has been marked with growing interest, using a pulsed laser in conjunction with a proper liquid makes it possible to induce rapid and often non - equilibrium reactions at the solid-liquid interface. It is believed that temperature, pressure and phase transformations in the liquid are the key parameters necessary to understand the interface reactions

  1. Analysis of the stability of native oxide films at liquid lead/metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interface between liquid lead and different metallic solids (pure metals: Al, Fe and Ni, and T91 steel) was investigated below 400 deg C under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) by wetting experiments. The aim was to check the physical stability of native oxide films grown at the surface of the substrates, along a contact with liquid lead. Two types of metallic substrates were used: i) conventional bulk polycrystals, and ii) nanocrystalline films obtained by e-beam evaporation under UHV. The actual contact between liquid lead and the solid substrates was achieved by preparing lead drops in-situ. Wetting experiments were performed using sessile drop and/or liquid bridge methods. Fresh solid surfaces and former liquid/solid interfaces can be explored by squeezing and stretching a liquid lead bridge formed between two parallel and horizontal substrates. It is shown that the contact with liquid lead produces the detachment of the native oxide films grown on the metallic solids. It is concluded that if oxide coatings are needed to protect a metallic solid from attack by liquid lead, they should be self-renewable. (authors)

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of trace metals from solid and liquid materials for analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ions in solid and liquid materials can be extracted by supercritical CO2 containing a suitable ligand. Bis(trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamate is an effective ligand for the extraction of transition metals and non-metals in supercritical CO2. Fluorinated β-diketones and tributyl phosphate in supercritical CO2 exhibit a positive synergistic extraction for the lanthanides and actinides from solid and liquid samples. Triazole containing crown ethers can also be used for selective extraction of heavy metals in supercritical CO2. (author)

  3. Carbonate-coordinated metal complexes precede the formation of liquid amorphous mineral emulsions of divalent metal carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephan E.; Müller, Lars; Barrea, Raul; Kampf, Christopher J.; Leiterer, Jork; Panne, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Emmerling, Franziska; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    During the mineralisation of metal carbonates MCO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Cd, Pb) liquid-like amorphous intermediates emerge. These intermediates that form via a liquid/liquid phase separation behave like a classical emulsion and are stabilized electrostatically. The occurrence of these intermediates is attributed to the formation of highly hydrated networks whose stability is mainly based on weak interactions and the variability of the metal-containing pre-critical clusters. Their existence and compositional freedom are evidenced by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Liquid intermediates in non-classical crystallisation pathways seem to be more common than assumed.During the mineralisation of metal carbonates MCO3 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Cd, Pb) liquid-like amorphous intermediates emerge. These intermediates that form via a liquid/liquid phase separation behave like a classical emulsion and are stabilized electrostatically. The occurrence of these intermediates is attributed to the formation of highly hydrated networks whose stability is mainly based on weak interactions and the variability of the metal-containing pre-critical clusters. Their existence and compositional freedom are evidenced by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Liquid intermediates in non-classical crystallisation pathways seem to be more common than assumed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (S1 and S5) TEM at higher magnifications and of crystallizations conducted at pH = 6.0, 9.0 and 11.3; (S2) sketch of a spreading liquid particle on a TEM grid; (S3) wide-angle scattering of BaCO3 and CdCO3; (S4 and S6-S9) ESI-MS spectra of a solution of carbon dioxide and of bicarbonates of Sr, Ba, Pb, Mn and Cd. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00761g

  4. Liquid metal current collectors for high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent interest in superconducting motors and generators has created a renewed interest in homopolar machinery. Homopolar machine designs have always been limited by the need for compact, high-current, low-voltage, sliding electrical curent collectors. Conventional graphite-based solid brushes are inadequate for use in homopolar machines. Liquid metals, under certain conditions of relative sliding velocities, electrical currents, and magnetic fields are known to be capable of performing well in homopolar machines. An effort to explore the capabilities and limits of a tongue-and-groove style current collector, utilizing sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) as the working fluid in high sliding speed operation is reported here. A double current collector generator model with a 14.5-cm maximum rotor diameter, 20,000 rpm rotational capability, and electrical current carrying ability was constructed and operated successfully at a peripheral velocity of 125 m/s. The limiting factor in these experiments was a high-speed fluid-flow instability resulting in the ejection of the working fluid from the operating portions of the collectors. The effects of collector size and geometry, working fluid (NaK or water), and cover gas pressure are reported. Hydrodynamic frictional torque-speed curves are given for the two fluids and for several geometries. Electrical resistances as a function of peripheral velocity at 60 amperes are reported, and the phenomenology of the high-speed fluid-flow instabilities is discussed. The possibility of long-term high-speed operation of current collectors of the tongue-and-groove type, along with experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic friction losses at high peripheral velocities, is considered

  5. Monte Carlo Code System Development for Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Han, Beom Seok; Park, Ho Jin; Park, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    We have implemented the composition cell class and the use cell to MCCARD for hierarchy input processing. For the inputs of KALlMER-600 core consisted of 336 assemblies, we require the geometric data of 91,056 pin cells. Using hierarchy input processing, it was observed that the system geometries are correctly handled with the geometric data of total 611 cells; 2 cells for fuel rods, 2 cells for guide holes, 271 translation cells for rods, and 336 translation cells for assemblies. We have developed monte carlo decay-chain models based on decay chain model of REBUS code for liquid metal reactor analysis. Using developed decay-chain models, the depletion analysis calculations have performed for the homogeneous and heterogeneous model of KALlMER-600. The k-effective for the depletion analysis agrees well with that of REBUS code. and the developed decay chain models shows more efficient performance for time and memories, as compared with the existing decay chain model The chi-square criterion has been developed to diagnose the temperature convergence for the MC TjH feedback calculations. From the application results to the KALlMER pin and fuel assembly problem, it is observed that the new criterion works well Wc have applied the high efficiency variance reduction technique by splitting Russian roulette to estimate the PPPF of the KALIMER core at BOC. The PPPF of KALlMER core at BOC is 1.235({+-}0.008). The developed technique shows four time faster calculation, as compared with the existin2 calculation Subject Keywords Monte Carlo

  6. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  7. The t-matrix resistivity of liquid rare earth metals using pseudopotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present theoretical study of liquid metal resistivity of some trivalent (La,Ce,Gd) and divalent (Eu,Yb) rare earth metals using pseudopotential has been carried out employing Ziman’s weak scattering and transition matrix (t-matrix) approaches. Our computed results of liquid metal resistivity using t-matrix approach are better than resistivity computed using Ziman’s approach and are also in excellent agreement with experimental results and other theoretical findings. The present study confirms that for f-shell metals pseudopotential must be determined uniquely and t-matrix approach is more physical in comparison with Ziman’s nearly free electron approach. The present pseudopotential accounts s-p-d hybridization properly. Such success encourages us to study remaining liquid state properties of these metals

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies of heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA provides a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, collaborative assessments, knowledge preservation, and cooperative research in areas agreed by the Member States with fast reactor and partitioning and transmutation development programmes (e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS)). Trends in advanced fast reactor and ADS designs and technology development are periodically summarized in status reports, symposia, and seminar proceedings prepared by the IAEA to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information. The use of heavy liquid metals (HLM) is rapidly diffusing in different research and industrial fields. The detailed knowledge of the basic thermal hydraulics phenomena associated with their use is a necessary step for the development of the numerical codes to be used in the engineering design of HLM components. This is particularly true in the case of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic alloy cooled fast reactors, high power particle beam targets and in the case of the cooling of accelerator driven sub-critical cores where the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design codes is mandatory. Periodic information exchange within the frame of the TWG-FR has lead to the conclusion that the experience in HLM thermal fluid dynamics with regard to both the theoretical/numerical and experimental fields was limited and somehow dispersed. This is the case, e.g. when considering turbulent exchange phenomena, free-surface problems, and two-phase flows. Consequently, Member States representatives participating in the 35th Annual Meeting of the TWG-FR (Karlsruhe, Germany, 22-26 April 2002) recommended holding a technical meeting (TM) on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Heavy Liquid Metal Thermal Hydraulics. Following this recommendation, the IAEA has convened the Technical Meeting on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of

  9. Development of a fast thermal response microfluidic system using liquid metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Gui, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Room temperature liquid metal gallium alloy has been widely used in many micro-electromechanical systems applications, such as on-chip electrical microheaters, micro temperature sensors, micro pumps and so on. Injecting liquid metal into microchannels can provide a simple, rapid, low-cost but efficient way to integrate these elements in microfluidic chips with high accuracy. The liquid metal-filled microstructures can be designed in any shape and easily integrated into microfluidic chips. In this paper, an on-chip liquid metal-based thermal microfluidic system is proposed for quick temperature control at the microscale. The micro system utilizes just one microfluidic chip as a basic working platform, which has liquid metal-based on-chip heaters, temperature sensors and electroosmotic flow pumps. Under the comprehensive control of these elements, the micro system can quickly change the temperature of a target fluid in the microfluidic chip. These liquid metal-based on-chip elements are very helpful for the fabrication and miniaturization of the microfluidic chip. In this paper, deionized water is used to test the temperature control performance of the thermal microfluidic system. According to the experimental results, the micro system can efficiently control the temperature of water ranging from 28 °C to 90 °C. The thermal microfluidic system has great potential for use in many microfluidic applications, such as on-chip polymerase chain reaction, temperature gradient focusing, protein crystallization and chemical synthesis.

  10. Investigation of structure, thermodynamic and surface properties of liquid metals using square well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Microscopic functions were determined using square well perturbation. • Coordination numbers of liquid metals were determined. • Friction coefficients have been computed in the linear trajectory approximation. • Surface tension and Debye temperature of liquid metals were obtained. - Abstract: In the present paper surface tension, Debye temperature, coordination numbers along with microscopic correlations of ten liquid metals are determined using square-well model of correlation functions. Wertheim’s solution of the fundamental statistical mechanical equation given by Percus and Yevick for hard spheres is invoked with a square well attractive part as a perturbation tail to get exact solution of the direct correlation function, C(k) in momentum space and the analytical expressions are obtained for structure factor, S(k). These expressions are then used to predict static structure factors for ten liquid metals, leading to fair agreement with experimental data. Radial distribution function g(r) is obtained by Fourier analysis of computed S(k), from which the coordination numbers and the nearest neighbor distances of liquid metals are evaluated. Computed coordination numbers and surface properties of liquid metals using such a simple technique are in good agreement with experimental results

  11. Experimental Investigation on Liquid Metal Flow Distribution in Insulating Manifold under Uniform Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masato; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2012-11-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem which is caused by interaction between electrical conducting fluid flow and the magnetic field is one of the biggest problem in the liquid metal blanket of the fusion reactor. In the liquid metal blanket concept, it is necessary to distribute liquid metal flows uniformly in the manifold because imbalance of flow rates should affect the heat transfer performance directly, which leads to safety problem. While the manifold is insulated electrically as well as the flow duct, the 3D-MHD effect on the flowing liquid metal in the manifold is more apparent than that in straight duct. With reference to the flow distribution in this concept, the liquid metal flow in the electrical insulating manifold under the uniform transverse magnetic field is investigated experimentally. In this study, GaInSn is selected as working fluid. The experimental system includes the electrical magnet and the manifold test section which is made of acrylic resin for perfectly electrical insulation. The liquid metal flows in a non-symmetric 180°-turn with manifold, which consists of one upward channel and two downward channels. The flow rates in each channel are measured by electromagnetic flow meters for several combinations Reynolds number and Hartman number. The effects of magnetic field on the uniformity of flow distribution are cleared.

  12. Los Alamos transmutation research: heavy liquid metal coolant technology and accelerator-driven materials test station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is developing technologies needed to reduce the quantity of high-level nuclear waste bound for deep geologic disposal. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of transmutation research in support of this mission. This report summarises two research programmes in the portfolio development of lead-alloy coolant technology and materials, and the Materials Test Station (MTS) using an accelerator-driven spallation target. We have been developing lead and lead-bismuth coolant technology and materials for advanced transmutation and nuclear energy systems since the mid-1990. Our programme mainly consists of operating a medium-scale lead-bismuth eutectic materials and thermal-hydraulic test loop (DELTA), conducting tests and experiments, developing associated coolant chemistry and liquid metal flow measurement and control sensors, instrumentation and systems, building and validating system corrosion models. We are also building a high-temperature natural convection lead test loop using an advanced material (Al-rich oxide dispersion strengthened steel). Key activities and an assessment of the technological readiness level will be given. (authors)

  13. Plutonium breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors and light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of breeding in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) and light water reactors (LWRs) are compared in two ways. The feasibility of breeding has been demonstrated in the Phenix reactor with a measured gain of 0.14. The gain in Superphenix will amount to about0.20. The studies show that while maintaining the performance of commercial reactors their breeding gain can be further increased either by the concept of heterogeneous cores or by using carbide or nitride fuel (breeding gain about0.35). Recently, the old idea of breeding in advanced pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been taken up again with the objective of attaining a gain of 0.05. Unfortunately, these objectives had to be limited to a conversion ratio of 0.9 for safety reasons, and it is not certain whether operation will be rewarding economically. The strategy of substituting PWRs is examined using the French example. By gradually introducing LMFBRs, the cumulated uranium supplies in France can be kept within reasonable limits, which means that they attain three to four times the home resources. This is not possible with advanced LWRs, which can be considered only as a possible backup solution for plutonium recycling into PWRs

  14. Advancements in fabrication process of microelectrode array for a retinal prosthesis using Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joonsoo; Shin, Soowon; Lee, Geun Jae; Gwon, Tae Mok; Park, Jeong Hoan; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) has been considered as an alternative biomaterial for implantable biomedical devices primarily for its low moisture absorption rate compared with conventional polymers such as polyimide, parylene and silicone elastomers. A novel retinal prosthetic device based on monolithic encapsulation of LCP is being developed in which entire neural stimulation circuitries are integrated into a thin and eye-conformable structure. Micromachining techniques for fabrication of a LCP retinal electrode array have been previously reported. In this research, however, for being used as a part of the LCP-based retinal implant, we developed advanced fabrication process of LCP retinal electrode through new approaches such as electroplating and laser-machining in order to achieve higher mechanical robustness, long-term reliability and flexibility. Thickened metal tracks could contribute to higher mechanical strength as well as higher long-term reliability when combined with laser-ablation process by allowing high-pressure lamination. Laser-thinning technique could improve the flexibility of LCP electrode. PMID:24110931

  15. Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Development of advanced membrane process for treatment of radioactive liquid wastes'. 1. Surface modification technique of microfiltration membrane. Microporous hydrophobic polypropylene(PP) membrane were modified by radiation-induced grafting using hydrophilic monomers such as arylic acid(AAc), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA) and styrenesulfonic acid(SSS). The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. Also, copolymeric condition of AAc and EGDMA for nylon membrane was studied. The structure of grafted PP membrane was examined by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, SEM and contact angle. The grafted membrane was characterized by measureing the water flux, the ion exchange capacity or the binding capacity of the metal ions. A study on the permeation behavior of simulated waste water containing oil emulsion and characterization of membrane fouling was carried out in the crossflow membrane filtration process using capillary type PP microfiltration membrane modified by radiation induced grafting of HEMA. The effects of various operating parameters were investigated. 2. Electrofiltration Technology. In this section, the process conditions for fouling prevention of membrane by evaluating the effects of operational parameters such as external electric field strength, crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure, etc. on the permeate flux in electrofiltration were established and the process applicability for oil emulsion wastes containing surfactant using parallel plate type electrofiltration module was evaluated

  16. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VI. Helium in the Chromosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen and hydrides have recently been advanced as vital agents in the generation of emission spectra in the chromosphere. This is a result of the role they play in the formation of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS) within the chromosphere (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, 15–21). Next to hydrogen, helium is perhaps the most intriguing component in this region ...

