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Sample records for advanced liquefaction processes

  1. Biomedical implications of altered product composition in advanced coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Pelroy, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Chemical and toxicologic characteristics of direct coal liquefaction materials are highly dependent upon the specific process operations by which the coal liquids were produced, including, in particular, those that affect boiling point range and degree of hydrogen incorporation. Recent advances in direct coal liquefaction technology, such as the use of catalytic hydrogenation, reduced liquefaction severity and lowering the upper temperature cut point for the distillation of fuels, have resulted in products with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios and lower heteroatom content. These higher-quality fuels tend to be less mutagenic and carcinogenic in laboratory assays than earlier coal liquefaction products. It is likely that application of postproduction hydrotreatment, as well as restriction of upper distillation temperature, for coal-based fuel products could result in materials that exhibit mutagenic or carcinogenic activity which is no greater than that of their petroleum-derived counterparts. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 46 refs.

  2. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  3. Trace component analysis of process hydrogen streams at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes subcontracted work done by the Radian Corporation to analyze trace components in process hydrogen streams at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The data will be used to help define whether the gas streams to be treated in the hydrogen processing unit in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant will require further treatment to remove trace contaminants that could be explosive under certain conditions. 2 references.

  4. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  5. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction.......A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave...

  6. Marine impact on liquefaction processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M.M.E. van; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Oldenburg, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the interest for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing. A tendency is to produce and transport LNG on large floating vessels. One important choice in designing such a vessel is the liquefaction process. Several processes have been developed in recent years, ranging from mixed ref

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL's contract.

  9. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. FIMS analysis of direct coal liquefaction process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This study was designed to apply the method of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) for the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-stream samples. The FIMS method was shown to have a high potential for application to direct coal liquefaction-derived samples in a Phase 1 project in this program. In this Phase 3 project, the FIMS method was applied to a set of samples produced in HRI bench-scale liquefaction Runs CC-15 and CC-16. FIMS was used to obtain the molecular weight profile of the samples and to identify specific prominent peaks in the low end (160--420 Da) region of the molecular weight profile. In the samples examined in this study, species were identified which previously were recognized as precursors to the formation of high molecular weight structures associated with the formation of coke in petroleum vacuum gas oils.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  11. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to calibrate'' the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850[degrees]F[sup +] , 1050[degrees]F[sup +], and 850 [times] 1050[degrees]F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  13. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. (Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  15. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  16. Technical, Energetics, and Economic Comparison of NRL Oxidative Coal Liquefaction Process with some Developed Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-05

    the synthesis step becomes two processes. synthesis CO + H2 catalyst ) methanol conversion methanol catalyst > gasoline + water Wiser states that...structure illustrates the main types of linkage between ring clusters and also some of the heteroatom forms that are found in coal. 20 APPENDIX II...used more widely as petroleum and natural gas resources are depleted and hydrogen for coal liquefaction processes will be produced predominantly from

  17. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies, including...

  18. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  19. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  20. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

  1. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  2. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  3. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  5. An advanced extruder-feeder biomass liquefaction reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Don H.; Wolf, D.; Davenport, G.; Mathews, S.; Porter, M.; Zhao, Y.

    1987-11-01

    A unique method of pumping concentrated, viscous biomass slurries that are characteristic of biomass direct liquefaction systems was developed. A modified single-screw extruder was shown to be capable of pumping solid slurries as high as 60 weight percent wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms, as compared to only 10 to 20 weight percent wood flour in wood oil in conventional systems. During the period August, 1985 to April, 1987, a total of 18 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using white birch feedstock. Good operability with feed rates up to 30 lb/hr covering a range of carbon monoxide, sodium carbonate catalyst, pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350 C to 430 C was achieved. Crude wood oils containing 6 to 10 weight percent residual oxygen were obtained. Other wood oil characteristics are reported.

  6. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  7. Colombian (Titiribi) coal liquefaction and its co-processing with Venezuelan (Morichal) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Ishiguro, H.; Maekawa, Y.; Mondragon, F. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The reactivity in the liquefaction of Titiribi coal from Colombia was studied without a vehicle oil and with Morichal crude oil from Venezuela and anthracene oil derived from coal as a vehicle oil in a batch autoclave in order to obtain fundamental data on the liquefaction and co-processing characteristics. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  9. Large Coaxial Coldfinger Ptc for Process Liquefaction and Hts Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, P. S.; Corey, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    Large (>100 W cooling capacity at 80 K) `pulse-tube' coolers are ideal candidates for emerging applications such as HTS transmission lines, transformers, and motor windings, meso-scale oxygen liquefaction on-demand, cryopumping, and cryogen boiloff recovery. A number of successful large `in-line' pulse-tube coolers have been built, but these require embedded shell-and-tube process heat exchangers, hence transport of the process fluid/gas to and from the coldhead, and often a high degree of process fluid purity, to avoid clogging in the narrow inlets and outlets of these heat exchangers. It is far preferable in most circumstances to have a coldfinger design that presents a salient cold tip, with the coldhead at the end of a flexible transfer line, as is done with Gifford-McMahon or Joule-Thomson coolers. This paper presents some design details and data from the development of our first high-capacity coldfinger, as well as the results of its application to a 55 gallon/day oxygen liquefier for the Navy.

  10. The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.

    1995-08-01

    It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

  11. Liquefaction/solubilization processes of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1997-12-31

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization have been studied in this work. The first one is the mechanisms implicated on coal transformation. During coal solubilization, fungal cells produced extracellular peroxidase, esterase and some times phenol oxidase enzymes which appear to be involved in solubilization. Moreover, the analysis of liquefaction/solubilization products was done. In this regard, a reduction on the average size of humic acids derived from lignite was observed, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. Finally, microorganisms showed a specific adherence to the coal surface, that seems to promote the microbial attack to coal. (orig.)

  12. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  13. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, D.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265 °

  15. Processes of liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laborda, F.; Monistrol, I.F.; Luna, N.; Fernandez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia y Parasitologia

    1999-07-01

    Several fundamental aspects of microbial coal liquefaction/solubilization were studied. The liquefied/solubilized products from coal by microorganisms were analysed. The liquid products analysed by IR titration and UV/visible spectrometry showed some alterations with regard to the original coal. Humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite showed a reduction in the average molecular weight and a increase in the condensation index, probably due to depolymerization caused by microorganisms. The mechanisms implicated in coal biosolubilization by two fungal strains, M2 (Trichoderma sp.) and M4 (Penicillium sp.) were also studied. Extracellular peroxidase, esterase and phenoloxidase enzymes appear to be involved in coal solubilization. (orig.)

  16. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fluid Catalytic Cracker Feed: A Process Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shushil; Lange, Jean-Paul; Van Rossum, Guus; Kersten, Sascha R A

    2015-12-07

    We report a process concept for lignocellulose liquefaction in a refinery stream that will be coprocessed with the resulting biocrude and that, therefore, does not require the recovery and recycling of the liquefaction solvent. Light cycle oil and vacuum gas oil were found to be the two most promising solvents. Both refinery streams could provide a liquid yield of 58 C % (64 % energy yield). A techno-economic assessment indicates that the biocrude could be produced at an energy-equivalent crude oil price of 51-64 $ per barrel at a wood cost of 85 $ per dry ton.

  17. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  18. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-04-28

    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  19. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  20. Study on the mechanism of coal liquefaction reaction and a new process concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-dong; LI Wen-bo; WANG Yong; GUO Zhi; LI Ke-jian

    2008-01-01

    The coal hydrogenation reaction process is simply considered as three steps. In the first step, the smaller molecules associated with coal structure units are released as some gases and water in the condition of solvent and heating. In this step, some weaker bonds of the coal structure units are ruptured to form free radicals. The radicals are stabi-lized by hydrogen atoms from donor solvent and/or H2. In the second step, chain reaction occurs quickly. In the process of chain reaction, the covalent bonds of coal structure units are attacked by the radicals to form some asphaltenes. In the third step, asphaltenes are hydrogenated form more liquids and some gases. In coal liquefaction, the second step of coal hydrogenation reaction should be controlled to avoid integration of radicals, and the third step of coal hydrogenation should be accelerated to increase the coal conversion and the oil yield. A new concept of coal liquefaction process named as China direct coal lique-faction (CDCL) process is presented based on the mechanism study of coal liquefaction.

  1. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-03-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the tenth quarter of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. It covers the period October 1 through December 31, 1996. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) CONSOL characterized two HTI coal/petroleum coprocessing samples for Ni and V concentrations, as requested by DOE. The results are reported in Appendix 1. (2) CONSOL began work to evaluate the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers, and specifically ethylphenyl ethers, from coal liquefaction phenols. The work includes a literature review and experimentation. The status of this ongoing work is described in this report. (3) A set of samples was requested from HTI Run ALC-2 (Appendix 2). (4) The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is developing a kinetic mechanistic model of resid reactivity. A summary of Delaware`s progress is appended to this report (Appendix 3). (5) A paper was submitted for presentation at the 213th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, April 13-17, 1997, in San Francisco, CA, (Appendix 4).

  2. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  3. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  4. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...

  5. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  6. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  7. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  8. Reconfigured, close-coupled reconfigured, and Wyodak coal integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville facility: Chemical and toxicological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document reports the results of the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of process materials sampled during the operation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, AL) in the reconfigured, integrated (RITSL run No. 247), the close-coupled, reconfigured, integrated (CCRITSL run No. 249), and the Wyodak coal integrated (ITSL run No. 246) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Chemical methods of analysis included proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, adsorption column chromatography, high resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. Toxicological evaluation of the process materials included a histidine reversion assay for microbial mutagenicity, an initiation/promotion assay for tumorigenicity in mouse skin, and an aquatic toxicity assay using Daphnia magna. The results of these analyses and tests are compared to the previously reported results derived from the Illinois No. 6 coal ITSL and nonintegrated two-stage liquefaction (NTSL) process materials from the Wilsonville facility. 21 refs., 13 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  11. Thermal efficiency of the HTU Process for Biomass Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudriaan, F.; Naber, J.A. [Biofuel, Heemskerk (Netherlands); Van de Beld, B. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands); Boerefijn, F.R.; Van der Wal, S. [Jacobs Comprimo Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bos, G.M.; Zeevalkink, J.A. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2000-09-01

    The development of the HTU Process is now well under way. A pilot plant with an intake capacity of some 10 kg/h (dry basis) is in operation. Biomass is converted by treatment in liquid water at temperatures from 300 to 350C and pressures from 100 to 180 bar. The product is 'Biocrude', a heavy organic liquid with a lower heating value of 30-35 MJ/kg. A case study is presented for the HTU conversion of sugar beet pulp (130 kton/a on a dry basis). A process description is given, and the heat economy is discussed. For the generation of process heat some external fuel is required (2% of the heating value of the feedstock). The thermal efficiency is defined as the ratio of heating values of biocrude product and feedstock plus external heat input It has a theoretical maximum of 79%. The process designed here has a thermal efficiency of 75%. The total capital expenditure is 30 M$. At a zero cost of feedstock the price of the biocrude product is $153/ton, or $4.6/GJ. A number of items for further improvement of the thermal efficiency is discussed. It requires a systematic exergy analysis. However, any further gain in heat economy has to be traded off against increased capital expenditure and reduced operability.

  12. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  13. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  14. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  16. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Topical report No. 14. Catalyst activity trends in two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The Two Stage Coal Liquefaction process became operational at Wilsonville in May 1981, with the inclusion of an H-OIL ebullated-bed catalytic reactor. The two stage process was initially operated in a nonintegrated mode and has recently been reconfigurated to fully integrate the thermal and the catalytic stages. This report focuses on catalyst activity trends observed in both modes of operation. A literature review of relevant catalyst screening studies in bench-scale and PDU units is presented. Existing kinetic and deactivation models were used to analyze process data over an extensive data base. Based on the analysis, three separate, application studies have been conducted. The first study seeks to elucidate the dependence of catalyst deactivation rate on type of coal feedstock used. A second study focuses on the significance of catalyst type and integration mode on SRC hydrotreatment. The third study presents characteristic deactivation trends observed in integrated operation with different first-stage thermal severities. In-depth analytical work was conducted at different research laboratories on aged catalyst samples from Run 242. Model hydrogenation and denitrogenation activity trends are compared with process activity trends and with changes observed in catalyst porosimetric properties. The accumulation of metals and coke deposits with increasing catalyst age, as well as their distribution across a pellet cross-section, are discussed. The effect of catalyst age and reactor temperature on the chemical composition of flashed bottoms product is addressed. Results from regenerating spent catalysts are also presented. 35 references, 31 figures, 18 tables.

  17. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

    1998-03-01

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

  18. Development of coal liquefaction technologies (Part 3); Development of common base techniques (Part 4). Development and employment of evaluating approach to liquefied process. Development of data collecting and processing system for coal liquefaction process and etc. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu (3); Kyotsu kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu nado (4). Ekika process no hyoka shuho no kaihatsu, unyo. Sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, Shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This research aims to develop the management system of informations concerning coal liquefaction process and etc., to develop data collecting and processing system on pilot plant and supporting researches and to effectively use data to advance to following step such as conceptural design for the demonstration plant. In addition, this research aims to collect many kinds of techniques obtained by the research and development and to arrange and promote the licensing system to practically use this system. Practical results in 1988 were as follows: Conceptural design on basic data base and retrieval or look up system on general technical informations were carried out to develop the data base system for coal liquefaction and to develop the data collecting and processing system for the coal liquefaction process and etc. Data locative leveling was carried out as the conceptural design for basic data base and the basic structures of hardware and software were made up as the basic design for the retrieval system of general technical informations. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Separation of solids from coal liquefaction products using sonic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomka, B.J.

    1994-10-01

    Product streams containing solids are generated in both direct and indirect coal liquefaction processes. This project seeks to improve the effectiveness of coal liquefaction by novel application of sonic and ultrasonic energy to separation of solids from coal liquefaction streams.

  20. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  1. Liquefaction of lignocellulose in light cycle oil: A process concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Segins, A.; Lange, J.P.; Rossum, van G.; Kersten, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biocrude can be produced by direct liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass, which can be further upgraded into biofuels in an oil refinery. Refinery streams, namely vacuum gas oil (VGO) and light cycle oil (LCO), were found suitable liquefaction solvents in our previous study. This p

  2. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  3. Effects of processing conditions on biocrude yields from fast hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Julia L; Savage, Phillip E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of algae species, reaction time, and reactor loading on the biocrude yield from fast hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. Fast HTL reaction times were always less than 2 min and employed rapid heating and nonisothermal conditions. The highest biocrude yield obtained was 67±5 wt.% (dry basis). With all other process variables fixed, increasing the reaction time in a 600 °C sand bath by 15 s increments led to a rapid increase in biocrude yield between 15 and 45 s. At longer times, the biocrude yield decreased. Low reactor loadings generally gave higher biocrude yields than did higher loadings. The low reactor loadings may facilitate biocrude production by facilitating cell rupture and/or increasing the effective concentration of algal cells in the hot, compressed water in the reactor.

  4. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  5. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The experimental study of coal swelling ratios have been determined with a wide variety of solvents. Only marginal levels of coal swelling were observed for the hydrocarbon solvents, but high levels were found with solvents having heteroatom functionality. Blends were superior to pure solvents. The activity of various catalyst precursors for pyrene hydrogenation and coal conversion was measured. Higher coal conversions were observed for the S0{sub 2}-treated coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Coal conversions were highest for Molyvan-L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively. Bottoms processing consists of a combination of the ASCOT process coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking. Initial results indicate that a blend of butane and pentane used near the critical temperature of butane is the best solvent blend for producing a yield/temperature relationship of proper sensitivity and yet retaining an asphalt phase of reasonable viscosity. The literature concerning coal swelling, both alone and in combination with coal liquefaction, and the use of dispersed or unsupported catalysts in coal liquefaction has been updated.

  6. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase.

  7. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  9. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  10. Preliminary chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. [Aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Coal-derived materials from experimental runs of Hydrocarbon Research Incorporated's (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. This process differs from two-stage coal liquefaction processes in that catalyst is used in both stages. Samples from both the first and second stages were class-fractionated by alumina adsorption chromatography. The fractions were analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography; gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; direct probe, low voltage mass spectrometry; and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Mutagenicity assays were performed with the crude and class fractions in Salmonella typhimurium, TA98. Preliminary results of chemical analyses indicate that >80% CTSL materials from both process stages were aliphatic hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Furthermore, the gross and specific chemical composition of process materials from the first stage were very similar to those of the second stage. In general, the unfractionated materials were only slightly active in the TA98 mutagenicity assay. Like other coal liquefaction materials investigated in this laboratory, the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) class fractions were responsible for the bulk of the mutagenic activity of the crudes. Finally, it was shown that this activity correlated with the presence of amino-PAH. 20 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Chemical analysis and mutational assay of distilled oils from the H-coal direct liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Later, D.W.; Wright, C.W.; Stewart, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from the H-Coal process, a catalytic, single-stage, coal liquefaction technology, were chemically characterized and screened for microbial mutagenicity. For these investigations, a blend of light and heavy H-Coal process oils was fractionally distilled into 50/sup 0/F boiling point cuts. The chemical analyses and biological testing results presented in this status report deal primarily with the blended material and the distillate fractions boiling above 650/sup 0/F. Results from the microbial mutagenicity assays indicated that onset of biological activity in the crude materials occurred above 700/sup 0/F. Similar trends have been observed for Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) I, SRC II, Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) and Exxon EDS process materials. After chemical class fractionation, the primary source of microbial mutagenicity of the crude boiling point cuts was the nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (N-PAC) fractions. Amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino-PAH) were present at sufficient concentration levels in the N-PAC fractions to account for the observed mutagenic responses. In general, the chemical composition of the H-Coal materials studied was similar to that of other single-stage liquefaction materials. The degree of alkylation in these materials was determined to be greater than in the SRC and less than in the EDS process distillate cuts. 13 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Advanced oxidation of water soluble organics (WSO) from near- and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arturi, Katarzyna Ratajczyk; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Muff, Jens

    The challenges involving procuring the necessary water and energy resources for the future generations are partially entwined. An example of the close water-energy dependency is the production of drop-in biofuels by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in near- and supercritical water....... Numerous applications of HTL for conversion of wastes with high water contents (sewage, manure, or lipid-rich algae cultivated on wastewater nutrients) to high-value drop-in biofuels have been studied. The main bulk of the research focuses on the optimization of the biocrude production, while management...... of the water phase, which contains a large part of the converted biomass (approx. 40 wt.%), is considered a secondary issue. This approach is short-sighted, as an efficient water management, either extraction of the valuables or wastewater treatment, will have to be an integral part of a sustainable HTL...

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  14. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  15. Development of Predictive Thermodynamic Model for Liquefaction of Natural Gas Using the C3-Mr Refrigeration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagde, Kenneth, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a propane precooled mixed refrigerant (C3-MR liquefaction plant with 4 pressure levels of propane cooling operational in Nigeria and demonstrates the procedure for developing a thermodynamic model that predicts the liquefied natural gas (LNG production rate. The model prediction was validated with plant data with a maximum deviation of 3%. The thermodynamic efficiency of the natural gas liquefaction plant was estimated to be 45.1%. Simulations reveals that LNG production rate for the C3-MR plant depends on cooling water supply temperature (1 ͦC rise results to 92 tonnes per day of LNG loss, thermodynamic efficiency of the overall liquefaction process (1% drop results to 215 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG outlet temperature (1 ͦC decrease results to 108 tonnes per day of LNG loss, LNG production to feed gas supply ratio (1% rise results to 37 tonnes per day rise in LNG, thermal efficiency of gas turbine drivers (1% drop results to 277 tonnes per day of LNG loss, ambient air temperature (1 ͦC drop results to 67 tonnes per day of LNG increase and feed gas supply pressure.

  16. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  17. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Single Temperature Liquefaction process at different operating pHs to improve ethanol production from Indian rice and corn feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, V; Ranganathan, K; Duan, G

    2016-10-13

    Conventional grain ethanol manufacturing is a high-temperature energy-intensive process comprising of multiple-unit operations when combined with lower ethanol recovery results in higher production cost. In liquefaction, jet cooking accounts for significant energy cost, while strong acid or base used for pH adjustment presents a safety hazard. A need is felt for sustainable ethanol manufacturing process that is less hazardous, consumes lower energy, and operates in a low pH range of 4.50-5.50. A single temperature liquefaction (STL) process that could efficiently operate at lower liquefaction temperature over a pH range of 4.50-5.50 was developed using rice and corn feedstock. Ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 481.2 ± 1.5, 492.4 ± 1.5, and 493.6 ± 1.5 L MT(-1) rice, respectively. Similarly, ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 404.6 ± 1.3, 413.9 ± 0.8, and 412.4 ± 1.8 L MT(-1) corn, respectively. The improvement in ethanol recovery is attributed to higher starch conversion by alpha-amylase even at pH as low as 4.50. Thus, the STL process operated at pH lower than 5.20 is poised to enhance sustainability by offering dual advantage of energy as well as chemical saving.

  19. Advanced powder processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  20. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  1. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  3. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  5. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal and products from coal liquefaction and pyrolysis processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.; Iacchelli, A.; Selucky, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are given for analysis of coal, coal liquefaction products, and coal pyrolysis products. Proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) using the Fisher Coal Analyzer Model 490, and ultimate analysis (determination of C, H, N, S, O, and occasionally Cl) using the Perkin-Elmer Elemental Analyzer are described. Determination of calorific value of coal using the oxygen bomb calorimeter is also detailed, as well as procedures for trace element analysis and for removal of halogenated solvents from gravity separation fractions of coal. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Status assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1995-07-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils and an updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams is presented in this document. Analytical methodologies included here are either those which are different than those previously surveyed or are improvements on, or significantly different applications of methods previously surveyed. The literature cited spans the time period from 1991 to the present. The literature was examined from the 1960s through the present. When possible, for each model described, the methodology for deriving the model and the relative quality of the kinetic parameters derived is discussed. Proposed reaction schemes used for constructing coal-conversion models, in many cases, include the conversion of a resid intermediate to light products. These models are, therefore, also of interest, and are included here. Analytical techniques were identified that were shown to be useful for providing physico-chemical information of coal-liquefaction resids. These techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (especially the technique of field ionization mass spectrometry), electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled to thermogravimetric analysis, and a suite of petroleum inspection tests. It is recommended that these techniques be used in the present contract. 76 refs.

