WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced illness focus

  1. Recent advances in the management of pulmonary embolism: focus on the critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Guy; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Planquette, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to summarize for intensivists or any physicians managing "severe" pulmonary embolism (PE) the main recent advances or recommendations in the care of patients including risk stratification, diagnostic algorithm, hemodynamic management in the intensive care unit (ICU), recent data regarding the use of thrombolytic treatment and retrievable vena cava filters and finally results of direct oral anticoagulants. Thanks to the improvements achieved in the risk stratification of patients with PE, a better therapeutic approach is now recommended from diagnosis algorithm and indication to admission in ICU to indication of thrombolysis and general hemodynamic support in patients with shock. Given at current dosage, thrombolytic therapy is associated with a reduction in the combined end-point of mortality and hemodynamic decompensation in patients with intermediate-risk PE, but this is obtained without a decrease in overall mortality and with a significant increase in major extracranial and intracranial bleeding. In patients with high-intermediate-risk PE, thrombolytic therapy should be given in case of hemodynamic worsening. Vena cava filters are of little help when anticoagulant treatment is not contraindicated, even in patients with PE and features of clinical severity. Finally, direct oral anticoagulants have been shown to be as effective as and safer than the combination of low molecular weight heparin and vitamin K antagonist(s) in patients with venous thromboembolism and low- to intermediate-risk PE. PMID:26934891

  2. [Palliative care needs in advanced chronic illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodoro, Vilma A; Rynkiewicz, María C; Llanos, Victoria; Padova, Susana; De Lellis, Silvina; De Simone, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    About 75% of population will die from one or more chronic progressive diseases. From this projection WHO urged countries to devise strategies for strengthening palliative treatment as part of comprehensive care. In Catalonia, Spain, direct measurement of the prevalence of these patients with NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool was 1.5% of the population. This tool is an indicative, not dichotomous, quali-quantitative multifactorial evaluation to be completed by the treating physician. In Argentina there is no information on these patients. Our goal was to explore and characterize the proportion of chronically ill patients in palliative care needs, by NECPAL CCOMS-ICO© tool, in an accessible population of the City of Buenos Aires. General hospitals of the Health Region 2 (Piñero, álvarez and Santojanni) and its program areas were surveyed. In Health Region 1, we surveyed the Udaondo gastroenterology hospital. A total of 53 physicians (704 patients) were interviewed. It was identified that 29.5% of these patients were affected by advanced chronic diseases; 72.1% of them were NECPAL positive, younger (median 64) than in others studies, and more than 98% presented high levels of comorbidity. Palliative care demand (31.4%) and needs (52.7%) were recorded. Specific indicators of fragility, progression, severity and kind of chronic disease were described. The main finding was to identify, with an instrument not based on mortality that, in Buenos Aires City, 1 in 3 patients with chronic diseases could die in the next year and had palliative care needs. PMID:27295702

  3. Advanced Illness: Holding on and Letting Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Our culture tells us that we should fight hard against ... come up during chronic illness. Finally, it presents ideas on how to go about making the decisions ...

  4. Effectiveness of Advanced Illness Care Teams for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dennis G.; Toseland, Ronald W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of advanced illness care teams (AICTs) for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. The AICTs used a holistic approach that focused on four domains: (1) medical, (2) meaningful activities, (3) psychological, and (4) behavioral. The authors recruited 118 residents in two nursing homes for this study and…

  5. How does uncertainty shape patient experience in advanced illness? A secondary analysis of qualitative data

    OpenAIRE

    Etkind, Simon Noah; Bristowe, Katherine Rachel; Bailey, Katharine; Selman, Lucy Ellen; Murtagh, Felicity Fliss

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty is common in advanced illness but is infrequently studied in this context. If poorly addressed, uncertainty can lead to adverse patient outcomes.AIM: We aimed to understand patient experiences of uncertainty in advanced illness and develop a typology of patients' responses and preferences to inform practice.DESIGN: Secondary analysis of qualitative interview transcripts. Studies were assessed for inclusion and interviews were sampled using maximum-variation sampling. A...

  6. Quality Nursing Care for Hospitalized Patients with Advanced Illness: Concept Development

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Shigeko; Baggs, Judith G.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of nursing care as perceived by hospitalized patients with advanced illness has not been examined. A concept of quality nursing care for this population was developed by integrating the literature on constructs defining quality nursing care with empirical findings from interviews of 16 patients with advanced illness. Quality nursing care was characterized as competence and personal caring supported by professionalism and delivered with an appropriate demeanor. Although the attribu...

  7. Focus on Exercise: Client and Clinician Perspectives on Exercise in Individuals with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Mihas, Paul; Penn, David L

    2016-05-01

    The health benefits of exercise are well established, yet individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) have a shorter life expectancy due in large part to physical health complications associated with poor diet and lack of exercise. There is a paucity of research examining exercise in this population with the majority of studies having examined interventions with limited feasibility and sustainability. Before developing an intervention, a thorough exploration of client and clinician perspectives on exercise and its associated barriers is warranted. Twelve clients and fourteen clinicians participated in focus groups aimed at examining exercise, barriers, incentives, and attitudes about walking groups. Results indicated that clients and clinicians identified walking as the primary form of exercise, yet barriers impeded consistent participation. Distinct themes arose between groups; however, both clients and clinicians reported interest in a combination group/pedometer based walking program for individuals with SMI. Future research should consider examining walking programs for this population. PMID:26007648

  8. Enhancing Work-Focused Supports for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Contreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI have reduced workforce participation, which leads to significant economic and social disadvantage. This theoretical review introduces the strategies that have been implemented to address this issue. These include Individual Placement and Support (IPS services, the most widely researched form of supported employment, to which cognitive remediation has more recently been recognised in the USA, as an intervention to improve employment outcomes by addressing the cognitive impairments often experienced by people with SMI. The authors review the international literature and discuss specifically the Australian context. They suggest that Australia is in a prime position to engage clients in such a dual intervention, having had recent success with increasing access to supported employment programs and workforce reentry, through implementation of the Health Optimisation Program for Employment (HOPE. Such programs assist with gaining and maintaining employment. However, they do not address the cognitive issues that often prevent persons with SMI from effectively participating in work. Thus, optimising current interventions, with work-focused cognitive skills development is critical to enhancing employment rates that remain low for persons with SMI.

  9. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kwakkel; E. Fliers; A. Boelen

    2011-01-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback

  10. Reconciling employment with caring for a husband with an advanced illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gysels Marjolein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about combining work with caring for a person with advanced illness. This is important given the increasing number of women in the workforce and current policy seeking to increase care in the community. The aim of this paper was to explore the meaning of work for women caring for a husband with an advanced illness and the consequences of combining these two roles. Methods A purposive sample of 15 carers was recruited from a hospital and from the community, via the patients they cared for. Their illnesses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, motor neurone disease, and heart failure. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews that were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A Grounded Theory approach was used and case studies were developed. NVivo software facilitated the management and analysis of the data. Results Caring presented challenges to carers' work life. It diminished productivity or the quality of work, and led to missed opportunities for promotion. Work had an effect on the quality of care and the relationship with the patient, which eventually led to work being given up for caring. Three carers resisted the pressures to give up work and used it as a coping strategy. Conclusion A positive choice to remain in employment does not necessarily signal reluctance to care. Caring arrangements need to be understood from the common and separate interests of carers and the people they support.

  11. Genomics and the classification of mental illness: focus on broader categories

    OpenAIRE

    Uher, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Coinciding with the release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, two recently published molecular genetics analyses suggest large overlaps in genetic liability to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. This indicates that a broader category of severe mental illness may be an important target for future large-scale etiological and therapeutic investigations. Studies of patient groups not restricted to current diagnostic cate...

  12. Focus group exploration of presence through advanced broadcast services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan; Avons, Steve E.

    2000-06-01

    Presence is a user's subjective sensation of 'being there' in a mediated environment. Its determinants include the extent of sensory information within a mediated environment, the user's ability to control their sensors and modify content within the environment, and individual-difference based factors. Although direct subjective ratings of presence have been used, the construct may be unclear to naive observers, and previous work in our laboratory has shown that ratings of presence may be biased towards different characteristics of the display. In the present study focus groups were used to: (1) establish whether viewers refer to sensations of presence, unprompted, (2) identify viewers' descriptions of their experiences of stereoscopic TV, and (3) identify the program types best suited to advanced broadcast presentations. Results showed that non-experts describe sensations of presence without prompting while watching stereoscopic television, relating it to involvement, realism and naturalness. In addition, there was a general consensus that live events, such as sports matches, theatre and concerts are the program types best suited to high-presence broadcast presentations, through advanced broadcast services such as Immersive Television.