  17. Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling in ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic coupling at the surface and in the bulk of ferromagnetic metals at liquid-helium temperatures has been studied using electromagnetically excited acoustic standing-wave resonances at MHz frequencies in a number of ferromagnetic metals and alloys of commercial interest. The...

  18. Liquid metal cooled reactors: Experience in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    on key fast reactor technology aspects in an integrative sense useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors. This publication has been prepared to contribute toward the IAEA activity to preserve the knowledge gained in the liquid metal cooled fast reactor (LMFR) technology development. This technology development and experience include aspects addressing not only experimental and demonstration reactors, but also all activities from reactor construction to decommissioning. This publication provides a survey of worldwide experience gained over the past five decades in LMFR development, design, operation and decommissioning, which has been accumulated through the IAEA programmes carried out within the framework of the TWG-FR and the Agency's INIS and NKMS

  19. Liquid metal cooled reactors and fuel cycles for international security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) have conducted several studies on small reactors. These efforts include studies on the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR), the Super, Safe, Small and Simple (4S) reactor, the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), and the ANL STAR-LM and STAR-H2 studies. Based on these studies, a concept called the Highly Secure Nuclear Fuel Cycle (HSNFC) is being introduced to focus on the fuel cycle and institutional elements of the STAR concept. The HSNFC foresees the development of small nuclear reactors suitable for remote regions and countries with limited or developing energy infrastructures. The HSNFC is intended to reduce the complexity and expense of eliminating concerns about nuclear proliferation and severe nuclear accidents, even when the user is in the initial phase of developing an energy infrastructure. It is the objective of HSNFC to make the environmental, energy security and reliability benefits of nuclear energy available to all at a competitive cost. A fundamental feature of the HSNFC and the STAR concept is that the nuclear fuel is contained within the sealed reactor vessel when shipped to the user; the spent fuel is then returned to the supplier without being removed from the reactor vessel. Small reactors with very long life nuclear cores are key to the HSNFC concept being competitive with alternative sources of energy. Evaluations completed to date have confirmed that a small liquid metal cooled reactor can likely achieve the performance necessary to make the HSNFC competitive. The ENHS and STAR-LM are examples of reactors that could be used in HSNFC and 4S, with some modification, may also be suitable. The application of these reactors in the HSNFC is discussed in this paper. The institutional conditions necessary to implement the HSNFC

  20. Study on novel ionic liquids as extracting agent for priority metals from waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the new EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) sets high environmental quality standards for priority substances in surface water, effective procedures for wastewater treatment are required. The characteristics of ionic liquids (IL) can be adjusted by modifying their ionic composition for liquid-liquid extraction of metals and metal containing compounds (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb, tributyltin, cancerostatic platinum compounds) from the water phase. The potential of novel IL for selective removal of the above mentioned substances regarding extraction time, pH and matrix were determined by ICPSFMS, HPLC-ICPMS and GC-ICPMS measurements. (author)

  1. The operating behaviour of indium-liquid metal ion emitters, operated against Bi-electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating behaviour of indium - liquid metal ion emitters, operated against Bi - electrodes, has been investigated. Contamination of the liquid indium film by backsputtered Bi lowers the melting point of the contaminated indium. Therefore, a deterioration of the operating characteristics is not expected. Surprisingly however, the firing voltage of the emitter increases quickly with operating time, until after about 700 μAh a practical voltage limit of 10 kV is exceeded. A microanalytical investigation shows that the thickness of the liquid metal film decreases quickly and the tip area gets almost completely de-wetted. (authors)

  2. Enhanced coupling of optical energy during liquid-confined metal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Wook, E-mail: wkang@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea and Center for Marine-integrated Biomedical Technology (MIBT), Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Welch, Ashley J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Liquid-confined laser ablation was investigated with various metals of indium, aluminum, and nickel. Ablation threshold and rate were characterized in terms of surface deformation, transient acoustic responses, and plasma emissions. The surface condition affected the degree of ablation dynamics due to variations in reflectance. The liquid confinement yielded up to an order of larger ablation crater along with stronger acoustic transients than dry ablation. Enhanced ablation performance resulted possibly from effective coupling of optical energy at the interface during explosive vaporization, plasma confinement, and cavitation. The deposition of a liquid layer can induce more efficient ablation for laser metal processing.

  3. Enhanced coupling of optical energy during liquid-confined metal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-confined laser ablation was investigated with various metals of indium, aluminum, and nickel. Ablation threshold and rate were characterized in terms of surface deformation, transient acoustic responses, and plasma emissions. The surface condition affected the degree of ablation dynamics due to variations in reflectance. The liquid confinement yielded up to an order of larger ablation crater along with stronger acoustic transients than dry ablation. Enhanced ablation performance resulted possibly from effective coupling of optical energy at the interface during explosive vaporization, plasma confinement, and cavitation. The deposition of a liquid layer can induce more efficient ablation for laser metal processing

  4. Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoelectric conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yù; Pei, Qi; Feng, Ting; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shuyao; Liu, Daliang; Wang, Hongyu; Song, Xi-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs.

  5. Liquid metal expulsion during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During laser spot welding of many metals and alloys, the peak temperatures on the weld pool surface are very high and often exceed the boiling points of materials. In such situations, the equilibrium pressure on the weld pool surface is higher than the atmospheric pressure and the escaping vapour exerts a large recoil force on the weld pool surface. As a consequence, the molten metal may be expelled from the weld pool surface. The liquid metal expulsion has been examined both experimentally and theoretically for the laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel. The ejected metal droplets were collected on the inner surface of an open ended quartz tube which was mounted perpendicular to the sample surface and co-axial with the laser beam. The size range of the ejected particles was determined by examining the interior surface of the tube after the experiments. The temperature distribution, free surface profile of the weld pool and the initiation time for liquid metal expulsion were computed based on a three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. By comparing the vapour recoil force with the surface tension force at the periphery of the liquid pool, the model predicted whether liquid metal expulsion would take place under different welding conditions. Expulsion of the weld metal was also correlated with the depression of the liquid metal in the middle of the weld pool due to the recoil force of the vapourized material. Higher laser power density and longer pulse duration significantly increased liquid metal expulsion during spot welding

  6. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Jing LIU

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional...

  7. Underside dropwise condensation of liquid metal in the clean-up separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 233U clean-up process uses laser isotope separation method based on the atomic route. The handling of metal vapour in the clean-up separator involves condensing of metal vapour and recycling of the liquid metal over long hours of operation. In the internal recycle mode of operation it is necessary to estimate the liquid hold up on the hot condensing substrate before it trickles back to the vapour generator. This paper describes a novel method of estimating the retained mass, based on self similar patterns

  8. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  9. Evaluation of W-Cu metal matrix composites produced by powder injection molding and liquid infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The near net shape processing of tungsten-copper metal matrix composites by powder injection molding and liquid copper infiltration was studied in this paper. In this technique, powder injection molded bimetallic components were produced. The component was debinded and subsequently heated to an elevated temperature. This facilitated the sintering of the high melting point metal and the liquidation of the lower melting point for infiltration into the preform of the former. Feasibility of this method in the manufacture of tungsten-copper metal matrix composites with high percentage copper, up to 38 wt.%, was demonstrated and mechanical properties were evaluated in this study

  10. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  11. Normal spectral emissivity of selected liquid metals and improved thermophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: Emissivity measurements on several liquid metals up to temperatures of 6000 K have been successfully established by linking a laser polarimetry technique to our well-known method for performing high speed measurements of thermophysical properties on liquid metal samples during microsecond pulse-heating experiments. Thermophysical properties measured with our experimental setup include temperature dependencies of heat capacity, enthalpy, electrical resistivity, density, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity up to the end of the stable liquid phase. During grant P12775-PHY additionally to the above listened properties the measurement of the change of the polarization of laser light reflected from the surface during pulse heating was enabled and thus now the temperature dependence of spectral emissivity at 684.5 nm by methods of ellipsometry is derived also. Several liquid metals and alloys have been investigated within this grant and a review of the data obtained will be given here. (author)

  12. Chemical behaviors of actinides and lanthanides in molten salts and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation processes using molten salts or liquid metals are interesting in view of spent fuel reprocessing and partitioning for nuclear transmutation before final radioactive waste disposals. Nevertheless, chemical behaviors of transuranium and lanthanide elements in non-aqueous solvents such as molten salts and liquid metals have been rarely studied. In the present study, thermodynamic properties of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm in two phase extraction system: molten LiCl-KCl and liquid Bi or Zn were investigated to obtain excess Gibbs free energy experimentally or by using thermodynamic relationships and to examine systematics of 4f and 5f elements in these phases. Thermodynamic stability and specificity of each elements in liquid metals and salts thus obtained can be successfully used to explain systematics of extractability of f-elements in these systems. (Ohno, S.)

  13. Fabrication methods and applications of microstructured gallium based liquid metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khondoker, M. A. H.; Sameoto, D.

    2016-09-01

    This review contains a comparative study of reported fabrication techniques of gallium based liquid metal alloys embedded in elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane or other rubbers as well as the primary challenges associated with their use. The eutectic gallium–indium binary alloy (EGaIn) and gallium–indium–tin ternary alloy (galinstan) are the most common non-toxic liquid metals in use today. Due to their deformability, non-toxicity and superior electrical conductivity, these alloys have become very popular among researchers for flexible and reconfigurable electronics applications. All the available manufacturing techniques have been grouped into four major classes. Among them, casting by needle injection is the most widely used technique as it is capable of producing features as small as 150 nm width by high-pressure infiltration. One particular fabrication challenge with gallium based liquid metals is that an oxide skin is rapidly formed on the entire exposed surface. This oxide skin increases wettability on many surfaces, which is excellent for keeping patterned metal in position, but is a drawback in applications like reconfigurable circuits, where the position of liquid metal needs to be altered and controlled accurately. The major challenges involved in many applications of liquid metal alloys have also been discussed thoroughly in this article.

  14. Carbon diffusion in friction welded joints of refractory metals in a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The carbon from shielding liquid decomposition interacts with the metals being welded. This applies to the surface layers on the flash. → In vanadium-vanadium and vanadium-other metal joints a marked increase in microhardness in a narrow zone at the surface of the joint and carbide segregations in this zone on the vanadium side occur. → In titanium joints an increase in carbon content in the weld zone occurs. - Abstract: The effect of carbon on materials joined by friction welding in a liquid was studied. Titanium and tantalum specimens resistance-heated in a liquid and then specimens friction-welded in a liquid were tested. Same-metal (titanium, vanadium, tantalum) joints and dissimilar-metal joints were friction welded. The distribution of microhardness in the friction welded joints and their microstructure and linear concentration profiles were determined. The carbon from shielding liquid decomposition interacts with the metals being welded. This applies to the surface layers on the flash. In vanadium-vanadium and vanadium-other metal joints a marked increase in microhardness in a narrow zone at the surface of the joint and carbide segregations in this zone on the vanadium side occur. In titanium joints an increase in carbon content in the weld zone occurs.

  15. Spectral emissivities and optical constants of electromagnetically levitated liquid metals as functions of temperature and wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Hauge, R. H.; Margrave, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a noncontact temperature measurement device utilizing rotating analyzer ellipsometry is described. The technique circumvents the necessity of spectral emissivity estimation by direct measurement concomittant with radiance brightness. Using this approach, the optical properties of electromagnetically levitated liquid metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, and Zr were measured in situ at four wavelengths and up to 600 K superheat in the liquid. The data suggest an increase in the emissivity of the liquid compared with the incandescent solid. The data also show moderate temperature dependence of the spectral emissivity. A few measurements of the optical properties of undercooled liquid metals were also conducted. The data for both solids and liquids show excellent agreement with available values in the literature for the spectral emissivities as well as the optical constants.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF METAL COMPLEXES OF β-DIKETONE BASED SIDE CHAIN LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYSILOXANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Fuzhou; ZHANG Rongben; JIANG Yingyan

    1991-01-01

    A new type of metal coordinated liquid crystalline polymers has been synthesized by complexation of metal ions with β-diketone based side chain liquid crystal polysiloxane (DKLCP).The complexation of copper ions with DKLCP greatly increases the phase transition temperature Tk from crystalline state to liquid crystalline state and Tcl from LC to isotropic state and makes the range of phase transition △T(△T= Tcl- Tk ) widened. These complexes are soluble in common organic solvents. However, the incorporation of europium ions into DKLCP molecules gives rise to reduction in liquid crystallinity and crosslinking in some cases. The DKLCP coordinated with suitable amount of Eu ions can show good liquid crystallinity and fluorescent property.

  17. Dancing with light advances in photofunctional liquid-crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in this field indicates that integrating photochromic molecules into LC materials enables one to photo-manipulate unique features such as photoinduced phase transition, photocontrolled alignment and phototriggered molecular cooperative motion, leading to their novel applications beyond displays. This book introduces readers to this field, from the primary- to the advanced level in photoresponsive LC materials. The subject is introduced step-by-step, including the basic knowledge of LCs, photoresponsive properties of LCs, and their detailed performances in the form of low-molecu

  18. Adsorption of heavy metals ions from liquid media by palygorskite

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, L; Bessarab, O.; Matko, S.; Malyovanyy, ?.