  8. Advances in Solidification Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt solidification is the shortest and most viable route to obtain components, starting from the design to the finished products. Hence, a sound knowledge of the solidification of metallic materials is essential for the development of advanced structural metallic components that drive modern technological societies. As a result, there have been innumerable efforts and full conferences dedicated to this important subject [1–6]. In addition, there are various scientific journals fully devoted to investigating the various aspects which give rise to various solidification microstructures [7–9]. [...

  9. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  10. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Stone dusting process advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Ryan; David Humphreys [Mining Attachments (Qld.) Pty Ltd. (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    The coal mining industry has, for many years, used dry stone dust or calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in the prevention of the propagation of coal dust explosions throughout their underground mines in Australia. In the last decade wet stone dusting has been introduced. This is where stone dust and water are mixed together to form a paste like slurry. This mixture is pumped and sprayed on to the underground roadway surfaces. This method solved the contamination of the intake airways but brought with it a new problem known as 'caking'. Caking is the hardened layer that is formed as the stone dust slurry dries. It was proven that this hardened layer compromises the dispersal characteristics of the stone dust and therefore its ability to suppress a coal dust explosion. This project set out to prove a specially formulated, non toxic slurry additive and process that could overcome the caking effect. The slurry additive process combines dry stone dust with water to form a slurry. The slurry is then treated with the additive and compressed air to create a highly vesicular foam like stone dusted surface. The initial testing on a range of additives and the effectiveness in minimising the caking effect of wet dusting were performed at Applied Chemical's research laboratory in Melbourne, Victoria and independently tested at the SGS laboratory in Paget, Queensland. The results from these tests provided the platform to conduct full scale spraying trials at the Queensland Mines Rescue Station and Caledon Coal's Cook Colliery, Blackwater. The project moved into the final stage of completion with the collection of data. The intent was to compare the slurry additive process to dry stone dusting in full-scale methane explosions at the CSIR Kloppersbos explosion facility in Kloppersbos, South Africa.

  13. Advanced composite materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  14. Influence of mid-point temperature of heavy hydrocarbons separator to the liquefaction process for small LNG plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, H. A.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) process production, one of the important units is heavy hydrocarbon removal unit to prevent freezing during liquefaction. For small scale of LNG plant, this unit is usually integrated with main heat exchanger. Feed is obtained from main heat exchanger then flows to separator to separate liquid from gas. The separator operating condition is called as Midpoint condition. Selecting Midpoint conditions have impact to light hydrocarbon losses, Specific Brake Horse Power (SBHP) process, and heating value of LNG. Hence understanding of selecting this condition and its effect to light hydrocarbon losses, SBHP process, and HHV of LNG will help to design more efficient LNG plant. According to study, the lower of Mid-Point temperature will result in lower SBHP, lower of light hydrocarbon losses, and increase LNG of HHV value. Meanwhile, the higher Mid-Point pressure will result in lower SBHP, higher light hydrocarbon losses, and lower LNG of HHV value. The change of Mid-Point pressures have more impact to light hydrocarbon losses than SBHP process.

  15. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  17. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  18. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  19. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  20. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  1. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  3. Liquefaction of crop residues for polyol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan, C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction of crop residues in the presence of ethylene glycol, ethylene carbonate, or polyethylene glycol using sulfuric acid as a catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 160C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of feedstock to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was 30:100. The results show that the acid catalyzed liquefaction process fit a pseudo-first-order kinetics model. Liquefaction yields of 80, 74, and 60% were obtained in 60 minutes of reaction when corn stover was liquefied with ethylene glycol, a mixture of polyethylene glycol and glycerol (9:1, w/w, and ethylene carbonate, respectively. When ethylene carbonate was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields of rice straw and wheat straw were 67% and 73%, respectively, which is lower than that of corn stover (80%. When a mixture of ethylene carbonate and ethylene glycol (8:2, w/w was used as solvent, the liquefaction yields for corn stover, rice straw and wheat straw were 78, 68, and 70%, respectively.

  4. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  5. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  6. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbron, E; Larrinaga, A; Rustrian, E

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with a working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1) and 0.5 COD g x l(-1) x d(-1). The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g x l(-1) respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD x l(-1) x d(-1) and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD x l(-1), and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH4 and 20% CO2. These results show that a humid coffee "Beneficio" processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH4 m3 x d(-1). This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a "Beneficio" using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater.

  7. Liquefaction and methanization of solid and liquid coffee wastes by two phase anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houbron, E.; Rustrian, E. [Universidad Veracruzana, Orizaba, Ver. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas; Larrinaga, A. [Instituto tecnologico de Orizaba, Ver. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the feasibility of volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from coffee pulp hydrolyse, and further to determine the potential of methanization of both the pre-acidified effluent and the coffee wastewater. The experiments were carried out in 2 completely mixed reactors, each one with working volume of 4 litres. Coffee pulp was used as substrate in the acidogenic reactor and different mixtures of pulper and wash-water and pre-acidified effluent in the methanogenic one. The acidogenic and methanogenic reactors were operated at an organic loading rate of 5 COD g.l{sup -1}.d{sup -1} and 0.5 COD g.l{sup -1}.d{sup -1}. The total, soluble and VFA's effluent COD concentrations of the acidogenic reactor present average values of 57.75, 17.00 and 13.92 g.l{sup -1} respectively. Under these experimental conditions, 23% (COD based) of coffee pulp was hydrolysed with a rate of 1.32 gCOD.l{sup -1}.d{sup -1} and the soluble fraction was transformed to VFA's with an acidification efficiency of 82%. Total VFA's concentration reached a value of 13.9 gCOD.l{sup -1}, and acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate represented 52%, 28%, 9% and 11% respectively of the liquid phase COD. In the methanogenic reactor, COD removal and methanization of fresh coffee wastewater, pre-acidified effluent and both combined occur with an efficiency of 85% to 95% respectively, with a characteristic biogas composition of 80% CH{sub 4} and 20% CO{sub 2}. These results show that a humid coffee 'Beneficio' processing daily 23 tons of cherry coffee (fresh fruit), equipped with a two stage anaerobic digestion process could generate at least 1,886 CH{sub 4} m{sup 3}.d{sup -1}. This represents an increase in methane production by a factor 3 to 5 compared to a 'Beneficio' using anaerobic digestion only for the treatment of its wastewater. (author)

  8. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... with a diffusion coefficient equal to the coefficient of consolidation. The experiments further show that the number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same wave height. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers....

  9. [Process analysis for levulinic acid generated in waste wood liquefaction by non-development thin-layer chromatography based on oblique projection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui; Ge, Jun; Fang, Feng; Yao, Zhixiang; Song, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative method is presented for multi-component process analysis, based on multi-wavelength thin-layer chromatography (TLC) scanning but without the routine development. The samples from the waste wood liquefaction process are applied on silica plates, and just the last sample of spot need to be developed for getting separated spectra. These spectra are divided into two parts of production (levulinic acid) and background, respectively, to build an oblique projection operator. The other process samples do not need to be developed repeatedly, and are scanned to collect hybrid spectra immediately. The pure production spectrum can be separated from the process spectrum by the oblique projection algorithms to realize the production quantification. It was showed that the relative errors between the determination results by this method and those by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were less than 3.27%, and so the consistency is perfect.

  10. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  11. Coal liquefaction technology. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technologies and processes for converting coal to liquid chemicals and fuels. Topics include materials characterization of liquefaction processes, catalysis, pyrolysis, depolymerization, coprocessing, and integrated liquefaction. Also discussed are liquid fuel use in automobiles and power generation, low-temperature carbonization technology, multi-stage liquefaction, cost benefit analysis, and commercialization of liquefaction technology. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

    1995-04-01

    Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

  13. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  14. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation:. Characterization of coal liquids by field ionization mass spectrometry and iodotrimethylsilane derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, R.; McMillen, D.F. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burke, F.P.; Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D. [Consolidation Coal Co., Library, PA (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1992-01-01

    SRI International evaluated two analytical methods for application to coal liquefaction. These included field ionization mass spectrometry and a technique employing iodotrimethylsilane for the derivatization of oxygen bound to alkyl carbon (alkyl ethers). The full report authored by the SRI researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by Consol into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract. (VC)

  16. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  17. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  19. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  20. Nontraditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining employs processes that remove material by various methods involving thermal, electrical, chemical and mechanical energy or even combinations of these. Nontraditional Machining Processes covers recent research and development in techniques and processes which focus on achieving high accuracies and good surface finishes, parts machined without burrs or residual stresses especially with materials that cannot be machined by conventional methods. With applications to the automotive, aircraft and mould and die industries, Nontraditional Machining Processes explores different aspects and processes through dedicated chapters. The seven chapters explore recent research into a range of topics including laser assisted manufacturing, abrasive water jet milling and hybrid processes. Students and researchers will find the practical examples and new processes useful for both reference and for developing further processes. Industry professionals and materials engineers will also find Nontraditional M...

  1. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  2. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 6. AUTHOR(S) William D. Jemison 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar - Radar 16...Award Number N000141110371 Title of Research Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar Principal Investigator William D. Jemison

  3. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  5. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  6. Advancements in Big Data Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vaniachine, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing volumes of scientific data present new challenges for Distributed Computing and Grid-technologies. The emerging Big Data revolution drives new discoveries in scientific fields including nanotechnology, astrophysics, high-energy physics, biology and medicine. New initiatives are transforming data-driven scientific fields by pushing Bid Data limits enabling massive data analysis in new ways. In petascale data processing scientists deal with datasets, not individual files. As a result, a task (comprised of many jobs) became a unit of petascale data processing on the Grid. Splitting of a large data processing task into jobs enabled fine-granularity checkpointing analogous to the splitting of a large file into smaller TCP/IP packets during data transfers. Transferring large data in small packets achieves reliability through automatic re-sending of the dropped TCP/IP packets. Similarly, transient job failures on the Grid can be recovered by automatic re-tries to achieve reliable Six Sigma produc...

  7. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  8. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  9. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  10. Advanced oxidation processes: overall models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Curco, D.; Addardak, A.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica. Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Modelling AOPs implies to consider all the steps included in the process, that means, mass transfer, kinetic (reaction) and luminic steps. In this way, recent works develop models which relate the global reaction rate to catalyst concentration and radiation absorption. However, the application of such models requires to know what is the controlling step for the overall process. In this paper, a simple method is explained which allows to determine the controlling step. Thus, it is assumed that reactor is divided in two hypothetical zones (dark and illuminated), and according to the experimental results, obtained by varying only the reaction volume, it can be decided if reaction occurs only in the illuminated zone or in the all reactor, including dark zone. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol, by using titania degussa P-25 as catalyst, is studied as reaction model. The preliminary results obtained are presented here, showing that it seems that, in this case, reaction only occurs in the illuminated zone of photoreactor. A model is developed to explain this behaviour. (orig.)

  11. Traditional machining processes research advances

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book collects several examples of research in machining processes. Chapter 1 provides information on polycrystalline diamond tool material and its emerging applications. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the analysis of orthogonal cutting experiments using diamond-coated tools with force and temperature measurements. Chapter 3 describes the estimation of cutting forces and tool wear using modified mechanistic models in high performance turning. Chapter 4 contains information on cutting under gas shields for industrial applications. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the machinability of magnesium and its alloys. Chapter 6 provides information on grinding science. Finally, chapter 7 is dedicated to flexible integration of shape and functional modelling of machine tool spindles in a design framework.    

  12. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  13. Self-organized criticality of liquefaction in saturated granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴爱祥; 孙业志; 李青松

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the dissipative structure theory, the evolutionary process of vibrating liquefaction in saturatedgranules was analyzed. When the irreversible force increases to some degree, the system will be in a state far fromequilibrium, and the new structure probably occurs. According to synergetics, the equation of liquefaction evolutionwas deduced, and the evolutionary process was analyzed by dynamics. The evolutionary process of vibrating lique-faction is a process in which the period doubling accesses to chaos, and the fluctuation is the original driving force ofsystem evolution. The liquefaction process was also analyzed by fractal geometry. The steady process of vibratingliquefaction obeys the scaling form, and shows self-organized criticality in the course of vibration. With the incre-ment of the recurrence number, the stress of saturated granules will decrease rapidly or lose completely, and thestrain will increase rapidly, so that the granules can not sustain load and the "avalanche" phenomenon takes place.

  14. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  15. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    Progress on seventeen projects related to coal liquefaction or the upgrading of coal liquids and supported by US DOE is reported with emphasis on funding, brief process description history and current progress. (LTN)

  16. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, August 1981-October 1981. [Using model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdate catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Advanced Methods of Biomedical Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This book grew out of the IEEE-EMBS Summer Schools on Biomedical Signal Processing, which have been held annually since 2002 to provide the participants state-of-the-art knowledge on emerging areas in biomedical engineering. Prominent experts in the areas of biomedical signal processing, biomedical data treatment, medicine, signal processing, system biology, and applied physiology introduce novel techniques and algorithms as well as their clinical or physiological applications. The book provides an overview of a compelling group of advanced biomedical signal processing techniques, such as mult

  19. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  20. Simulation of coal liquefaction process by developing user models on Aspen Plus platform%Aspen Plus用户模型技术的煤直接液化全流程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单贤根; 常小瑞; 任琼; 江洪波; 翁惠新

    2014-01-01

    Based on six lumped kinetic model, this paper used the BFGS optimization algorithm to obtain kinetic constant of heating-up and isothermal stage of direct coal liquefaction process, and through regression of experimental data to get specific product composition for separation unit of direct coal liquefaction. Then the Aspen Plus user model of direct coal liquefaction was developed and integrated with the Aspen Plus software to achieve an entire process simulation of direct coal liquefaction process in Aspen Plus platform which can make the best use of its powerful databases and simulation calculation ability of separation processes. The calculation value of gas liquid equilibrium in high temperature and low temperature separators for reaction products agreed well with the experiment data. The entire process simulation in Aspen Plus platform can provide technical support for the optimization of direct coal liquefaction reaction and separation conditions.%基于六集总动力学模型,采用BFGS优化算法获得煤直接液化升温阶段和恒温阶段的反应动力学常数,同时通过试验数据回归得到用于煤直接液化分离单元的具体产品组成,并以此为基础开发了煤直接液化反应的Aspen Plus用户模型。在此基础上,将上述煤直接液化用户模型与Aspen Plus流程模拟软件集成在一起,充分利用Aspen Plus软件强大的性质数据库和分离过程模拟计算能力,最终实现了基于Aspen Plus平台的煤直接液化全流程模拟,模拟计算得到的煤直接液化反应产物在高温和低温分离器的气液相平衡数据与实验值较吻合。基于Aspen Plus的全流程模拟可以为煤直接液化反应和分离条件的优化选择提供技术参考。

  1. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  2. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES MODELLING USING ADVANCED HYDROINFORMATIC TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEILICCI ERIKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The water has an essential role in the functioning of ecosystems by integrating the complex physical, chemical, and biological processes that sustain life. Water is a key factor in determining the productivity of ecosystems, biodiversity and species composition. Water is also essential for humanity: water supply systems for population, agriculture, fisheries, industries, and hydroelectric power depend on water supplies. The modelling of hydrological processes is an important activity for water resources management, especially now, when the climate change is one of the major challenges of our century, with strong influence on hydrological processes dynamics. Climate change and needs for more knowledge in water resources require the use of advanced hydroinformatic tools in hydrological processes modelling. The rationale and purpose of advanced hydroinformatic tools is to develop a new relationship between the stakeholders and the users and suppliers of the systems: to offer the basis (systems which supply useable results, the validity of which cannot be put in reasonable doubt by any of the stakeholders involved. For a successful modelling of hydrological processes also need specialists well trained and able to use advanced hydro-informatics tools. Results of modelling can be a useful tool for decision makers to taking efficient measures in social, economical and ecological domain regarding water resources, for an integrated water resources management.

  3. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

  4. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  5. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  6. Asspects Concerning the Improvement of Soils Against Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Pleşcan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specialized literature concerning the Geotechnical Engineering Field indicates the problems due to soil liquefaction and the aggravating consequences that liquefaction phenomenon may cause to buildings. Some procedures of foundation soil improvement for both existing and future foundations are presented. The paper also presents three soil remediation methods involving a low level of vibration generated in the process of foundation soil improvement and two case studies representing the usual method in Romania.

  7. Asspects Concerning the Improvement of Soils Against Liquefaction

    OpenAIRE

    Costel Pleşcan; Ancuţa Rotaru

    2010-01-01

    The specialized literature concerning the Geotechnical Engineering Field indicates the problems due to soil liquefaction and the aggravating consequences that liquefaction phenomenon may cause to buildings. Some procedures of foundation soil improvement for both existing and future foundations are presented. The paper also presents three soil remediation methods involving a low level of vibration generated in the process of foundation soil improvement and two case studies representing the usu...

  8. 含氧煤层气流量变化对液化工艺影响的模拟研究%Simulation Study on Influence of Flow Change of Oxygen-contained Coal-bed Methane upon Liquefaction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱菁; 王长元; 张武; 任小坤

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, simulation calculation wad carried out on the liquefaction process of coal-bed methane by using HYSYS software and analysis was made on influence of the flow change of coal-bed methane upon the energy consumption of liquefaction and the recovery rate of methane. The results showed that the change range of the total liquefaction energy consumption was identical with that of coal-bed methane flow, of which the change range of the nitrogen compression energy consumption was greater than that of coal-bed methane flow and that of the MRC compression energy consumption was smaller than that of coal-bed methane;the flow change increased the liquefaction energy consumption of unit LNG product, but the flow decrease did not affect the recovery rate of coal-bed methane, and only the flow increase may reduce its recovery rate. In actual operation, it’ s better to make the cooling system having 5% margin so as to ensure the security and stability of the liquefaction process.%利用HYSYS软件对煤层气液化工艺进行模拟计算,分析了煤层气流量变化对液化能耗和CH4回收率的影响,结果表明:总液化能耗变化幅度与煤层气流量变化幅度一致,其中氮气压缩功耗变化幅度大于流量变化幅度,混合冷剂压缩功耗变化幅度小于流量变化幅度;煤层气流量变化会使LNG单位产品液化能耗增加,但流量减小不影响CH4回收率,只有流量增加会降低CH4回收率。在实际运行时,应使制冷系统提供的冷量留有5%的余量,以确保工艺过程的安全与稳定。

  9. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  10. Rapid and solvent-saving liquefaction of woody biomass using microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexiang; Wu, Zhengguo; Fan, Liwei; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Yiqiang; Zheng, Deyong; Wang, Siqun

    2016-01-01

    A novel process to rapidly liquefy sawdust using reduced quantities of solvent, was successfully carried out via microwave-ultrasonic assisted technology (MUAT) in a sulphuric acid/polyethylene glycol 400-glycerol catalytic system. The influences of some key parameters on the liquefaction yield were investigated. The results showed that compared with traditional liquefaction, the introduction of MUAT allowed the solvent dosage to be halved and shortened the liquefaction time from 60 to 20 min. The liquefaction yield reached 91% under the optimal conditions. However, the influence on the yield of some parameters such as catalyst concentration, was similar to that of traditional liquefaction, indicating that the application of MUAT possibly only intensified heat and mass transfer rather than altering either the degradation mechanism or pathway. The introduction of MUAT as a process intensification technology has good industrial application potential for woody biomass liquefaction.

  11. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  12. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  13. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  14. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  15. Advanced Signal Processing for Wireless Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available There is at present a worldwide effort to develop next-generation wireless communication systems. It is envisioned that many of the future wireless systems will incorporate considerable signal-processing intelligence in order to provide advanced services such as multimedia transmission. In general, wireless channels can be very hostile media through which to communicate, due to substantial physical impediments, primarily radio-frequency interference and time-arying nature of the channel. The need of providing universal wireless access at high data-rate (which is the aim of many merging wireless applications presents a major technical challenge, and meeting this challenge necessitates the development of advanced signal processing techniques for multiple-access communications in non-stationary interference-rich environments. In this paper, we present some key advanced signal processing methodologies that have been developed in recent years for interference suppression in wireless networks. We will focus primarily on the problem of jointly suppressing multiple-access interference (MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI, which are the limiting sources of interference for the high data-rate wireless systems being proposed for many emerging application areas, such as wireless multimedia. We first present a signal subspace approach to blind joint suppression of MAI and ISI. We then discuss a powerful iterative technique for joint interference suppression and decoding, so-called Turbo multiuser detection, that is especially useful for wireless multimedia packet communications. We also discuss space-time processing methods that employ multiple antennas for interference rejection and signal enhancement. Finally, we touch briefly on the problems of suppressing narrowband interference and impulsive ambient noise, two other sources of radio-frequency interference present in wireless multimedia networks.

  16. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  17. Advanced processes for 193-nm immersion lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Yayi

    2009-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to advanced processes and materials used in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). It is an important text for those new to the field as well as for current practitioners who want to broaden their understanding of this latest technology. The book can be used as course material for graduate students of electrical engineering, material sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and can also be used to train engineers involved in the manufacture of integrated circuits. It provides techniques for selecting critical materials (topcoats, photoresi

  18. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  19. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Current ERDA work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly. (LTN)

  20. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  1. Liquefaction Susceptibility of Soils With Clay Particles from Earthquake-induced Landslides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-sheng; JIANG Xin; ZHANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    The main reason for earthquake-induced landslides is liquefaction of soil, a process considered to occur mostly in sandy soils. Liquefaction can occur in clayey soils has also been reported and proven in the recent literature, but liquefaction in clayey soils still remains unclear and there are many questions that need to be addressed. In order to address these questions, an depth study on the liquefaction potential of clayey soils was conducted on the basis of field investigation and a series of laboratory tests on the samples collected from the sliding surface of the landslides. The liquefaction potential of the soils was studied by means of undrained cyclic ring-shear tests. Research results show that the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is higher than that of clayey soils given the same void ratio;the soil resistance to liquefaction rises with an increase in plasticity for clayey soils; relation between plasticity index and the liquefaction potential of soil can be used in practical application to estimate the liquefaction potential of soil.