  13. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dory Valerie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epistemological beliefs (EB are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions. Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18 were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11 met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI, participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify

  14. [Focus on Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness or Disability - A Family Oriented Counselling Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Birgit; Schepper, Florian; Herrmann, Jessy; Gude, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    In the psychosocial support of families with a chronically ill or disabled child siblings are increasingly addressed as a target group for prevention and rehabilitation projects intending to reduce the risk for adverse health consequences. The following article presents a childfocused approach to family counselling as a short-term intervention. Ten flexibly applicable counselling core points covering commonly reported problems of affected siblings and their families are available - including the communication about the disease within the family or the expression of the sibling's feelings and needs. For this purpose an approach in specific counselling sessions has been determined which is used similarly by adept child and youth psychotherapists. The counselling approach is founded theoretically. Furthermore, the counselling approach provides guidance for the structured approach in the diagnosis of potential difficulties, the choice of core points and setting, the closure of counseling sessions as well as the recommendation of additional programs.

  15. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  16. Content and quality of websites supporting self-management of chronic breathlessness in advanced illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tim; Disler, Rebecca; Hosie, Annmarie; Johnson, Miriam; Davidson, Patricia; Currow, David; Sumah, Anthony; Phillips, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic breathlessness is a common, burdensome and distressing symptom in many advanced chronic illnesses. Self-management strategies are essential to optimise treatment, daily functioning and emotional coping. People with chronic illness commonly search the internet for advice on self-management. A review was undertaken in June 2015 to describe the content and quality of online advice on breathlessness self-management, to highlight under-served areas and to identify any unsafe content. Google was searched from Sydney, Australia, using the five most common search terms for breathlessness identified by Google Trends. We also hand-searched the websites of national associations. Websites were included if they were freely available in English and provided practical advice on self-management. Website quality was assessed using the American Medical Association Benchmarks. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grades, with grade 8 considered the maximum acceptable for enabling access. Ninety-one web pages from 44 websites met the inclusion criteria, including 14 national association websites not returned by Google searches. Most websites were generated in the USA (n=28, 64%) and focused on breathing techniques (n=38, 86%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=27, 61%). No websites were found to offer unsafe advice. Adherence to quality benchmarks ranged from 9% for disclosure to 77% for currency. Fifteen (54%) of 28 written websites required grade ⩾9 reading level. Future development should focus on advice and tools to support goal setting, problem solving and monitoring of breathlessness. National associations are encouraged to improve website visibility and comply with standards for quality and readability. PMID:27225898

  17. Developing Navigation Competencies to Care for Older Rural Adults with Advanced Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Robinson, Carole A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Pesut, Barbara; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; MacLeod, Roderick; Keating, Norah C; Santos Salas, Anna; Hallstrom, Lars K; Fraser, Kimberly D; Williams, Allison; Struthers-Montford, Kelly; Swindle, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Navigators help rural older adults with advanced illness and their families connect to needed resources, information, and people to improve their quality of life. This article describes the process used to engage experts - in rural aging, rural palliative care, and navigation - as well as rural community stakeholders to develop a conceptual definition of navigation and delineate navigation competencies for the care of this population. A discussion paper on the important considerations for navigation in this population was developed followed by a four-phased Delphi process with 30 expert panel members. Study results culminated in five general navigation competencies for health care providers caring for older rural persons and their families at end of life: provide patient/family screening; advocate for the patient/family; facilitate community connections; coordinate access to services and resources; and promote active engagement. Specific competencies were also developed. These competencies provide the foundation for research and curriculum development in navigation. PMID:27093177

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2009 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Nearly 80% of all chemical reactions in nature and in human technology take place at boundaries between phases, i.e., at surfaces or interfaces. A detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces and interfaces is therefore necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and life style of our society. One of the challenges of modern surface science is thus to expand its range of investigations to all types of surfaces and interfaces and to develop a thorough understanding of the relationships between molecular-scale surface properties and parameters relevant to potential applications and devices. Beyond these technological drivers, however, is a rich range of novel and fundamental physical and chemical properties at surfaces and interfaces down to the nanoscale whose study represents outstanding intellectual challenges. The current research focuses on atomic- and molecular-level studies of the structure (atomic and electronic), bonding, reactivity, dynamics, restructuring, and magnetism at the surfaces and interfaces of metals, oxides, semiconductors, polymers, biological molecules, and liquids. Such investigations are becoming more and more important in view of the increasing emphasis on nanometer-scale structures in almost every technological application, from heterogeneous catalysis to microcircuit fabrication to magnetic data storage. As the scale of devices continues to be reduced, the distinction between bulk and surface properties becomes blurred, and all of the properties of materials tend to become interfacial This Focus Issue includes exciting new developments in the field of surface and interface science ranging, e.g., from the properties of metal-water interfaces to single-atom contacts. Special emphasis was taken to coupling theory with experiments aimed at elucidating fundamental atomic scale phenomena. It combines a broad expert and frontiers survey of research in this field today with an up

  19. A focus group assessment of patient perspectives on irritable bowel syndrome and illness severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossman, Douglas A; Chang, Lin; Schneck, Susan; Blackman, Carlar; Norton, William F; Norton, Nancy J

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing need to understand from the patient's perspective the experience of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the factors contributing to its severity; this has been endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Accordingly, we conducted focus groups to address this issue. A total of 32 patients with mostly moderate to severe IBS were recruited through advertising and were allocated into three focus groups based on predominant stool pattern. The focus groups were held using standard methodology to obtain a general assessment of the symptoms experienced with IBS, its impact, and of factors associated with self-perceived severity. Patients described IBS not only as symptoms (predominantly abdominal pain) but mainly as it affects daily function, thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Common responses included uncertainty and unpredictability with loss of freedom, spontaneity and social contacts, as well as feelings of fearfulness, shame, and embarrassment. This could lead to behavioral responses including avoidance of activities and many adaptations in routine in an effort for patients to gain control. A predominant theme was a sense of stigma experienced because of a lack of understanding by family, friends and physicians of the effects of IBS on the individual, or the legitimacy of the individual's emotions and adaptation behaviors experienced. This was a barrier to normal functioning that could be ameliorated through identifying with others who could understand this situation. Severity was linked to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and was influenced by the intensity of abdominal pain and other symptoms, interference with and restrictions relating to eating, work, and social activities, and of the unpredictability of the condition. This study confirms the heterogeneous and multi-component nature of IBS. These qualitative data can be used in developing health status and severity instruments for larger-scale studies. PMID:19337833

  20. Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Chong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.

  1. Progress in focus: recent advances in histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther

    2002-12-01

    Advances in histochemical and cell biological techniques enable increasingly refined investigations into the cellular and subcellular distribution of specific molecules and into their role in dynamic processes; thus progress in these fields complements the growing knowledge in genomics and proteomics. The present review summarizes recent technical progress and novel applications. PMID:12483316

  2. Targeted treatments in advanced renal cell carcinoma: focus on axitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzoni E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elena Verzoni, Paolo Grassi, Isabella Testa, Roberto Iacovelli, Pamela Biondani, Enrico Garanzini , Filippo De Braud, Giuseppe ProcopioDepartment of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Antiangiogenesis options have evolved rapidly in the last few years, with an increasing number of agents currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. Angiogenesis inhibitors have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of metastatic renal cancer cell. Axitinib is a third-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and is currently being developed for the treatment of various malignancies. The pharmacokinetic properties of axitinib may have a selective therapeutic effect, with minimal adverse reactions and enhanced safety. In a large Phase III study of previously treated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, axitinib achieved a longer progression-free survival than sorafenib with an acceptable safety profile and good quality of life. This review focuses on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of axitinib in the current treatment of renal cell carcinoma. The role of axitinib in the adjuvant and/or neoadjuvant setting needs to be evaluated in further clinical trials.Keywords: axitinib, renal cell carcinoma, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, angiogenesis