    2015-01-01

    The process of heavy metals adsorption by natural mineral palygorskite from wastewater and food (apple juice) has been investigated. The purification processes of copper, cadmium, lead, mercury and zinc have been studied. The rational technological parameters of these processes have been determined. The mechanism for heavy metals adsorbtion from juice by palygorskite has been defined. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????...

  19. Advances in the electrodeposition of aluminum from ionic liquid based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Kirt C.

    . Advancements of this nonaqueous aluminum plating process have the potential to lead to a novel and competitive commercial aluminum deposition process. In this investigation aluminum electrodeposition from ionic liquid based electrolytes onto steel, copper and magnesium substrates without conversion coatings or strike layers was evaluated in six different ionic liquid based electrolytes in two technical setups. Three of which are commercially available aluminum plating electrolytes, three of which, discussed in literature were created on site by research personnel in the laboratory. The three commercially available electrolytes were: 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) * 1.5 AlCl3 with proprietary additives from IoLiTec, and BasionicsTM AL-02, an aluminum plating electrolyte containing [EMIm]Cl * 1.5 AlCl3 with additives from BASF. The three electrolytes created on site were based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid with added 1.5 AlCl3 and one with added sodium dodecyl sulfate. Small scale plating tests in a 25-mL plating cell were conducted to provide a comparative analysis of the six different electrolytes considered. From these investigations, two were chosen to be evaluated in a larger 1-liter plating cell; designed and constructed to provide a more realistic evaluation of plating parameters with selected electrolytes to better portray industrial electroplating conditions. The effect of current density (10-40 mA/cm 2), temperature (30-90° Celsius) and plating bath agitation on current efficiency, corrosion resistance by the ASTM B117 method, adhesion, microstructure, and chemical composition (evaluated with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) of the plated Al-layer was explored in both the 25-mL and 1-L plating cell investigations. In addition development of pre- and post-treatment processes for the metal substrates was attempted. While

  20. Development of a high temperature, high sensitivity fission counter for liquid metal reactor in-vessel flux monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced liquid metal reactor concepts such as the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) and the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) have relatively large pressure vessels that necessitate in-vessel placement of the neutron detectors to achieve adequate count rates during source range operations. It is estimated that detector sensitivities of 5 to 10 counts/center dot/s/center dot//sup /minus/1//center dot/[neutron/(cm2/center dot/s)]/sup /minus/1/ will be required for the initial core loading. The Instrumentation and Controls Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed and fabricated a fission counter to meet this requirement which is also capable of operating in uncooled instrument thimbles at primary coolant temperatures of 500 to 600/degree/C. Components are fabricated from Inconel-600, and high temperature alumina insulators are employed. The transmission line electrode configuration is utilized to minimize capacitive loading effects

  1. Advanced gas-to-liquids processes for syngas and liquid-phase conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, E.P.; Tijm, P.J.A.; Bennett, D.L. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Conventional technology options may lead to commercially viable gas-to-liquids (GTL) projects which are very large, have favorable site specific factors or very low natural gas costs. New and lower cost technology will be required to enable GTL, to be broadly useful for remote gas monetization as a liquid fuel. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is currently developing two separate technologies which would result in a significant reduction in the capital investment required for GTL, product plants. ITM Syngas is one of Air Products proprietary syngas technologies. It is in the early stages of development, but has the potential for very significant reductions in the cost of syngas, an important intermediate for GTL production. Air Products, along with its partners, have recently been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an $85MM, three phase program to develop this ITM Syngas technology. The program will take eight years and culminate in a 15,000,000 SCFD pre-commercial syngas demonstration plant. In addition to ITM Syngas, in April 1997 Air Products started up a commercial scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) plant which converts coal derived syngas to methanol using a slurry bubble column reactor. This technology is expected to reduce the cost of liquid synthesis. It also produces an environmentally superior alternative fuel and/or chemical feedstocks. 7 refs.

  2. Some recent developments in the field of liquid metal measuring techniques and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on new developments in the field of measuring techniques for liquid metal flows. We present three variants of a fully contactless electromagnetic flowmeter for determining the integral flow rate in a channel flow. Respective test measurements have been performed at a liquid sodium and lead loop, respectively. One of the sensors is of particular interest since its operation does not depend on the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal, hence it is independent on the melt temperature. The Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) provides the velocity profile along the ultrasonic beam, and has the capability to work even through some channel wall. We report on measurements in liquid sodium at 150oC. For higher temperatures, an integrated ultrasonic sensor with an acoustic wave-guide has been developed to overcome the limitation of ultrasonic transducers to temperatures lower than 200oC. This sensor can presently be applied at maximum temperatures up to 700oC. Stable and robust measurements have been performed in various PbBi flows. Further, we report on the development of a contactless magnetic tomography of the mean flow in liquid metals. This method gives the full three-dimensional mean velocity distribution in a liquid metal volume. Results from a laboratory demonstration experiment will be presented. (author)

  3. Experimental and calculated liquid-liquid interfacial tension in demixing metal alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter Hoyer; Ivan Kaban

    2006-01-01

    Liquid-liquid interfacial tension in binary and ternary Al-based monotectic systems has been determined experimentally with a tensiometric method in a wide temperature interval. The temperature dependence of the interfacial tension is well described by a power law function of the type σαβ~ (1 - T/Tc)δ with the critical exponent δ = 1.3 and a critical tem perature TC. Theoretical models describing the liquid-liquid interface in monotectic alloys and their applicability for calculation of the interfacial tension and its temperature dependence in binary systems are considered.

  4. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 105 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  5. Modelling of liquid metal flow and oxide film defects in filling of aluminium alloy castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X.; Jolly, M.; Yang, X.; Campbell, J.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid metal flow behaviours in different runner system designs have important effects on the mechanical strength of aluminium alloy castings. In this paper, a new model has been developed which is a two-dimensional program using a finite difference technique and the Marker and Cell (MAC) method to simulate the flow of liquid metal during filling a mould. In the program the Eulerian method has been used for the liquid metal flow, while the Oxide Film Entrainment Tracking Algorithm (OFET) method (a Lagrangian method) has been used to simulate the movement of the oxide film on the liquid metal surface or in the liquid metal flow. Several examples have been simulated and tested and the relevant results were obtained. These results were compared with measured bending strengths. It was found that the completed program was capable of simulating effectively the filling processes of different runner systems. The simulation results are consistent with the experiment. In addition, the program is capable of providing clearer images for predicting the distribution of the oxide film defects generated during filling a mould.

  6. Ultrasonic evaluation of status of nuclear reactors cooled by liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In new type nuclear reactors, the core is cooled by means of liquid metal. The use of heavy liquid metal for reactor devices under development possesses problems with the required inspection and maintenance due to the opaque nature of the medium. In contrast to water-cooled reactors there are no any other means except ultrasonic, which would enable to inspect inner reactor parts submerged in the hot liquid metal. For safety an ultrasonic imaging method for evaluation of status of a reactor has thus to be developed. The imaging system used for such purpose must operate in very harsh conditions including high temperature (160 - 400 C), chemical activity of the liquid metal and strong radiation (up to 30kGy/h). These conditions significantly restrict the possible architecture of the visualization system and materials, which can be used. For solution of this task, first it was necessary to develop ultrasonic transducers, which are able to operate in a heavy liquid metal in the temperature range from 160 to 450 C. The main problems are acoustic coupling of a piezoelectric element to a protector and wetting of the transducer by a heavy liquid metal. The best performance was obtained using the bismuth titanate piezoelectric transducers. The experiments have shown a reliable continuous operation of the proposed transducers in the liquid Pb/Bi alloy up to 1000 hours. The analysis of different imaging and image reconstruction techniques (such as SAFT and reflection tomography) has shown that for the selection of an optimal technique it is necessary to define very strictly the imaging tasks or at least to separate them into a few different groups. The investigations were carried out using modeling and measurements on mock-ups of reactor components of complicated geometry. (orig.)

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advances in the Computer Simulations of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zannoni, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Computer simulations provide an essential set of tools for understanding the macroscopic properties of liquid crystals and of their phase transitions in terms of molecular models. While simulations of liquid crystals are based on the same general Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques as are used for other fluids, they present a number of specific problems and peculiarities connected to the intrinsic properties of these mesophases. The field of computer simulations of anisotropic fluids is interdisciplinary and is evolving very rapidly. The present volume covers a variety of techniques and model systems, from lattices to hard particle and Gay-Berne to atomistic, for thermotropics, lyotropics, and some biologically interesting liquid crystals. Contributions are written by an excellent panel of international lecturers and provides a timely account of the techniques and problems in the field.

  8. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m−2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh–Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments. (paper)

  9. Acceptability of an Advance Directive That Limits Food and Liquids in Advanced Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, Ladislav; Stets, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals fear living with advanced dementia and may even commit suicide if they receive dementia diagnosis. Living with advanced dementia could be prevented if a person who cannot feed himself or herself would not be fed by others. The purpose of the study was to find out how acceptable would be an advance directive that includes discontinuation of feeding at certain stage of dementia for relatives of persons who died with dementia. All participants of 2 focus groups would be willing to indicate at least 1 condition in which they would not want to be fed. Some of them would be willing to make a proxy decision to stop feeding in the absence of advance directives. PMID:25313239

  10. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  11. Methodical study of cost-benefit analyses of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six American cost-benefit analyses (CBA) of nuclear energy and, in particular, of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) were analysed under the aspect of their methodical difficulties. Two different methodical approaches can be discerned which are related to two completely different applications, according to which the advantages and disadvantages of the breeder reactor are estimated in line with the basic concept of cost-benefit analysis. The analytical methods used to justify the continuation of the breeder-related research programme reveal that the specific energy-related technological and economic conditions of the geographic region considered have to be taken into account. The results of a CBA performed for the USA can therefore not be transferred to the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the in part strongly differing quantitative results the analyses reviewed do not suggest a clear and final decision in favour of the continuation of the American LMFBR research programme to the extent envisaged. In addition, neither by a positive nor by a negative overall result of the analysis can it be concluded that no other advanced electricity generating technology would have a more favourable cost-benefit ratio, or that the breeder-related research activities, which have been pursued for several years already, should be discontinued. (orig.)

  12. Lunar Oxygen Production and Metals Extraction Using Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Matthew; Paley, Mark Steven; Donovan, David N.; Karr, Laurel J.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results indicate that ionic liquids are promising media for the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith. IL acid systems can solubilize regolith and produce water with high efficiency. IL electrolytes are effective for water electrolysis, and the spent IL acid media are capable of regeneration.

  13. Probing the structure of a liquid metal during vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using aerodynamic levitation, vitrification of a ternary Zr–Cu–Al alloy was observed in-situ by high energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction in the temperature range from above the liquidus Tliq to well below the glass transition temperature Tg. The evolution of the atomic structure was studied using pair distribution functions (PDF) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Vitrification was rendered possible due to the enhanced stability of the undercooled Zr–Cu melt after Al addition. Results indicate three regimes in the liquid alloy’s structural pathway to vitrification. Short (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) develop significantly during cooling the liquid phase to the glassy state. The rate of structural rearrangements is enhanced in the super-cooled liquid between Tliq-140 K and Tg. The populations of atomic clusters with icosahedral local symmetry become predominant as Tg is approached and facilitate vitrification and suppression of crystal nucleation and growth. The scenario of a possible fragile to strong transition in the super-cooled liquid is discussed

  14. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shuai, E-mail: shuai.wei@asu.edu, E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Stolpe, Moritz, E-mail: shuai.wei@asu.edu, E-mail: m.stolpe@mx.uni-saarland.de; Gross, Oliver; Gallino, Isabella; Hembree, William; Busch, Ralf [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Evenson, Zach [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Campus C63, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Institut für Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Köln (Germany); Bednarcik, Jozef [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kruzic, Jamie J. [Material Science, School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near T{sub g}. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure.

  15. Linking structure to fragility in bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that the structural evolution of various bulk metallic glass-forming liquids can be quantitatively connected to their viscosity behavior in the supercooled liquid near Tg. The structural signature of fragility is identified as the temperature dependence of local dilatation on distinct key atomic length scales. A more fragile behavior results from a more pronounced thermally induced dilatation of the structure on a length scale of about 3 to 4 atomic diameters, coupled with shallower temperature dependence of structural changes in the nearest neighbor environment. These findings shed light on the structural origin of viscous slowdown during undercooling of bulk metallic glass-forming liquids and demonstrate the promise of predicting the properties of bulk metallic glasses from the atomic scale structure

  16. Facilitated transport of alkaline and alkaline earth metals through liquid membranes with acidic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from the liquid waste of nuclear plants is an important problem for both the defense arid the energy industries. Experiments with bulk liquid membranes and liquid membranes, immobilized on porous support, demonstrated the applicability of these systems for active transport of alkaline cations and Sr from alkaline to acidic solution against the concentration gradient of the metal. The mechanism of transport facilitated by fatty acids for alkali metals, or by di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid for Sr in the presence of Ca and EDTA, corresponds to the open-quotes big carrouselclose quotes model, according to which the carrier is distributed between the membrane and aqueous solutions, where metal/H+- ion exchange takes place. The rate limiting step is the reextraction of Sr from the membrane into the acceptor (acidic) solution and is determined by the diffusion of the protonated carrier from the stripping acidic solution through the corresponding unstirred layer

  17. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69Ga+, Ga++ and Ga2+ ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  18. Development of a wet vapor homogeneous liquid metal MHD power system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branover, H.; Unger, Y.; El-Boher, A.; Schweitzer, H.

    1991-09-01

    A feasibility study for the approval of liquid metal seeds recovery from a liquid metal vapor-inert gas mixture was conducted and presented in this report. The research activity included background studies on processes relating to mixing stream condenser performance, parametric studies and its experimental validation. The condensation process under study includes mass transfer phenomena combined with heat transfer and phase change. Numerical methods were used in order to solve the dynamic equations and to carry out the parametric study as well as the experimental data reduction. The MSC performance is highly effected by droplet diameter, thus the possibility of atomizing liquid metals were experimentally investigated. The results are generalized and finally used for a set of recommendations by which the recovery of seeds is expected to be feasible.