  2. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  4. Potential environmental regulations for coal liquefaction facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauzvardis, P.; Gasper, J.; Surles, T.

    1979-12-01

    Although this report deals with potential regulatory constraints only on development of coal liquids, it should be noted that every basic industry in the national economy is constrained by a myriad of state, local, and federal laws, and many of these existing laws may eventually affect coal liquids development. The American Petroleum Institute has prepared a list of the 12 most generally applicable environmental laws; these are summarized. For the present study, the most comprehensive constraining regulations likely to apply to coal liquefaction were chosen from this list. The choices depended in part upon which laws could be complied with by appropriate facility design. Therefore, for this study, the regulations examined were those covering solid and hazardous wastes and emissions of air and water pollutants. It should be noted that there are at present no emission regulations pertaining specifically to coal liquefaction. A survey of such analogous industries was conducted to identify regulations on air and water pollutants and solid waste disposal that might pertain to coal synfuel plants. The Federal New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for air and water pollutants were specified where applicable. Wherever federal standards for a particular emission source or pollutant did not exist but appeared necessary, appropriate standards were specified on the basis of state regulations.Estimates of emission and effluent standards that may be applicable to coal liquefaction facilities are presented. Emission standards are defined for coal driers, boilers, process, and combustion equipment and for Claus sulfur plants. Effluent standards are provided for process, boiler, and miscellaneous waste streams. Sources of solid wastes from coal liquefaction and proposed disposal regulations for hazardous wastes are also described.

  5. An advanced coal gasification desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Leppin, D. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA)); Banerjee, D.D. (Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal, Carterville, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is in the process of developing an advanced coal gasification desulfurization process in which a calcium-based sorbent such as limestone or dolomite is injected into the fluidized-bed gasifier with coal to achieve in-bed desulfurization of coal as it is converted into clean fuel gas. The reactions involving calcium-based sorbents takes place in two steps. In the first step, the desulfurization reaction takes place between hydrogen sulfide and calcium oxide in the reducing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfide. The latter subsequently reacts with oxygen in the oxidizing zone of the reactor to produce calcium sulfate which can be safely disposed of along with the coal ash. This process will reduce the capital requirement for coal gasification plants and provide cost effective alternatives to scrubbers for industrial and utility use of high-sulfur coal. This paper addresses the basic research being conducted at IGT to confirm the viability of this process. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Management Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chung Seok; Choi, I. K.; Kwon, S. G. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    As a part of research efforts to develop an advanced spent fuel management process, this project focused on the electrochemical reduction technology which can replace the original Li reduction technology of ANL, and we have successfully built a 20 kgHM/batch scale demonstration system. The performance tests of the system in the ACPF hot cell showed more than a 99% reduction yield of SIMFUEL, a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} and a current efficiency of 80%. For an optimization of the process, the prevention of a voltage drop in an integrated cathode, a minimization of the anodic effect and an improvement of the hot cell operability by a modulation and simplization of the unit apparatuses were achieved. Basic research using a bench-scale system was also carried out by focusing on a measurement of the electrochemical reduction rate of the surrogates, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism, collecting data on the partition coefficients of the major nuclides, quantitative measurement of mass transfer rates and diffusion coefficients of oxygen and metal ions in molten salts. When compared to the PYROX process of INL, the electrochemical reduction system developed in this project has comparative advantages in its application of a flexible reaction mechanism, relatively short reaction times and increased process yields.

  7. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, May-July 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Tarrer, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses a kinetic investigation of the Fe-S-H/sub 2/ system conducted as an outgrowth of current research in the SRC-I (solvent refined coal) process to better understand the effects of naturally occurring iron sulfides in coal hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization. A total of twelve closed system reactions were carried out in which 48 to 60 mesh pyrite, in the presence of hydrogen gas, underwent transformation to 1C hexagonal pyrrhotite. Reaction temperatures were 350/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C with four sample runs at temperature. Initial pressure of hydrogen gas was 1250 psig (8617 KPa). A comparison of the results for each reaction series was evaluated with time and temperature as variables. The transformation rate of pyrite to pyrrhotite was found to increase over the range of reaction temperatures with the 400/sup 0/C samples showing the greatest amount of transformation per unit time. For the 375/sup 0/C and 400/sup 0/C runs pyrrhotite formation decreased after approximately 15 minutes of reaction time due to (1) reduced availability of pyrite, and (2) resistance to diffusion in the topochemical product layer.

  8. Biological testing and chemical analysis of process materials from an integrated two stage coal liquefaction: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Buhl, P.; Moroni, E.C.

    1983-07-01

    Samples for chemical characterization and biological testing were obtained from ITSL runs 3LCF7, 3LCF8 and 3LCF9. Chemical analysis of these materials showed that SCT products were composed of fewer compounds than analogous materials from Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) processes. Major components in the SCT materials were three-, four-, five- and six-ring neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Methyl(C/sub 1/) and C/sub 2/ homologs of these compounds were present in relatively low concentrations, compared to their non-alkylated homologs. Organic nitrogen was primarily in the form of tertiary polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles and carbazoles. Little or no amino PAH (APAH) or cyano PAH were detected in samples taken during normal PDU operations, however, mutagenic APAH were produced during off-normal operation. Microbial mutagenicity appeared to be due mainly to the presence of APAH which were probably formed in the LC finer due to failure of the catalyst to promote deamination following carbon-nitrogen bond scission of nitrogen-containing hydroaromatics. This failure was observed for the off-normal runs where it was likely that the catalyst had been deactivated. Carcinogenic activity of ITSL materials as assessed by (tumors per animal) in the initiation/promotion mouse skin painting assay was slightly reduced for materials produced with good catalyst under normal operation compared to those collected during recycle of the LC Finer feed. Initiation activity of the latter samples did not appear to be significantly different from that of other coal derived materials with comparable boiling ranges. The observed initiation activity was not unexpected, considering analytical data which showed the presence of four-, five- and six-ring PAH in ITSL materials.

  9. Advanced Color Image Processing and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume does much more than survey modern advanced color processing. Starting with a historical perspective on ways we have classified color, it sets out the latest numerical techniques for analyzing and processing colors, the leading edge in our search to accurately record and print what we see. The human eye perceives only a fraction of available light wavelengths, yet we live in a multicolor world of myriad shining hues. Colors rich in metaphorical associations make us “purple with rage” or “green with envy” and cause us to “see red.” Defining colors has been the work of centuries, culminating in today’s complex mathematical coding that nonetheless remains a work in progress: only recently have we possessed the computing capacity to process the algebraic matrices that reproduce color more accurately. With chapters on dihedral color and image spectrometers, this book provides technicians and researchers with the knowledge they need to grasp the intricacies of today’s color imaging.

  10. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barle...

  11. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  12. Free report from Liquefaction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical report Proceedings From the 2nd U.S.-Japan Workshop on Liquefaction, Large Ground Deformation and Their Effects on Lifelines is available free of charge from the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, headquartered at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The 499-page proceedings contain more than 30 reports on case studies of liquefaction and earthquake-induced ground deformation from previous earthquakes in the U.S. and Japan.

  13. Recent advances in EEG data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, L H

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the most interesting advances in EEG signal processing are with methods based on descriptive mathematical models of the process. Formulation of auto-regressive (AR) and mixed autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) models is reviewed for the scalar and the multidimensional cases and extensions to allow time-varying coefficients are pointed out. Data processing with parametric models, DPPM, involves parameter estimation and a large number of algorithms are available. Emphasis is put on those that are simple to apply and require a modest amount of computation. A recursive algorithm by Levinson, Robinson and Durbin is well suited for estimation of the coefficients in the AR model and for tests of model order. It is applicable to both the scalar and multidimensional cases. The ARMA model can be handled by approximation of an AR model or by nonlinear optimization. Recursive estimation with AR and ARMA models is reviewed and the connection with the Kalman filter pointed out. In this way processes with time-varying properties may be handled and a stationarity index is defined. The recursive algorithms can deal with AR or ARMA models in the same way. A reformulation of the algorithm to include sparsely updated parameter estimates significantly speeds up the calculations. It will allow several EEG channels to be handled simultaneously in real time on a modern minicomputer installation. DPPM has been particularly successful in the areas of spectral analysis and detection of short transients such as spikes and sharp waves. Recently some interesting attempts have been made to apply classification algorithms to estimated parameters. A brief review is made of the main results in these areas.

  14. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-07

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  15. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  16. Effects of catalysts on liquefaction of Agaricus versicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Supercritical liquefaction process is used for producing energy from biomass. The common reaction conditions for supercritical liquefaction process are the 240-380 °C temperature range and 5-20 Mpa pressure values range. Agaricus versicolor (L.) was liquefied by acetone in an autoclave (75 mL) under high pressure with (aluminium oxide and calcium hydroxide) and without catalyst at 290 °C for producing bio-oil. The products of liquefaction (bio-oil) were analysed and characterized using various methods including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. GC-MS identified 27 different compounds in the bio-oils obtained at 290 °C.

  17. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  18. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  19. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  1. 含氧煤层气液化流程爆炸极限分析%Analysis of flammability limits for liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋英; 王莉; 巨永林

    2011-01-01

    大部分含氧煤层气由于技术限制没有被合理利用,而是直接放空,不仅浪费资源.而且污染大气环境.针对某一典型煤层气气源条件和组分特点,设计了一种新型的液化精馏工艺流程,结合HYSYS软件模拟计算结果以及爆炸极限理论,对该液化精馏工艺流程的爆炸极限进行了分析计算,结果表明煤层气中甲烷浓度在压缩、液化以及节流过程中都高于爆炸上限,操作过程安全性比较高.但在精馏塔顶部甲烷浓度开始低于爆炸上限而导致精馏过程存在安全隐患.首先对原料气进行初步脱氧,然后再通过调整精馏塔塔底采出量来控制塔顶杂质气体中甲烷含量,使得其在整个液化及精馏流程中始终高于爆炸上限.分析结果表明,采取安全措施后整个流程都不存在爆炸危险性,甲烷回收率和产品纯度都较高,而且整个流程能耗也比较低.模拟结果显示,所设计的液化及精馏流程对不同气源具有较好的适用性,分析计算结果为含氧煤层气的杂质分离、操作过程的爆炸极限分析以及安全措施的采取提供了一定的参考.%Most of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM) has not been utilized due to the limit in technique for production. The discharged gas leads to not only the waste of resources but also environmental pollution. In this study, a liquefaction process is proposed and designed for the typical CBM. HYSYS software is adopted to simulate the process. The flammability limits are analyzed and calculated based on the flammability limit theory and the simulated results of HYSYS. The results indicate that no flammable hazards exist in the processes of compression, liquefaction and throttling but they may appear at the top of the distillation tower. A method, in which oxygen is first removed from the feed gas with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom), is adopted to ensure that the methane

  2. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming specie...

  3. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  4. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height......:17 mmwas partially liquefied with CC as small as 2.9%. Remarks are made as to how to check for liquefaction of clayey soils exposed to waves in real-life situations......This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (CC) on liquefaction of seabed beneath progressive waves. Experiments were, for the most part, conducted with silt and silt-clay mixtures; in supplementary tests, sand-clay mixtures were used. Two types...

  5. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    Hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  7. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  8. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  9. Surfactant-assisted liquefaction of particulate carbonaceous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A slurry of carbonaceous particles such as coal containing an oil soluble polar substituted oleophilic surfactant, suitably an amine substituted long chain hydrocarbon, is liquefied at high temperature and high hydrogen presence. The pressure of surfactant results in an increase in yield and the conversion product contains a higher proportion of light and heavy oils and less asphaltene than products from other liquefaction processes.

  10. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has bee...

  11. Efficiency and economics of large scale hydrogen liquefaction. [for future generation aircraft requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen is being considered as a substitute for conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels for future generations of commercial jet aircraft. Its acceptance will depend, in part, upon the technology and cost of liquefaction. The process and economic requirements for providing a sufficient quantity of liquid hydrogen to service a major airport are described. The design is supported by thermodynamic studies which determine the effect of process arrangement and operating parameters on the process efficiency and work of liquefaction.

  12. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  13. Analysis and elimination of cold box abnormal liquid-flooding in natural gas liquefaction process%某天然气液化工艺冷箱积液分析及排除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑智伟; 袁清; 吴锐

    2014-01-01

    The MRC technology is a widely used natural gas liquefaction technology ,and it has the advantages of simple process ,compact layout ,less equipment ,etc .,but the liquid-flooding phenomenon of cold box (plate-fin heat exchanger) occurs easily ,which leads to the yield reduc-tion or production interruption .This article describes the cold box liquid-flooding phenomenon of Zhuhai natural gas liquefaction plant ,such as pressure ,liquid level ,differential pressure and temperature ,analyses the reasons and proposals treatment methods . It is helpful for similar LNG plants to judge and handle the cold box liquid-flooding problem in time .%某工艺是一套国内外应用广泛的天然气液化工艺技术,具有工艺流程简单、布置紧凑、设备数量少等优点,但该工艺因冷箱(板翅式换热器)容易积液,导致装置减产或生产中断的问题。描述了珠海天然气液化装置冷箱积液时的工艺现象(压力、液位、压差、温度等),分析了产生积液的原因,并提出了处理方法,为同类装置及时判断及科学处理冷箱积液问题提供了参考。

  14. Recent Advances and Challenges in Process Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lee, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Process identification is undergoing tremendous developments as computational capabilities improve. Theories are rapidly catching up with the needs of practical applications but practical process identification experiences still reveal significant gaps between theory and practice. This review att...

  15. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  16. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    The advantages of biomass as a feedstock are examined and biomass conversion techniques are described. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products gas, wood tars, and charcoal can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  17. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  18. Liquefaction, flow, and associated ground failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, T. Leslie

    1973-01-01

    Ambiguities in the use of the term liquefaction and in defining the relation between liquefaction and ground failure have led to encumbered communication between workers in various fields and between specialists in the same field, and the possibility that evaluations of liquefaction potential could be misinterpreted or misapplied. Explicit definitions of liquefaction and related concepts are proposed herein. These definitions, based on observed laboratory behavior, are then used to clarify the relation between liquefaction and ground failure. Soil liquefaction is defined as the transformation of a granular material from a solid into a liquefied state as a consequence of increased pore-water pressures. This definition avoids confusion between liquefaction and possible flow-failure conditions after liquefaction. Flow-failure conditions are divided into two types: (1) unlimited flow if pore-pressure reductions caused by dilatancy during flow deformation are not sufficient to solidify the material and thus arrest flow, and (2) limited flow if they are sufficient to solidify the material after a finite deformation. After liquefaction in the field, unlimited flow commonly leads to flow landslides, whereas limited flow leads at most to lateral-spreading landslides. Quick-condition failures such as loss of bearing capacity form a third type of ground failure associated with liquefaction.

  19. Advances in heuristic signal processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Amitava; Siarry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and application of algorithms for both one-dimensional signal processing and multidimensional signal processing, namely image and video processing, with the recent focus changing from a step-by-step procedure of designing the algorithm first and following up with in-depth analysis and performance improvement to instead applying heuristic-based methods to solve signal-processing problems. In this book the contributing authors demonstrate both general-purpose algorithms and those aimed at solving specialized application problems, with a spec

  20. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  1. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  2. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  3. Advanced Materials Growth and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This most extensive of U.S. Army materials growth and processing facilities houses seven dedicated, state-of-the-art, molecular beam epitaxy and three metal organic...

  4. The Paraguayan democratization process: advances and opposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel UHARTE POZAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new conceptions of democracy in Latin America, this work attempts to evaluate the democratization process that is taking place in Paraguay, as a consequence of the historical defeat suffered by the Colorado Party in the presidential elections of 2008. The analysis identifies the reasons for the triumph of the heterogeneous coalition lead by ex-bishop Fernando Lugo and evaluates three aspects of the process: political democratization, social democratization and mass participation.

  5. Process Analytical Technology-Recent Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gupta, N.; S. Prathima; Shashikanth. D; A. Kailash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Process analytical technologies had been applied to manufacturing processes for decades. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had re-defined the phrase and implemented into an initiative focusing on improving the several aspects of pharmaceutical industry; European agency for the evaluation of Medicinal products (EMEA) has formed a PAT team in 2003. The PAT initiative was initially intended for traditional pharmaceutical manufacturers, but the FDA’s PAT guidance clearly states ...

  6. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR FOOD INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER DECONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Krzemińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High organic matter content is a basic problem in food industry wastewaters. Typically, the amount and composition of the effluent varies considerably. In the article four groups of advanced processes and their combination of food industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed: electrochemical oxidation (EC, Fenton’s process, ozonation of water and photocatalytic processes. All advanced oxidation processes (AOP`s are characterized by a common chemical feature: the capability of exploiting high reactivity of HO• radicals in driving oxidation processes which are suitable for achieving decolonization and odour reduction, and the complete mineralization or increase of bioavailability of recalcitrant organic pollutants.

  7. Recent Advancements in Semiconductor-based Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M L; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in technology and basic understanding of device physics are bringing optical signal processing closer to a commercial breakthrough. In this paper we describe the main challenges in high-speed SOA-based switching....

  8. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    Using a reactor in which the coal is physically separated from the solid catalyst by a porous wall permeable to the hydrogen donor solvent, it was shown that direct contact between the catalyst and the coal is not required for catalyzed coal liquefaction. This occurs however only when there is a hydrogen atmosphere, as liquefaction with catalyst participation does not occur in a nitrogen atmosphere. Liquefaction by hydrogen transfer from the donor solvent itself does occur. This suggests that there is transfer of hydrogen from the catalyst to the coal via the solvent. The character of the solvent makes a significant difference, the better solvents being good hydrogen donors. These results indicate that the role of the catalyst may be to regenerate the spent hydrogen donor solvent during the liquefaction process. The peak temperature for volatiles evolution has been shown to be a reproducible measure of the coal rank. This was shown by an excellent correlation (R2 = 0.998) between peak volatiles temperatures (by TGA) and vitrinite reflectance. Using TG/MS, the volatiles contents of coals of a wide range of ranks was determined. The low rank coals emit largely phenols and some other oxygen compounds and olefins. The higher rank coals emit largely aromatic hydrocarbons and some olefins.

  9. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction...... is increased with increasing clay content, up to 30%, beyond which the mixture of silt and clay is not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction resistant under waves....

  10. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing geologic and alluvium maps. Quaternary, Tertiary, and Cretaceous-age sediments, and alluvium deposits are...

  11. Evaluation for Earthquake Liquefaction of Loess Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Wang Lanmin; Wang Ping

    2009-01-01

    ugh the sinusoid loading dynamic triaxial test, the liquefaction property of saturated loess and sand selected from a civil airport of Lanzhou, Gansu is examined. Based on the laboratory results, a comprehensive assessment on the earthquake liquefaction potential of the loess and sand is given, using the liquefaction resistance shear stress method and the results of seismic hazard assessment. It is found that under the effect of ground motion with exceedance probability of 10% within 50 years, the loess in the study is more susceptible to liquefaction than sand.

  12. Advanced Computing Architectures for Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    bioinformatics, computing forces for molecular dynamics simulations, or to perform floating point operations for linear algebra . Reconfigurable computing...science codes typically involve high precision, very large data sets, and often include linear algebra formulations. Processing these applications on...www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 77 Bateman A, Birney E, Cerruti L, Durbin R, Etwiller l, Eddy SR, Griffiths-Jones S, Howe KL, Marshall M, Sonnhammer ELL. The Pfam protein

  13. Improving Seismic Image with Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericy Lastra Cunill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking Taking into account the need to improve the seismic image in the central area of Cuba, specifically in the area of the Venegas sector, located in the Cuban Folded Belt, the seismic data acquired by Cuba Petróleo (CUPET in the year 2007 was reprocessed according to the experience accumulated during the previous processing carried out in the same year, and the new geologic knowledge on the area. This was done with the objective of improving the results. The processing applied previously was analyzed by reprocessing the primary data with new focuses and procedures, among them are the following: the attenuation of the superficial wave with a filter in the Radon domain in its lineal variant, the change of the primary statics corrections of elevation by those of refraction, the study of velocity with the selection automatic biespectral of high density, the study of the anisotropy, the attenuation of the random noise, and the pre stack time and depth migration. As a result of this reprocessing, a structure that was not identified in the seismic sections of the previous processing was located at the top of a Continental Margin sediment located to the north of the sector that increased the potentialities of finding hydrocarbons in quantities of economic importance thus diminishing the risk of drilling in the sector Venegas.

  14. A genetic algorithm approach for assessing soil liquefaction potential based on reliability method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Bagheripour; I Shooshpasha; M Afzalirad

    2012-02-01

    Deterministic approaches are unable to account for the variations in soil’s strength properties, earthquake loads, as well as source of errors in evaluations of liquefaction potential in sandy soils which make them questionable against other reliability concepts. Furthermore, deterministic approaches are incapable of precisely relating the probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety (FS). Therefore, the use of probabilistic approaches and especially, reliability analysis is considered since a complementary solution is needed to reach better engineering decisions. In this study, Advanced First-Order Second-Moment (AFOSM) technique associated with genetic algorithm (GA) and its corresponding sophisticated optimization techniques have been used to calculate the reliability index and the probability of liquefaction. The use of GA provides a reliable mechanism suitable for computer programming and fast convergence. A new relation is developed here, by which the liquefaction potential can be directly calculated based on the estimated probability of liquefaction (), cyclic stress ratio (CSR) and normalized standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts while containing a mean error of less than 10% from the observational data. The validity of the proposed concept is examined through comparison of the results obtained by the new relation and those predicted by other investigators. A further advantage of the proposed relation is that it relates and FS and hence it provides possibility of decision making based on the liquefaction risk and the use of deterministic approaches. This could be beneficial to geotechnical engineers who use the common methods of FS for evaluation of liquefaction. As an application, the city of Babolsar which is located on the southern coasts of Caspian Sea is investigated for liquefaction potential. The investigation is based primarily on in situ tests in which the results of SPT are analysed.