  3. Fusion of heavy ions in advanced focused discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field distortion elements (FDEs) in the interelectrode gap of focused discharge machines with a peak current of ≥0.6 MA have been successfully used for increasing the current density in the pinch at the stage of maximum compression. A suitable FDE increases the neutron emission per shot, Yn, by a factor of ≥5 as compared with the value of Yn from DD fusion reactions in the same machine operating under identical conditions but without an FDE. The variations of the current distribution with and without an FDE (peak current density and current sheath width in the interelectrode gap) are monitored from magnetic probe signals and are of the order of 20%. With a doping by pressure of 2-8% of the filling gas of the discharge chamber with CD4 or N2 the reactions 12C(d,n)13N(β+) or 14N(d,n)15O(β+), of the order of ∼ 1% of the DD reactions in the same shot, are detected. The location and linear dimensions (n = AW02, A approx.= 1.3x108 neutrons/(kJ)2 (where W0 is the energy in kJ of the capacitor bank which feeds the discharge) for 5 kJ 0 n) are virtually eliminated. All reaction yields and ion energy spectrum data are consistent with the view that the bulk of the reactions occur in a multiplicity of localized regions with a density of >1020cm-3. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs

  4. Single File Dynamics Advances with a Focus on Biophysical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2014-08-01

    In this review (appearing in the Special Issue on single file dynamics in biophysics and related extensions), three recently treated variants in file dynamics are presented: files with density that is not fixed, files with heterogeneous particles, and files with slow particles. The results in these files include: • In files with a density law that is not fixed, but decays as a power law with an exponent a the distance from the origin, the particle in the origin mean square displacement (MSD) scales like MSD t[1+a]/2, with a Gaussian probability density function (PDF). This extends the scaling, MSD t1/2, seen in a constant density file. • When, in addition, the particles' diffusion coefficients are distributed like a power law with an exponent γ (around the origin), the MSD follows MSD t[1-γ]/[2/(1+a) - γ], with a Gaussian PDF. • In anomalous files that are renewal, namely, when all particles attempt a jump together, yet, with jump times taken from a PDF that decays as a power law with an exponent -1 - ɛ, ψ(t) t-1-ɛ, the MSD scales like the MSD of the corresponding normal file, in the power ɛ. • In anomalous files of independent particles, the MSD is very slow and scales like MSD log2(t). Even more exciting, the particles form clusters, defining a dynamical phase transition: depending on the anomaly power ɛ, the percentage of particles in clusters ξ follows ξ = √ {1-ǎrepsilon3}, yet when ɛ > 1, fluidity rather than clusters is seen. We talk about utilizing these results while focusing on biophysical processes and applications: dynamics in channels, membranes, biosensors, etc. Special Issue Comments: In this article, results about recently suggested variants in single file dynamics appear: heterogeneous files and slow files, yet also, the relevance with biophysical processes. It is related to the Special Issue articles about expansions in files,61 files with force,62 and the zig zag occurrences in files.63

  5. Productive potentials or protected individuals? The concept of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...

  6. Factors that may facilitate or hinder a family-focus in the treatment of parents with a mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauritzen, C.; Reedtz, C.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Martinussen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with mentally ill parents are at risk of developing mental health problems themselves. To enhance early support for these children may prevent mental health problems from being transmitted from one generation to the next. The sample (N = 219) included health professionals in a large univers

  7. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Carmel M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in general practice. Methods Self-help groups around the conditions of diabetes, epilepsy, asthma and cancer identified key informants to participate in 4 disease specific focus groups. Audio taped transcripts of the focus groups were coded using grounded theory methodology. Key themes and lesser themes identified using a process of saturation until the study questions on needs and experiences of care were addressed. Thematic comparisons were made across the 2002/3 and 1992/3 focus groups. Findings At times of chronic illness, there was need to find and then ensure access to 'the right GP'. The 'right GP or specialist' committed to an in-depth relationship of trust, personal rapport and understanding together with clinical and therapeutic competence. The 'right GP', the main specialist, the community nurse and the pharmacist were key providers, whose success depended on interprofessional communication. The need to trust and rely on care providers was balanced by the need for self-efficacy 'to be in control of disease and treatment' and 'to be your own case manager'. Changes in Medicare appeared to have little penetration into everyday perceptions of chronic illness burden or time and quality of GP care. Inequity of health system support for different disease groupings emerged. Diabetes, asthma and certain cancers, like breast cancer, had greater support, despite common experiences of disease burden, and a need for research and support programs. Conclusion Core

  8. Overview of the projects recently developed by the advanced neutron environment team at the ILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeat-Lami, Eric; Chapuis, Jean-François; Chastagnier, Jérémie; Demas, Steffen; Gonzales, Jean-Paul; Keay, Morley-Patrick; Laborier, Jean-Luc; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy; Losserand, Olivier; Martin, Paul; Mélési, Louis; Petoukhov, Alexander; Pujol, Serge; Ragazzoni, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Frédéric; Tonon, Xavier

    2006-11-01

    Within the framework of the Millennium Programme, we have started the design and building of novel equipment with the aim at facilitating and diversifying the experimental conditions on Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) and ILL-CRG instruments. We anticipate new devices for applying external parameters (pressure, temperature, magnetic or electric fields, etc.), handling the neutron beam polarisation (RF wide-band flipper, TOF-Cryopad, etc.) or carrying multi-task experiments. The facilities already in operation are briefly reviewed: 3 K cryogen-free cryostat hosting the Paris-Edinburgh pressure cell, 3 K pulse-tube top-loading cryostat with 700 K high-temperature insert, 2 K Joule-Thomson cryogen-free cryostat for Eulerian cradles, 20 mK dilution fridge for the recently acquired 15 T cryomagnet and a low-temperature gas-injection sample stick for Orange cryostats.

  9. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients: a simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeci, László; Seres, Leila; Antal, Magda; Lukács, Júlia; Regöly-Mérei, Andrea; Acsády, György

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in many human pathological processes. Although there are numerous methods available for the assessment of oxidative stress, most of them are still not easily applicable in a routine clinical laboratory due to the complex methodology and/or lack of automation. In research into human oxidative stress, the simplification and automation of techniques represent a key issue from a laboratory point of view at present. In 1996 a novel oxidative stress biomarker, referred to as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), was detected in the plasma of chronic uremic patients. Here we describe in detail an automated version of the originally published microplate-based technique that we adapted for a Cobas Mira Plus clinical chemistry analyzer. AOPP reference values were measured in plasma samples from 266 apparently healthy volunteers (university students; 81 male and 185 female subjects) with a mean age of 21.3 years (range 18-33). Over a period of 18 months we determined AOPP concentrations in more than 300 patients in our department. Our experiences appear to demonstrate that this technique is especially suitable for monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill patients (sepsis, reperfusion injury, heart failure) even at daily intervals, since AOPP exhibited rapid responses in both directions. We believe that the well-established relationship between AOPP response and induced damage makes this simple, fast and inexpensive automated technique applicable in daily routine laboratory practice for assessing and monitoring oxidative stress in critically ill or other patients.

  10. Advances in nowcasting influenza-like illness rates using search query logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampos, Vasileios; Miller, Andrew C.; Crossan, Steve; Stefansen, Christian

    2015-08-01

    User-generated content can assist epidemiological surveillance in the early detection and prevalence estimation of infectious diseases, such as influenza. Google Flu Trends embodies the first public platform for transforming search queries to indications about the current state of flu in various places all over the world. However, the original model significantly mispredicted influenza-like illness rates in the US during the 2012-13 flu season. In this work, we build on the previous modeling attempt, proposing substantial improvements. Firstly, we investigate the performance of a widely used linear regularized regression solver, known as the Elastic Net. Then, we expand on this model by incorporating the queries selected by the Elastic Net into a nonlinear regression framework, based on a composite Gaussian Process. Finally, we augment the query-only predictions with an autoregressive model, injecting prior knowledge about the disease. We assess predictive performance using five consecutive flu seasons spanning from 2008 to 2013 and qualitatively explain certain shortcomings of the previous approach. Our results indicate that a nonlinear query modeling approach delivers the lowest cumulative nowcasting error, and also suggest that query information significantly improves autoregressive inferences, obtaining state-of-the-art performance.