  19. The questions of liquid metal two-phase flow modelling in the FBR core channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-fluid model representation for calculations of two-phase flow characteristics in the FBR fuel pin bundles with liquid metal cooling is presented and analysed. Two conservation equations systems of the mass, momentum and energy have been written for each phase. Components accounted the mass-, momentum- and heat transfer throughout the interface occur in the macro-field equations after the averaging procedure realisation. The pattern map and correlations for two-fluid model in vertical liquid metal flows are presented. The description of processes interphase mass- and heat exchange and interphase friction is determined by the two-phase flow regime. The opportunity of the liquid metal two-phase flow regime definition is analysed. (author)

  20. Vertical flow in the Thermoelectric Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Structures (TELS) facility at Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W. [Center for Plasma-Material Interaction, Dept. Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Fiflis, P., E-mail: fiflis1@illinois.edu [Center for Plasma-Material Interaction, Dept. Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Szott, M.; Kalathiparambil, K.; Jung, S.; Christenson, M.; Haehnlein, I.; Kapat, A. [Center for Plasma-Material Interaction, Dept. Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); Andruczyk, D. [Center for Plasma-Material Interaction, Dept. Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); PPPL (United States); Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Center for Plasma-Material Interaction, Dept. Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Flowing liquid metal PFCs may offer a solution to the issues faced by solid divertor materials in tokamak plasmas. The Liquid–Metal Infused Trenches (LiMIT) concept of Illinois Ruzic et al. (2011) is a liquid metal plasma facing structure which employs thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) effects to self-propel lithium through a series of trenches. The combination of an incident heat flux and a magnetic field provide the driving mechanism. Tests have yielded experimental lithium velocities under different magnetic fields, which agree well with theoretical predictions Xu et al. (2013). The thermoelectric force is expected to overcome gravity and be able to drive lithium flow along an arbitrary direction and the strong surface tension of liquid lithium is believed to maintain the surface when Li flows in open trenches. This paper discusses the behavior of the LiMIT structure when inclined to an arbitrary angle with respect to the horizontal.

  1. Performance test of electromagnetic pump on heavy liquid metal in PREKY-I facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    li, X. L.; Ma, X. D.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Li, Y.; Lv, K. F.

    2016-05-01

    Pump is a key sub-system which drives the heavy liquid metal circulation in experimental loops. In the paper, the hydraulic and mechanical performances of an electromagnetic pump (EMP) were tested in the liquid metal test facility named PREKY-I. The test results showed that the EMP worked at good state when the working current was up to 170 ampere. In this condition, the flow rate was 5m3/h, and pressure head 7.5bar, when the outlet temperature was kept at 380°C during the test. The performance was close to the expected design parameters. The EMP had run continuously for 200 hours with stable performance. From the test results, the EMP could be used in KYLIN-II loop, which is the upgrade liquid metal test loop of PREKY-I.

  2. Heat transfer to liquid metal: Review of data and correlations for tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four sets of experimental data (total of 658 data points) for heat transfer to liquid metals (NaK of different compositions and Hg) flowing in a triangular or square lattice of cylindrical rods with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.1 up to 1.95 for a wide range of Peclet numbers (30-5000) were reviewed, and analysed using a number of correlations recommended for liquid metal flowing in tube bundles. A new correlation has been derived as a best fit to the data analysed. The quality of the correlations was estimated quantitatively by comparing their predictions with the test data. The estimated accuracies of the correlations for the different test conditions are presented in the paper and can be used to help to select the heat transfer models for designing complex systems cooled by liquid metals, e.g. Generation-IV lead- or sodium-cooled nuclear reactor cores, heat exchangers, etc

  3. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  4. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  5. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

  6. Efficient separation of transition metals from rare earths by an undiluted phosphonium thiocyanate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2016-06-21

    The ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium thiocyanate has been used for the extraction of the transition metal ions Co(ii), Ni(ii), Zn(ii), and the rare-earth ions La(iii), Sm(iii) and Eu(iii) from aqueous solutions containing nitrate or chloride salts. The transition metal ions showed a high affinity for the ionic liquid phase and were efficiently extracted, while the extraction efficiency of the rare-earth ions was low. This difference in extraction behavior enabled separation of the pairs Co(ii)/Sm(iii), Ni(ii)/La(iii) and Zn(ii)/Eu(iii). These separations are relevant for the recycling of rare earths and transition metals from samarium cobalt permanent magnets, nickel metal hydride batteries and lamp phosphors, respectively. The extraction of metal ions from a chloride or nitrate solution with a thiocyanate ionic liquid is an example of "split-anion extraction", where different anions are present in the aqueous and ionic liquid phase. Close to 100% loading was possible for Co(ii) and Zn(ii) up to a concentration of 40 g L(-1) of the transition metal salt in the initial aqueous feed solution, whereas the extraction efficiency for Ni(ii) gradually decreased with increase in the initial feed concentration. Stripping of Co(ii), Zn(ii) and Ni(ii) from the loaded ionic liquid phase was possible by a 15 wt% NH3 solution. The ionic liquid could reused after extraction and stripping. PMID:27243450

  7. Advanced and new developments in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Ravn, Bjarne Gottlieb; Arentoft, Mogens

    Increasing demands to manufacturing industry of faster, better and cheaper production has intensified the research and development of bulk metal forming. The present paper gives examples on European industrial research on secondary bulk metal forming processes. The R&D follows three lines of appr...

  8. Carboxyl-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids for Solubilizing Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Nockemann, Peter; Thijs, Ben; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Tinant, Bernard; Hartenbach, Ingo; Schleid, Thomas; Vu Thi, Ngan; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Binnemans, Koen

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and quaternary ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salts were functionalized with a carboxyl group. These ionic liquids are useful for the selective dissolution of metal oxides and hydroxides. Although these hydrophobic ionic liquids are immiscible with water at room temperature, several of them form a single phase with water at elevated temperatures. Phase separation occurs upon cooling. This thermomorphic behavior ha...

  9. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. MHD analysis and heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal thin film flows in quasi-coplanar magnetic field for Tokamak liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical analysis of an open-channel liquid metal thin film with a quasi-coplanar strong applied magnetic field is carried out for a liquid metal divertor of tokamak device. The wall conductance ratio and the magnetic field inclinded angle appear to be the most important parameters to explain flow characteristics. As the flow rate increases, the velocity distribution with applied magnetic field is flat in the core region of flow and has jets at free surface of liquid metal film flow. In case of conductive walls, that effect is larger than insulated walls since open-channel, induced current circuits are constructed through walls, which causes a large magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) drag in that region. In case with inclined magnetic field, as the flow rate increases, the film height increases and the flow experiences three regimes whether wall is conductive ro not. Regime 1 is dominant by the viscous force, regime 2 by the film height direction component of magnetic field (y component), and regime 3 by the channel width direction component of magnetic field (z component). Characteristics and limits of each regime are examined. Using calculated velocity distributions, heat transfer at the free surface is examined. In case of ordinary hydrodynamic flow, the heat removal characteristic is superior to the MHD case

  11. Photolithography-Based Patterning of Liquid Metal Interconnects for Monolithically Integrated Stretchable Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Moon, Yu Gyeong; Seong, Hyejeong; Jung, Soon Won; Oh, Ji-Young; Na, Bock Soon; Park, Nae-Man; Lee, Sang Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Koo, Jae Bon

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate a new patterning technique for gallium-based liquid metals on flat substrates, which can provide both high pattern resolution (∼20 μm) and alignment precision as required for highly integrated circuits. In a very similar manner as in the patterning of solid metal films by photolithography and lift-off processes, the liquid metal layer painted over the whole substrate area can be selectively removed by dissolving the underlying photoresist layer, leaving behind robust liquid patterns as defined by the photolithography. This quick and simple method makes it possible to integrate fine-scale interconnects with preformed devices precisely, which is indispensable for realizing monolithically integrated stretchable circuits. As a way for constructing stretchable integrated circuits, we propose a hybrid configuration composed of rigid device regions and liquid interconnects, which is constructed on a rigid substrate first but highly stretchable after being transferred onto an elastomeric substrate. This new method can be useful in various applications requiring both high-resolution and precisely aligned patterning of gallium-based liquid metals. PMID:27250997

  12. Some recent developments in the field of liquid metal measuring techniques and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Liquid metal cooling or liquid metal targets belong to innovative reactor concepts such as the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor or the lead-bismuth target in a transmutation system. The safe and reliable operation of liquid metal systems requires corresponding measuring systems and control units, both for the liquid metal single-phase flow as well as for gas bubble liquid metal two-phase flows. We report on some recent developments in this field. Integral flow rate measurements are an important issue. We describe two new, fully contactless electromagnetic solutions and related test measurements at available sodium and lead loops. One of the sensors is of particular interest since its operation does not depend on the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal, hence it is independent on the melt temperature. A development of the past decade is the local velocity measurement by application of the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV). It provides the velocity profile along the ultrasonic beam, and has the capability to work even through some channel wall. We report on measurements in liquid sodium at 150 deg. C. For higher temperatures, an integrated ultrasonic sensor with an acoustic wave-guide has been developed to overcome the limitation of ultrasonic transducers to temperatures lower than 200 deg. C. This sensor can presently be applied at maximum temperatures up to 700 deg. C. Stable and robust measurements have been performed in various PbBi flows in our laboratory at FZD as well as at the THESYS loop of the KALLA laboratory of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany (FZK). We will present experimental results obtained in a PbBi bubbly flow at 250...300 deg. C. Argon bubbles were injected through a single orifice in a cylindrical container filled with stagnant PbBi. Velocity profiles were measured in the bubble plume. At the THESYS loop of FZK, stable velocity profiles were measured in a round tube of diameter 60 mm during a period of about 72 hours

  13. Transient Temperature of Liquid on Micro Metal Layer Heated by Pulsed Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJi; ZhangZhengfangtffu

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed high energy laser is simulated by numerical method ,especially around the theoretical homogeneous boiling point (THBP),The relationship between temperature rising rate and laser fluence is obtained;and under different temperature rising rate the distributions of temperature in liquid and metal around the THBP are obtained.With numerical simulation the relation between the temperature rising rate and laser parameters(fluence and pulse width)is known and so in the future the rapid transient boiling phenomenon could be studed and analyzed.

  14. Inverse correlation between cohesive energy and thermal expansion coefficient in liquid transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume expansion coefficients (α) of twenty-five glass-forming transition metal alloy liquids, measured using the electrostatic levitation technique, are reported. An inverse correlation between α and the cohesive energy is found. The predicted values of α from this relationship agree reasonably well with the published data for thirty other transition metal and alloy liquids; some disagreement was found for a few alloys containing significant amounts of group III and IV elements. A theoretical argument for this empirical relationship is presented. (paper)

  15. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  16. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed

  17. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  18. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  19. Influence of liquid metal infiltration on the superconducting characteristics of niobium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully stabilized multifilamentary NbN superconductor was prepared using a combination of physical vapor deposition of NbN on graphite fibers followed by liquid metal infiltration using copper or aluminum. The resulting conductor assumed a finely divided multifilamentary form embedded in a matrix of conductive copper or aluminum. The geometry provided high stability to flux jumps and high quench protection. The effects of liquid metal infiltration and process variables on the electrical properties were determined. Critical current dependence on field strength and stabilizer residual resistivity ratio are discussed

  20. Numerical simulation on single bubble rising behavior in liquid metal using moving particle semi-implicit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas-lift pump in liquid metal cooling fast reactor (LMFR) is an innovational conceptual design to enhance the natural circulation ability of reactor core. The two-phase flow character of gas-liquid metal makes significant improvement of the natural circulation capacity and reactor safety. In present basic study, the rising behavior of a single nitrogen bubble in five kinds of liquid metals (lead bismuth alloy, liquid kalium, sodium, potassium sodium alloy and lithium lead alloy) was numerically simulated using moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. The whole growing process of single nitrogen bubble in liquid metal was captured. The bubble shape and rising speed of single nitrogen bubble in each liquid metal were compared. The comparison between simulation results using MPS method and Grace graphical correlation shows a good agreement. (authors)

  1. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  2. Gravitational flow of a thin film of liquid metal in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a poloidal magnetic field of the spherical Tokamak on super thin (h ≈ 0.1 mm) film flow of liquid metal driven by gravity over the surface of the cooled divertor plate is addressed. The experimental setup developed at the Institute of Physics, University of Latvia (IPUL) is described, which makes it possible to drive and visualize such liquid metal flows in the solenoid of the superconducting magnet “Magdalena”. As applied to the above setup, the magnetic field effect on the operation of the capillary system of liquid metal flow distribution (CSFD) is evaluated by using molten metal (lithium or eutectic InGaSn alloy) with a very small linear flowrate q ≤ 1 mm2/s, spread uniformly across the substrate. The magnetic field effect on the main parameters of the fully developed film flow is estimated for the above-mentioned liquid metals. An approximation technique has been proposed to calculate the development of the gravitational film flow. A non-linear differential second order equation has been derived, which describes the variation of the film flow thickness over the substrate length versus the flowrate q, magnetic field B and the substrate sloping α. Results of InGaSn film flow observations in a strong (B = 4 T) poloidal magnetic field are presented. Analysis of the video records evidences of experimental realization of a stable stationary film flow at width-uniform supply of InGaSn

  3. Gravitational flow of a thin film of liquid metal in a strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platacis, E.; Flerov, A.; Klukin, A.; Ivanov, S.; Sobolevs, A.; Shishko, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, 32 Miera Street, Salaspils LV-2169 (Latvia); Zaharov, L., E-mail: zakharov@pppl.gov [Princeton University, PPPL, MS-27, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gryaznevich, M. [Tokamak Solutions UK Ltd., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    The influence of a poloidal magnetic field of the spherical Tokamak on super thin (h ≈ 0.1 mm) film flow of liquid metal driven by gravity over the surface of the cooled divertor plate is addressed. The experimental setup developed at the Institute of Physics, University of Latvia (IPUL) is described, which makes it possible to drive and visualize such liquid metal flows in the solenoid of the superconducting magnet “Magdalena”. As applied to the above setup, the magnetic field effect on the operation of the capillary system of liquid metal flow distribution (CSFD) is evaluated by using molten metal (lithium or eutectic InGaSn alloy) with a very small linear flowrate q ≤ 1 mm{sup 2}/s, spread uniformly across the substrate. The magnetic field effect on the main parameters of the fully developed film flow is estimated for the above-mentioned liquid metals. An approximation technique has been proposed to calculate the development of the gravitational film flow. A non-linear differential second order equation has been derived, which describes the variation of the film flow thickness over the substrate length versus the flowrate q, magnetic field B and the substrate sloping α. Results of InGaSn film flow observations in a strong (B = 4 T) poloidal magnetic field are presented. Analysis of the video records evidences of experimental realization of a stable stationary film flow at width-uniform supply of InGaSn.