  15. Liquefaction mitigation in silty soils using composite stone columns and dynamic compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Shenthan; R.Nashed; S.Thevanayagam; G. R. Martin

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an analytical methodology to evaluate the effectiveness ofvibro stone column (S.C.) and dynamic compaction (D.C.) techniques supplemented with wick drains to densify and mitigate liquefaction in saturated sands and non-plastic silty soils. It includes the following: (i) develop numerical models to simulate and analyze soil densification during S.C. installation and D.C. process, and (ii) identify parameters controlling post-improvement soil density in both cases, and (iii) develop design guidelines for densification of silty soils using the above techniques. An analytical procedure was developed and used to simulate soil response during S.C. and D.C. installations, and the results were compared with available case history data. Important construction design parameters and soil properties that affect the effectiveness of these techniques, and construction design choices suitable for sands and non-plastic silty soils were identified.The methodology is expected to advance the use of S.C. and D.C. in silty soils reducing the reliance on expensive field trials as a design tool. Thc ultimate outcome of this research will be design charts and design guidelines for using composite stone columns and composite dynamic compaction techniques in liquefaction mitigation of saturated silty soils.

  16. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    phantom and in animal mode. The expected outcome—the assessment of a patient’s entire blood volume (in adults 5 L)—will provide a significant (100...formation. We hypothesized that such a study could result in a possible vaccine for osteoporosis . 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Control SW 20 SW40 SWCPE...GCNFs) were produced by a single-step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were

  17. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  18. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  19. Advances in modeling plastic waste pyrolysis processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Safadi, J. Zeaiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tertiary recycling of plastics via pyrolysis is recently gaining momentum due to promising economic returns from the generated products that can be used as a chemical feedstock or fuel. The need for prediction models to simulate such processes is essential in understanding in depth the mechanisms that take place during the thermal or catalytic degradation of the waste polymer. This paper presents key different models used successfully in literature so far. Three modeling schemes are identified: Power-Law, Lumped-Empirical, and Population-Balance based equations. The categorization is based mainly on the level of detail and prediction capability from each modeling scheme. The data shows that the reliability of these modeling approaches vary with the degree of details the experimental work and product analysis are trying to achieve.

  20. Advanced laser processing in fuel cells production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollhof, J.; Havrilla, D.; Schaupp, R. [TRUMPF Inc., Plymouth, MI (United States); Loeffler, K. [TRUMPF Laser und Systemtechnik TLD, Ditzingen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed TRUMPF methods of joining bipolar plates to create fuel cell stacks and manufacture thin foils using diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs). Beam delivery systems and processing optics were discussed. CW disk lasers were used to allow spot diameters smaller than 30 {mu}m and combined with a Galvo technology-based scanning optics systems to enable welding speeds greater than 1 m/s. A TruFiber 300 diffraction limited fiber laser was used for CW laser cutting. Short and ultra-short laser pulses were used to drill thousands of holes per second without a measurable heat-affected zone. The attributes and specifications of the 3 major TRUMPF lasers developed to manufacture fuel cells were also provided.

  1. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  3. A General Criterion for Liquefaction in Granular Layers with Heterogeneous Pore Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Liran; Aharonov, Einat; Sparks, David; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude

    2013-01-01

    Fluid-saturated granular and porous layers can undergo liquefaction and lose their shear resistance when subjected to shear forcing. In geosystems, such a process can lead to severe natural hazards of soil liquefaction, accelerating slope failure, and large earthquakes. Terzaghi's principle of effective stress predicts that liquefaction occurs when the pore pressure within the layer becomes equal to the applied normal stress on the layer. However, under dynamic loading and when the internal permeability is relatively small the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous and it is not clear what measurement of pore pressure should be used in Terzaghi's principle. Here, we show theoretically and demonstrate using numerical simulations a general criterion for liquefaction that applies also for the cases in which the pore pressure is spatially heterogeneous. The general criterion demands that the average pore pressure along a continuous surface within the fluid-saturated granular or porous layer is equal to the appl...

  4. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  6. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  7. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  8. Advanced Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (Frorr) - To) 6/2011 to 9/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advance Digital Signal Processing for Hybrid Lidar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...report describes the technical progress towards the development of signed processing algorithms for hybrid lidar - radar designed to improve...detection performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hybrid Lidar

  9. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Recording-based identification of site liquefaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yuxian; Zhang Yushan; Liang Jianwen; Ray Ruichong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Reconnaissance reports and pertinent research on seismic hazards show that liquefaction is one of the key sources of damage to geotechnical and structural engineering systems. Therefore, identifying site liquefaction conditions plays an important role in seismic hazard mitigation. One of the widely used approaches for detecting liquefaction is based on the time-frequency analysis of ground motion recordings, in which short-time Fourier transform is typically used. It is known that recordings at a site with liquefaction are the result of nonlinear responses of seismic waves propagating in the liquefied layers underneath the site. Moreover, Fourier transform is not effective in characterizing such dynamic features as time-dependent frequency of the recordings rooted in nonlinear responses. Therefore, the aforementioned approach may not be intrinsically effective in detecting liquefaction. An alternative to the Fourier-based approach is presented in this study,which proposes time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the liquefaction features shown in the recordings. The paper then defines the predominant instantaneous frequency (PIF) and introduces the PIF-related motion features to identify liquefaction conditions at a given site. Analysis of 29 recorded data sets at different site conditions shows that the proposed approach is effective in detecting site liquefaction in comparison with other methods.

  11. Recording-based identification of site liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxian; Zhang, Yushan; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Ray Ruichong

    2005-12-01

    Reconnaissance reports and pertinent research on seismic hazards show that liquefaction is one of the key sources of damage to geotechnical and structural engineering systems. Therefore, identifying site liquefaction conditions plays an important role in seismic hazard mitigation. One of the widely used approaches for detecting liquefaction is based on the time-frequency analysis of ground motion recordings, in which short-time Fourier transform is typically used. It is known that recordings at a site with liquefaction are the result of nonlinear responses of seismic waves propagating in the liquefied layers underneath the site. Moreover, Fourier transform is not effective in characterizing such dynamic features as time-dependent frequency of the recordings rooted in nonlinear responses. Therefore, the aforementioned approach may not be intrinsically effective in detecting liquefaction. An alternative to the Fourier-based approach is presented in this study, which proposes time-frequency analysis of earthquake ground motion recordings with the aid of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), and offers justification for the HHT in addressing the liquefaction features shown in the recordings. The paper then defines the predominant instantaneous frequency (PIF) and introduces the PIF-related motion features to identify liquefaction conditions at a given site. Analysis of 29 recorded data sets at different site conditions shows that the proposed approach is effective in detecting site liquefaction in comparison with other methods.

  12. Liquefaction of Sand under Low Confining Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; Rolf Sandven; Lars Grande

    2003-01-01

    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. This process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand.In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  13. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P

    2016-02-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  14. Advances in the Process Development of Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Al-Haque, Naweed;

    2013-01-01

    Biocatalysis is already established in chemical synthesis on an industrial scale, in particular in the pharmaceutical sector. However, the wider implementation of biocatalysis is currently hindered by the extensive effort required to develop a competitive process. In order that resources spent on...

  15. ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT IN RESIDUA CATALYTIC CRACKER CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Process calculations and rigorous dynamic model with detailed coke combustion kine-tics for two-stage regeneration FCC process were developed and integrated into the advanced process control(APC) context. The package was implemented in 6 SINOPEC commercial RFCCUs.Typical 0.5%~0.8% improvement of target product yields was achieved. Significant energy consumption was saved with tighter control over coke burning.

  16. Economics of coal conversion processing. Advances in coal gasification: support research. Advances in coal gasification: process development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The fall meeting of the American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, was held at Miami Beach, Florida, September 10-15, 1978. Papers involved the economics of coal conversion processing and advances in coal gasification, especially support research and process development and analysis. Fourteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; three papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  18. Two-step sequential liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass by crude glycerol for the production of polyols and polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Li, Yebo

    2014-06-01

    A two-step sequential biomass liquefaction process was developed to produce bio-based polyols and polyurethane (PU) foams using crude glycerol as a liquefaction solvent. The first step, acid-catalyzed liquefaction, was highly effective in liquefying biomass, while the second step, base-catalyzed liquefaction, featured extensive condensation reactions. By using the developed two-step liquefaction process, the polyols produced from lignocellulosic biomass and crude glycerol containing 26-40% organic impurities showed hydroxyl numbers ranging from 536 to 936mgKOH/g, viscosities from 20.6 to 28.0Pas, and molecular weights (Mw) from 444 to 769g/mol. The PU foams produced had densities ranging from 0.04 to 0.05g/cm(3), compressive strengths from 223 to 420kPa, and thermal conductivities from 32.2 to 38.9mW/mK. Polyols and PU foams produced from the two-step liquefaction process had improved properties over their analogs derived from a one-step biomass liquefaction by crude glycerol process catalyzed by acid or base.

  19. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG... natural gas liquefaction and export facilities will be constructed adjacent to the existing Freeport...

  20. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    The DOE Coal Liquefaction Research Needs (COLIRN) Panel reviewed, developed, and assessed R and D needs for the development of coal liquefaction for the production of transportation fuels. Technical, economics, and environmental considerations were important components of the panel's deliberations. The panel examined in some depth each of the following technologies: direct liquefaction of coal, indirect liquefaction via conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas, pyrolysis, coprocessing of combined coal/oil feedstocks, and bioconversion of coal and coal-derived materials. In this assessment particular attention was given to highlighting the fundamental and applied research which has revealed new and improved liquefaction mechanisms, the potentially promising innovative processes currently emerging, and the technological and engineering improvements necessary for significant cost reductions. As the result of this assessment, the COLIRN panel developed a list of prioritized research recommendations needed to bring coal liquefaction to technical and economic readiness in the next 5--20 years. The findings and the research recommendations generated by the COLIRN panel are summarized in this publication. 107 figs., 63 tabs.

  1. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  2. Examination of alternative catalysts for biomass direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A.D.; Rogers, D.Z.

    1985-08-01

    We have now completed a survey study of several water-soluble salts of transition metals that are deemed likely to have utility as catalysts for direct biomass liquefaction in a carbon monoxide steam process. Certain salts of molybdenum and nickel are the most effective catalysts, and are the only species for which some catalytic activity independent of the ligand can be shown. The most effective forms of the nickel and molybdenum are cyanide and oxyanion complexes. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  5. Research on the direct liquefaction of peat at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). [Peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Solantausta, Y.

    1985-01-01

    At the Laboratory of Fuel Processing and Lubrication Technology, VTT, a process for the high-pressure liquefaction of peat into motor fuels is being developed. Because the different process steps are strongly interrelated, the production chain has to be optimized as a whole. The optimization is based on the results of both experimential investigations and techno-economic studies. To this date the research has concentrated on a process concept, where dry peat (10% moisture) is fed to the reactor as a slurry with recycle oil from the process. Promising results have been obtained in both experiments and economic evaluations of the process. Research on liquefaction via flash pyrolysis has also been initiated. In addition the Laboratory has participated in an International Energy Agency (IEA) co-operative project where several biomass liquefaction processes were examined.

  6. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  7. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  8. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao;

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  9. Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Recent Developments in Advanced Automated Post-Processing at AMOS Michael Werth, Brandoch Calef, Daniel Thompson The Boeing Company Kathy...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Boeing Company ,100

  10. Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 landmine Detection, Signal...310 Jesse Hall Columbia, MO 65211 -1230 654808 633606 ABSTRACT Advanced Statistical Signal Processing Techniques for Landmine Detection Using GPR Report

  11. Advanced multiresponse process optimisation an intelligent and integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Šibalija, Tatjana V

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an intelligent, integrated, problem-independent method for multiresponse process optimization. In contrast to traditional approaches, the idea of this method is to provide a unique model for the optimization of various processes, without imposition of assumptions relating to the type of process, the type and number of process parameters and responses, or interdependences among them. The presented method for experimental design of processes with multiple correlated responses is composed of three modules: an expert system that selects the experimental plan based on the orthogonal arrays; the factor effects approach, which performs processing of experimental data based on Taguchi’s quality loss function and multivariate statistical methods; and process modeling and optimization based on artificial neural networks and metaheuristic optimization algorithms. The implementation is demonstrated using four case studies relating to high-tech industries and advanced, non-conventional processes.

  12. INVESTIGATION INTO NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION METHODS, LNG TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan AVCI

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG processes are very new in Turkey. The Government of Turkey, due to diversification of supply and balancing of seasonal load, decided to import LNG from Algeria. The first shipment in Marmara Ereğli import terminal has been carried out in the August the 3 rd, 1994. LNG after regasification will be injected into the main transmission pipeline. The share of LNG in the world natural gas trade was approixmately 22.1% in 1988. According to the forecast, LNG share will be rapidly spreading all over the world in near future. In this paper, treatment, liquefaction, transport, storage, regasification, distribution and utilisation of LNG are examined. Particular attention has given into liquefaction of natural gas.

  13. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  14. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with a specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, syngas clean-up, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: (i) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, (ii) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and (iii) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: (i) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and (ii) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2000 tonnes/day (2205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  15. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  16. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1991-12-31

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Application of high magnetic fields in advanced materials processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yanwei; XIAO Liye; YAN Luguang

    2006-01-01

    Recently, steady magnetic fields available from cryogen-free superconducting magnets open up new ways to process materials. In this paper,the main results obtained by using a high magnetic field to process several advanced materials are reviewed. These processed objects primarily include superconducting, magnetic, metallic and nanometer-scaled materials. It has been found that a high magnetic field can effectively align grains when fabricating the magnetic and non-magnetic materials and make inclusions migrate in a molten metal. The mechanism is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint of magnetization energy.

  19. Design of demonstration facility for advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, E. P.; Baek, S. R.; Lee, K. I.; You, K. S.; Park, S. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP) was proposed and developed for effective management of the PWR spent fuel. The detail plan was established for demonstration and verification of the ACP, and an existing hot cell will be modified as {alpha}-{gamma} type hot cell. In this study, the process mechanical flow was analysed for the optimum arrangement to ensure effective process operation in hot cell, and the detail design of hot cell including the auxiliary facility and safety analysis was performed to secure conservative safety of hot cell system. And then, this results will be utilized for hot cell refurbishment and license.

  20. Catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, S W

    1981-01-01

    Monolith catalysts of MoO/sub 3/-CoO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were prepared and tested for coal liquefaction in a stirred autoclave. In general, the monolith catalysts were not as good as particulate catalysts prepared on Corning alumina supports. Measurement of O/sub 2/ chemisorption and BET surface area has been made on a series of Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts obtained from PETC. The catalysts were derived from Cyanamid 1442A and had been tested for coal liquefaction in batch autoclaves and continuous flow units. MoO/sub 3/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts over the loading range 3.9 to 14.9 wt % MoO/sub 3/ have been studied with respect to BET surface (before and after reduction), O/sub 2/ chemisorption at -78/sup 0/C, redox behavior at 500/sup 0/C, and activity for cyclohexane dehydrogenation at 500/sup 0/C. In connection with the fate of tin catalysts during coal liquefaction, calculations have been made of the relative thermodynamic stability of SnCl/sub 2/, Sn, SnO/sub 2/, and SnS in the presence of H/sub 2/, HCl, H/sub 2/S and H/sub 2/O. Ferrous sulfate dispersed in methylnaphthalene has been shown to be reduced to ferrous sulfide under typical coal hydroliquefaction conditions (1 hour, 450/sup 0/C, 1000 psi initial p/sub H/sub 2//). This suggests that ferrous sulfide may be the common catalytic ingredient when either (a) ferrous sulfate impregnated on powdered coal, or (b) finely divided iron pyrite is used as the catalyst. Old research on impregnated ferrous sulfate, impregnated ferrous halides, and pyrite is consistent with this assumption. Eight Co/Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts from commercial suppliers, along with SnCl/sub 2/, have been studied for the hydrotreating of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) in a stirred autoclave at 450 and 500/sup 0/C.

  1. Influence of the void ratio and the confining on the static liquefaction in slopes in shangi sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mariano Ramos Cañón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on the onset of static liquefaction in slopes under undrained conditions of loading was developed based on a general liquefaction flow instability criterion for elastoplastic soils based on the concept of loss of controllability. The criterion is applied to the case of axisymmetric loading to detect the onset of static liquefaction. The criterion is used in conjunction with an elastoplastic model for sands and is tested by means of numerical simulations of element tests. The numerical results are compared with experimental evidence obtaining good agreement. A quantitative study of the influence of the mean pressure, void ratio and the anisotropy of stress on the onset of static liquefaction is presented for the Changi sand. From the analysis of the numerical results, it can be concluded that: a. the mobilized friction angle at the onset of liquefaction is not an intrinsic property of the material, but is a state variable b. Despite of the multiple variables involved in the process of generation of undrained instability, the state of stresses at the onset of static liquefaction can be conveniently represented by a linear relation between Dq/po and no . This graphical representation can be used in the practice of geotechnical engineering to quantify the margin of security against the static liquefaction of a sandy slope.

  2. Technologies of liquefaction of bamboo and preparation of adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwen SUN; Xiaoke LI; Qian ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The technology of liquefying processed-waste bamboo with phenol is investigated by single factor trials and an orthogonal design. We studied the preparation technology and properties of adhesives from this phe-nol-liquefied bamboo with formaldehyde (BPF). The results show that temperature has a significant effect on liquefaction. The effect of the mass ratio of phenol to bamboo comes second and the catalyst dosage within the range of 2%-4% is the least effective. The optimum conditions of liquefaction are as follows: a mass ratio of phenol to bamboo 3.5, a catalyst dosage of 4%, liquefying temperature 145℃ and liquefying time 60 min. The lique-faction rate of bamboo reached 99.1%. For the prepara-tion of the adhesive, a mass ratio of liquefied bamboo products to formaldehyde (37%) is 100 to 164.8-199.5, while the ratio 100 to 108.2 is the best. This adhesive has a lower curing temperature than that of normal PF resin. At a hot-press temperature of 130 or 140℃, this new adhesive provides excellent bonding strength of plywood. The most favorable temperature for hot-pressing is 140℃.

  3. Advanced Signal Processing for MIMO-OFDM Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manchón, Carles Navarro

    This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division mult......This thesis deals with a wide range of topics within the research area of advanced baseband receiver design for wireless communication systems. In particular, the work focuses on signal processing algorithms for receivers in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency...... contributions is the derivation of a novel message-passing scheme combining the MF and BP frameworks; the algorithm is derived from the stationary points of a region-based free energy approximation, and is guaranteed to converge if the underlying probabilistic model satisfies certain conditions. Moreover, we...

  4. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  5. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    Most advanced process control systems are based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). In this paper we discuss three critical issues for the practical implementation of linear MPC for process control applications. The rst issue is related to oset free control and disturbance models; the second issue...... is related to the use of soft output constraints in MPC; and the third issue is related to the computationally ecient solution of the quadratic program in the dynamic regulator of the MPC. We have implemented MPC in .Net using C# and the MPCMath library. The implemented MPC is based on the target...... models and integration of the innovation errors. If the disturbances increases, oset-free control cannot be achieved without violation of process constraints. A target calculation function is used to calculate the optimal achievable target for the process. The use of soft constraints for process output...

  6. Japan sharpens its waste processing technologies; Le Japon affute ses technologies de traitement des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantelet, J.

    2000-09-01

    With the inevitable saturation of rubbish tips in Japan, the mastery of waste processing techniques has become a priority for the government. The law about plastics recycling was enforced in April 2000 and the new standard about dioxins emission has led the industrialists of this sector to develop new technologies. This paper gives an overview of the recent advances in this domain: recycling of packaging materials (liquefaction, gasification, liquefaction, use as fuel substitutes), recycling of biological wastes (dehydration, food processing, methane production), control of dioxins emission from incinerators (treatment of smokes and ashes). (J.S.)

  7. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  8. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting a research and development program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels and for improved direct combustion of coal. These fuels must be storable and suitable for power generation, transportation, and residential and industrial uses. ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of ERDA's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly

  9. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation, Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes'' is a research and development project for the reduction of pyritic sulfur in coal. Project goals are to remove 80 to 90% of the ash and pyritic sulfur while retaining 80 to 90% of the parent coal's heating value. A number of media and media separator options are to be evaluated and tested, culminating with the implementation of the preferred combination in a 1,000 lb/hr bench-scale process optimization circuit.

  10. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  11. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Advances and applications of optimised algorithms in image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, Diego

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a study of the use of optimization algorithms in complex image processing problems. The problems selected explore areas ranging from the theory of image segmentation to the detection of complex objects in medical images. Furthermore, the concepts of machine learning and optimization are analyzed to provide an overview of the application of these tools in image processing. The material has been compiled from a teaching perspective. Accordingly, the book is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Science, Engineering, and Computational Mathematics, and can be used for courses on Artificial Intelligence, Advanced Image Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. Likewise, the material can be useful for research from the evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence and image processing co.

  13. Enhanced performance in graphene RF transistors via advanced process integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seul Ki; Oh, Joong Gun; Hwang, Wan Sik; Cho, Byung Jin

    2017-04-01

    The state-of-the-art performance of a graphene radio-frequency (RF) field-effect transistor (FET) made of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene is presented. The record high cut-off frequency as high as 380 GHz using CVD graphene was attributed to the implementation of advanced process integration. On the one hand, interface engineering has become critical in two-dimensional (2D) electronics since the charge transport of a 2D electron system like graphene is highly affected by the interface. The interface engineering was made for both the top and bottom of the graphene surface by implementing a non-polar material (1, 3, 5-trimethyl-1, 3, 5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane). In contrast to conventional polar materials, such as SiO2, the non-polar materials significantly reduce the surface optical phonon scattering in the graphene channel, leading to the enhanced RF performance of graphene FET. On the other hand, micro-scaled holes over the multilayer graphene and self-aligned structure also become a critical factor in minimizing the parasitic resistance that is inversely proportional to RF performance. As the growth technique of CVD graphene greatly advances, the advanced process integration scheme could bring graphene electronics one step further towards practical application.