  11. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of small renal masses: Clinical effectiveness and technological advances

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, G; Goodman, C; Melzer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review summarises the technological advances in the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound for small renal masses presumed to be cancer including the systematic review of its clinical application. Current progress in the area of magnetic resonance image guided ultrasound ablation is also appraised. Specifically, organ tracking and real time monitoring of temperature changes during the treatment are discussed. Finally, areas of future research interest are outlined.

  12. On the use of a toroidal mirror to focus neutrons at the ILL neutron spin echo spectrometer IN15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, C. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Alefeld, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Copley, J.R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The IN15 neutron spin echo spectrometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin (Grenoble) has been designed to accomodate a toroidal focusing mirror. This mirror will be used to increase the intensity at the sample position for measurements at long neutron wavelengths and to perform measurements in the low q-range (10{sup -3} {angstrom}{sup -1}). This paper summarizes the results of ray-tracing simulations for the toroidal mirror system. These calculations were performed in order to assess the effects of the neutron wavelength, gravitational fall, wavelength resolution and spherical aberrations on the quality of the focused beam. The gain in flux that can be expected from the focusing geometry is estimated. The recent installation and characterisation of the mirror is also briefly described.

  13. Testing an intervention to improve functional capability in advanced cardiopulmonary illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Steele, Bonnie G; Hunziker, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The development of a conceptually driven exercise and self-management intervention for improving functional capability and reducing health care costs using social cognitive theory is described. The intervention has 2 components: a 1-month outpatient exercise intervention followed by a home component, lasting 5 months. The intervention is expected to have significant impact on daily function, quality of life, gait/balance, self-efficacy, and health care utilization in persons with advanced heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We report preliminary results related to process-related variables, including feasibility, safety, and intervention adherence. Intervention outcomes are currently under study and will be reported when available.

  14. Measuring social support in patients with advanced medical illnesses: An analysis of the Duke–UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARACINO, REBECCA; KOLVA, ELISSA; ROSENFELD, BARRY; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2016-01-01

    Objective To date, no measure of social support has been developed specifically for either palliative care or oncology settings. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Duke–University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSS) in order to (1) assess the adequacy of the scale in the context of severe medical illness and (2) evaluate whether a brief subset of items might generate roughly comparable utility. Method The 14-item DUFSS was administered to 1,362 individuals with advanced cancer or AIDS. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to develop an abbreviated version of the DUFSS that maintained adequate reliability and validity and might increase the feasibility of its administration in a palliative care setting. The reliability and concurrent validity of the DUFSS-5 were evaluated in a separate validation sample of patients with advanced cancer. Results Analyses generated a five-item version of the DUFSS (the DUFSS-5) that collapsed response levels into only three options, instead of five. Correlations between the DUFSS-5 and measures of depression, quality of life, and desire for hastened death, as well as regression models testing the main-effect and buffering models of social support, provided support for the utility of the DUFSS-5. Significance of results Both the DUFSS and the abbreviated DUFSS-5 appear to have adequate reliability and validity in this setting. Moreover, the DUFSS-5 represents a potentially important option for healthcare researchers, particularly for those working in palliative care settings where issues of patient burden are paramount. Such analyses are critical for advancing the development and refinement of psychosocial measures, but have often been neglected. PMID:25201170

  15. The Efficacy of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Xie; Jiajun Ling; Weiming Zhang; Xueqin Huang; Jihua Zhen; Yanzhe Huang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)in the treatment of late-stage pancreatic cancer.METHODS Sixteen patients with advanced pancreatic cancer received HIFU therapy.Evaluation of efficacy was made on the basis of changes in clinical symptoms and variations in the tumor echo and size.RESULTS Clinical symptoms such as pain were significantly alleviated,echo of the tumor was enhanced with B-US and the quality of life such as eating,sleeping and mental status was markedly improved;no serious complications were observed.CONCLUSION The use of HIFU in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer is feasible and safe.It is effective in killing the carcinoma cells and alleviaring pain.This technique may offer non-invasive therapy for the treatment of patients with late-stage pancreatic cancer.

  16. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  17. Advanced Technology Program's Information Infrastructure for Healthcare Focused Program: A Brief History

    OpenAIRE

    Lide, Bettijoyce; Spivack, Richard N.

    2000-01-01

    This review examines how a “bottom-up” model of a civilian technology program works by recounting the story of the “genesis” of the Information Infrastructure for Healthcare (IIH) focused program of the Advanced Technology Program. The IIH program began with an exchange of ideas among members of the private and public sectors (through the submission of “white papers” by members of industry, workshops conducted by the ATP, and meetings among persons from both groups) to identify the technologi...

  18. Immune function and illness molecule expression in focus tissue after ALA-PDT combined with CO2 laser treatment of condyloma acuminatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Heng-An Yi; Yu-Fen Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the immune function and illness molecule expression in focus tissue after ALA-PDT combined with CO2 laser treatment of condyloma acuminatum.Methods:A total of 62 cases of patients with condyloma acuminatum were selected for study and divided into combined treatment group (n=29) and laser treatment group (n=33) according to different treatment methods. The changes of condyloma acuminatum focus tissue were observed, and immune indexes in peripheral blood as well as the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and proliferation-related genes in focus tissue were detected.Results:Condyloma acuminatum lesion area of combined treatment group was significantly smaller than that of laser treatment group, and the lesion healing was more ideal; CD3+CD4+T lymphocyte proportion as well as TLR1, TLR3 and TLR9 expression levels on T cell surface in peripheral blood of combined treatment group were higher than those of laser treatment group while CD3+CD8+T lymphocyte and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell proportion was lower than that of laser treatment group; p16INK4, CyclinD1, CDK4, CDK6, pRb and E2F as well as Livin and XIAP contents in focus tissue of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of laser treatment group while Fas, FasL, SHP-1, PDCD4, TRAIL and Caspase-3 contents were significantly higher than those of laser treatment group.Conclusions:ALA-PDT combined with CO2 laser treatment can more effectively clear condyloma acuminatum focus, improve cellular immune function as well as inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis in focus tissue.

  19. Unconscious Bias - The Focus of the University of Arizona's NSF ADVANCE Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. M.; Tolbert, L. P.; Vaillancourt, A. M.; Leahey, E. E.; Rodrigues, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Arizona ADVANCE program focuses on unconscious bias and ways to minimize its negative impact on the academy. Unconscious bias involves social stereotypes about certain groups of people that individuals form outside their own consciousness. Overwhelming scientific evidence supports that unconscious bias pervasively influences hiring, evaluation, selection of leaders, and even daily interactions. UA ADVANCE has a three-tiered strategy for improving the representation and advancement of women faculty in STEM departments that includes: 1) fostering the scientific and leadership careers of women; 2) promoting responsibility for gender equity among faculty and administrators; and 3) developing management software useful for promoting more equitable decision-making. This strategy has brought together a diverse array of faculty, staff, and faculty administrators working toward a common goal of promoting faculty diversity and the equitable treatment of faculty. Among the most effective aspects of our programming and products have been: 1) department head and search committee trainings; 2) monthly career discussion series events, and; 3) a salary modeling tool for department heads and deans. One key to the success of these efforts has been collaborations with campus partners, including the Office of the Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs, the Office of the Special Advisor to the President for Diversity and Inclusion, and the Division of Human Resources. A second key has been a commitment to the use of research-based material and tools, presented by respected colleagues, in small workshop-style settings that foster discussion. This has enabled us to extend our reach to more STEM departments and secure broader support in creating a more equitable environment for women faculty. Nearing the close of our grant period, our efforts are now concentrated on institutionalizing success. UA ADVANCE needs continued support from an increasingly tasked administration

  20. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4).