  4. Canonical Models of Geophysical and Astrophysical Flows: Turbulent Convection Experiments in Liquid Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Planets and stars are often capable of generating their own magnetic fields. This occurs through dynamo processes occurring via turbulent convective stirring of their respective molten metal-rich cores and plasma-based convection zones. Present-day numerical models of planetary and stellar dynamo action are not carried out using fluids properties that mimic the essential properties of liquid metals and plasmas (e.g., using fluids with thermal Prandtl numbers Pr < 1 and magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm ≪ 1. Metal dynamo simulations should become possible, though, within the next decade. In order then to understand the turbulent convection phenomena occurring in geophysical or astrophysical fluids and next-generation numerical models thereof, we present here canonical, end-member examples of thermally-driven convection in liquid gallium, first with no magnetic field or rotation present, then with the inclusion of a background magnetic field and then in a rotating system (without an imposed magnetic field. In doing so, we demonstrate the essential behaviors of convecting liquid metals that are necessary for building, as well as benchmarking, accurate, robust models of magnetohydrodynamic processes in Pm ≪  Pr < 1 geophysical and astrophysical systems. Our study results also show strong agreement between laboratory and numerical experiments, demonstrating that high resolution numerical simulations can be made capable of modeling the liquid metal convective turbulence needed in accurate next-generation dynamo models.

  5. Temperature dependence of structural and transport properties of less-simple liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the shear viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients for certain less-simple liquid metals at various temperatures. The basic assumption undertaken is that these properties of a liquid metal resemble those of an appropriate hard sphere fluid. The temperature dependence of the basic ingredients, i.e. the hard sphere diameter and packing fraction is considered via a full thermodynamic perturbation formalism. The essential features inherited by these metals are included in the relevant electron-ion interactions. A variational procedure leading to a minimization of the free energy is employed to determine the optimum values of the hard sphere diameters and packing fractions. These optimal and self-consistent ingredients are employed in computing the shear viscosity and self-diffusion coefficients of Ag, Hg, Ga and Sn. The calculated results are found to be in agreement with the experimental and the available theoretical results for most of these metals. (author)

  6. Improvement of the composite materials used for detecting liquid metal leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main specification application concerns a composite material employed for detecting liquid metal leaks. This metal includes a fabric of refractory and electrically insulating mineral thread in to which conducting electric wires, electrically insulated in relation to the external surfaces of the fabric, are inserted at regular intervals. When this material is used for detecting liquid metal leaks, in particular along a pipe in which this metal is flowing, a strip of this material is placed under the pipe so as to form a trough, or else is wrapped right round it, particularly where the leaks are likely to be greater. The conducting electric wires inserted in the fabric are connected to an electric insulation fault detector enabling the changes in electric resistance between each continuous conducting wire component and its neighbour to be monitored and possibly between each component of the continuous conducting wire and the earth

  7. Enhanced Liquid Metal Micro Droplet Generation by Pneumatic Actuation Based on the StarJet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel pneumatic actuation system for generation of liquid metal droplets according to the so-called StarJet method. In contrast to our previous work, the performance of the device has been significantly improved: the maximum droplet generation frequency in continuous mode has been increased to fmax = 11 kHz (formerly fmax = 4 kHz. In addition, the droplet diameter has been reduced to 60 μm. Therefore, a new fabrication process for the silicon nozzle chips has been developed enabling the production of smaller nozzle chips with higher surface quality. The size of the metal reservoir has been increased to hold up to 22 mL liquid metal and the performance and durability of the actuator has been improved by using stainless steel and a second pneumatic connection to control the sheath flow. Experimental results are presented regarding the characterization of the droplet generation, as well as printed metal structures.

  8. Electron-Hole Liquids in Transition Metal Oxide Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Millis, Andrew J.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2010-01-01

    Appropriately designed transition metal oxide heterostructures involving small band gap Mott insulators are argued to support spatially separated electron and hole gasses at equilibrium. Spatial separations and carrier densities favoring the formation of excitonic states are achievable. The excitonic states may exhibit potentially novel properties. Energetic estimates are given, candidate material systems are discussed, and the possibility of large photvoltaic effects is mentioned

  9. Selective Single-Step Separation of a Mixture of Three Metal Ions by a Triphasic Ionic-Liquid-Water-Ionic-Liquid Solvent Extraction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blockx, Jonas; De Coster, Hendrik; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-08-10

    In a conventional solvent extraction system, metal ions are distributed between two immiscible phases, typically an aqueous and an organic phase. In this paper, the proof-of-principle is given for the distribution of metal ions between three immiscible phases, two ionic liquid phases with an aqueous phase in between them. Three-liquid-phase solvent extraction allows separation of a mixture of three metal ions in a single step, whereas at least two steps are required to separate three metals in the case of two-liquid-phase solvent extraction. In the triphasic system, the lower organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid betainium- or choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, whereas the upper organic phase is comprised of the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The triphasic system was used for the separation of a mixture of tin(II), yttrium(III), and scandium(III) ions. PMID:26178665

  10. Responding to change - The evolution of operator training for the PFR liquid metals disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashmore, Stephen [RWE NUKEM Limited, Kelburn Court, Daten Park, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire, WA3 6TW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    helped to support the main mission of reactor development. In July 1988, the Government announced the termination of the UK Fast Reactor Research programme. PFR would cease operations in 1994. By the end of 1995, UKAEA had changed almost beyond recognition. A major slice of it had been re-christened AEA. In the same year, the contract for ridding PFR of its liquid metals legacy was placed with a group of companies; NNC - principal contractor; AEAT - LMS design and build and operation of the LMD plant; and Framatome, who designed the sodium reaction equipment. Post privatization, AEAT had retained its former presence at PFR, constituting the majority of the workforce, including the shift teams responsible for plant safety and surveillance. The PFR Liquid Metals Disposal Plant (LMD) conformed largely to the design proposed three years earlier. Sodium and NaK would be transferred from their various locations within the facility via a dedicated Liquid Metals Supply (LMS) pipe-work system to a purpose build Sodium Disposal Plant (SDP), where it would be reacted with a caustic solution. The resulting concentrated salt solution would be filtered and discharged to sea via the site's liquid effluent treatment plant. AEAT was subcontracted to carry out major packages of LMD design and build, and to operate the plant. The operational life of the plant was estimated to be 2 years at the designed throughput of 2.5 te sodium per day, based on 80% availability. By the summer of 1998 LMD construction was well advanced. An LMD Operations Supervisor was in place and discussions on the opportune time to recruit the SDP operators were in progress, when a wide ranging Dounreay Safety Audit identified a number of safety improvements, one of which was the need for UKAEA to exercise greater control over its contractors. Consequently, the original LMD contractual arrangements becoming less favorable, UKAEA placed an operating contract directly with AEAT. In order to demonstrate best

  11. Responding to change - The evolution of operator training for the PFR liquid metals disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    helped to support the main mission of reactor development. In July 1988, the Government announced the termination of the UK Fast Reactor Research programme. PFR would cease operations in 1994. By the end of 1995, UKAEA had changed almost beyond recognition. A major slice of it had been re-christened AEA. In the same year, the contract for ridding PFR of its liquid metals legacy was placed with a group of companies; NNC - principal contractor; AEAT - LMS design and build and operation of the LMD plant; and Framatome, who designed the sodium reaction equipment. Post privatization, AEAT had retained its former presence at PFR, constituting the majority of the workforce, including the shift teams responsible for plant safety and surveillance. The PFR Liquid Metals Disposal Plant (LMD) conformed largely to the design proposed three years earlier. Sodium and NaK would be transferred from their various locations within the facility via a dedicated Liquid Metals Supply (LMS) pipe-work system to a purpose build Sodium Disposal Plant (SDP), where it would be reacted with a caustic solution. The resulting concentrated salt solution would be filtered and discharged to sea via the site's liquid effluent treatment plant. AEAT was subcontracted to carry out major packages of LMD design and build, and to operate the plant. The operational life of the plant was estimated to be 2 years at the designed throughput of 2.5 te sodium per day, based on 80% availability. By the summer of 1998 LMD construction was well advanced. An LMD Operations Supervisor was in place and discussions on the opportune time to recruit the SDP operators were in progress, when a wide ranging Dounreay Safety Audit identified a number of safety improvements, one of which was the need for UKAEA to exercise greater control over its contractors. Consequently, the original LMD contractual arrangements becoming less favorable, UKAEA placed an operating contract directly with AEAT. In order to demonstrate best

  12. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Laser-assisted chemical liquid-phase deposition of metals for micro- and optoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kordás, K. (Krisztián)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The demands toward the development of simple and cost-effective fabrication methods of metallic structures with high lateral resolution on different substrates - applied in many fields of technology, such as in microelectronics, optoelectronics, micromechanics as well as in sensor and actuator applications - gave the idea to perform this research. Due to its simplicity, laser-assisted chemical liquid-phase deposition (LCLD) has been investigated and applied for the metallization o...

  14. Dissolution rates and solubility of some metals in liquid gallium and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of liquid gallium and aluminum on some hard metals leading to dissolution and formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) under static conditions and rotation of a specimen is studied. The solubility parameters from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation were considered to estimate the stability of still not studied metals. The presented experimental data on solubility and corrosion in a wide temperature range allow to calculate a number of parameters useful in manufacturing and application of master-alloys

  15. Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Liquid-Vapor Coexistence of Metals Modeled Using Modified Empirical Pair Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ramana, A. Sai Venkata

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modified form of pair potential for metals. The parameters of the potential are obtained by fitting the cold curve of the potential to that obtained from the ab-initio calculations. Parameters have been obtained for Aluminum, Copper, Sodium and Potassium. To test the accuracy of the potentials, we performed particle-transfer molecular dynamics simulations and obtained the liquid-vapor coexistence curves of the above metals. We found that, in the cases of Sodium and Potassium, the...

  16. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  17. Ionic liquids supported on metal-organic frameworks: remarkable adsorbents for adsorptive desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Acidic ionic-liquids (IL) supported on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown to be beneficial for adsorptive desulfurization. A remarkable improvement in the adsorption capacity (ca. 71%) was observed in for ILs supported on MIL-101 compared with virgin MIL-101. The improved adsorptive performance might be explained by the acid-base interactions between the acidic ionic liquid and basic benzothiophene (BT). Moreover, from this study, it can be suggested that porous MOFs, supported with ionic liquids, may introduce a new class of highly porous adsorbents for the efficient adsorption of various compounds. PMID:24390909

  18. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  19. A Method to Manipulate Surface Tension of a Liquid Metal via Surface Oxidation and Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B; Khan, M Rashed; Dickey, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales, where interfacial tension is a dominant force. A variety of methods exist for controlling the interfacial tension of aqueous and organic liquids on this scale; however, these techniques have limited utility for liquid metals due to their large interfacial tension. Liquid metals can form soft, stretchable, and shape-reconfigurable components in electronic and electromagnetic devices. Although it is possible to manipulate these fluids via mechanical methods (e.g., pumping), electrical methods are easier to miniaturize, control, and implement. However, most electrical techniques have their own constraints: electrowetting-on-dielectric requires large (kV) potentials for modest actuation, electrocapillarity can affect relatively small changes in the interfacial tension, and continuous electrowetting is limited to plugs of the liquid metal in capillaries. Here, we present a method for actuating gallium and gallium-based liquid metal alloys via an electrochemical surface reaction. Controlling the electrochemical potential on the surface of the liquid metal in electrolyte rapidly and reversibly changes the interfacial tension by over two orders of magnitude ( ̴500 mN/m to near zero). Furthermore, this method requires only a very modest potential (tension is due primarily to the electrochemical deposition of a surface oxide layer, which acts as a surfactant; removal of the oxide increases the interfacial tension, and vice versa. This technique can be applied in a wide variety of electrolytes and is independent of the substrate on which it rests. PMID:26863045

  20. A liquid-metal reactor core demonstration experiment using HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the ferritic/martensitic HT-9 alloy as the cladding and duct material for the attainment of the high fuel burnup levels critical to the viability of an economical liquid-metal reactor fuel system. The CDE, a partial core loading of fuel and blanket assemblies in the US Department of Energy's Fast Flux Test Facility, has successfully attained its irradiation exposure goal of 3 yr. Consisting of ten fuel and six blanket assemblies in a heterogeneous core configuration, the CDE has clearly demonstrated the capability of the advanced fuel and blanket designs to attain high burnups and fast fluences. Each CDE fuel assembly consisted of 169 large-diameter fuel pins comprising mixed-oxide annular fuel pellets in sealed HT-9 cladding tubes. Each CDE blanket assembly consisted of 91 large-diameter pins comprising solid depleted uranium dioxide pellets in sealed HT-9 cladding tubes. The maximum-exposure CDE fuel assembly reached a peak pellet burnup of 163,900 MWd/ton metal (M) and a peak fast fluence (E > 0.1 MeV) of 23.3 x 1022 n/cm2. The maximum-exposure CDE blanket assembly reached a peak pellet burnup of 43 100 MWd/ton M and a peak fast fluence (E . 0.1 MeV) of 22.8 x 1022 n/cm2. Lead test fuel assemblies built to CDE specifications continue their successful irradiation and have attained burnups of > 238,000 MWd/ton M with accumulated fast fluences (E > 0.1 MeV) of > 38 x 1022 n/cm2. In-core measurements of HT-9 ducts and withdrawal loads of the assemblies indicate that duct distortion will not be a factor that limits the lifetime of the fuel or blanket assemblies. Comparison of the measured and predicted coolant outlet temperatures from the peak CDE fuel and blanket assemblies indicate the irradiation of the CDE has proceeded as planned. The CDE represents a tremendous success in demonstrating the lifetime capabilities of this advanced oxide system using the HT-9 ferritic alloy for structural materials

  1. Liquid phase micro-extraction: Towards the green methodology for ultratrace metals determination in aquatic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López J. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are normally found, in natural waters, in very low concentrations. Some of them are essential for life in low level; however, in higher level they are toxic. Therefore, analyzing their bio-available fraction is of main interest. Standard methodology is based in the collection of a number of samples from a water body. Collected samples must be stored, pre-treated and then analyzed. Pre-treatment usually involves pre-concentrating the metal, with the corresponding risk of contamination or loss of analyte. This way, punctual information is obtained from every sampling campaign. As an alternative, passive sampling techniques allow the continuous and coupled sampling-pre-treatment for heavy metals analysis, giving a better approach in the characterization of the studied water body. Liquid phase micro-extraction (LPME is a green analytical alternative for liquid-liquid extraction that promotes a reduction of sample volume, solvent needed and waste generation. Using these systems, polypropylene hollow fibers (HF with pores in their walls can be used. A few micro-liters of organic solvent are supported in the pores. The sample is placed in the outer part of the fiber and a receiving phase is placed in its inner part, allowing continuous liquid extraction of the metal from the sample. Several fibers with different physical features have been employed to analyzed total concentration and bio-availability of some heavy metals (Ag, Ni, Cu in natural water samples. Thanks to fibers configuration, devices for passive sampling based in HF-LPME could be designed. Advantages of this methodology over existing ones are supported because the receiving phase is liquid. As a consequence, retained metals do not need to be eluted from the acceptor prior to instrumental analysis.