  14. Security analysis and measures for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane%含氧煤层气液化流程安全性分析与措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓骥; 诸林; 肖娅; 赵启龙

    2014-01-01

    There is a risk of explosion during purifying the coal-bed methane coming from un-derground drainage ,for the reason that the gas contains oxygen .In this paper ,the results of simulation with HYSYS and the flammability limit theory were combined together to analyze the security of whole process .The results showed that the explosion hazard concentrated at the end of the condensation and on the top of rectification tower .The measure to reduce the compressor outlet pressure or raise the final condensation temperature was proposed .What′s more ,the secu-rity measure was proposed to control the methane content of rectification tower gas above the up-per limit of the explosion strictly ,and then the inerting gas with nitrogen contacts with liquid ni-trogen upstream for further recovery of CH4 .The results indicate that when the value of nitrogen injection ratio is greater than 0 .6 (mole ratio ) ,there is no danger of explosion in liquefaction process ,and both methane yield and process safety are improved greatly in this way .%矿下抽采的煤层气由于混有空气而在液化中存在爆炸危险。通过将HYSYS对常规液化分离流程的模拟结果与爆炸极限理论相结合进行分析计算得出:爆炸危险主要集中在冷凝终了处和精馏塔顶部。进而提出降低压缩机出口压力或提高最终冷凝温度;严格控制精馏塔塔顶气相C H4含量在爆炸上限之上,塔顶气用N2惰化后再与液氮逆流接触以进一步回收C H4。计算表明,当N2注入比达0.6(摩尔比),气相CH4含量曲线将绕过临界点进入安全区。采取措施后CH4有较高收率且液化流程安全性得以提高。

  15. Developing Tutorials for Advanced Physics Students: Processes and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Baily, Charles; Pollock, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    When education researchers describe newly developed curricular materials, they typically concentrate on the research base behind their design, and the efficacy of the final products, but do not highlight the initial stages of creating the actual materials. With the aim of providing useful information for faculty engaged in similar projects, we describe here our development of a set of in-class tutorials for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics students, and discuss factors that influenced their initial design and refinement. Among the obstacles to be overcome was the investigation of student difficulties within the short time frame of our project, and devising ways for students to engage in meaningful activities on advanced-level topics within a single 50-minute class period. We argue for a process that leverages faculty experience and classroom observations, and present several guidelines for tutorial development and implementation in upper-division physics classrooms.

  16. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  17. Continuous hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood and glycerol with water phase recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas H.; Grigoras, Ionela F.; Hoffmann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technology for the conversion of a wide range of bio-feedstock into a biocrude; a mixture of chemical compounds that holds the potential for a renewable production of chemicals and fuels. Most research in hydrothermal liquefaction is performed in batch type...... reactors, although a continuous and energy-efficient operation is paramount for such process to be feasible. In this work an experimental campaign in a continuous bench scale unit is presented. The campaign is based on glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of aspen wood carried out with the presence...... successfully at steady state conditions without any observation of system malfunctioning. The biocrude obtained was characterized using several analytical methods to evaluate the feasibility of the process and the quality of the product. Results showed that a high quality biocrude was obtained having a higher...

  18. 3rd international conference on coal gasification and liquefaction, University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    The third annual international conference on ''Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: What Needs to be Done Now'' was held at the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA on August 3-5, 1976. The majority of the papers dealt with coal gasification and liquefaction (often on the basis of process pilot plant experience) and on flue gas desulfurization by a variety of processes; fewer papers involved fluidized bed combustion, combined cycle power plants, coal desulfurization, government policy on environmental effects and on synthetic fuels, etc. Twenty-eight papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  19. Selection of parameters for advanced machining processes using firefly algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Shukla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced machining processes (AMPs are widely utilized in industries for machining complex geometries and intricate profiles. In this paper, two significant processes such as electric discharge machining (EDM and abrasive water jet machining (AWJM are considered to get the optimum values of responses for the given range of process parameters. The firefly algorithm (FA is attempted to the considered processes to obtain optimized parameters and the results obtained are compared with the results given by previous researchers. The variation of process parameters with respect to the responses are plotted to confirm the optimum results obtained using FA. In EDM process, the performance parameter “MRR” is increased from 159.70 gm/min to 181.6723 gm/min, while “Ra” and “REWR” are decreased from 6.21 μm to 3.6767 μm and 6.21% to 6.324 × 10−5% respectively. In AWJM process, the value of the “kerf” and “Ra” are decreased from 0.858 mm to 0.3704 mm and 5.41 mm to 4.443 mm respectively. In both the processes, the obtained results show a significant improvement in the responses.

  20. Evaluation of wastewater treatment requirements for thermochemical biomass liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D C [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Biomass can provide a substantial energy source. Liquids are preferred for use as transportation fuels because of their high energy density and handling ease and safety. Liquid fuel production from biomass can be accomplished by any of several different processes including hydrolysis and fermentation of the carbohydrates to alcohol fuels, thermal gasification and synthesis of alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct extraction of biologically produced hydrocarbons such as seed oils or algae lipids, or direct thermochemical conversion of the biomass to liquids and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. This report discusses direct thermochemical conversion to achieve biomass liquefaction and the requirements for wastewater treatment inherent in such processing. 21 refs.

  1. Techno-economic analysis of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using a Liquefaction plus Simultaneous Saccharification and co-Fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubicza, Krisztina; Nieves, Ismael U; Sagues, William J; Barta, Zsolt; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a simplified lignocellulosic ethanol production process developed and proven by the University of Florida at laboratory, pilot, and demonstration scales. Data obtained from all three scales of development were used with Aspen Plus to create models for an experimentally-proven base-case and 5 hypothetical scenarios. The model input parameters that differed among the hypothetical scenarios were fermentation time, enzyme loading, enzymatic conversion, solids loading, and overall process yield. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) varied between 50.38 and 62.72 US cents/L. The feedstock and the capital cost were the main contributors to the production cost, comprising between 23-28% and 40-49% of the MESP, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that overall ethanol yield had the greatest effect on the MESP. These findings suggest that future efforts to increase the economic feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol process should focus on optimization for highest ethanol yield.

  2. Treatment of gasoline-contaminated waters by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburtius, Elaine Regina Lopes [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Peralta-Zamora, Patricio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, CP 19081, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: zamora@quimica.ufpr.br; Emmel, Alexandre [Centro Integrado de Tecnologia e Educacao Profissional, 81310-010 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-11-11

    In this study, the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) was investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) and gasoline-contaminated waters. The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by near UV-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolic intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using water contaminated by gasoline suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species. Heterogeneous photocatalysis and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system show lower degradation efficiency, probably due to the heterogeneous character of the TiO{sub 2}-mediated system and lost of photonic efficiency of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system in the presence of highly colored intermediated.

  3. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  4. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Valladares, M.R.S. de [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  6. Advanced materials and processes for polymer solar cell devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Søndergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of polymer and organic solar cells is reviewed in the context of materials, processes and devices that significantly deviate from the standard approach which involves rigid glass substrates, indium-tin-oxide electrodes, spincoated layers of conjugated polymer....../fullerene mixtures and evaporated metal electrodes in a flat multilayer geometry. It is likely that significant advances can be found by pursuing many of these novel ideas further and the purpose of this review is to highlight these reports and hopefully spark new interest in materials and methods that may...

  7. Estimation of sand liquefaction based on support vector machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永华; 马宁; 胡检; 杨小礼

    2008-01-01

    The origin and influence factors of sand liquefaction were analyzed, and the relation between liquefaction and its influence factors was founded. A model based on support vector machines (SVM) was established whose input parameters were selected as following influence factors of sand liquefaction: magnitude (M), the value of SPT, effective pressure of superstratum, the content of clay and the average of grain diameter. Sand was divided into two classes: liquefaction and non-liquefaction, and the class label was treated as output parameter of the model. Then the model was used to estimate sand samples, 20 support vectors and 17 borderline support vectors were gotten, then the parameters were optimized, 14 support vectors and 6 borderline support vectors were gotten, and the prediction precision reaches 100%. In order to verify the generalization of the SVM method, two other practical samples’ data from two cities, Tangshan of Hebei province and Sanshui of Guangdong province, were dealt with by another more intricate model for polytomies, which also considered some influence factors of sand liquefaction as the input parameters and divided sand into four liquefaction grades: serious liquefaction, medium liquefaction, slight liquefaction and non-liquefaction as the output parameters. The simulation results show that the latter model has a very high precision, and using SVM model to estimate sand liquefaction is completely feasible.

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  9. Application of Artificial Network in Forecasting Liquefaction of Saturated Sandy Soil%神经网络在预测饱和砂土液化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The forecasting of liquefaction of saturated sand is difficult because of its complexity, but it is of importance in practice. The technique of artificial neural network is used to model the forecasting of liquefaction phenonmenan. The dimension analysis is processed, based on which a concise architecture of BP network is built then. It is shown that artificial neural network is an effective tool in forecasting of liquefaction.

  10. Turnkey Helium Purification and Liquefaction Plant for DARWIN, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, U.; Boeck, S.; Blum, L.; Kurtcuoglu, K.

    2010-04-01

    The Linde Group, through its Australian subsidiary BOC Limited, has signed an agreement with Darwin LNG Pty Ltd for the supply of feed-gas to Linde's new helium refining and liquefaction facility in Darwin, Australia. Linde Kryotechnik AG, located in Switzerland, has carried out the engineering and fabrication of the equipment for the turn key helium plant. The raw feed gas flow of 20'730 Nm3/h contains up to of 3 mol% helium. The purification process of the feed gas consists of partial condensation of nitrogen in two stages, cryogenic adsorption and finally catalytic oxidation of hydrogen followed by a dryer system. Downstream of the purification the refined helium is liquefied using a modified Bryton process and stored in a 30'000 gal LHe tank. For further distribution and export of the liquid helium there are two stations available for filling of truck trailers and containers. The liquid nitrogen, required for refrigeration capacity to the nitrogen removal stages in the purification process as well as for the pre-cooling of the pure helium in the liquefaction process, is generated on site during the feed gas purification process. The optimized process provides low power consumption, maximum helium recovery and a minimum helium loss.

  11. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A. [Coal Technology Corporation, Bristol, VA (United States); Ferris, D.D. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  13. Advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by Fenton reagent oxidation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avermectin-salinomycin waster is hard to be further biodegraded after treated by anaerobic-aerobiotic process, so Fenton oxidation process is studied for its advanced treatment. Influencing factors of pH, reaction time, H2O2 dosage and H2O2/Fe2+ on COD removal are investigated, respectively. When pH value is 3.0, the dosage of H2O2 is 1.5 mL/L, and the mole ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ is 5∶1, the effluent COD mass concentrations decreases from 224 to 64.3 mg/L, namely the COD removal efficiency reaches 71.3%.

  14. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Advances in low-level color image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Smolka, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Color perception plays an important role in object recognition and scene understanding both for humans and intelligent vision systems. Recent advances in digital color imaging and computer hardware technology have led to an explosion in the use of color images in a variety of applications including medical imaging, content-based image retrieval, biometrics, watermarking, digital inpainting, remote sensing, visual quality inspection, among many others. As a result, automated processing and analysis of color images has become an active area of research, to which the large number of publications of the past two decades bears witness. The multivariate nature of color image data presents new challenges for researchers and practitioners as the numerous methods developed for single channel images are often not directly applicable to multichannel  ones. The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the early stages of the color image processing pipeline.

  16. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  17. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  18. Simulation of Liquefaction Process and Exergy Efficiency Analysis for FLNG System%FLNG 系统液化过程模拟及火用效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玉英; 李健; 林日亿; 喻西崇

    2016-01-01

    浮式天然气液化是新兴的海上油气开发技术,但受到海洋环境和船体场地限制,天然气液化时耗功高、效率低,须开展浮式 LNG 制冷流程模拟及系统火用效率分析优化液化流程.以筛选的 P-R 方程为天然气液化相平衡计算基础,对天然气液化流程中压缩机、混合器、多股流换热器等设备的热力过程进行模拟;同时基于火用分析原理分析系统中各设备的火用损失,绘制系统的火用流图;揭示能量消耗的主要环节.用敏度分析法计算系统中主要设备的敏度,分析设备对系统火用效率的影响.结果表明:当设备位于系统的主干部位,权重大时,设备的敏度高;系统中各设备的敏度均为正值,即改进任意系统中任一环节火用效率,系统火用效率均提高;换热器和节流阀的敏度相对高,是改善系统效率的最有利环节;而压缩机是制冷系统中主要的火用损失设备,但却不是敏度最大设备.压缩机火用损失最大,占总火用损失的61.44%,节流阀占18.17%,换热器与散热器分别占9.32%和11.07%.%Floating LNG is the emerging technology to develop offshore oil and gas,but it is limited by the marine environment and hull site.It is necessary to carry out floating LNG cooling process simulation and the analysis of exergy efficiency for optimizing liquefaction process because natural gas is liquefied with high power consumption,low efficiency.Floating LNG refrigeration process simulation and system exergy analysis are carried on for the high power consumption problem in the floating natural gas liquefaction technology.Based on the P-R equation,which is used in the phase equilibrium calculation,the thermal process simulations for compressors,mixers,multi-stream heat exchanger and other equipment are fin-ished.And exergy loss of each equipment in the paint system is analyzed on the basis of exergy

  19. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  20. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center; Evans, Lindsay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Miller, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials Sciences and Engineering Center; Cooper, Marcia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Components Realization Center; Torczynski, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  1. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  2. Decision tree approach for soil liquefaction assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandomi, Amir H; Fridline, Mark M; Roke, David A

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the performances of some decision tree (DT) techniques are evaluated for postearthquake soil liquefaction assessment. A database containing 620 records of seismic parameters and soil properties is used in this study. Three decision tree techniques are used here in two different ways, considering statistical and engineering points of view, to develop decision rules. The DT results are compared to the logistic regression (LR) model. The results of this study indicate that the DTs not only successfully predict liquefaction but they can also outperform the LR model. The best DT models are interpreted and evaluated based on an engineering point of view.

  3. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  4. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  5. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (USA)); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  8. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  9. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  10. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  11. Research on co-liquefaction of highly volatile coal and waste polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋书宇; 赵鸣

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, the reaction pattern and technological requirement of the co-processing of coal with waste polymer are studied in a 50 ml reactor. The results showed that adding waste polymers during the liquefaction of coal could effectively improve coal conversion, increase oil yield, reduce the cost of hydrogen, and require less strict reaction conditions.

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Implementation Process in SME: Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT in Small Medium Enterprise (SME. Many large companies have applied AMT and the applications have shown significant results in this global market era. Conveniently, these phenomenons are also engaged to Small Medium Enterprises (SME that of high demands on performing high quality product, fast delivery, reliable and more flexible. The implementation of AMT follow several processes namely pre installation, installation, improvement and mature. In order to guarantee the succesfull of running these processes, one should consider the Critical Success Factors (CSF. We conducted a survey to 125 SMEs that have implemented AMT, and found that the CSF for each process are moderately different. Good leadership is the main critical success factor for preparing and installation of the AMT. Once the AMT started or installed and arrived at growth stage, the financial availability factor turns into a critical success factor in the AMT implementation. In, mature stage, the support and commitment of top management becomes an important factor for gaining successful implementation. By means of factor analysis, we could point out that strategic factors are the main factors in pre-installation and installation stage. Finally, in the growth stage and mature stage, both tactical and strategic factors are the important factors in the successful of AMT implementation

  13. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and noncatalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Responsibility for the design, construction, and operation of these facilities is given and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several supporting or complementary projects are described similarly. (LTN)

  14. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Saqib S; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang; Hoffmann, Jessica; Spangsmark, Dorte; Madsen, Linda B; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-03-01

    Six hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions (220–375 °C, 20–255 bar) were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC–MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained on N. salina at 350 °C and 175 bar. For S. platensis algae sample, the optimal hydrothermal liquefaction condition appears to be at 310 °C and 115 bar, while the optimal condition for N. salina is at 350 °C and 175 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins.

  16. 藻类液化生物油的催化脱氧改质进展%Recent advances on catalytic deoxygenation upgrading of liquefaction microalgae bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁冉冉; 吴玉龙; 陈宇; 段亚南; 杨明德

    2014-01-01

    Fuel production from renewable and carbon-neutral biomass has attracted much attention due to concerns for the depletion of petroleum reserves and global warming by greenhouse gases. Microalgae offer several advantages over conventional biomass as they have faster growth rate, do not require agricultural land for growth, and consume less water than terrestrial biomass. However, crude bio-oil from noncatalytic liquefaction of microalgae has a high content of oxygen, limiting its direct applications for transportation fuel. The high oxygen content suffers from some drawbacks such as lower energy density, poor oxidation stability and high corrosivity, so it should be deoxygenation upgraded as a high grade fuel. In this review, the effect of reaction atmosphere and nature of catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of fatty acids model compounds is discussed firstly. Then, related researches are reviewed based on crude oil of microalgal. Finally, problems in current bio-oil catalytic deoxygenation technologies, improvement advices and future prospect are also presented.%含氧过多是限制藻类液化油实际应用的最大障碍,高含氧量意味着热值低、稳定性差、酸性强等,因此必须经过脱氧改质才能使其转化为高品位燃油。结合最新研究进展,首先选取藻类液化油中具有代表性的成分脂肪酸为模型化合物,总结了催化剂组成和反应气氛对脂肪酸脱氧机理及反应活性的影响。其次对目前国内外藻类液化原油及其轻馏分的催化脱氧改质研究现状进行综述。最后指出藻类液化生物油催化改质存在的问题,并对改进方法及未来的发展进行了展望。

  17. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  18. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  19. A solar-driven UV/Chlorine advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Po Yee; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Bolton, James R

    2012-11-01

    An overlap of the absorption spectrum of the hypochlorite ion (OCl(-)) and the ultraviolet (UV) end of the solar emission spectrum implies that solar photons can probably initiate the UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process (AOP). The application of this solar process to water and wastewater treatment has been investigated in this study. At the bench-scale, the OCl(-) photolysis quantum yield at 303 nm (representative of the lower end of the solar UV region) and at concentrations from 0 to 4.23 mM was 0.87 ± 0.01. Also the hydroxyl radical yield factor (for an OCl(-) concentration of 1.13 mM) was 0.70 ± 0.02. Application of this process, at the bench-scale and under actual sunlight, led to methylene blue (MB) photobleaching and cyclohexanoic acid (CHA) photodegradation. For MB photobleaching, the OCl(-) concentration was the key factor causing an increase in the pseudo first-order rate constants. The MB photobleaching quantum yield was affected by the MB concentration, but not much by the OCl(-) concentration. For CHA photodegradation, an optimal OCl(-) concentration of 1.55 mM was obtained for a 0.23 mM CHA concentration, and a scavenger effect was observed when higher OCl(-) concentrations were applied. Quantum yields of 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.06 were found for CHA photodegradation and OCl(-) photolysis, respectively. In addition, based on the Air Mass 1.5 reference solar spectrum and experimental quantum yields, a theoretical calculation method was developed to estimate the initial rate for photoreactions under sunlight. The theoretical initial rates agreed well with the experimental rates for both MB photobleaching and CHA photodegradation.

  20. Indirect coal liquefaction technology and its research progress%煤间接液化技术及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启文; 吴建民; 张宗森; 庞利峰

    2013-01-01

    The principles and typical process of synthesis of liquid fuels from indirect coal liquefaction are discussed. The development history and recent advances in indirect coal liquefaction technology are reviewed. The process routes and critical issues, including gasifier, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor and catalyst are also discussed. The technical economics of the process is analyzed and its commercialization development prospect is presented. The analysis shows that constructing commercial scale indirect coal liquefaction plant is not only technically and economically feasible, but also promoting commercialization of indirect coal liquefaction technology and accelerating the formation of China's technology and industry of energy source conversion.%介绍了煤经合成气间接液化合成液体燃料的原理及典型工艺.综述了煤间接液化技术的发展历程及其最新进展,讨论了国内外煤间接液化技术的工艺流程,重点介绍了煤间接液化过程中的核心问题,主要包括气化炉、费托合成反应器和费托合成催化剂,分析了煤间接液化的技术经济性以及对煤间接液化的工业应用前景进行了展望.分析表明:具有我国自主知识产权的煤间接液化技术建设100万吨级以上工业化装置在技术上可靠、经济上可行,且100万吨级工业化项目的成功实施将带动我国煤间接液化技术的产业化进程,加快形成具有中国特色的能源转化技术和产业.

  1. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  2. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  3. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented.

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  5. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  6. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} / Fe{sup +2}) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H{sub 2O}2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO{sub 3} as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH){sub 2} and the CO{sub 2} from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe{sup +2} /H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  7. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth), and wa......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth......), and water-surface elevation measurements. The process of liquefaction/compaction was videotaped from the side simultaneously with the pressure and water-surface elevation measurements. The video records were then analysed to measure: (i) the time development of the mudline, (ii) the time development.......6 sec, water depth = 42 cm, and the Shields parameter = 0.34-0.59. The experiments reveal that, with the introduction of waves, excess pore pressure builds up, which is followed by liquefaction during which internal waves are experienced at the interface of the water body and the liquefied sediment...

  8. LIQUEFACTION AND DISPLACEMENT OF SATURATED SAND UNDER VERTICAL VIBRATION LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaobing; TAN Qingming; CHENG C.M.; YU Shanbing; CUI Peng

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the vertical vibration loading on the liquefaction of saturated sand, one dimensional model for the saturated sand with a vertical vibration is presented based on the two phase continuous media theory. The development of the liquefaction and the liquefaction region are analyzed. It is shown that the vertical vibration loading could induce liquefaction.The rate of the liquefaction increases with the increase of the initial limit strain or initial porosity or amplitude and frequency of loading, and increases with the decrease of the permeability or initial modulus. It is shown also that there is a phase lag in the sand column. When the sand permeability distribution is non-uniform, the pore pressure and the strain will rise sharply where the permeability is the smallest, and fracture might be induced. With the development of liquefaction, the strength of the soil foundation becomes smaller and smaller. In the limiting case, landslides or debris flows could occur.