  1. Using focus groups to identify characteristics of an ideal work environment for Advanced Practice Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Robert J; Mazzaccaro, Richard J; Burmeister, David B; Land, Samuel D; Boulay, Richard M; Chung, Heiwon; Deitrick, Lynn; Sumner, Andrew D

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Practice Clinicians (APCs) in collaborative practice represent a diverse and valuable group of health care professionals, including nurse practitioners, physician assistants, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives. Because these healthcare professionals have been identified as part of the solution to physician shortages, it is critical for health networks to examine and address issues affecting collaborative relationships. We invited our network APCs to participate in focus group sessions to determine both attributes and barriers to an ideal work environment. Four major themes emerged: (1) compensation, (2) network representation, (3) employment structure, and (4) workplace culture. While issues relating to compensation and representation were prevalent, discussions also revealed the importance of relationships and communication. To ensure successful collaboration and, thereby, reduce clinician turnover, leaders must address gaps between the existing and ideal states in structural factors affecting job satisfaction (Themes 1-3) as well as the behavioral factors represented in workplace culture (Theme 4). PMID:27637819

  2. Cost of illness of advanced ovarian carcinoma in Italy: results of an empirical, single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Lazzaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform an empirical, single-centre, retrospective and secondary cost of illness (COI study of advanced ovarian carcinoma (AOC in Italy. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, health care and non-health care resource consumption data concerning a convenience sample of subsequent patients in 1st line of treatment (100 patients, 2nd line of treatment A (surgery + chemotherapy; 30 patients and 2nd line of treatment B (chemotherapy only; 20 patients were obtained from a database created in 2011 by the Obstetrics and Ginecology Unit at Campus Biomedico teaching hospital, Rome. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. Resources were valued according to the above mentioned database and literature, following the societal viewpoint. Costs are expressed in Euro (€ 2014 and reported as mean and standard deviation (SD. RESULTS: One-year COI for 1st line of treatment reaches € 44,999.7 (SD: €28,757.3, € 55,410.8 (SD: € 32,454.6 and €46,895.6 (SD: € 28,407.4 for 2nd line of treatment A and B, respectively. Regardless the line of treatment, COI is mainly driven by cost borne by patient and her family. Due to the high costs of relapse the mean COI per patient after 2 years from the diagnosis of AOC equals € 81,869.4 (SD: € 30,660.9, or 182% of the COI for the 1st line of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, our results show that increasing progression-free survival could well reduce the COI for AOC in Italy.

  3. Analgesic effect of high intensity focused ultrasound in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjin Tan; Jian Chen; Li Ren; Ruilu Lin; Zailian Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic ef ect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods:A total of 106 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer accompanied by abdominal pain were treated by HIFU. Pain intensities and quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment were observed and compared. Results:The average pain intensities before treatment, and at d3, d7 after treatment were 5.80 ± 2.14, 2.73 ± 2.68, 2.45 ± 2.43 respectively (P<0.01). Fifty-nine cases (55.7%) got to extremely ef ective, and 29 cases (27.4%) ef ective. Total ef icient rate was 83.0%. The average quantities of morphine consumption before and after treatment in the patients with grade III pain were 114.9 ± 132.5 mg, 16.8 ± 39.7 mg each person everyday respectively (P<0.01). Conclusion:HIFU can relieve pain suf ered by patients with pancreatic cancer ef ectively. It is a new adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer pain.

  4. Assembling the evidence jigsaw: insights from a systematic review of UK studies of individual-focused return to work initiatives for disabled and long-term ill people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povall Sue

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment rates of long-term ill and disabled people in the UK are low and 2.63 million are on disability-related state benefits. Since the mid-1990 s, UK governments have experimented with a range of active labour market policies aimed to move disabled people off benefits and into work to reduce the risk of poverty and social exclusion. This systematic review asks what employment impact have these interventions had and how might they work better? Methods A systematic review of observational and qualitative empirical studies and systematic reviews published between 2002 and mid-2008 reporting employment effects and/or process evaluations of national UK government interventions focused on helping long-term sick or disabled people (aged 16-64 into the open labour market. This built on our previous systematic review which covered the years 1970 to 2001. Results Searches identified 42 studies, 31 of which evaluated initiatives with an individual focus (improving an individual's employability or providing financial support in returning to work while 11 evaluated initiatives with an environmental focus (directed at the employment environment or changing the behaviour of employers. This paper synthesises evidence from the 31 studies with an individual focus. The use of personal advisors and individual case management in these schemes helped some participants back to work. Qualitative studies, however, revealed that time pressures and job outcome targets influenced advisors to select 'easier-to-place' claimants into programmes and also inhibited the development of mutual trust, which was needed for individual case management to work effectively. Financial incentives can help with lasting transitions into work, but the incentives were often set too low or were too short-term to have an effect. Many of the studies suffered from selection bias into these programmes of more work-ready claimants. Even though these were national

  5. Care for chronic illness in Australian general practice – focus groups of chronic disease self-help groups over 10 years: implications for chronic care systems reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Carmel M; Peterson Chris; Robinson Rowena; Sturmberg Joachim P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic disease is a major global challenge. However, chronic illness and its care, when intruding into everyday life, has received less attention in Asia Pacific countries, including Australia, who are in the process of transitioning to chronic disease orientated health systems. Aim The study aims to examine experiences of chronic illness before and after the introduction of Australian Medicare incentives for longer consultations and structured health assessments in gener...

  6. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION OF PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Shaplygin; V. A. Solovov; M. O. Vozdvizhenskiy; Yа. S. Matyash; R. Z. Khametov; D. V. Fesenko

    2014-01-01

    In this study the results of retrospective analysis of treatment of 311 patients in Samara Oncology Center in 2008–2011 with locally advanced prostate cancer are presented. According to the received treatment patients were divided into 3 groups: 103 underwent HIFU, 101 patients had a course of EBRT, 107 patients received only hormone therapy (HT). Overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer after HIFU therapy was 86.2 %, after EBRT and HT – 66.3% and 18.1 %, respectivel...

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION OF PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shaplygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the results of retrospective analysis of treatment of 311 patients in Samara Oncology Center in 2008–2011 with locally advanced prostate cancer are presented. According to the received treatment patients were divided into 3 groups: 103 underwent HIFU, 101 patients had a course of EBRT, 107 patients received only hormone therapy (HT. Overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer after HIFU therapy was 86.2 %, after EBRT and HT – 66.3% and 18.1 %, respectively. These data indicate a high clinical efficacy of ultrasound ablation. 

  8. HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION OF PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shaplygin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the results of retrospective analysis of treatment of 311 patients in Samara Oncology Center in 2008–2011 with locally advanced prostate cancer are presented. According to the received treatment patients were divided into 3 groups: 103 underwent HIFU, 101 patients had a course of EBRT, 107 patients received only hormone therapy (HT. Overall survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer after HIFU therapy was 86.2 %, after EBRT and HT – 66.3% and 18.1 %, respectively. These data indicate a high clinical efficacy of ultrasound ablation. 

  9. Advanced gastric cancer (GC) and cancer of the gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ): focus on targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappetta, Alessandro; Lonardi, Sara; Pastorelli, Davide; Bergamo, Francesca; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in surgical techniques and chemotherapy treatments, locally advanced/metastatic gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric cancer (GC) are still associated with poor clinical outcome. However, increased understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and its implementation in the treatment of breast, colon, lung, and other cancers in recent years have spurred focus on the development and incorporation of targeted agents in current therapeutic options for this difficult-to-treat disease. Such agents have the ability to target a variety of cancer relevant targets, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. In this review, we describe the current status of targeted therapies in the treatment of advanced GC and GEJ cancer, focusing on pre-clinical and clinical data available on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors acting in these pathways, including completed and ongoing phase III studies.