  2. Viscosity properties and strong liquid behavior of Pr60Ni25Al15 bulk metallic glass-forming liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan; ZHANG Di; WANG ShuYing; NING QianYan; ZHENG CaiPing; YAN Yuan; LIU Jia; SUN MinHua

    2008-01-01

    Pr60Ni25Al15 bulk metallic glass in a cuboid form with dimensions of 2 mm×2 mm×55 mm by copper mold casting method was cast.The dynamic viscosity near the glass transition region for Pr60Ni25Al15 was measured by three-point beam bending methods.The fragility parameter m and activation energy for viscous flow of the liquid sample were calculated to be: m = 31.66, E= 10689.17 K, respectively.It was shown that the supercooled liquid of Pr60Ni25Al15 alloy behaved much closer to strong glasses.The variation of active energy with temperature in supercooled liquid was analyzed.It was found that Kivelson's super-Arrhenius equation is not suitable for description of the activation energy in a supercooled region of Bulk metallic glass, and there is a direct proportion between activation energy crystal-lization and activation energy of viscous flow.

  3. Thermal Stability Limits of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids Immobilized on Metal-Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babucci, Melike; Akçay, Aslı; Balci, Volkan; Uzun, Alper

    2015-08-25

    Thermal stability limits of 33 imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) immobilized on three of the most commonly used high surface area metal-oxides, SiO2, γ-Al2O3, and MgO, were investigated. ILs were chosen from a family of 13 cations and 18 anions. Results show that the acidity of C2H of an imidazolium ring is one of the key factors controlling the thermal stability. An increase in C2H bonding strength of ILs leads to an increase in their stability limits accompanied by a decrease in interionic energy. Systematic changes in IL structure, such as changes in electronic structure and size of anion/cation, methylation on C2 site, and substitution of alkyl groups on the imidazolium ring with functional groups have significant effects on thermal stability limits. Furthermore, thermal stability limits of ILs are influenced strongly by acidic character of the metal-oxide surface. Generally, as the point of zero charge (PZC) of the metal-oxide increases from SiO2 to MgO, the interactions of IL and metal-oxide dominate over interionic interactions, and metal-oxide becomes the significant factor controlling the stability limits. However, thermal stability limits of some ILs show the opposite trend, as the chemical activities of the cation functional group or the electron donating properties of the anion alter IL/metal-oxide interactions. Results presented here can help in choosing the most suitable ILs for materials involving ILs supported on metal-oxides, such as for supported ionic liquid membranes (SILM) in separation applications or for solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer (SCILL) and supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts in catalysis. PMID:26241084

  4. Localization of electromagnetic field on the “Brouwer-island” and liquid metal embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, V.V.; Zagaynov, V.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoe shosse, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo Pole, 10, 105064 Moscow (Russian Federation); Agranovski, I.E., E-mail: I.Agranovski@griffith.edu.au [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoe shosse, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); School of Engineering, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 QLD (Australia)

    2015-03-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) manifests itself as a sudden destruction of a metal sample if it is covered by a thin liquid film of eutectic mixture of specially selected metals. The proposed theoretical model of this phenomenon is based on an assumption related to the possibility of electromagnetic field localization in folds of interface between the phases or components of eutectic mixture filling cracks in solid metal surface (the typical example is In–Ga eutectic on Al-surface). Based on simultaneous presence of three different components in each space point of eutectic mixture (homogeneous In + Ga melt, solid In, and solid Ga), the system of interface folds could be simulated by the Brouwer surface – well known in topology. This surface separates three different components presented at each of its point. Such fractal surfaces posses by a finite volume. The volume occupied by the surface is defined as a difference between the eutectic mixture volume and the sum of volumes of its components. We investigate localization of external electromagnetic radiation in this system of folds. Due to very large magnitude of effective dielectric permeability of the considered system, at relative small volume change and fractal dimension of interface close to the value 3, the wave length of incident radiation inside the system is considerably decreased and multiscale folds are filled with localized photons. A probability of this process and the life time of the localized photons are calculated. The localized photons play crucial role in destruction of primary cracks in the metal surface. They are capable “to switch of” the Coulomb attraction of charge fluctuations on opposite “banks” of the crack filled with the eutectic. As a result, the crack could break down. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of liquid metal embrittlement has been developed. • Light localization has a strong influence on liquid metal embrittlement. • Light is localized in folds at

  5. Evaluation of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Method with radioactive indicators for the study of metal complexes of interest in Radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of radiopharmaceuticals used as diagnostic or therapeutic agents are coordination complexes of metal ions and thus the chemical equilibrium in solution of these types of agents is important as it can affect their behaviour in vivo. The possibility exists that, upon injection, the agent may dissociate and interact with ions present in plasma to give a totally different set of chemical species in solution. The behaviour of these agents is then a function of this new speciation. In dynamic systems such as blood plasma it is impossible to determine the speciation of an element without using powerful computer models. But screening of the potential radiopharmaceutical using any of available computer blood plasma model involve the determination of formation constants for the ligand of interest with important blood plasma metal-ions. Several works have been reported concerning the determination of formation constants using potentiometric method. However this method failure in systems where precipitates are formed at investigated ligand-to-metal ratios. To avoid precipitate formation and to study systems with high ligand-to-metal ratios (the most common situation in Radiopharmacy) we have used in this work the liquid-liquid extraction method with radioactive indicators for the determination of formation constants. The method is based on the competition of a well known so call 'competitive' ligand and the ligand under study. Briefly it can be described as followed: An organic solution of a competitive ligand is agitated with an aqueous solution of the desired metal complex. After achieving certain degree of equilibrium the distribution coefficient (E) as a function of the concentration of the ligand of interest is determined. Then the desired formation constant are calculated. This method has been used in this work for 153Sm-EDTMP, 90Y-citrate and 90Y-EDTA and the results are compared with previously reported values. 8-Hydroxiquinoline was used as competitive ligand

  6. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Thermodynamics and structure of liquid alkali metals from the charged-hard-sphere reference fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of thermodynamic properties of liquid alkali metals is re-examined in the approach based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and using the fluid of charged hard spheres in the mean spherical approximation as reference system, with a view to achieving consistency with the liquid structure factor. The perturbative variational calculation of the Helmholtz free energy is based on an ab initio and highly reliable nonlocal pseudopotential. Only limited improvement is found in the calculated thermodynamic functions, even when full advantage is taken of the two variational parameters inherent in this approach. The role of thermodynamic self-consistency between the equations of state of the reference fluid derived from the routes of the internal energy and of the virial theorem is then discussed, using previous results by Hoye and Stell. An approximate evaluation of the corresponding contribution to the free energy of liquid alkali metals yields appreciable improvements in both the thermodynamic functions and the liquid structure factor. It thus appears that an accurate treatment of thermodynamic self-consistency in the charged-hard-sphere system may help to resolve some of the difficulties that are commonly met in the evaluation of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid metals. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Compilation of data and descriptions for United States and foreign liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of design and engineering information pertaining to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which have operated, are operating, or are currently under construction, in the United States and abroad. All data has been taken from publicly available documents, journals, and books

  9. Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoelectric conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yù; Pei, Qi; Feng, Ting; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shuyao; Liu, Daliang; Wang, Hongyu; Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal sulfide (CdS, ZnS, Ag{sub 2}S)/GO nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic adherence. • Ionic liquid was used to link the metal sulfide and GO in the electrostatic adherence process. • The as-prepared samples showed enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.

  10. An overview of IPPE research on liquid metal fast reactor thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents brief information on the most significant researches in the fields of liquid metal hydrodynamics and heat transfer performed in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation 'Institute for Physics and Power Engineering' named after A.I.Leypunski applied to sodium-cooled fast reactors. Experimental methods for studying liquid metal thermohydraulics and applied measurement techniques are overviewed briefly in the paper. Some results of fundamental thermohydraulic investigations, such as quasi-universal character of velocity and temperature profile in liquid metals, if considered normally to the channel wall etc. are presented. Specific features of heat transfer in liquid metal cooled fuel subassembly are mentioned, among them there are: high level of coolant temperature; significant influence of an interchannel exchange on velocity and temperature distribution; an availability of contact thermal resistance; large azimuthal non-uniformity of velocity and temperature; 'conjugate' problem of heat transfer in combined geometry of fuel pin; an absence of stabilization of heat transfer in non-standard channels; an influence of non-uniform heat generation. Special attention is given to the temperature fields in fuel subassembly subjected to deformation because of radioactive swelling and creeping, as well as in case of blockage of a part of subassembly cross section. Some results of thermohydraulic investigation are demonstrated for intermediate heat exchangers, pressurized head collectors. Also the developed methods and codes of thermohydraulic calculations applied to fast reactor core are considered: subchannel approach, porous body model

  11. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules, Thermal-Hydraulics, TH-2: Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihman, Thomas C.

    This learning module is concerned with the temperature field, the heat transfer rates, and the coolant pressure drop in typical liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel assemblies. As in all of the modules of this series, emphasis is placed on developing the theory and demonstrating the use with a simplified model. The heart of the module is…

  12. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor with a grid making a coolant distribution chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the construction of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor without support for the fuel sub-assemblies but in which the support function of the fuel assembly and distribution of the coolant are ensured by components separate from the grid, each one of which fills the function of the other in the event of one of these components failing

  13. Simplified computational simulation of liquid metal behaviour in turbulent flow with heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work selected the available bibliography equations and empirical relationships to the development of a computer code to obtain the turbulent velocity and temperature profiles in liquid metal tube flow with heat generation. The computer code is applied to a standard problem and the results are considered satisfactory, at least from the viewpoint of qualitative behaviour. (author). 50 refs, 21 figs, 3 tabs

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF A LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE PROCESS FOR CLEANING METAL PARTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a demonstration of liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) as an alternative to chlorinated solvents for cleaning metal parts. It describes the LCO2 process, the parts tested, the contaminants removed, and results from preliminary laboratory testing and on-site d...

  15. Liquid metal anode X-ray tubes and their potential for high continuous power operation

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, G; David, B

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of electron-impact X-ray source is described in which X-rays are produced in a turbulently flowing liquid metal that is separated from the vacuum region of the X-ray source by a thin membrane. Following a summary of the physics of electron and photon transport applicable to the liquid metal anode X-ray (LIMAX), the three diffusion processes responsible for thermal transport in (electron diffusion, heat conduction and turbulent mixing) are briefly discussed and their relative importance is quantitatively assessed. A simple Gaussian model is presented allowing the characteristic ranges of the three diffusion processes to be combined into a mean total diffusion range. The extent to which heat diffuses in the time taken for the liquid metal stream to pass the electron focus permits the loadability (electron beam power density per unit maximum anode temperature rise) of the turbulently flowing liquid metal target to be assessed. A description of an experimental LIMAX facility constructed in these labo...

  16. Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun III. Insight into Solar Lithium Abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The apparent depletion of lithium represents one of the grea test challenges to modern gaseous solar models. As a result, lithium has been hypothes ized to undergo nuclear burning deep within the Sun. Conversely, extremely low lith ium abundances can be easily accounted for within the liquid metallic hydrogen mo del, as lithium has been hypothesized to greatly stabilize the formation of metalli c hydrogen (E. Zurek et al. A little bit of lithium does a lot for hydrogen. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA , 2009, v. 106, no. 42, 17640–17643. Hence, the abundances of lithium on th e solar surface can be explained, not by requiring the nuclear burning of this elem ent, but rather, by suggesting that the Sun is retaining lithium within the solar body in ord er to help stabilize its liquid metallic hydrogen lattice. Unlike lithium, many of t he other elements synthesized within the Sun should experience powerful lattice exclusio nary forces as they are driven out of the intercalate regions between the layered liquid me tallic hydrogen hexagonal planes (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metalli c Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Th eir Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys ., 2013, v. 2, in press. As for lithium, its stabilizing role within t he solar interior helps to account for the lack of this element on the surface of the Sun.

  17. Investigation of Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger Designs for Fission Surface Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Penswick, Barry; Robbie, Malcolm; Geng, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Fission surface power is an option for future Moon and Mars surface missions. High power nuclear reactor heated Stirling convertors are an option to provide reliable power for long duration outpost operations. This report investigates various design approaches for the liquid metal to acceptor heat exchange and clarifies the details used in the analysis.

  18. Calculations of two-phase flows in the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models used for the safety analysis of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors are considered. Models, taking into account sodium boiling in reactor channels (one-dimensional and many-dimensional approaches), fuel cladding melting, and movement of molten materials during loss of coolant, accidents are described

  19. Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoelectric conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal sulfide (CdS, ZnS, Ag2S)/GO nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic adherence. • Ionic liquid was used to link the metal sulfide and GO in the electrostatic adherence process. • The as-prepared samples showed enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs

  20. Black holes in the lab: A review of accretion experiments using plasmas and liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Cary

    2016-04-01

    In this talk, we will survey recent liquid metal and plasma experiments attempting to study the magnetorotational instability, and ultimately, turbulent transport of angular momentum in laboratory plasmas that can mimic the Keplerian velocity profiles of accretion disks. We will describe the basic requirements of such experiments, the techniques used to create such laboratory experiments, and then review the results obtained thus far. The experiments fall into two camps, the first of which use resisitve liquid metal in couette flow geometry, and the second of which uses confined plasma that is stirred by induction on the plasma boundary. The regimes covered by liquid metals are compimentary: liquid metals are very resistive but nearly inviscid and may be appropriate for modeling protostellar disks, while hot plasmas are more viscous than resisitve and may be appropriate for hot accretion disks around black holes. Both approaches have overcome major experimental hurdles and now have dimensionless parameters that are in a regime where the MRI should be observed.