  9. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January--March 1978. [Brief summary of 15 pilot plant projects supported by US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes currently in the pilot plant stage. Fifteen coal liquefaction projects supported by US DOE are described briefly, with flowsheets, funding, history and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  10. Induced liquefaction experiment in relatively dense, clay-rich sand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzor, Yossef H.; Gvirtzman, Haim; Wainshtein, Ilia; Orian, Itay

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report results from a controlled blast-induced liquefaction experiment at the field scale. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials at the subsurface are characterized by a suite of in situ and laboratory tests, including the Standard Penetration Test (SPT); downhole and cross-hole seismic velocity tests; density, porosity, and gradation tests; and direct shear tests. Since the blast experiment was performed above groundwater table, the subsurface was saturated by a sequence of controlled infiltration tests. A 50-kg TNT charge was detonated at a depth of 10 m, and seismic ground motions were recorded in a vertical geophone array positioned at a horizontal distance of 30 m from the blast borehole. Obtained liquefaction features include a water fountain that erupted from the blast borehole, prolonged bubbling of the water surface inside the infiltration trench (a process equivalent to "sand boils" typically observed at sites which have experienced liquefaction), lateral spreading, and surface settlement. We argue that in contrast to conventional predictions, liquefaction may be induced in relatively dense silty and clayey sands (shear wave velocity >300 m s-1; relative density = 63-89%) relatively rich in clays (fines content >30%) and that the driving mechanism should not necessarily be restricted to cyclic shear stress loading.

  11. Quantitative characterization of the aqueous fraction from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions. Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.

  12. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL pr...... grid or for CHP. An estimated 62–84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels.......Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL...... process. This biorefinery concept offers a sophisticated and sustainable way of converting organic residuals into a range of high-value biofuel streams in addition to combined heat and power (CHP) production. The primary goal of this study is to provide an initial estimate of the feasibility...

  13. Earthquake Risk - MO 2013 Liquefaction Potential St. Louis Area (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil liquefaction potential was determined using existing surficial materials and floodplain alluvium maps. Alluvium deposits and artificial deposits are generally...

  14. Environmental assessment of different solar driven advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rieradevall, Joan [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Torrades, Francesc [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEI de Terrassa, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain); Peral, Jose; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    In this work a comparative environmental assessment of different advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) is performed. Two energy scenarios have been considered according to the energy source used: solar energy and electricity (UVA lamp). A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts of the AOP's. The treatments considered are heterogenous photocatalysis, photo-Fenton reactions, the coupling of heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton, and heterogeneous photocatalysis in combination with hydrogen peroxide. These AOP's are applied to the treatment of kraft mill bleaching wastewaters. The system under study includes the production of the catalysts, reagents as well as the production of electricity; eight environmental impact categories are assessed for each AOP: global warming, ozone depletion, aquatic eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic toxicity, photochemical ozone formation, and abiotic resource depletion. the results of the LCA show that the environmental impact of AOP's is caused mainly by the amount of electricity consumed, whereas the impact of producing the reagents and catalysts is comparatively low. For this reason, the solar energy scenario reduces the impact more than 90% for almost all AOP's and impact categories. None of the solar driven AOP's can be identified as the best in all impact categories, but heterogenous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reactions obtain better results than the remaining treatments, since these treatments do not consume simultaneously both TiO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the chemicals with highest environmental burdens in the system. (author)

  15. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  16. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the

  17. Evaluation Of Bucharest Soil Liquefaction Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Arion

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the experimental research performed in Bucharest like the borehole data (Standard Penetration Test and the data obtained from seismic investigations (down-hole prospecting and surface-wave methods. The evaluation of the soils liquefaction resistance based on the results of the SPT, down-hole prospecting and surface-wave method tests and the use of the earthquake records will be presented.

  18. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  20. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  1. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  2. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  3. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  4. Liquefaction hazard analysis for infrastructure development in gulf of Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinata, Indra A.; Darlan, Yudi; Sadisun, Imam A.; Pindratno, Haris; Saryanto, Agus

    2016-05-01

    Gulf of Jakarta is an area of active sedimentation. There exist a wide sediment deposition area on the north coast of Jakarta. Generally, these sediments have not been consolidated, so that the conditions in these area is an important factor to determining liquefaction in these area. Liquefaction may occur because of earthquake that cause loss of strength and stiffness in soils. Analysis of liquefaction potential based from SPT data taken at gulf of Jakarta, include susceptibility rate and the factors that triggering. Liquefaction analysis methods compared with each other to get the factor of safety against liquefaction according to the characteristics of the soil. Liquefaction analysis at surface using susceptibility rating factor (SRF). SRF method controled by factors: history, geology, composition, and groundwater. Each factors have parameters that determine the value of SRF.From the analysis, Gulf of Jakarta has susceptibility rating from liquefaction with SRF value 12 - 35. The value shows that Gulf of Jakarta dominated by area that have susceptibility rating from medium to high. High susceptibility rating from liquefaction concentrated at coast area.

  5. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiulong; Hse, Chung-Yun; De Hoop, Cornelis F; Hu, Tingxing; Qi, Jinqiu; Shupe, Todd F

    2016-10-20

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction could eliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7min, and the cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by subsequent chemical treatments with lower chemical charging and quickly. The results of wet chemistry analyses, SEM images, and FTIR and X-ray spectra indicated the combination of microwave liquefaction and chemical treatment was significantly efficient in removing non-cellulosic compounds. Ultrasonication was used to separate the nanofibrils from the purified residues to extract nanofibers. The TEM images confirmed the presence of elementary fibrils, nano-sized fibril bundles, and aggregated fibril bundles. As evidenced by the TGA analysis, cellulose nanofibers isolated by this novel technique had high thermal stability indicating that the isolated nanofibers could possibly be applied as reinforcing elements in biomaterials.

  6. Helium liquefaction with a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao

    2001-07-01

    Helium liquefaction with a two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler is introduced in this paper. The helium liquefier has a feature of precooling helium gas to be liquefied by using inefficiency of the second stage regenerator in the pulse tube cryocooler. This process reduces enthalpy of the incoming helium gas when entering the condenser and significantly increases the condensation rate. Numerical analysis predicts the precooling heat load on the second stage regenerator, decreases the PTC second stage cooling capacity by only 11% of the heat actually absorbed into the regenerator. A prototype pulse tube helium liquefier was built, which has two precooling heat exchangers on the first stage cold head and the second stage regenerator. It continuously liquefies helium with a rate of 4.8 l/day under normal pressure while consumes 4.6 kW power input.

  7. Algal polycultures enhance coproduct recycling from hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Hietala, David C; Lashaway, Aubrey R; Narwani, Anita; Savage, Phillip E; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if polycultures of algae could enhance tolerance to aqueous-phase coproduct (ACP) from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algal biomass to produce biocrude. The growth of algal monocultures and polycultures was characterized across a range ACP concentrations and sources. All of the monocultures were either killed or inhibited by 2% ACP, but polycultures of the same species were viable at up to 10%. The addition of ACP increased the growth rate (up to 25%) and biomass production (53%) of polycultures, several of which were more productive in ACP than any monoculture was in the presence or absence of ACP. These results suggest that a cultivation process that applies biodiversity to nutrient recycling could produce more algae with less fertilizer consumption.

  8. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recycling the aqueous phase in a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction process was investigated in terms of product yield distribution, carbon balance, and composition of all main fractions. Using a custom-built continuous reactor system, a long-term experiment was conducted at 350...... degrees C and 250 bar with a feedstock of dried distiller's grains with solubles. In two consecutive recycle experiments, the aqueous phase of the preceding experiment was used as dispersion medium for the feedstock preparation. In these recycle-experiments a significant increase in biocrude yields...... was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...

  9. Development of helium refrigeration/ liquefaction system at BARC, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, N. A.; Goyal, M.; Chakravarty, A.; Menon, Rajendran S.; Jadhav, M.; Rane Nair, T., Sr.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, N.; Bharti, SK; Chakravarty, Abhilash; Jain, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    An experimental helium refrigerator/liquefier, using ultra high speed cryogenic turboexpanders, is designed and developed at Cryo-Technology Division, BARC. The developed system is based on the modified Claude cycle. The developed system is presently fully functional consisting of process compressor with gas management system, coldbox, helium receiver Dewar, tri-axial transfer line and helium recovery system. Extended trial runs are conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system. During these trials, liquefaction rate of around 32 l/hr and refrigeration capacity of around 190W is achieved. The paper addresses design, development and commissioning aspects of the developed helium liquefier along with results of performance evaluation trial runs.

  10. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  11. Low Severity Coal Liquefaction Promoted by Cyclic Olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine W. Curtis

    1998-04-09

    The development of the donor solvent technology for coal liquefaction has drawn a good deal of attention over the last three decades. The search for better hydrogen donors led investigators to a class of compounds known as cyclic olefins. Cyclic olefins are analogues of the conventional hydroaromatic donor species but do not contain aromatic rings. The cyclic olefins are highly reactive compounds which readily release their hydrogen at temperatures of 200 C or higher. Considerable effort has been o expended toward understanding the process of hydrogen donation. Most of this work was conducted in bomb reactors, with product analysis being carried out after the reaction was complete. Efforts directed towards fundamental studies of these reactions in situ are rare. The current work employs a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell to monitor in situ the concentrations of reactants and products during hydrogen release from hydrogen donor compounds.

  12. Advanced diagnostics in oxy-fuel combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, J.; Clausen, Soennik; Degn Jensen, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Boeg Toftegaard, M. (DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    This report sums up the findings in PSO-project 010069, ''Advanced Diagnostics in Oxy-Fuel Combustion Processes''. Three areas of optic diagnostics are covered in this work: - FTIR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a 30 kW swirl burner. - IR measurements in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor. The results obtained in the swirl burner have proved the FTIR method as a valuable technique for gas phase temperature measurements. When its efficacy is evaluated against traditional thermocouple measurements, two cases, with and without probe beam stop, must however be treated separately. When the FTIR probe is operated with the purpose of gas phase concentration measurements the probe needs to operate with a beam stop mounted in front of it. With this beam stop in place it was shown that the measured gas phase temperature was affected by cooling, induced by the cooled beam stop. Hence, for a more accurate determination of gas phase temperatures the probe needed to operate without the beam stop. When this was the case, the FTIR probe showed superior to traditional temperature measurements using a thermocouple as it could measure the fast temperature fluctuations. With the beam stop in place the efficacy of the FTIR probe for gas temperature determination was comparable to the use of a traditional thermocouple. The evaluation of the FTIR technique regarding estimation of gas phase concentrations of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CO showed that the method is reliable though it cannot be stated as particularly accurate. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the similarity of the reference emission spectra of the gases with those obtained in the experiments, as the transmittance intensity is not a linear function of concentration. The length of the optical path also affects the steadiness of the measurements. The length of the optical path is difficult to adjust on the small scales that are the focus of this work. However

  13. Probabilistic liquefaction triggering based on the cone penetration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Seed, R.B.; Kayen, R.E.; Stewart, J.P.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering requires a probabilistic treatment of potential failure modes in order to accurately quantify the overall stability of the system. This paper is a summary of the application portions of the probabilistic liquefaction triggering correlations proposed recently proposed by Moss and co-workers. To enable probabilistic treatment of liquefaction triggering, the variables comprising the seismic load and the liquefaction resistance were treated as inherently uncertain. Supporting data from an extensive Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based liquefaction case history database were used to develop a probabilistic correlation. The methods used to measure the uncertainty of the load and resistance variables, how the interactions of these variables were treated using Bayesian updating, and how reliability analysis was applied to produce curves of equal probability of liquefaction are presented. The normalization for effective overburden stress, the magnitude correlated duration weighting factor, and the non-linear shear mass participation factor used are also discussed.

  14. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  15. Advanced Laser Chemical Processing For Microelectronics and Integrated Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-15

    Barbara, CA (June 25-27, 1990). 15. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Integrated Electronics and Optics," OITDA Conference, Tokyo, Japan, (July 5...Society Meeting, Boston, MA, November 26 - December 3, 1990. 20. R.M. Osgood, Jr., "Advances in Laser Fabrication for Solid-State Electronics and...Thin, Excimer Laser-Deposited Cd Interlayers," J. Elec. Mat. 12, 1239 (July, 1990). 14. R.M. Osgood, Jr., " Laser - Fabrication for Solid State

  16. Advanced power electronics converters PWM converters processing AC voltages

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Euzeli

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, which can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces a new method to present power electronics converters called Power Blocks Geometry. Applicable for courses focusing on power electronics, power electronics converters, and advanced power converters. Offers a comprehensive set of simulation results to help understand the circuits presented throughout the book

  17. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ..., LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.: Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6...

  18. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. A thermodynamic review of cryogenic refrigeration cycles for liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    2015-12-01

    A thermodynamic review is presented on cryogenic refrigeration cycles for the liquefaction process of natural gas. The main purpose of this review is to examine the thermodynamic structure of various cycles and provide a theoretical basis for selecting a cycle in accordance with different needs and design criteria. Based on existing or proposed liquefaction processes, sixteen ideal cycles are selected and the optimal conditions to achieve their best thermodynamic performance are investigated. The selected cycles include standard and modified versions of Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle, Brayton cycle, and their combined cycle with pure refrigerants (PR) or mixed refrigerants (MR). Full details of the cycles are presented and discussed in terms of FOM (figure of merit) and thermodynamic irreversibility. In addition, a new method of nomenclature is proposed to clearly identify the structure of cycles by abbreviation.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy for process control and fault detection of advanced semiconductor processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, P.; Aarts, W.; Bonanno, A.; Boning, D.; Charpenay, S.; Gower, A.; Richter, M.; Smith, T.; Solomon, P.; Spartz, M.; Nelson, C.; Waldhauer, A.; Xu, J.; Yakovlev, V.; Zhang, W.; Allen, L.; Cordts, B.; Brandt, M.; Mundt, R.; Perry, A.

    1998-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has emerged as an attractive sensor for in-situ monitoring and control of semiconductor fabrication processes. New applications are being enabled by advances in FTIR hardware and software that provide for: compact size, fast measurements with exceptional stability and signal to noise, and intelligent model based algorithms for thin film and gas analysis. In previously reported work, FTIR instrumentation with automated spectral analysis software was demonstrated as a novel sensor for monitoring layer properties such as thickness, composition and temperature. Recent work has emphasized applications to practical problems in modern semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we will report pioneering results on: 1) Run-to-run closed loop control of a single wafer epitaxial silicon process using integrated infrared thickness and doping profiling metrology, 2) Fault detection during cluster tool plasma etching using real-time infrared exhaust gas analysis, and 3) oxygen implantation process monitoring during the formation of silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers using infrared reflectometry.

  1. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-30

    In this project. process analysis of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was carried out and adaptive process control models were developed. In addition, a...aforementioned work in three separate sections: (1) process analysis and adaptive control modeling, (2) manufacturing of non-invasive sensor, end (3) list of publications resulting from this project.

  2. 小型天然气液化流程模拟与设计%Simulation and design on small-scale natural gas liquefaction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵举; 陈曦

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of low — pressure natural gas, three closed expander liquefaction systems for natural gas were designed. The PR (Peng - Robinson) equation was selected to calculate phase equilibrium of the mixture, the chemical process simulation software PRO/ Ⅱ was used to simulate the difference liquefaction systems and the effects of some key thermodynamics parameters on liquefaction systems were analyzed in detail. The results shown that the liquefaction power with propane pre - cooling was less than one of single - stage liquefaction system without pre - cooling and the two - stage liquefaction system without pre - cooling,and had higher liquefaction rate. According to analysis results, the liquefaction system with propane pre -cooling is a better choice. At last,we notice that the lower the throttling temperature is,the higher the liquefaction rate is, the smaller the liquefaction power is. The higher the expansion ratio is, the higher the liquefaction rate is.%针对低压天然气特点,设计了3套天然气闭式膨胀液化流程,选择PR(Peng-Robinson)方程进行混合物的相平衡计算,采用化工模拟软件PRO/Ⅱ进行了模拟计算;分析比较了不同液化流程的关键热力学参数,并进行了关键设备的可行性分析.结果表明:丙烷预冷双级天然气膨胀液化流程的比功耗比无预冷单级天然气膨胀液化流程、无预冷双级天然气膨胀液化流程低,液化率高,而且设备均可实现.综合分析结果,选用了丙烷预冷双级天然气膨胀液化流程.并指出天然气节流前温度越低,其液化率越高,比功耗越小.天然气膨胀比越高,液化率越高.

  3. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  4. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  5. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  6. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  7. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  8. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  9. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  10. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic characteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  11. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang a; Xing Wei b; Hanlong Liu a

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic char-acteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  12. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  13. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  14. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  15. Large scale helium liquefaction and considerations for site services for a plant located in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, P.; Clausen, J.J. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The large-scale liquefaction of helium extracted from natural gas is depicted. Based on a block diagram the process chain, starting with the pipeline downstream of the natural-gas plant to the final storage of liquid helium, is explained. Information will be provided about the recent experiences during installation and start-up of a bulk helium liquefaction plant located in Skikda, Algeria, including part-load operation based on a reduced feed gas supply. The local working and ambient conditions are described, including challenging logistic problems like shipping and receiving of parts, qualified and semi-qualified subcontractors, basic provisions and tools on site, and precautions to sea water and ambient conditions. Finally, the differences in commissioning (technically and evaluation of time and work packages) to European locations and standards will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  17. Advances in signal processing and intelligent recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbukh, Alexander; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2014), March 13-15, 2014, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 134 submissions from 11 countries. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 52 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Knowledge-Based Systems; Signal and Speech Processing; Image and Video Processing; Mobile Computing and Applications and Computer Vision. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas.  

  18. Advancements on the simulation of the micro injection moulding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    injection molding, because they are developed for macro plastic parts and they are therefore limited in the capability of modeling the polymer flow in micro cavities properly. However, new opportunities for improved accuracy have opened up due to current developments of the simulation technology. Hence, new......Process simulations are applied in micro injection molding with the same purpose as in conventional injection molding: aiming at optimization and support of the design of mold, inserts, plastic products, and the process itself. Available software packages are however not well suited for micro...... strategies and aspects for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results for micro injection molding are discussed. Modeling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a multi-scale mesh of all relevant units in the injection molding process. The implementation of the process...

  19. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  20. A review of process advancement of novel metal spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Q.; Xiao, G; Van Long, H.; Cheng, X; X. Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Metal spinning technology has seen a rapid development in recent years. Novel spinning processes, such as non-axisymmetrical spinning, non-circular cross-section spinning and tooth-shaped spinning, are being developed. This has challenged the limitation of traditional spinning technology being used for manufacturing axisymmetrical, circular cross-section, and uniform wall-thickness parts. In this paper, the classification of the traditional spinning processes is proposed based on the material...

  1. Gas/slurry flow in coal-liquefaction processes (fluid dynamics in a three-phase-flow column). Final technical progress report, 1 October 1979-31 March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, D.H.S.; Sivasubramanian, R.; Moujaes, S.F.; Givens, E.N.

    1982-04-01

    A commercial coal liquefaction plant will employ vertical tubular reactors feeding slurry and gas concurrently upward through these vessels. In the SRC-I plant design the reactor is essentially an empty vessel with only a distributor plate located near the inlet. Because the commercial plant represents a considerable scale-up over Wilsonville or any pilot plant, this program addressed the need for additional data on behavior of three phase systems in large vessels. Parameters that were investigated in this program were studied at conditions that relate directly to projected plant operating conditions. The fluid dynamic behavior of the three-phase upflow system was studied by measuring gas and slurry holdup, liquid dispersion, solids suspension and solids accumulation. The dependent parameters are gas and liquid velocities, solid particle size, solids concentration, liquid viscosity, liquid surface tension and inlet distributor. Within the range of liquid superficial velocity from 0.0 to 0.5 ft/sec, gas holdup is found to be independent of liquid flow which agrees with other investigators. The results also confirm our previous finding that gas holdup is independent of column diameter when the column diameter is 5 inches or larger. The gas holdup depends strongly on gas flow rate; gas holdup increases with increasing gas velocity. The effect of solids particles on gas holdup depends on the gas flow rate. Increasing liquid viscosity and surface tension reduce gas holdup which agrees with other investigators. Because of the complexity of the system, we could not find a single correlation to best fit all the data. The degree of liquid backmixing markedly affects chemical changes occurring in the dissolver, such as sulfur removal, and oil and distillate formation.

  2. Earthquake Risk - EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_POTENTIAL_MM81_IN: Liquefaction Potential of Surficial Materials in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — EARTHQUAKE_LIQUEFACTION_POTENTIAL_MM81_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows highly generalized categories (low, moderate, and high) of liquefaction potential, based...

  3. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    DOE's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of DOE's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, especially boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, and gasoline, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquids have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To provide efficient and practical means of utilizing coal resources, DOE is supporting the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. DOE, together with the Electric Power Research Institue, has contracted with fourteen projects are described brieflly: funding, description, status, history, and progress in the current quarter. (LTN)

  4. Vibrating Liquefaction Experiment and Mechanism Study in Saturated Granular Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jianhua; Xu Ming; Ju Haiyan; Zhao Jiangqian; Huang Hongyuan; Sun Yezhi

    2006-01-01

    By the vibrating liquefaction experiment of tailings and fine-ores of iron, it is observed and noted that the change of pore water pressure when the vibrating liquefaction takes place. Based on relevant suppositions, the equation of wave propagation in saturated granular media is obtained. This paper postulates the potential vector equation and the velocity expression of three kinds of body waves under normal conditions.Utilizing the wave theory and the experimental results, the influence of three body waves on pore water pressure and granules has been analyzed in detail. This revealed the rapid increment mechanism of pore water pressure and the wave mechanism of vibrating liquefaction.

  5. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  6. Near net shape processing: A necessity for advanced materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Howard A.

    1993-01-01

    High quality discrete parts are the backbones for successful operation of equipment used in transportation, communication, construction, manufacturing, and appliances. Traditional shapemaking for discrete parts is carried out predominantly by machining, or removing unwanted material to produce the desired shape. As the cost and complexity of modern materials escalates, coupled with the expense and environmental hazards associated with handling of scrap, it is increasingly important to develop near net shape processes for these materials. Such processes involve casting of liquid materials, consolidation of powder materials, or deformation processing of simple solid shapes into the desired shape. Frequently, several of these operations may be used in sequence to produce a finished part. The processes for near net shape forming may be applied to any type of material, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and their composites. The ability to produce shapes is the key to implementation of laboratory developments in materials science into real world applications. This seminar presents an overview of near net shapemaking processes, some application examples, current developments, and future research opportunities.