  10. The Role of Social Workers in Spiritual Care to Facilitate Coping With Chronic Illness and Self-Determination in Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B; Burke, Nancy; Wilson, Alicia M

    2016-01-01

    Spiritual values and beliefs of patients and families influence resilience during chronic illness and shape patient choices during advance care planning. The spiritual needs of Baby Boomers will be more diverse than previous generations, in connection with the questioning, experimental mind-set of this group and the fact that it includes a higher proportion of immigrant populations outside the Judeo-Christian tradition. Social workers are trained explicitly to intervene with diverse populations and are well positioned to offer spiritual support in ways that do not necessarily conform to traditional religions. To the extent of their individual expertise and competence, social workers should assess and provide spiritual care to clients, including those who either are underserved or prefer not to seek assistance from clergy or chaplains because they feel alienated from religious institutions and representatives. They should also be aware of ethical dilemmas in consulting with spiritual care professionals in developing spiritual interventions. Social work education should address clients' humanistic and existential concerns, beliefs and behaviors of the major religions, and forms of nontraditional religious and spiritual experiences; it should also provide experiential opportunities for engaging with grief and earlier advance care planning. There should be attention to different theodical perspectives of the major religions regarding the problem of good and evil, which may preoccupy even clients who no longer participate in organized religion, because these unresolved existential issues may weaken client coping with chronic conditions and may diminish clarity and self-awareness for engaging authentically and effectively in advance care planning. PMID:27187806

  11. Treating advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Chinese patients: focus on icotinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang JL

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Li Liang,1 Xiao-Cang Ren,2 Qiang Lin2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Hebei Medical University Fourth Hospital, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oncology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Renqiu, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Icotinib hydrochloride is an orally administered small-molecule reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been independently researched and developed and has independent intellectual property rights in the People’s Republic of China. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the response to icotinib among advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients who received at least one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen was not inferior to gefitinib. Since being launched August 2011 in the People’s Republic of China, icotinib has been widely used in clinics, and has become an important treatment option for Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC. The present study presents the Phase I, II, and III clinical trials of icotinib and discusses current clinical applications in the People’s Republic of China and future research directions. Keywords: targeted therapy, EGFR-TKI, NSCLC

  12. Impact localization for a composite plate using the spatial focusing properties of advanced signal processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A structural health monitoring technique for locating impact position in a composite plate is presented in this paper. The method employs a single sensor and spatial focusing properties of time reversal(TR) and inverse filtering(IF). We first examine the spatial focusing efficiency of both approaches at the impact position and its surroundings through impact experiments. The imaging results of impact localization show that the impact location can be accurately estimated in any position of the plate. Compared to existing techniques for locating impact or acoustic emission source, the proposed method has the benefits of using a single sensor and not requiring knowledge of anisotropic material properties and geometry of structures. Furthermore, it does not depend on a particular mode of dispersive Lamb waves that is frequently used in other ultrasonic testing of plate like structures.

  13. An advanced human reliability analysis methodology: analysis of cognitive errors focused on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods such as THERP/ASEP, HCR and SLIM has been criticised for their deficiency in analysing cognitive errors which occurs during operator's decision making process. In order to supplement the limitation of the conventional methods, an advanced HRA method, what is called the 2nd generation HRA method, including both qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of cognitive errors has been being developed based on the state-of-the-art theory of cognitive systems engineering and error psychology. The method was developed on the basis of human decision-making model and the relation between the cognitive function and the performance influencing factors. The application of the proposed method to two emergency operation tasks is presented

  14. Surgical imaging catheter for confocal microendoscopy with advanced contrast delivery and focus systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Udovich, Josh A.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2006-02-01

    We present a laparoscope for fluorescence confocal microendoscopy specifically designed for microscopic imaging during diagnostic laparoscopic surgery. The catheter consists of a disposable rigid distal tip which houses a flexible microendoscope and dye channel. The laparoscopic tip is a small disposable polycarbonate sheath containing two inner lumens with a glass window on the distal end. The sheath outer diameter suitable for use in a 5mm trocar. The smaller inner lumen provides a channel for delivering fluorescent contrast agents to the tissue through a 200um hole in the glass window. On the proximal end, the smaller lumen is coupled to a computer controlled fluid delivery system that controls the amount of contrast agent dispensed onto the tissue down to a fraction of a micro liter. The main lumen houses the microendoscope. The microendoscope incorporates a computer-controlled focus mechanism that can quickly and accurately focus while correcting for hysteresis. This fluorescence confocal micro-laparoscope will be tested in a small-scale clinical trial on women undergoing oophorectomy in the near future.

  15. Experiment Setup for Focused Learning of Advanced Servo Control of DC-motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag A. H. Samuelsen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote laboratories are normally developed for giving students and others remote access to physical laboratory facilities. In contradiction to this, the main objective of the setup presented in this paper is to create a controlled environment where unwanted side activities like hardware setup, driver problems, troubleshooting faulty components, and struggles with special software for configuring DSP systems, are removed as much as possible, in order for the students to have their full focus on the tasks that is considered relevant for the module: modeling of non-linear systems, synthetisation of controllers, and stability and performance analysis. A secondary objective is to significantly reduce the setup and maintenance cost associated with complex laboratory setups involving DSPs and expensive hardware.

  16. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation.

  17. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  18. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies.

  19. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Neimark; M. A. Tachalov; B. A. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) patients treated with HIFU (n = 28) and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = ...

  20. Improving Communication About Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Critical Illness; Chronic Disease; Terminal Care; Palliative Care; Communication; Advance Care Planning; Neoplasm Metastasis; Lung Neoplasms; Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive; Heart Failure; End Stage Liver Disease; Kidney Failure, Chronic

  1. Counsellors' Focus on Competitive Employment for People with Severe Mental Illness: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Vocational Rehabilitation Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaeps, Jeroen; Neyens, Inge; van Weeghel, Jaap; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Although the evidence-based Individual Placement and Support programme highlights the importance of the vocational rehabilitation (VR) counsellors' focus on competitive employment during career counselling, studies have shown that counsellors do not always target such jobs. This study examines which determinants affect the counsellors' intentions…

  2. Mental Health: A Focus on Stress, Coping, and Mental Illness as it Relates to Treatment Retention, Adherence, and Other Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Perry, Nicholas; Steven A Safren

    2011-01-01

    Mental health problems are prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, with some estimates that 50% likely meet criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders. The mental health of HIV-infected individuals is important not only for quality-of-life concerns, but also in regard to HAART adherence and biological disease progression. The current review focuses on research published between 2009 and April of 2011, exploring mental health, coping, and stress in relation to HIV care behaviors includin...

  3. Diarrheal Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-30

    Dr. Steve Monroe, director of CDC’s Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, discusses diarrheal illness, its causes, and prevention.  Created: 8/30/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/31/2011.

  4. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  5. Adjuvant hormone therapy in patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Neimark

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of using the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone leuprorelin with the Atrigel delivery system in doses of 7.5, 22.5, and 45 mg as an adjuvant regimen in high- and moderate-risk cancer patients who have received high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. Moderate- and high-risk locally advanced prostate cancer (PC patients treated with HIFU (n = 28 and HIFU in combination with hormone therapy during 6 months (n = 31 were examined.Results. The investigation has shown that leuprorelin acetate monotherapy used within 6 months after HIFU therapy can achieve the highest reduction in prostate-specific antigen levels and positively affect the symptoms of the disease. HIFU in combination with androgen deprivation substantially diminishes the clinical manifestations of the disease and improves quality of life in HIFU-treated patients with PC, by reducing the degree of infravesical obstruction (according to uroflowmetric findings and IPSS scores, and causes a decrease in prostate volume as compared to those who have undergone HIFU only. Treatment with leuprorelin having the Atrigel delivery system has demonstrated the low incidence of adverse reactions and good tolerability.

  6. Foodborne Illness

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Renjie

    2008-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses are a significant public health challenge in the world. Preventing foodborne disease in meat processing is an essential point to insure food safety and quality. HACCP systems currently are used for food processor to identify food safety hazards and prevent food is contaminated. By the introducing HACCP system into China in 1990s, Chinese government and enterprises have took more attention to control and monitoring the flow of food to insure food quality in processors. Meat...

  7. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  8. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...

  9. ILL. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 the three major functions of ILL continued to be generally satisfactorily performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, establishment of a forum). The implementation of the programme of measurements approved by the Scientific Council was again given absolute priority. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1976, and of the main technical and administrative activities of the Institute Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  10. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  11. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Rui-Yi; Wang, Guo-Min; Xu, Lei; ZHANG, BO-HENG; Xu, Ye-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Chen, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam r...