  1. The measurement of self-diffusion coefficients in liquid metals with quasielastic neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QENS has proven to be a versatile tool to study self diffusion of atoms in liquid metals. Here it is shown, that coherent contributions to the signal in the small q limit appear as a flat and energy independent constant to the QENS signal in single-component liquid metals even for systems with a small incoherent scattering cross section, like aluminum. Container-less processing via electromagnetic or electrostatic levitation devices, especially designed for QENS, enables the in-situ measurement on liquid metallic droplets of sizes between 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. This gives access to the study of chemically reactive, refractory metallic melts and extends the accessible temperature range to undercoolings of several hundred Kelvin below the respective melting point. Compared to experiments using a thin-walled crucible giving hollow-cylindrical sample geometry it is shown that multiple scattering on levitated droplets is negligible for the analysis of the self-diffusion coefficient. QENS results of liquid germanium and 73germanium isotope mixtures, titanium, nickel, copper and aluminum are reviewed. The self-diffusion coefficients of these systems are best described by an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence around their respective melting points.

  2. Optimized random phase approximation for the structure of liquid alkali metals as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this letter is to stress that the way towards an unconventional optimized-random-phase-approximation (ORPA) approach to the structure of liquid metals is indicated, and in fact already a good first-order solution for such an approach is provided

  3. The measurement of self-diffusion coefficients in liquid metals with quasielastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QENS) has proven to be a versatile tool to study self diffusion of atoms in liquid metals. Here it is shown, that coherent contributions to the signal in the small q limit appear as a flat and energy independent constant to the QENS signal in single-component liquid metals even for systems with a small incoherent scattering cross section, like aluminum. Container-less processing via electromagnetic or electrostatic levitation devices, especially designed for QENS, enables the in-situ measurement on liquid metallic droplets of sizes between 5 mm to 10 mm in diameter. This gives access to the study of chemically reactive, refractory metallic melts and extends the accessible temperature range to an under-cooling of several hundred Kelvin below the respective melting point. Compared to experiments using a thin-walled crucible giving hollow-cylindrical sample geometry it is shown that multiple scattering on levitated droplets is negligible for the analysis of the self-diffusion coefficient. QENS results of liquid germanium and 73Ge isotope mixtures, titanium, nickel, copper and aluminum are reviewed. The self-diffusion coefficients of these systems are best described by an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence around their respective melting points. (author)

  4. Cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers and liquid hole- multipliers: advances in THGEM-based sensors for future noble-liquid TPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, L.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Erdal, E.; Israelashvili, I.; Rappaport, M. L.; Shchemelinin, S.; Vartsky, D.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; A, Breskin

    2015-11-01

    Dual-phase noble-liquid TPCs are presently the most sensitive instruments for direct dark matter detection. Scaling up existing ton-scale designs to the multi-ton regime may prove to be technologically challenging. This includes both large-area coverage with affordable high-QE UV-photon detectors, and maintaining high precision in measuring the charge and light signals of rare events with keV-scale energy depositions. We present our recent advances in two complementary approaches to these problems: large-area cryogenic gaseous photomultipliers (GPM) for UV-photon detection, and liquid-hole multipliers (LHM) that provide electroluminescence light in response to ionization electrons and primary scintillation photons, using perforated electrodes immersed within the noble liquid. Results from a 10 cm diameter GPM coupled to a dual-phase liquid- xenon TPC demonstrate the feasibility of recording - for the first time - both primary (“S1”) and secondary (“S2”) scintillation signals, over a very broad dynamic range. The detector, comprising a triple-THGEM structure with CsI on the first element, has been operating stably at 180 K with gains larger than 105; it provided high single-photon detection efficiency - in the presence of massive alpha-particle induced S2 signals; S1 scintillation signals were recorded with time resolutions of 1.2 ns (RMS). Results with the LHM operated in liquid xenon yielded large photon gains, with a pulse-height resolution of 11% (RMS) for alpha-particle induced S2 signals. The detector response was stable over several months. The response of the S2 signals to rapid changes in pressure lead to the conclusion that the underlying mechanism for S2 light is electroluminescence in xenon bubbles trapped below the immersed THGEM electrode. Both studies have the potential of paving the way towards new designs of dual- and single-phase noble-liquid TPCs that could simplify the conception of future multi-ton detectors of dark matter and other rare

  5. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Thomas J.; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can...

  6. Comment on “The limits of flexoelectricity in liquid crystals” [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Palffy-Muhoray, P.

    2013-01-01

    In their paper, using the principle of energy conservation, F. Castles, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles [AIP Advances 1, 032120 (2011)]10.1063/1.3624725 establish inequalities involving the elastic and dielectric constants and flexoelectric coefficients of liquid crystals. They then argue that recently measured values of flexoelectric coefficients by Harden do not obey these inequalities, hence they violate the principle of energy conservation. In this comment, we point out that in their calcul...

  7. Acoustic velocity measurement across the diameter of a liquid metal column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, C.A.; Wilcox, W.W.

    1978-05-15

    Present techniques for measuring sound velocity in liquid metals have been limited by the use of transducers which cannot survive in extreme temperature conditions. These methods also require relatively long measurement times. An optical noncontacting method has been developed which may be used for extremely short experimental times and very high temperatures and pressures. This technique is being incorporated into an isobaric expansion apparatus in which a 1 mm diam wire sample in a high pressure argon gas environment is resistively heated to melt within a time period of only a few microseconds. Before instability of the liquid column occurs, thermal expansion, enthalpy, and temperature are measured. The addition of the sound velocity measurement permits a more complete determination of the thermophysical properties of the liquid metal.

  8. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350 °C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150 °C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95 °C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

  9. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-12-31

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  10. Behavior of liquid metal droplets in an aspirating nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Mason, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of particle size, velocity, and relative mass flux were made on spray field produced by aspirating liquid tin into 350{degrees}C argon flowing through a venturi nozzle via a small orifice in the throat of the nozzle. Details of the aspiration and droplet formation process were observed through windows in the nozzle. The spatial distribution of droplet size, velocity, and relative number density were measured at a location 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Due to the presence of separated flow in the nozzle, changes in nozzle inlet pressure did not significantly effect resulting droplet size and velocity. This suggests that good aerodynamic nozzle design is required if spray characteristics are to be controlled by nozzle flow. 5 refs.

  11. 3-D printing of liquid metals for stretchable and flexible conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, Chris; Parekh, Dishit Paresh; Panich, Lazar; Ladd, Collin; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-06-01

    3-D printing is an emerging technology that has been used primarily on small scales for rapid prototyping, but which could also herald a wider movement towards decentralized, highly customizable manufacturing. Polymers are the most common materials to be 3-D printed today, but there is great demand for a way to easily print metals. Existing techniques for 3-D printing metals tend to be expensive and energy-intensive, and usually require high temperatures or pressures, making them incompatible with polymers, organics, soft materials, and biological materials. Here, we describe room temperature liquid metals as complements to polymers for 3-D printing applications. These metals enable the fabrication of soft, flexible, and stretchable devices. We survey potential room temperature liquid metal candidates and describe the benefits of gallium and its alloys for these purposes. We demonstrate the direct printing of a liquid gallium alloy in both 2-D and 3-D and highlight the structures and shapes that can be fabricated using these processes.

  12. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yunxia; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic finding...

  13. The development of a direct insulation layer for the liquid metal cooled fusion reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suppression of MHD pressure drops in the channels, in which liquid metal is flowing in a strong magnetic field, is necessary to get a sufficient cooling effect in the self-cooled liquid metal blanket or similar arrangements of a blanket structure. The MHD effects can significantly be reduced by means of electrical insulation of the flowing liquid metal against the structural material. The insulating material has to provide a resistivity of ≥ 25 Ωm, it has to be compatible with the liquid metal and should be sufficiently stable against irradiation damage and fracture due to thermal and mechanical cycling stresses. The liquid metal blanket fluid, Pb-17Li eutectic alloy, has the capacity to reduce the oxide layers which can be formed on austenitic and martensitic steels by means of high-temperature oxidation. It does not react with alumina in the temperature range of interest. Thus, the covering of structural material with alumina would be a solution of the problem of direct insulation of the structural material. Though several methods are known to cover steels with alumina layers, such methods do not appear to be feasible for the covering of the inner side of a large tubing system. The covering of the structural material with aluminum and the subsequent oxidation of this surface seems to open a way for the solution of this problem. Though the packing procedure of alitizing was known to offer a possibility to form surface layers rich in aluminum, the alternative method of hot-dip aluminizing was applied, since this procedure has the potential for the use in large dimensions and particularly for aluminizing inner sides of tubes

  14. International workshop on measuring techniques for liquid metal flows (MTLM). Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    The international workshop on 'Measuring techniques in liquid metal flows' (MTLM workshop) was organised in frame of the Dresden 'Innovationskolleg Magnetofluiddynamik'. The subject of the MTLM workshop was limited to methods to determine physical flow quantities such as velocity, pressure, void fraction, inclusion properties, crystallisation fronts etc. The present proceedings contain abstracts and viewgraphs of the oral presentations. During the last decades numerical simulations have become an important tool in industry and research to study the structure of flows and the properties of heat and mass transfer. However, in case of liquid metal flows there exists a significant problem to validate the codes with experimental data due to the lack of available measuring techniques. Due to the material properties (opaque, hot, chemical aggressive) the measurement of flow quantities is much more delicate in liquid metals compared to ordinary water flows. The generalisation of results obtained by means of water models to real liquid metal flows has often to be considered as difficult due to the problems to meet the actual values of n0n-dimensional flow parameters (Re, Pr, Gr, Ha, etc.). Moreover, a strong need has to be noted to make measuring techniques available tomonitor and to control flow processes in real industrial facilities. The objectives of the MTLM workshop were to: Review of existing information on a available techniques and experiences about the use in liquid metal flows, initiate a discussion between developers and potential users with respect to the actual need of information about the flow structure as well as the capabilities of existing and developing measuring techniques. Explore opportunities for co-operative R and D projects to expedite new developments and results, to share expertise and resources. (orig.)

  15. Polymer-Derived In- Situ Metal Matrix Composites Created by Direct Injection of a Liquid Polymer into Molten Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan; Terauds, Kalvis; Anilchandra, A. R.; Raj, Rishi

    2014-02-01

    We show that a liquid organic precursor can be injected directly into molten magnesium to produce nanoscale ceramic dispersions within the melt. The castings made in this way possess good resistance to tensile deformation at 673 K (400 °C), confirming the non-coarsening nature of these dispersions. Direct liquid injection into molten metals is a significant step toward inserting different chemistries of liquid precursors to generate a variety of polymer-derived metal matrix composites.

  16. Dynamic Behavior of Gas Nano-sized Bubbles in Liquid Phase of the Metal being Electrodeposited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.B. Girin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the experimental results which confirm the occurrence of foam on the crests of waves of metals being electrodeposited in the course of their wavelike flow under action of the external force of insignificant value directed parallel to the crystallization front. The mechanism of foam formation on the crests of waves of metals being electrodeposited, conditioned by the dynamic behavior of gas nano-sized bubbles in the liquid phase of the metal being electrodeposited, is offered. The paper also presents the mathematical models for analysis of the dynamic behavior of gas nano- and micro-sized bubbles in the Newtonian and power-law liquids. Results of calculations on obtained mathematical models with the use of MathCAD package are given.

  17. LIBS Detection of Heavy Metal Elements in Liquid Solutions by Using Wood Pellet as Sample Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the analysis of heavy metals in liquid samples. A new approach was presented to lower the limit of detection (LOD) and minimize the sample matrix effects, in which dried wood pellets absorbed the given amounts of Cr standard solutions and then were baked because they have stronger and rapid absorption properties for liquid samples as well as simple elemental compositions. In this work, we have taken a typical heavy metal Cr element as an example, and investigated the spectral feasibility of Cr solutions and dried wood pellets before and after absorbing Cr solutions at the same experimental conditions. The results were demonstrated to successfully produce a superior analytical response for heavy metal elements by using wood pellet as sample matrix according to the obtained LOD of 0.07 ppm for Cr element in solutions

  18. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...

  19. Recent advances in metathesis-derived polymers containing transition metals in the side chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Dragutan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This account critically surveys the field of side-chain transition metal-containing polymers as prepared by controlled living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP of the respective metal-incorporating monomers. Ferrocene- and other metallocene-modified polymers, macromolecules including metal-carbonyl complexes, polymers tethering early or late transition metal complexes, etc. are herein discussed. Recent advances in the design and syntheses reported mainly during the last three years are highlighted, with special emphasis on new trends for superior applications of these hybrid materials.

  20. Allotropic Carbon Nanoforms as Advanced Metal-Free Catalysts or as Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermenegildo Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper summarizes the use of three nanostructured carbon allotropes as metal-free catalysts (“carbocatalysts” or as supports of metal nanoparticles. After an introductory section commenting the interest of developing metal-free catalysts and main features of carbon nanoforms, the main body of this paper is focused on exemplifying the opportunities that carbon nanotubes, graphene, and diamond nanoparticles offer to develop advanced catalysts having active sites based on carbon in the absence of transition metals or as large area supports with special morphology and unique properties. The final section provides my personal view on future developments in this field.

  1. Recent advances in metathesis-derived polymers containing transition metals in the side chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Simionescu, Bogdan C; Demonceau, Albert; Fischer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    This account critically surveys the field of side-chain transition metal-containing polymers as prepared by controlled living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of the respective metal-incorporating monomers. Ferrocene- and other metallocene-modified polymers, macromolecules including metal-carbonyl complexes, polymers tethering early or late transition metal complexes, etc. are herein discussed. Recent advances in the design and syntheses reported mainly during the last three years are highlighted, with special emphasis on new trends for superior applications of these hybrid materials. PMID:26877797

  2. Observing the Growth of Metal-Organic Frameworks by In-Situ Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Joseph P.; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Denny, Michael S.; Park, Chiwoo; Browning, Nigel D.; Cohen, Seth M.; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2015-06-17

    Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy (LCTEM) can provide direct observations of solution phase nanoscale materials, and holds great promise as a tool for monitoring dynamic self assembly processes. Control over particle behavior within the liquid cell, and under electron beam irradiation, is of paramount importance for this technique to contribute to our understanding of chemistry and materials science at the nanoscale. However, this type of control has not been demonstrated for complex, organic macromolecular materials, which form the basis for all biological systems, all of polymer science, and encompass important classes of advanced porous materials. Here we show that by controlling the liquid cell surface chemistry and electron beam effects, the dynamics and self-assembly of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be observed. Our results demonstrate that hybrid organic/inorganic beam sensitive materials can be analyzed with LCTEM and at least in the case of Zif-8 dynamics, the results correlate with observations from bulk growth or other standard synthetic conditions. We anticipate that direct, nanoscale imaging by LCTEM of MOF nucleation and growth mechanisms, may provide insight into controlled MOF crystal morphology, domain composition, and processes influencing defect formation.