  7. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  8. EFFECT OF UNEQUAL DEFORMATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PLASTIC PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An effect of unequal deformation in development of advanced plastic processing technologies is researched by studying an in-plane bending process of strip metal under unequal compressing. The research results show the following: If appropriately controlled, unequal plastic deformation can play an important role not only in the improvement of quality of parts obtained by plastic processing technologies, but also in the development of new processes for advanced plastic working technologies. A coordinated growth of unequal plastic deformation can develop the deformation potentiality of material to the full. The degree of unequal plastic deformation can be used as bases for optimization design of processes and dies of plastic forming.

  9. Advances in isothermal amplification: novel strategies inspired by biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Macdonald, Joanne

    2015-02-15

    Nucleic acid amplification is an essential process in biological systems. The in vitro adoption of this process has resulted in powerful techniques that underpin modern molecular biology. The most common tool is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the requirement for a thermal cycler has somewhat limited applications of this classic nucleic acid amplification technique. Isothermal amplification, on the other hand, obviates the use of a thermal cycler because reactions occur at a single temperature. Isothermal amplification methods are diverse, but all have been developed from an understanding of natural nucleic acid amplification processes. Here we review current isothermal amplification methods as classified by their enzymatic mechanisms. We compare their advantages, disadvantages, efficiencies, and applications. Finally, we mention some new developments associated with this technology, and consider future possibilities in molecular engineering and recombinant technologies that may develop from an appreciation of the molecular biology of natural systems.

  10. Fine coal circuitry using advanced physical cleaning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recent investigations have found that enhanced gravity separators (EGS) and flotation columns are highly efficient for cleaning fine coal. The test results presented in this publication show that a circuit comprised of two advanced gravity separators, i.e., a hindered-bed classifier and an EGS, and a flotation column provides an enhanced cleaning efficiency for the treatment of {minus}16 mesh coal. From in-plant experiments, the hindered-bed classifier was found to be a more efficient separation device (E{sub p} = 0.12) than coal spirals (E{sub p} = 0.18) for the treatment of a nominally 16 x 100 mesh coal. Since its efficiency declines for particle sizes less than 48 mesh, the hindered-bed classifier overflow was screened to produce a final +48 mesh concentrate and a {minus}48 mesh fraction that was subsequently treated by circuits incorporating the EGS and flotation column in combination and separately. The best overall circuits in terms of both ash and total sulfur reductions for treating the -16 mesh coal was found to be the Hindered Bed-EGS-EGS and Hindered Bed-EGS-Column circuits. Both circuits rejected over 70% of the ash and over 60% of the pyritic sulfur while recovering over 85% of the combustible material.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  12. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  13. Advanced processing technology for high-nitrogen steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, John S.; Simmons, John W.; Rawers, James C.

    1994-03-01

    Both high-and low-pressure processing techniques can be employed to add nitrogen to iron-based alloys at levels in excess of the equilibrium, ambient-pressure solubility limits. High-pressure techniques include high-pressure melting-solidification; powder atomization; and high-pressure, solid-state diffusion. Low-pressure techniques are centrifugal powder atomization and mechanical alloying. This article describes U.S. Bureau of Mines research on a range of processing technologies for nitrogen steels and references thermodynamic and materials characterization studies that have been completed on these materials.

  14. Advances in fntd technology: Instrumentation, image processing and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, James Andrew

    Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (FNTDs), based on Al2O 3:C,Mg single crystal material, enable diffraction limited imaging of ionization patterns. This fast, luminescent material is thermally and optically stable. This work expands and assesses the capability of FNTD technology to measure radiation dose quickly and accurately, especially neutron radition. Developments in FNTD instrumentation, software, image reconstruction, image processing and data processing improved ease of use, productivity and reliability and brought the technology into commercial viability. Descriptions of these developments are presented. Additionally, these developments were assessed and were found to comply with ANSI and ISO standards for personnel neutron dosimetry. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Low-Cost Innovative Hi-Temp Fiber Coating Process for Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MATECH GSM (MG) proposes 1) to demonstrate a low-cost innovative Hi-Temp Si-doped in-situ BN fiber coating process for advanced ceramic matrix composites in order to...

  16. Advanced Optical Signal Processing using Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent progress on time lens based advanced optical signal processing is presented, with a special focus on all-optical ultrafast 640 Gbit/s all-channel serial-to-parallel conversion, and scalable WDM regeneration....

  17. Advanced Material Intelligent Processing Center: Next Generation Scalable Lean Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    layers that are saturated with a simulated resin. The resin continues to flow out of the vent due to the application of vacuum as in a VARTM process... VARTM experiments). However smart tooling with embedded transmission lines does not interfere with vacuum bagging at all. Also, multiple sensors are

  18. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  19. Machine Vision and Advanced Image Processing in Remote Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    This paper describes the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) transformation which is based on the established canonical correlation analysis. It also proposes post-processing of the change detected by the MAD variates by means of maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis. As opposed to mo...

  20. Advancing e-commerce personalization: Process framework and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Personalization is widely used in e-commerce, and as computational power increases, personalization is now within reach for many online vendors. We describe a process framework to structure our knowledge of online personalization both from academia and from applied attempts. This framework is expect

  1. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  2. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  3. Recent advances in brain physiology and cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Jr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of participation of astrocytes as active elements in glutamatergic tripartite synapses (composed by functional units of two neurons and one astrocyte has led to the construction of models of cognitive functioning in the human brain, focusing on associative learning, sensory integration, conscious processing and memory formation/retrieval. We have modelled human cognitive functions by means of an ensemble of functional units (tripartite synapses connected by gap junctions that link distributed astrocytes, allowing the formation of intra- and intercellular calcium waves that putatively mediate large-scale cognitive information processing. The model contains a diagram of molecular mechanisms present in tripartite synapses and contributes to explain the physiological bases of cognitive functions. It can be potentially expanded to explain emotional functions and psychiatric phenomena.

  4. Recent advances in brain physiology and cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jr Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of participation of astrocytes as active elements in glutamatergic tripartite synapses (composed by functional units of two neurons and one astrocyte has led to the construction of models of cognitive functioning in the human brain, focusing on associative learning, sensory integration, conscious processing and memory formation/retrieval. We have modelled human cognitive functions by means of an ensemble of functional units (tripartite synapses connected by gap junctions that link distributed astrocytes, allowing the formation of intra- and intercellular calcium waves that putatively mediate large-scale cognitive information processing. The model contains a diagram of molecular mechanisms present in tripartite synapses and contributes to explain the physiological bases of cognitive functions. It can be potentially expanded to explain emotional functions and psychiatric phenomena.

  5. Recent advances in brain physiology and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, Pereira; Pereira, Maria Alice Ornellas; Furlan, Fábio Augusto

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of participation of astrocytes as active elements in glutamatergic tripartite synapses (composed by functional units of two neurons and one astrocyte) has led to the construction of models of cognitive functioning in the human brain, focusing on associative learning, sensory integration, conscious processing and memory formation/retrieval. We have modelled human cognitive functions by means of an ensemble of functional units (tripartite synapses) connected by gap junctions that link distributed astrocytes, allowing the formation of intra- and intercellular calcium waves that putatively mediate large-scale cognitive information processing. The model contains a diagram of molecular mechanisms present in tripartite synapses and contributes to explain the physiological bases of cognitive functions. It can be potentially expanded to explain emotional functions and psychiatric phenomena.

  6. Advanced processing of the Zerodur R glass ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Thomas A.

    1991-11-01

    The Zerodur glass ceramic is an extraordinary material possessing a very low thermal expansion over a broad temperature range. Depending on the size of the castings, a continuous or a discontinuous melting technology is used in the manufacture of Zerodur. Continuous melters are being operated regularly in Germany and recently in the United States. The latest generation of discontinuous melters started production of 8.2 m spincast telescope blanks in early 1991. Zerodur fusion is a special process to generate lightweighted mirror blanks and special components. It requires glassy material and generates bonds that are as strong as the bulk material. Further process development such as waterjet cutting and insertion technologies are underway and may generate components of unique shapes and performance.

  7. Subpicosecond vacuum ultraviolet laser system for advanced materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Taniguchi, Yuta; Hosotani, Akira; Katto, Masahito; Yokotani, Atsushi; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Mima, Kunioki

    2007-02-01

    We have been developing the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light sources and novel applications using such short wavelength emission sources. High quality amorphous Si thin films were successfully produced at room temperature as a result of photo-dissociation of SiH 4 gas by using an Ar II* excimer lamp irradiation at 126 nm. To enhance such novel VUV processing applications, a compact VUV amplifier at 126 nm was developed by use of the optical-field-ionization (OFI) electrons. The gain-length product around 5 was obtained as a result of the optical feedback by using a VUV mirror. This amplifier was operated in a table-top size with a high repetition rate up to several kHz, which should be appropriate for any process applications. We also describe the schematic concept of the ultrashort pulse high-intensity VUV laser system at 126 nm with a pulse width of 100 fs.

  8. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  9. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  10. Advances in the numerical simulation of 3D FSW processes

    OpenAIRE

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Santiago, Diego de; Lombera, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the computational modeling and numerical simulation of 3D Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes. Eulerian and ALE formulations have been used to solve the quasi-static thermal transient governing equations. Mixed P2/P1/P2+SUPG and subgrid-scale stabilized P1/P1/P1 velocity/pressure/temperature elements have been implemented. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermoplastic material models have been considered. Computational visualization techniques using tracers have b...

  11. Advancements on Radar Polarization Information Acquisition and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Dahai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on radar polarization information acquisition and processing has currently been one important part of radar techniques. The development of the polarization theory is simply reviewed firstly. Subsequently, some key techniques which include polarization measurement, polarization anti-jamming, polarization recognition, imaging and parameters inversion using radar polarimetry are emphatically analyzed in this paper. The basic theories, the present states and the development trends of these key techniques are presented and some meaningful conclusions are derived.

  12. Advances on Microstructure Modeling of Solidification Process of Shape Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳百成; 许庆彦

    2004-01-01

    Simulation technology for shape casting at macro-scale has been successfully put into engineering application in a number of casting plants and as a result the quality of castings is assured, the research and development time is shortened, and the manufacturing cost is greatly saved as well. In this paper, modeling and simulation technologies of solidification process of shape casting at microstructure-scale, especially deterministic, cellular automaton, and phase field models are studied and reviewed.

  13. Information technologies in management processes: e-Government advances

    OpenAIRE

    Rosimeri Maria de Souza; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Paula de Souza; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Sérgio Murilo Petri; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Eugenio Andrés Díaz Merino; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an information technologies study in management organization, delimited to the Digital Government actions (e-Gov. portal). Its objective is to verify how the information and communication technologies (ICT) influence the management processes, using the e-Gov. portal as the main tool providing technological changes to citizens. This research is justified by the fact that information technology (IT) becomes increasingly essential to the society, to organizations and to busine...

  14. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    an endothermic process, the parameter θa in this formulation is an averaged activation energy of the key radical-producing reactions. This is a...conserved variables, W = LQ, and by definition LR = RL = I. Now that the governing equations have been linearized with the pro- cess shown in Equation...Radulescu et al. attributed the stabilizing effect of the diluent to the lower temperature in the reaction zone which leads to slower exothermic reaction

  15. Advancing Risk and Value Management Practices for Processes and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Ojala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades software has become an important part of our everyday life in the form of various information processing intensive products and services. The competition between software companies has risen considerably and at the same time the importance of cost efficient and value creating software development has been recognized in many companies. Value Engineering has been a usable to method for developing high value products for several years. Earlier it has been applied successfully to software process as well as to software product development. Normally the development of high value products contains also several risks. Combination of efficient value management practices and risk management is one possibility to try to avoid the most dangerous risks to realize for planned value. This research combines Value Engineering and risk management practices into a usable new method in order to better respond to the challenges that risks might cause to the value of software products and their development. This is done in part by defining the concepts of value, worth and cost and in part by defining the Value Engineering process with necessary risk management practices. Three practical industrial cases show that proposed two-dimensional method works in practise and is useful to assessed companies.

  16. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D. (Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)); Vehar, D.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author).

  17. Advanced processing of gallium nitride for novel electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xian-An

    2000-10-01

    The 1990s have brought commercial viability of GaN-based photonic devices and startling progress of GaN-based field effect transistors. However, continued research is required to explore the full potential offered by the III-V nitride system, especially for microelectronic applications and power switches. Further improvement of fabrication procedures is one of high priorities of current research. A host of processing challenges are presented by GaN and related materials because of their wide-bandgap nature and chemical stability. A complete understanding in the critical areas such as ion implantation doping and isolation, rapid thermal annealing, metal contact, and dry etching process, is necessary to improve the routine device reproducibility, and should directly lead to optimization of device performance. This dissertation has focused on understanding and optimization of several key aspects of GaN device processing. A novel rapid thermal processing up to 1500°C, in conjunction with AlN encapsulation, has been developed. The activation processes of implanted Si or Group VI donors, and common acceptors in GaN by using this ultrahigh temperature annealing, along with its effects on surface degradation, dopant redistribution and damage removal have been examined. 1400°C has proven to be the optimum temperature to achieve high activation efficiency and to repair the ion-induced lattice defects. Ion implantation was also employed to create high resistivity GaN. Damage-related isolation with sheet resistances of 1012 O/□ in n-GaN and 1010 O/□ in p-GaN has been achieved by implant of O and transition metal elements. Effects of surface cleanliness on characteristics of GaN Schottky contacts have been investigated, and the reduction in barrier height was correlated with removing the native oxide that forms an insulating layer on the conventionally-cleaned surface. W alloys have been deposited on Si-implanted samples and Mg-doped epilayers to achieve ohmic contacts

  18. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition

  19. 藻类直接液化制取液体燃料研究进展%Research progress in direct liquefaction to prepare liquid fuels from algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄付彬; 冯丽娟; 杨文超; 谭文娟; 徐康文; 李春虎

    2012-01-01

    Algae are considered to be the most promising biomass due to their high photosynthetic efficiency,short growth period,large biomass.The research activities and trends in direct liquefaction technology of Chlorella,Spirulina and Dunaliella salina,which had been industrialized,and some other kinds of microalgae were presented in detail.The traditional direct liquefaction process with water and organic solvent as medium were reviewed,and further study focus on new direct liquefaction process,such as normal pressure catalytic liquefaction and co-liquefaction,were provided.Besides,direct liquefaction of some macroalgae was also remarked,and it showed that enhancing research on direct liquefaction of macroalgae is needed.%藻类因其光合作用效率高、生长周期短、生物量大等优点被认为是最有应用前景的生物质。本文详细介绍了3种已实现工业化生产的小球藻、螺旋藻和杜氏盐藻以及其它几种微藻直接液化的研究现状和发展趋势。阐述了以水和有机溶剂为介质的传统直接液化工艺的优缺点,指出常压催化液化和共液化等新型直接液化工艺将是未来研究的重点。此外,对几种大型藻的直接液化作了简单评述,指出需加强对大型藻直接液化的研究。

  20. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  1. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  2. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  3. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  4. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  5. Advances in carbon dioxide compression and pipeline transportation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive analysis of CO2 compression, transportation processes and safety issues for post combustion CO2 capture applications for a 900 MW pulverized hard coal-fired power plant, this book assesses techniques for boosting the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressure values with a minimal amount of energy. Four different types of compressors are examined in detail: a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, integrally geared centrifugal compressor, supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines. The study demonstrates that the total compression power is closely related

  6. Advanced electrical and electronics materials processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, K M

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and unique book is intended to cover the vast and fast-growing field of electrical and electronic materials and their engineering in accordance with modern developments.   Basic and pre-requisite information has been included for easy transition to more complex topics. Latest developments in various fields of materials and their sciences/engineering, processing and applications have been included. Latest topics like PLZT, vacuum as insulator, fiber-optics, high temperature superconductors, smart materials, ferromagnetic semiconductors etc. are covered. Illustrations and exa

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  8. 玉米秸秆常压快速液化最佳工艺参数研究%Optimization of Processing Parameters for Rapid Liquefaction of Corn Stover under Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉环; 王应宽; 阮榕生; 李资玲; 林向阳; 刘成梅

    2012-01-01

    研究了影响玉米秸秆常压快速液化的4个关键性工艺参数:液化时间、液化温度、玉米秸秆质量和催化剂质量之间的交互作用.借助于SAS软件,采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计及响应面法开展系统试验.建立了回归方程,定量描述了各参数对玉米秸秆液化效率的影响及不同参数之间存在的交互作用,并推算出当液化剂质量为100 9、液化温度为158℃、液化时间为63 min、玉米秸秆质量17g和催化剂质量为2.7g时,玉米秸秆常压快速液化的残渣率可以达到最小值0.2%,实现玉米秸秆基本完全液化.%The four key parameters, including reaction time, reaction temperature, the amount of corn stover charged to definite liquefying reagent, and the dosage of catalyst affect the efficiency of corn stover liquefaction were investigated. With the help of SAS software, rotational quadratic regression design and response surface analysis, the relationships among unliquefied corn stover residue and reaction time, reaction temperature, the amount of corn stover charged to definite'liquefying reagent, and the dosage of catalyst were studied. The mutual interaction of the four parameters was quantificationally described. The experimental results showed that with liquefying reagent of 100 g, the reaction temperature of 158℃ , the reaction time of 63 min, the amount of corn stover meal charged of 17 g and the catalyst dosage of 2. 7 g, the liquefied products could be optimized with only 0. 2% unliquefied.

  9. Advanced modeling of management processes in information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczuk, Zdzislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the issues of modelling management processes of information technology and IT projects while its core is the model of information technology management and its component models (contextual, local) describing initial processing and the maturity capsule as well as a decision-making system represented by a multi-level sequential model of IT technology selection, which acquires a fuzzy rule-based implementation in this work. In terms of applicability, this work may also be useful for diagnosing applicability of IT standards in evaluation of IT organizations. The results of this diagnosis might prove valid for those preparing new standards so that – apart from their own visions – they could, to an even greater extent, take into account the capabilities and needs of the leaders of project and manufacturing teams. The book is intended for IT professionals using the ITIL, COBIT and TOGAF standards in their work. Students of computer science and management who are interested in the issue of IT...

  10. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Xing Wei; Hanlong Liu

    2015-01-01

    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Compr...

  11. Liquefaction hazard for the region of Evansville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Jennifer S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Nowack, Robert L.; Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Bauer, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We calculated liquefaction potential index for a grid of sites in the Evansville, Indiana area for two scenario earthquakes-a magnitude 7.7 in the New Madrid seismic zone and a M6.8 in the Wabash Valley seismic zone. For the latter event, peak ground accelerations range from 0.13 gravity to 0.81 gravity, sufficiently high to be of concern for liquefaction.

  12. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  13. Self-supported electrocatalysts for advanced energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge in developing new energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerated fuel cells and water splitting devices is to find suitable catalysts that can efficiently and stably catalyze the key electrochemical processes involved. This paper reviews the new development of self-supported electrocatalysts in three categories: electrocatalysts growing on rigid substrates, electrocatalysts growing on soft substrates, and free-standing catalyst films. They are distinct and superior to the conventional powdery electrocatalysts, showing advantages in controllable nanostructure and chemical component, flexible electrode configuration, and outstanding catalytic performance. The self-supported electrocatalysts with various architectures like nanowire/plate/pillar arrays and porous films, composed of metals, metal oxides/selenides/phosphides, organic polymers, carbons and their corresponding hybrids, are presented and discussed. These catalysts exhibit high activity, durability and selectivity toward oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and/or hydrogen evolution reactions. The perspectives on the relevant areas are also proposed.

  14. An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

  15. A review on advances of torrefaction technologies for biomass processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Bimal; Sule, Idris; Dutta, Animesh [University of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    Torrefaction is a thermochemical pretreatment process at 200-300 C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a relatively superior handling, milling, co-firing and clean renewable energy into solid biofuel. This increases the energy density, water resistance and grindability of biomass and makes it safe from biological degradation which ultimately makes easy and economical on transportation and storing of the torrefied products. Torrefied biomass is considered as improved version than the current wood pellet products and an environmentally friendly future alternative for coal. Torrefaction carries devolatilisation, depolymerization and carbonization of lignocellulose components and generates a brown to black solid biomass as a productive output with water, organics, lipids, alkalis, SiO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4}. During this process, 70 % of the mass is retained as a solid product, and retains 90 % of the initial energy content. The torrefied product is then shaped into pellets or briquettes that pack much more energy density than regular wood pellets. These properties minimize on the difference in combustion characteristics between biomass and coal that bring a huge possibility of direct firing of biomass in an existing coal-fired plant. Researchers are trying to find a solution to fire/co-fire torrefied biomass instead of coal in an existing coal-fired based boiler with minimum modifications and expenditures. Currently available torrefied technologies are basically designed and tested for woody biomass so further research is required to address on utilization of the agricultural biomass with technically and economically viable. This review covers the torrefaction technologies, its' applications, current status and future recommendations for further study. (orig.)

  16. Liquefaction mathematical analysis for improvement structures stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Khodashenas Pelko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The stability of any structure is possible if foundation is appropriately designed. The Bandar abbas is the largest and most important port of Iran, with high seismicity and occurring strong earthquakes in this territory, the soil mechanical properties of different parts of city have been selected as the subject of current research. The data relating to the design of foundation for improvement of structure at different layer of subsoil have been collected and, accordingly, soil mechanical properties have been evaluated. The results of laboratory experiments can be used for evaluation of geotechnical characteristics of urban area for development a region with high level of structural stability. Ultimately, a new method for calculation of liquefaction force is suggested. It is applicable for improving geotechnical and structure codes and also for reanalysis of structure stability of previously constructed buildings.