  12. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  13. History, Advances, Challenges and Guidelines for the Next 10 Years——Focus on Tropical Crop Proteomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuchu Wang

    2012-01-01

    .For tropical crop proteomics,these challenges are of significant notability due to the lack of available genome-sequence information for the main tropical crops such as rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis,cassava Manihot esculenta,and banana Musa paradisiaca.In the past few years,we have optimized the some conditions to produce high-resolution 2-DE gels and finally obtained well proteomic results in several tropical crops.To perform proteomic analysis of laticifer latex in Hevea brasiliensis,we have developed an efficient method for protein preparation from different latex subcellular fractions and constructed high-resolution reference 2-DE maps (Xuchu Wang et al.,2010,Proteome Science,8,35),which is expected to be used in future comparative proteomic analysis for natural rubber latex.We also observed that thermal denaturation would not only changed the protein profiles and produced more polydisperse protein bands/spots,but also heavily interfered with the subsequent MS analysis (Xuchu Wang et al.,2011,Electrophoresis,32,348-356).At the same time,we have systematically evaluated the effects of different staining parameters on CBB methods by 1-DE and 2-DE,and demonstrated G-250 was more suitable for visualizing low abundant proteins as well as generating more spots than R-250,whereas R-250 had a superior capability for fast staining of high abundant proteins.Based on these findings,a new protocol using CBB G-250,ammonium sulfate and phosphoric acid (GAP) was developed by incorporating the fixation,sensitization and staining procedures together.This method was not only compatible with MS but also obviously reduced in vitro protein-modification,and thus could be a preferable protocol in future proteomic analysis (Xuchu Wang et al.,2012,Electrophoresis,33,296-306).Based on these aforementioned technical advances,we obtained good proteomic results by using both DIGE and ITRAQ for rubber latex,cassava roots,and banana leaves.In the next 10 years,plant proteomics including both the model

  14. Heat Illness in Hawai‘i

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Heat illness is a commonly encountered health problem in the Hawaiian Islands. Year round warm temperatures, proximity to the equator, and high humidity combined with a plethora of opportunities for outdoor activities put many individuals at risk. This paper will focus on the physiology, identification, and treatment of varying forms of heat illness. Severe heat illness can be life threatening. All outdoor enthusiasts should have a basic understanding of how to recognize this potentially life...

  15. Molecular Modeling and Chemoinformatics to Advance the Development of Modulators of Epigenetic Targets: A Focus on DNA Methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, F D; Peña-Castillo, A; Méndez-Lucio, O; Fernández-de Gortari, E; Medina-Franco, J L

    2016-01-01

    In light of the emerging field of Epi-informatics, ie, computational methods applied to epigenetic research, molecular docking, and dynamics, pharmacophore and activity landscape modeling and QSAR play a key role in the development of modulators of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), one of the major epigenetic target families. The increased chemical information available for modulators of DNMTs has opened up the avenue to explore the epigenetic relevant chemical space (ERCS). Herein, we discuss recent progress on the identification and development of inhibitors of DNMTs as potential epi-drugs and epi-probes that have been driven by molecular modeling and chemoinformatics methods. We also survey advances on the elucidation of their structure-activity relationships and exploration of ERCS. Finally, it is illustrated how computational approaches can be applied to identify modulators of DNMTs in food chemicals. PMID:27567482

  16. ILL. Annual report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1977 the three major functions of ILL continued to be performed (provision of neutron beams at the high flux reactor, development of advanced instrumentation, workshop organization). An integrated programme of improvement to the existing instruments and of new instrument construction, was carried out. A high priority was given to finishing instruments in the course of construction and both the ultra cold neutron source, PN5, and spin echo spectrometer, IN11, came into operation. No new instrument construction was started; even so, the completion of D18 (the interferometer) and IN12 (the cold three-axis machine) was delayed until 1978. Some advantage was taken of the delay to implement a new system of three-axis drive mechanics and interfacing electronics. This report gives a survey of the state of the experimental facilities at ILL and the scientific work carried out in 1977, and of the main technical and administrative activites of the Institute. Chapters correspond to the various colleges (theory, fundamental and nuclear physics, excitations, structures, liquid, gases and amorphous materials, impurities, structural biology and chemistry), reactor operation and instrument support services, computing services... A second volume of this report contains more detailed descriptions of the individual experiments

  17. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  18. My illness, myself: on the secrecy of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baider, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that the experience of being diagnosed with cancer has a negative psychosocial impact on patients and their families, often resulting in distress, and numerous practical and relationship challenges. Men with prostate cancer and their partners face special challenges. A range of symptoms that result from monitoring patients and side effects of treatment may reverse the quality of life and intimate relations between patient and partner. However, patients often are reluctant to bring up their distress about the symptoms, leading to an underestimation and reduction in optimal symptom control. As a result of their illness, chronically-ill male patients often experience elevated levels of stress, daily activities are often limited, they are frustrated about the unpredictable course of the illness and its symptoms, and are immersed in fears about their present and future social identity. Most of them avoid disclosure about their illness--when and where possible--and place great importance on sustaining a normal life. Factors related to limiting disclosure include men's low perceived need for support, fear of stigmatization, the need to minimize the threat of illness to aid coping, practical necessities in the workplace, and the desire to avoid burdening others. This paper contributes to an understanding of the complex issues of disclosure related to prostate cancer patients and raises issues about how best to be helpful, within their cultural and social framework. It also deals with feelings of shame, guilt and inadequacy as the cause--or consequence--of concealing the illness. The oral presentation will use a clinical example of secrecy and the subsequent conflicts and quandaries of a religious person diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Dilemmas of shame, disclosure and guilt will be the focus of the discussion. PMID:20590351

  19. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J. Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M.; Keefe, Lisa J.; (IIT); (UC)

    2009-09-02

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10{sup 11} photons s{sup -1} at 1 {angstrom} wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 {mu}rad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) {delta}E/E = 1.5 x 10{sup -4} (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 {micro}m (horizontally) x 160 {micro}m (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  20. Focusing, collimation and flux throughput at the IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Irina; Huang, Rong; Graber, Timothy; Meron, Mati; Muir, J Lewis; Lavender, William; Battaile, Kevin; Mulichak, Anne M; Keefe, Lisa J

    2009-09-01

    The IMCA-CAT bending-magnet beamline was upgraded with a collimating mirror in order to achieve the energy resolution required to conduct high-quality multi- and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD/SAD) experiments without sacrificing beamline flux throughput. Following the upgrade, the bending-magnet beamline achieves a flux of 8 x 10(11) photons s(-1) at 1 A wavelength, at a beamline aperture of 1.5 mrad (horizontal) x 86 microrad (vertical), with energy resolution (limited mostly by the intrinsic resolution of the monochromator optics) deltaE/E = 1.5 x 10(-4) (at 10 kV). The beamline operates in a dynamic range of 7.5-17.5 keV and delivers to the sample focused beam of size (FWHM) 240 microm (horizontally) x 160 microm (vertically). The performance of the 17-BM beamline optics and its deviation from ideally shaped optics is evaluated in the context of the requirements imposed by the needs of protein crystallography experiments. An assessment of flux losses is given in relation to the (geometric) properties of major beamline components.

  1. Development of Collaborative Research Initiatives to Advance the Aerospace Sciences-via the Communications, Electronics, Information Systems Focus Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knasel, T. Michael

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of the Adaptive Vision Laboratory Research project was to develop advanced computer vision systems for automatic target recognition. The approach used in this effort combined several machine learning paradigms including evolutionary learning algorithms, neural networks, and adaptive clustering techniques to develop the E-MOR.PH system. This system is capable of generating pattern recognition systems to solve a wide variety of complex recognition tasks. A series of simulation experiments were conducted using E-MORPH to solve problems in OCR, military target recognition, industrial inspection, and medical image analysis. The bulk of the funds provided through this grant were used to purchase computer hardware and software to support these computationally intensive simulations. The payoff from this effort is the reduced need for human involvement in the design and implementation of recognition systems. We have shown that the techniques used in E-MORPH are generic and readily transition to other problem domains. Specifically, E-MORPH is multi-phase evolutionary leaming system that evolves cooperative sets of features detectors and combines their response using an adaptive classifier to form a complete pattern recognition system. The system can operate on binary or grayscale images. In our most recent experiments, we used multi-resolution images that are formed by applying a Gabor wavelet transform to a set of grayscale input images. To begin the leaming process, candidate chips are extracted from the multi-resolution images to form a training set and a test set. A population of detector sets is randomly initialized to start the evolutionary process. Using a combination of evolutionary programming and genetic algorithms, the feature detectors are enhanced to solve a recognition problem. The design of E-MORPH and recognition results for a complex problem in medical image analysis are described at the end of this report. The specific task involves the

  2. First line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer – specific focus on albumin bound paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neha Gupta, Hassan Hatoum, Grace K DyDepartment of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007 is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel. A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.Keywords: ABI-007, Abraxane, nab