  3. Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Rectangular Liquid Metal Pool With Bottom Heating and Top Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics with subcooled coolant to create engineering database for basic applications in a lead alloy cooled reactor. Tests are performed in the ALTOS (Applied Liquid-metal Thermal Operation Study) apparatus as part of MITHOS (Metal Integrated Thermo Hydrodynamic Operation System). A relationship is determined between the Nusselt number Nu and the Rayleigh number Ra in the liquid metal rectangular pool. Results are compared with correlations and experimental data in the literature. Given the similar Ra condition, the present test results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with top subcooling are found to be similar to those predicted by the existing correlations or experiments. The current test results are utilized to develop natural convection heat transfer correlations applicable to low Prandtl number Pr fluids that are heated from below and cooled by the external coolant above. Results from this study are slated to be used in designing BORIS (Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System), a small lead cooled modular fast reactor for deployment at remote sites cycled with MOBIS (Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System) for electricity generation, tied with NAVIS (Naval Application Vessel Integral System) for ship propulsion, joined with THAIS (Thermochemical Hydrogen Acquisition Integral System) for hydrogen production, and coupled with DORIS (Desalination Optimized Reactor Integral System) for seawater desalination. Tests are performed with Wood's metal (Pb-Bi-Sn-Cd) filling a rectangular pool whose lower surface is heated and upper surface cooled by forced convection of water. The test section is 20 cm long, 11.3 cm high and 15 cm wide. The simulant has a melting temperature of 78 deg. C. The constant temperature and heat flux condition was realized for the bottom heating once the steady state had been met. The test parameters include the heated bottom surface temperature

  4. EXAFS study into the speciation of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

    2014-06-16

    The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

  5. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining transition metal content in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Anelia; Lam, Robert; Zamble, Deborah B

    2004-12-01

    Transition metals are common components of cellular proteins and the detailed study of metalloproteins necessitates the identification and quantification of bound metal ions. Screening for metals is also an informative step in the initial characterization of the numerous unknown and unclassified proteins now coming through the proteomic pipeline. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of the most prevalent biological transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc. The method is accurate and simple and can be adapted for automated high-throughput studies. The metal analysis involves acid hydrolysis to release the metal ions into solution, followed by ion separation on a mixed-bead ion-exchange column and absorbance detection after postcolumn derivatization with the metallochromic indicator 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The potential interferences by common components of protein solutions were investigated. The metal content of a variety of metalloproteins was analyzed and the data were compared to data obtained from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the assay allows for the detection of 0.1-0.8 nmol, depending on the metal. The amount of protein required is governed by the size of the protein and the fraction of protein with metal bound. For routine analysis 50 microg was used but for many proteins 10 microg would be sufficient. The advantages, disadvantages, and possible applications of this method are discussed. PMID:15519577

  6. Eutectic liquid phase bonding for metal to ceramic joining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this study was to join the oxidation resistant FeCrAl alloy to reaction bonded silicon nitride by a simple and commercially viable technique, with a view for higher temperature applications (above 600 degree C). Also, to study the mechanism of joining and the effects of processing parameters upon the microstructure / property / performance of the joints. Joining was achieved between the FeCrAl alloy and silicon nitride by the use of a non-remaining Cu interlayer. Good interfacial bonding was achieved with no reaction layer product or remaining interlayer foil. The joints had very modest average shear strength values and this was due to the thermal stresses that were induced during process cooling. However, this system does offer a realistic possibility for higher temperature applications, as compared to active metal brazing systems. This was demonstrated by the joints performing reasonably well under rigorous thermal cycling. (author)

  7. Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory for metallic fullurene polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hideo; Shima, Hiroyuki; Noda, Yusuke; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the low energy behavior of local density of states in metallic C60 polymers theoretically. The multichannel bosonization method is applied to electronic band structures evaluated from first-principles calculation, by which the effects of electronic correlation and nanoscale corrugation in the atomic configuration are fully taken into account. We obtain a closed-form expression for the power-law anomalies in the local density of states, which successfully describes the experimental observation on the C60 polymers in a quantitative manner. An important implication from the closed-form solution is the existence of an experimentally unobserved crossover at nearly a hundred milli-electron volts, beyond which the power-law exponent of the C60 polymers should change significantly.

  8. Advanced treatment of liquid radwaste at the Nine Mile Point Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Liquid Radwaste Treatment processes can be defined as those technologies which provide substantial solid radwaste reduction and improved water quality when compared to conventional processes such as demineralization and evaporation. Mine We Point - Unit 1(NMP1) has successfully processed over 2.35 million gallons of outage and non-outage generated floor drain water through an advanced treatment system, since January of this year. Operating results show that advanced systems are capable of processing widely varying waste water streams while lowering product water impurities and solid radwaste generation rates. This paper relates full scale operating experiences encountered since startup, as well as feed and effluent chemistry results. Information provided in this paper will specifically benefit two groups of nuclear facilities: (1) those operating under a zero-liquid discharge scenario, where restrictive product water quality standards are imposed and (2) those facilities that require less than minimum detectible activity (< MDA) concentrations of gamma emitting isotopes in the water discharged to the environment. Specific operational techniques used to maintain Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations under 50 ppb and post UV-IC anion concentrations under 5 ppb are discussed. Advanced systems show promise for aiding nuclear facilities in meeting solid radwaste, fuel integrity, ALARA, and offsite dose goals

  9. Microscopic Motion of Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Components In A Diverted Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid metal plasma facing components (PFCs) have been identified as an alternative material for fusion plasma experiments. The use of a liquid conductor where significant magnetic fields are present is considered risky, with the possibility of macroscopic fluid motion and possible ejection into the plasma core. Analysis is carried out on thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic (TEMHD) forces caused by temperature gradients in the liquid-container system itself in addition to scrape-off-layer currents interacting with the PFC from a diverted plasma. Capillary effects at the liquid-container interface will be examined which govern droplet ejection criteria. Stability of the interface is determined using linear stability methods. In addition to application to liquidmetal PFCs, thin film liquidmetal effects have application to current and future devices where off-normal events may liquefy portions of the first wall and other plasma facing components.

  10. Removal of metals and ceramics by combined effects of micro liquid jet and laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Daehwan; Seo, Changho; Kim, Dongsik

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we analyze a hybrid laser/liquid jet micromachining process for several metals and ceramics based on the optical breakdown of a microdroplet. In the process, materials are removed by the combined effects of a laser pulse and a high-speed pulsed microjet ejected from the microdroplet. The opto-hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during this process and the interaction of the laser/liquid jet with various materials, including copper, aluminum, stainless steel, alumina, and boron nitride, are investigated experimentally. The results show that the laser/liquid jet can remove the materials with substantially increased removal rates and reduced thermal side effects compared with the conventional pulsed laser ablation process. Visualization of the process reveals that the materials are partially ablated and melted by the laser pulse during the early stage of the process and that the molten material is subsequently eliminated by the hydrodynamic impact of the liquid jet.

  11. Conventional and microwave hydrothermal synthesis of monodispersed metal oxide nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monodispersed nanoparticles of metal oxide including ferrites MFe2O4 (M=, Ni, Co, Mn) and γ-Fe2O3, Ta2O5 etc. have been synthesized using a water-toluene interface under both conventional and microwave hydrothermal conditions. This general synthesis procedure uses readily availab...

  12. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A2/mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A2/mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A2/mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  13. 3D printing of liquid metals as fugitive inks for fabrication of 3D microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Dishit P; Ladd, Collin; Panich, Lazar; Moussa, Khalil; Dickey, Michael D

    2016-05-21

    This paper demonstrates a simple method to fabricate 3D microchannels and microvasculature at room temperature by direct-writing liquid metal as a sacrificial template. The formation of a surface oxide skin on the low-viscosity liquid metal stabilizes the shape of the printed metal for planar and out-of-plane structures. The printed structures can be embedded in a variety of soft (e.g. elastomeric) and rigid (e.g. thermoset) polymers. Both acid and electrochemical reduction are capable of removing the oxide skin that forms on the metal, which destabilizes the ink so that it withdraws from the encapsulating material due to capillary forces, resulting in nearly full recovery of the fugitive ink at room temperature. Whereas conventional fabrication procedures typically confine microchannels to 2D planes, the geometry of the printed microchannels can be varied from a simple 2D network to complex 3D architectures without using lithography. The method produces robust monolithic structures without the need for any bonding or assembling techniques that often limit the materials of construction of conventional microchannels. Removing select portions of the metal leaves behind 3D metal features that can be used as antennas, interconnects, or electrodes for interfacing with lab-on-a-chip devices. This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of this simple process. PMID:27025537

  14. Capital cost evaluation of liquid metal reactor by plant type - comparison of modular type with monolithic type -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary economic comparison study was performed for KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor)between a modular plant type with 8 150MWe modules and a 1200MWe monolithic plant type. In both cases of FOAK (First-Of-A-Kind) Plant and NOAK (Nth-Of-A-Kind) Plant, the result says that the economics of monolithic plant is superior to its modular plant. In case of NOAK plant comparison, however, the cost difference is not significant. It means that modular plant can compete with monolithic plant in capital cost if it makes efforts of cost reduction and technical progress on the assumption that the same type of NOAK plant will be constructed continuously

  15. Application of metallic nanoparticle suspensions in advanced cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Choi, S.U.S.

    1996-12-31

    In the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many cooling applications, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation. However, it is well known that at room temperature, metals in solid form have orders-of-magnitude higher thermal conductivities than those of fluids. Therefore, the thermal conductivities of fluids that contain suspended solid metallic particles are expected to be significantly enhanced over those of conventional heat transfer fluids. In fact, numerous theoretical and experimental studies of the effective thermal conductivity of dispersions that contain solid particles have been conducted since Maxwell`s theoretical was published more than 100 years ago. However, all of the studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions have been confined to millimeter- or micrometer-sized particles.

  16. Advanced analysis of metal distributions in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of techniques (secondary electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence) were utilized to distinguish metal contamination occurring in hair arising from endogenous uptake from an individual exposed to a polluted environment, in this case a lead smelter. Evidence was sought for elements less affected by contamination and potentially indicative of biogenic activity. The unique combination of surface sensitivity, spatial resolution, and detection limits used here has provided new insight regarding hair analysis. Metals such as Ca, Fe, and Pb appeared to have little representative value of endogenous uptake and were mainly due to contamination. Cu and Zn, however, demonstrate behaviors worthy of further investigation into relating hair concentrations to endogenous function.

  17. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC's vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC's rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines

  18. Levitation of a metallic sphere near gas-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces by the repulsive Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Norio

    2014-06-01

    By counteracting gravity, the repulsive Casimir force enables stable levitation of a perfectly conducting particle near a liquid-air interface if the particle exists inside the liquid. In the present study, we examine the levitation of a gold particle near a bromobenzene-air interface and calculate the levitation height using the scattering-matrix formulation. In addition, we consider the Casimir force acting on a gold sphere near the interface between bromobenzene and water. At asymptotically large separations, the Casimir force is attractive because of the large static dielectric permittivity of water. However, the Casimir force changes from attractive to repulsive as the separation decreases. We also found that the gold particle can be levitated in bromobenzene above water.

  19. The Liquid Metal Experiment And Results At Tokamak Isttok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The liquid gallium (Ga) jet has been developed and installed at tokamak ISTTOK in Lisbon Portugal during 2002 - 2006. The first successful experiments of interaction of Ga jet facing with tokamak plasma have been provided in May 2006. It was stated that the jet is characterizes by a laminar flow followed by the break-up in droplets. For characterization of evaporation and/or sputtering of Ga the setup for spectroscopy of Ga fluorescence has been developed and installed at ISTTOK. Ga- emission has been observed in the toroidal direction enabling to observe Ga- emission in different distances from the jet inside the plasma thor. The emission collected by 7 viewing point multi-channel optical fiber relaying radiation to the 1/2 m spectrograph was registered fast frame CCD camera in the 200 - 900 nm spectral range. Performing a shot by shot spatial scan of the plasma a different relative distribution of the neutral and ionized Ga species in the radial direction has been observed. As expected, the maximum emission of neutral gallium coincidences with the jet position. Maximum emission of the ionized Ga species occurs shifted toward the center of the plasma. Because the sputtered and/or evaporated Ga(I) species has a low initial energy , diffusion controlled migration of Ga towards the plasma center is followed by step by step ionization and creation of Ga(II) and Ga(III) ions. The further tasks are evolution of the Ga distribution functions in a toroidal direction with the Ga-jet to obtain the expected drift of Ga species due to the centrifugal forces. (Authors)

  20. Development of thermohydraulic codes for modeling liquid metal boiling in LMR fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation into the reactor core accident cooling, which are associated with the power grow up or switch off circulation pumps in the event of the protective equipment comes into action, results in the problem of liquid metal boiling heat transfer. Considerable study has been given over the last 30 years to alkaline metal boiling including researches of heat transfer, boiling patterns, hydraulic resistance, crisis of heat transfer, initial heating up, boiling onset and instability of boiling. The results of these investigations have shown that the process of liquid metal boiling has substantial features in comparison with water boiling. Mathematical modeling of two phase flows in fast reactor fuel subassemblies have been developed intensively. Significant success has been achieved in formulation of two phase flow through the pin bundle and in their numerical realization. Currently a set of codes for thermohydraulic analysis of two phase flows in fast reactor subassembly have been developed with 3D macrotransfer governing equations. These codes are used for analysis of boiling onset and liquid metals boiling in fuel subassemblies during loss-of-coolant accidents, of warming up of reactor core, of blockage of some part of flow cross section in fuel subassembly. (author)