  17. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  19. Intensity measures for seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation of sloping site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志雄; 程印; 肖杨; 卢谅; 阳洋

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the correlation between a large number of widely used ground motion intensity measures (IMs) and the corresponding liquefaction potential of a soil deposit during earthquake loading. In order to accomplish this purpose the seismic responses of 32 sloping liquefiable site models consisting of layered cohesionless soil were subjected to 139 earthquake ground motions. Two sets of ground motions, consisting of 80 ordinary records and 59 pulse-like near-fault records are used in the dynamic analyses. The liquefaction potential of the site is expressed in terms of the the mean pore pressure ratio, the maximum ground settlement, the maximum ground horizontal displacement and the maximum ground horizontal acceleration. For each individual accelerogram, the values of the aforementioned liquefaction potential measures are determined. Then, the correlation between the liquefaction potential measures and the IMs is evaluated. The results reveal that the velocity spectrum intensity (VSI) shows the strongest correlation with the liquefaction potential of sloping site. VSI is also proven to be a sufficient intensity measure with respect to earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance, and has a good predictability, thus making it a prime candidate for the seismic liquefaction hazard evaluation.

  20. Advanced primary treatment of waste water using a bio-flocculation-adsorption sedimentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, W.; Ting, Y.P.; Chen, J.P.; Xing, C.H. [National Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Shi, S.Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2000-07-01

    An advanced primary treatment process for a municipal waste water was systematically studied, using a bio-flocculation-adsorption, sedimentation and stabilization process (BSS). It was shown that the organic removal efficiency was higher than that of the traditional primary treatment processes but lower than that of the traditional secondary treatment processes. Both adsorption and bio-flocculation played an important role in the removal of pollutants. The activated sludge within the bio-flocculation-adsorption tank could be considered a bio-flocculent which improved the quality of the effluent from the primary treatment process. As the effluent of the BSS process did not meet the requirements for a typical secondary effluent, the process may be regarded as an advanced (or enhanced) primary treatment process, suitable for waste water containing a high concentration of suspended solids and colloidal particles. (orig.)

  1. Frothing in flotation. Volume 2: Recent advances in coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskowski, J.S. [ed.] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Woodburn, E.T. [ed.] [Univ. of Manchester Inst. of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    This volume summarizes the achievements on various aspects of flotation froth properties and behavior, and relationship between froth appearance and flotation performance. Flotation kinetics involves a number of mass transfer processes with some of them being critically determined by the behavior of froth. Since froth is complex, and controlled experimentation is difficult, the froth phase was, until recently, either ignored or treated entirely empirically. With wide applications of flotation columns, the behavior of the froth is now often recognized as being dominant in determining flotation performance, and the research in this area is one of the most actively pursued. Contents include: Frothers and frothing; Effect of particle and bubble size on flotation kinetics; Water content and distribution in flotation froths; Mechanisms operating in flotation froths; Characterization of flotation froth; Simultaneous determination of collection zone rate constant and froth zone recovery factor; Modelling of froth dynamics with implications for feed-back control; The interrelationship between flotation variables and froth appearance; Froth image analysis in a flotation control system; Kinetic flotation modelling using froth imaging data; and Dependence of froth behavior on galvanic interactions.

  2. Recent Advances in Graphene-Assisted Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Possessing a variety of remarkable optical, electronic, and mechanical properties, graphene has emerged as an attractive material for a myriad of optoelectronic applications. The wonderful optical properties of graphene afford multiple functions of graphene based polarizers, modulators, transistors, and photodetectors. So far, the main focus has been on graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices. Due to the linear band structure allowing interband optical transitions at all photon energies, graphene has remarkably large third-order optical susceptibility χ(3, which is only weakly dependent on the wavelength in the near-infrared frequency range. The graphene-assisted four-wave mixing (FWM based wavelength conversions have been experimentally demonstrated. So, we believe that the potential applications of graphene also lie in nonlinear optical signal processing, where the combination of its unique large χ(3 nonlinearities and dispersionless over the wavelength can be fully exploited. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and their applications, including degenerate FWM based wavelength conversion of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK signal, phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate FWM and transparent wavelength conversion by nondegenerate FWM, two-input and three-input high-base optical computing, and high-speed gate-tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption (CPA using a split-ring graphene.

  3. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  4. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease the waste

  5. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  6. Wafer level reliability monitoring strategy of an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpa, Andrea; Tao, Guoqiao; Kuper, Fred G.

    2000-01-01

    In an advanced multi-process CMOS foundry it is strategically important to make use of an optimum reliability monitoring strategy, in order to be able to run well controlled processes. Philips Semiconductors Business Unit Foundries wafer fab MOS4YOU has developed an end-of-line ultra-fast reliabilit

  7. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  8. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  9. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  10. Retrofitting of a liquefaction compressor for LNG; Ueberholung eines Verfluessigungsverdichters fuer LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Horst [RWE WWE NS GmbH, Nievenheim (Germany). Fluessigerdgasanlage; Hallermayer, Andreas [Hoerbiger Service Central Europe (Germany). Business Development

    2009-03-15

    RWE operates a LNG plant for peak shaving at Dormagen-Nievenheim as part of the RWE high-pressure gas supply grid. The natural gas is liquefied on site. This requires a complex liquefaction plant whose key elements are a tank, a heat exchanger, and the compressor. The plant was constructed and commissioned in 1975. After a longish standstill period, it was modernized recently, and several minor defects were repaired. The repair process is described in this contribution. It comprised damage detection and repair and was a time-consuming process. On the other hand, it illustrates that piston compressors function very reliably if regular servicing is ensured. (orig.)

  11. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  12. A modified criterion for wave-induced momentary liquefaction of sandy seabed

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Gang Qi; Fu-Ping Gao

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the wave-induced soil liquefaction plays a key role in the geotechnical design for offshore foundations. The underlying shortcomings of the existing momentary liquefaction criteria are identified and clarified by mechanism analyses and the recent field observations. A modified criterion for the wave-induced momentary liquefaction of a sandy seabed is given to describe the vertical pore-pressure distributions. An improved approximation of the momentary liquefaction depth is f...

  13. Recent advances of annular centrifugal extractor for hot test of nuclear waste partitioning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeXiang-Ming; YanYu-Shun; 等

    1998-01-01

    Advances are being made in the design of the annular centrifugal extractor fornuclear fuel reprocessing extraction process studies.The extractors have been built and tested.Twelve stages of this extractor and 50 stages are used toimplement the TRPO process for the cleanup ofcommercial and defense nuclear waste liquids,respectively.Following advances are available:(1) simple way of assembly and disassembly between rotor part and housing part of extractor,ease of manipulator operation;(2)automatic sampling from housing of extractor in hot cell;(3) compact multi-stage housing system;(4) easy interstage link;(5) computer data acquisition and monitoring system of speed.

  14. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  15. Application of advanced oxidation processes for removing salicylic acid from synthetic wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Djalma; Ribeiro; da; Silva; Carlos; A.Martinez-Huítle

    2010-01-01

    In this study,advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) such as anodic oxidation(AO),UV/H_2O_2 and Fenton processes(FP) were investigated for the degradation of salicylic acid(SA) in lab-scale experiments.Boron-doped diamond(BDD) film electrodes using Ta as substrates were employed for AO of SA.In the case of FP and UV/H_2O_2,most favorable experimental conditions were determined for each process and these were used for comparing with AO process.The study showed that the FP was the most effective process under ...

  16. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  17. Soil liquefaction potential in Eskişehir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tosun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the critical problems in geotechnical engineering. High ground water levels and alluvial soils have a high potential risk for damage due to liquefaction, especially in seismically active regions. Eskişehir urban area, studied in this article, is situated within the second degree earthquake region on the seismic hazard zonation map of Turkey and is surrounded by Eskişehir, North Anatolian, Kütahya and Simav Fault Zones. Geotechnical investigations are carried out in two stages: field and laboratory. In the first stage, 232 boreholes in different locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Test (SPT was performed. Test pits at 106 different locations were also excavated to support geotechnical data obtained from field tests. In the second stage, experimental studies were performed to determine the Atterberg limits and physical properties of soils. Liquefaction potential was investigated by a simplified method based on SPT. A scenario earthquake of magnitude M=6.4, produced by Eskişehir Fault Zone, was used in the calculations. Analyses were carried out for PGA levels at 0.19, 0.30 and 0.47 g. The results of the analyses indicate that presence of high ground water level and alluvial soil increase the liquefaction potential with the seismic features of the region. Following the analyses, liquefaction potential maps were produced for different depth intervals and can be used effectively for development plans and risk management practices in Eskişehir.

  18. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  19. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  20. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    Materialia 2004;51:751–841). Since then the field has retained its vigor and advances and new discoveries have been made, many of which form the basis of the present Viewpoint Set. An important part of the development has been the trend to produce traditional materials such as steel, aluminum and copper...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result...... of the advances in processing techniques, research and development also now extends to applications of fine structured metals, especially in advanced components...

  1. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  2. Catalytic hydrotreating of biomass liquefaction products to produce hydrocarbon fuels: Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1986-03-01

    Research catalytic hydrotreatment of biomass liquefaction products to a gasoline has been technically demonstrated in a bench-scale continuous processing unit. This report describes the development of the chemistry needed for hydrotreatment of both high pressure and pyrolyzate biomass liquefaction products and outlines the important processing knowledge gained by the research. Catalyst identity is important in hydrotreatment of phenolics. Hydrogenation catalysts such as palladium, copper chromite, cobalt and nickel show activity with nickel being the most active. Major products include benzene, cyclohexane, and cyclohexanone. The hydrotreating catalysts cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-molybdenum and nickel-tungsten exhibit some activity when added to the reactor in the oxide form and show a great specificity for hydrodeoxygenation of phenol without saturation of the benzene product. The sulfide form of these catalysts is much more active than the oxide form and, in the case of the cobalt-molybdenum, much of the specificity for hydrodeoxygenation is retained. Substitution on the phenolic ring has only marginal effects on the hydrotreating reaction. However, the methoxy (OCH/sub 3/) substituent on the phenol ring is thermally unstable relative to other phenolics tested. The pyrolysis products dominate the product distribution when cobalt-molybdenum is used as the hydrotreating catalyst for methoxyphenol. The product from catalytic hydrotreatment of high-pressure biomass liquefaction products confirms the model compounds studies. Catalytic processing at 350 to 400/sup 0/C and 2000 psig with the sulfided cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst produced a gasoline-like product composed of cyclic and aromatic compounds. Oxygen contents in products were in the range of 0 to 0.7 wt % and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.0. 46 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, A.R.; Adomeit, U.; Chevalier, P.; Landeau, S.; Bijl, P.; Champagnat, F.; Dijk, J.; Göhler, B.; Landini, S.; Reynolds, J.P.; Smith, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance model

  4. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC I. Instructor Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills and instructing them in basic calculator…

  5. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  6. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project The staff of the...) for the Sabine Pass Liquefaction Project (Project), proposed by Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC...

  7. Seismic liquefaction potential assessment by using relevance vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pijush Samui

    2007-01-01

    Determining the liquefaction potential of soil is important in earthquake engineering.This study proposes the use of the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) to determine the liquefaction potential of soil by using actual cone penetration test(CPT) data.RVM is based on a Bayesian formulation of a linear model with an appropriate prior that results in a sparse representation.The results are compared with a widely used artificial neural network(ANN) model.Overall,the RVM shows good performance and is proven to be more accurate than the ANN model.It also provides probabilistic output.The model provides a viable tool for earthquake engineers to assess seismic conditions for sites that are susceptible to liquefaction.

  8. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria......, a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....

  9. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  10. A modified criterion for wave-induced momentary liquefaction of sandy seabed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Gang Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the wave-induced soil liquefaction plays a key role in the geotechnical design for offshore foundations. The underlying shortcomings of the existing momentary liquefaction criteria are identified and clarified by mechanism analyses and the recent field observations. A modified criterion for the wave-induced momentary liquefaction of a sandy seabed is given to describe the vertical pore-pressure distributions. An improved approximation of the momentary liquefaction depth is further presented. Parametric study of the effects of the saturation degree of soils indicates that this modification is significant for the evaluation of wave-induced momentary liquefaction.

  11. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  12. Recent Advances in Computational Methods for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Processing

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2013-01-11

    Although three-dimensional protein structure determination using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a computationally costly and tedious process that would benefit from advanced computational techniques, it has not garnered much research attention from specialists in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this paper, we review recent advances in computational methods for NMR protein structure determination. We summarize the advantages of and bottlenecks in the existing methods and outline some open problems in the field. We also discuss current trends in NMR technology development and suggest directions for research on future computational methods for NMR.

  13. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  14. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

  15. Liquefaction Microzonation of Babol City Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Choobbasti, A.J.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    that will be less susceptible to damage during earthquakes. The scope of present study is to prepare the liquefaction microzonation map for the Babol city based on Seed and Idriss (1983) method using artificial neural network. Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the artificial intelligence (AI) approaches...... is proposed in this paper. To meet this objective, an effort is made to introduce a total of 30 boreholes data in an area of 7 km2 which includes the results of field tests into the neural network model and the prediction of artificial neural network is checked in some test boreholes, finally the liquefaction...

  16. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  17. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co......-processing aspen wood and neat glycerol led to a significant reduction in the char yield, and glycerol is hypothesized to act as a radical scavenger, alleviating re-polymerization of especially lignin-derived fragments. In the temperature range of 380–420 °C, it was found that biocrude and char yield, and biocrude...... quality were all invariant to the reaction temperature. By increasing the crude glycerol to aspen wood mass ratio from 0:1 to 3:1, char yield was decreased from 18.3% (only aspen wood) to 3.4%. Furthermore, the biocrude quality in terms of the effective hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/Ceff) was significantly...

  18. A review on Advanced Oxidation Processes for the treatment of Textile effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *Rafia Azmat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyes are those synthetic and natural compounds which applied in form of aqueous based solutions with many additives to strong attachment of dye molecule with a fabric for persistence the colour on it while pigments are usually insoluble. There are various methods of dye all over the world for dye fabrications. Dyes fabrication processes require thousands liters of water for coloring materials which need very small amount of it and remaining water discharged as a dye waste water and become hazardous to ecology. As an effluent from textile and printing industries having remaining dyes and several additives it become one of the central sources with severe pollution complications worldwide and hard to treat by conventional Chemical/Biological processes. This complex nature of dye wastewater can be converted into less harmless/useful by products along with conventional biological treatment, chemical treatment or set of chemical treatments like Advanced Oxidation processes are used. This paper reviews various Advanced Oxidation processes (AOPs like Hydrogen peroxide, ozonation, ultra violet radiations, alone or in combinations for the treatment of textile effluent and their efficiency regarding detoxification and color removal. The current review describes the efficiency of various advanced oxidation processes in which hydroxyl radical was generated for color removal dye bath.

  19. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  20. Production of fuels by cellulose liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, B.K.; McAuliffe, C.A. [Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    The effect of temperature on the liquefaction of cellulose was investigated in a range 200{degrees} to 350{degrees}C in aqueous medium with 5% pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, at 35 bars of hydrogen as reducing gas and a reaction time of 2 hours. Experiments were conducted in a 1 liter batch rocker autoclave reactor. The conversion increased from 46.5% at 200{degrees}C to 92.46% at 350{degrees}C, the oil yield increased from 18% at 200{degrees} to 33% at 350{degrees}C. At the high temperature, 350{degrees}C, the water soluble fraction and char formation decreased due to the conversion of the above to various gases. Moreover, ether solubles in water soluble fractions also decreased while the production of water increased from 8% at 200{degrees}C to 29% at 350{degrees}C. It suggests the possibility of removal of oxidants from the feedstocks as water. Initial dehydration reactions were obviously responsible for the high yield of water. Water yield increased gradually with the increase in temperature which was probably due to the dehydration of the intermediary products and the concurrent removal of oxygen atom as water instead of as CO or CO{sub 2}. At high temperatures, more CO{sub 2} gas was formed due to the water gas shift reaction. The formation of CO{sub 2} is favored over the formation of CO. At high temperatures more hydrocarbon gases were formed. Solvent extraction of the oils showed that the maximum percentage of carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds formed in comparison with carbonyl and neutral compounds when temperature increased.

  1. The Process of Transforming an Advanced Lab Course: Goals, Curriculum, and Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Zwickl, Benjamin M; Lewandowski, H J

    2012-01-01

    A thoughtful approach to designing and improving labs, particularly at the advanced level, is critical for the effective preparation of physics majors for professional work in industry or graduate school. With that in mind, physics education researchers in partnership with the physics faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder have overhauled the senior-level Advanced Physics Lab course. The transformation followed a three part process of establishing learning goals, designing curricula that align with the goals, and assessment. Similar efforts have been carried out in physics lecture courses at the University of Colorado Boulder, but this is the first systematic research-based revision of one of our laboratory courses. The outcomes of this effort include a set of learning goals, a suite of new lab-skill activities and transformed optics labs, and a set of assessments specifically tailored for a laboratory environment. While the particular selection of advanced lab experiments varies widely between institu...

  2. Advanced image processing package for FPGA-based re-programmable miniature electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovod, Vladimir I.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2005-05-01

    Nova Sensors produces miniature electronics for a variety of real-time digital video camera systems, including foveal sensors based on Nova's Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) technology. An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical, background velocimetry and target tracking. Currently, the processing package consists of 14 processing operations that cover a broad range of point- and area-applied algorithms. Flexible FPGA designs of these operations and re-programmability of the processing board allows for easy updates of the VASITM sensors, and for low-cost customization of VASITM sensors taking into account specific customer requirements. This paper describes the image processing algorithms implemented and verified in Xilinx FPGAs and provides the major technical performances with figures illustrating practical applications of the processing package.

  3. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  4. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  5. Swine manure/crude glycerol co-liquefaction: physical properties and chemical analysis of bio-oil product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Shirley, Vestel B; Wang, Lijun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the principal structural and physico-chemical changes of bio-oils associated with liquefaction of swine manure with crude glycerol and its key fraction, free fatty acids. Bio-oils have been obtained from liquefaction processes at 340 °C. They were subjected to various physico-chemical characterization methods. FTIR data indicated a reduction in aliphatic structures and an increase in more oxidized and, probably, more polycondensed aromatic components resulting from the addition of crude glycerol to swine manure. GC-MS data indicated that the addition of crude glycerol facilitated the esterification reaction in sub-critical water to convert organic acids contained in bio-oil into various kinds of esters. The dynamic viscosity of bio-oil decreased dramatically by adding crude glycerol into the swine manure.

  6. Advances in statistical monitoring of complex multivariate processes with applications in industrial process control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of multivariate statistical techniques in process monitoring has gained substantial interest over the past two decades in academia and industry alike.  Initially developed for monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex systems, such techniques have been refined and applied in various engineering areas, for example mechanical and manufacturing, chemical, electrical and electronic, and power engineering.  The recipe for the tremendous interest in multivariate statistical techniques lies in its simplicity and adaptability for developing monitoring applica

  7. Advanced process monitoring and feedback control to enhance cell culture process production and robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Tsang, Valerie Liu; Moore, Brandon; Shen, Vivian; Huang, Yao-Ming; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    It is a common practice in biotherapeutic manufacturing to define a fixed-volume feed strategy for nutrient feeds, based on historical cell demand. However, once the feed volumes are defined, they are inflexible to batch-to-batch variations in cell growth and physiology and can lead to inconsistent productivity and product quality. In an effort to control critical quality attributes and to apply process analytical technology (PAT), a fully automated cell culture feedback control system has been explored in three different applications. The first study illustrates that frequent monitoring and automatically controlling the complex feed based on a surrogate (glutamate) level improved protein production. More importantly, the resulting feed strategy was translated into a manufacturing-friendly manual feed strategy without impact on product quality. The second study demonstrates the improved process robustness of an automated feed strategy based on online bio-capacitance measurements for cell growth. In the third study, glucose and lactate concentrations were measured online and were used to automatically control the glucose feed, which in turn changed lactate metabolism. These studies suggest that the auto-feedback control system has the potential to significantly increase productivity and improve robustness in manufacturing, with the goal of ensuring process performance and product quality consistency.

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

    2014-01-01

    Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed.

  10. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF......The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass...... is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part...

  11. Determination of Liquefaction Potential using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F; Choobbasti, A.J; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose an alternative general regression model based on neural networks, which enables analysis of summary data obtained by liquefaction analysis according to usual methods. For that purpose, the data from some thirty boreholes made during field investigations in Babol, in the Iranian...

  12. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  13. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  14. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  15. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W.; Stringer, J. (eds.)

    1979-12-01

    The first conference on advanced materials for alternative fuel capable directly fired heat engines was held at the Maine Maritime Academy, Castine, Maine. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and the Electric Power Research Institute, (Division of Fossil Fuel and Advanced Systems). Forty-four papers from the proceedings have been entered into EDB and ERA and one also into EAPA; three had been entered previously from other sources. The papers are concerned with US DOE research programs in this area, coal gasification, coal liquefaction, gas turbines, fluidized-bed combustion and the materials used in these processes or equipments. The materials papers involve alloys, ceramics, coatings, cladding, etc., and the fabrication and materials listing of such materials and studies involving corrosion, erosion, deposition, etc. (LTN)

  17. Advancement in additive manufacturing & numerical modelling considerations of direct energy deposition process

    OpenAIRE

    Quanren Zeng; Zhenhai Xu; Yankang Tian; Yi Qin

    2016-01-01

    The development speed and application range of the additive manufacturing (AM) processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM), laser metal deposition (LMD) or laser-engineering net shaping (LENS), are ever-increasing in modern advanced manufacturing field for rapid manufacturing, tooling repair or surface enhancement of the critical metal components. LMD is based on a kind of directed energy deposition (DED) technology which ejects a strand of metal powders into a moving molten pool caused ...

  18. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken SC (United States); Lee, William E. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Ojovan, Michael I. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  19. Assessment study of the stresses induced by corrosion in the Advanced Cold Process Canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, A.R.; Sharland, S.M. [Chemical Studies Department, Radwaste Disposal Division, AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC) is a concept for the encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. The basic design of the ACPC consists of an outer oxygen free copper overpack covering a carbon steel inner container. In this report the stresses exerted on the copper overpack as a result of an early failure of the canister and the subsequent corrosion of the steel are calculated. 4 figs, 8 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.