  3. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) combined with SEM (FIB/SEM) and TEM: Advanced tools for nano-analysis in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R.; Morales, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) techniques have been successfully applied to the preparation of site-specific electron transparent membranes for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations in Geosciences since several years. For example, systematic TEM studies of nano-inclusions in diamond foils prepared with FIB have improved our knowledge on diamond formation. However, FIB is not exclusively used for sample preparation for TEM application because it has been proved that one and the same TEM foil can also be used for Synchrotron IR, Synchrotron X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning transmission X-Ray microscopy (STXM) and NanoSIMS analysis. In addition, FIB milling turned out to be very useful for sample preparation of Brillouin scattering experiments and has a strong potential for preparation of highly-polished, micrometer-scale samples. However, a real break through in FIB application was achieved combining a Ga-ion source of the FIB with an electron source of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in one single instrument. The combination of FIB/SEM renders access to the third dimension of the sample possible. A cavity normal to the sample surface is sputtered with Ga-ions and this newly created inner surface is imaged with the electron beam. Alternating slicing and viewing along these cavities allow the acquisition of a sequence of images that allows the observation in 3 dimensions. Recently, this technique has been successfully applied to image the structure of grain or phase boundaries in metamorphic rocks as well as micro- and nanoporosity in shales, but its applicability goes far beyond these few examples. Combining slicing and viewing with X-Ray and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis can provide 3D elemental mapping and 3D crystallographic orientation mapping of crystalline materials. Combined FIB/SEM devices also facilitate the preparation of substantially thinner and cleaner TEM foils (approximately 30 nm) because electron beam imaging

  4. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  5. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Yi Wu; Guo-Min Wang; Lei Xu; Bo-Heng Zhang; Ye-Qing Xu; Zhao-Chong Zeng; Bing Chen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P=0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P=0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.

  6. Recent advances in managing chronic HCV infection: focus on therapy in patients with severe liver disease [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoel Maan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection still represents a major public health problem, as it is thought to be responsible for more than 350,000 deaths around the globe on a yearly basis. Fortunately, successful eradication of the virus has been associated with improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality rates. In the past few years, treatment has improved considerably by the implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs. From 2014 onwards, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir, ledipasvir, paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. Regimens with various combinations of these new drugs, without the use of interferon (IFN, proved to be very effective and well tolerated, even among patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover, treatment duration could be shortened to 12 weeks in the majority of patients. The high costs of these DAAs, however, limit the availability of IFN-free therapy worldwide. Even in wealthy countries, it is deemed necessary to prioritize DAA treatment in order to limit the immediate impact on the health budget. As patients with advanced liver disease are in most need of HCV clearance, many countries decided to treat those patients first. In the current review, we focus on the currently available IFN-free treatment options for patients with cirrhosis. We discuss the virological efficacy as well as the clinical relevance of these regimens among this specific patient population.

  7. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara W. Strine, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to physical as well as mental illness and wellness. In this article, we build on the essential concepts of wellness and illness, discuss how these definitions have changed over time, and discuss their importance in the context of health reform and health care reform. Health reform refers to efforts focused on health, such as health promotion and the development of positive well-being. Health care reform refers to efforts focused on illness, such as treatment of disease and related rehabilitation efforts.

  8. Clinical review: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Greet; De Jonghe, Bernard; Bruyninckx, Frans; Berghe, Greet Van den

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) and myopathy (CIM) are major complications of severe critical illness and its management. CIP/CIM prolongs weaning from mechanical ventilation and physical rehabilitation since both limb and respiratory muscles can be affected. Among many risk factors implicated, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure appear to play a crucial role in CIP/CIM. This review focuses on epidemiology, diagnostic challenges, the current under...

  9. Insomnia comorbid to severe psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Katherine A; Harvey, Allison G.

    2013-01-01

    In psychiatric illness, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that sleep disturbances exert a detrimental influence on the course of these disorders and contribute to impaired function. Even when psychiatric disorders are successfully treated or stabilized, insomnia and other sleep disturbances often fail to remit. The present review focuses on sleep in two severe mental illnesses, namely bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This article discusses the role of sleep disturbances and al...

  10. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness. PMID:21254820

  11. Mental illness in the nursing workplace: a collective autoethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jacquie Dianne; Finlayson, Mary P

    2010-01-01

    Many nurses are burned out, exhausted and have a high intent to leave their jobs. These factors, when experienced over a period of time, are consistent with the development of mental illness. This study takes a collective autoethnographical approach to mental illness in the nursing workplace by focusing on the stories of nurses who have experienced mental illness in clinical practice. It highlights three ways in which nursing and mental illness are connected; the nurse who is vulnerable to mental illness prior to entering the profession, the nurse who develops mental illness that is independent of her work but is nevertheless impacted by it, and the nurse who develops mental illness as a result of her work and/or role. This paper explores the hyphenated lives and bullying these nurses experience, and recommends strategies that the profession, employing organisations, and individuals can adopt to reduce nurses' progression from stress to distress and mental illness.

  12. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  13. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators - introducing inter-plant life cycle management. ZES research focus 'condition-based maintenance in power engineering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeber, U.

    2003-07-01

    The optimisation of maintenance activities observed in recent years can be attributed above all to the use and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, to the increased level of system and component automation and to more efficient work organisation. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. The risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analysed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realised. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the introduction of structured life cycle management are essential prerequisites. Within the framework of its ''Condition-Based Maintenance in Power Engineering'' research focus, the Energy Research Centre (ZES) has set up a specialist network in which experts from various institutes belonging to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Informatic, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology can develop interdisciplinary solutions for advanced maintenance strategies. The ZES offers the industry a platform for cooperating on current issues relating to the supply of energy and supports the movement towards sustainable improvements to competitiveness through research and consulting activities. It applies professional project and quality management procedures to ensure that contracts covering interdisciplinary topics and projects are handled in a coherent manner. (orig.)

  14. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    There are many tasks ahead in the area of ethics and mental illness research. We face unknown challenges in psychiatric genetics projects, studies of psychopharmacological interventions in children, controversial scientific designs (e.g., symptom challenge, medication-free interval), and cross-disciplinary research incorporating goals and methods of health services, epidemiology, and social and behavioral science endeavors. Boundaries between innovative clinical practices and research-related experimentation will become increasingly difficult to distinguish, as will the roles between clinicians, clinical researchers, and basic scientists. Moreover, the institutions and systems in which research occurs are being rapidly and radically revised, raising new questions about oversight responsibilities and standards. Our ability to identify and respond to the ethical questions arising in this uncharted territory will depend on our willingness to self-reflect, to integrate the observations and insights of the past century, to think with great clarity, and to anticipate novel ethical problems that keep company with scientific advancements. It will also depend on data. Empirical study of ethical dimensions of human research is essential to anchor and attune the intuitions and theoretical constructs that we develop. Science and ethics have changed over the past 100 years, as they will over the next century. It is ironic that the ethical acceptability of psychiatric research is so much in question at this time, when it holds so much promise for advancing our understanding of mental illness and its treatment. The tension between the duty to protect vulnerable individuals and the duty to perform human science will continue to grow, as long as ethics and science are seen as separable, opposing forces with different aims championed by different heroes. The profession of psychiatry is poised to move toward a new, more coherent research ethics paradigm in which scientific and

  15. Methods of Solving Ill-Posed Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasamurthy, Suresh B

    2012-01-01

    Many physical problems can be formulated as operator equations of the form Au = f. If these operator equations are ill-posed, we then resort to finding the approximate solutions numerically. Ill-posed problems can be found in the ?elds of mathematical analysis, mathematical physics, geophysics, medicine, tomography, technology and ecology. The theory of ill-posed problems was developed in the 1960's by several mathematicians, mostly Soviet and American. In this report we review the methods of solving ill-posed problems and recent developments in this ?eld. We review the variational regularization method, the method of quasi-solution, iterative regularization method and the dynamical systems method. We focus mainly on the dynamical systems method as it is found that the dynamical systems method is more effi?cient than the regularization procedure.

  16. Which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery: focused on perfusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    High spatial resolution of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging allows characterization of heterogenous tumor microenvironment. Our purpose was to determine which is the best advanced MR imaging protocol, focused on additional MR perfusion method, for predicting recurrent metastatic brain tumor following gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Seventy-two consecutive patients with post-GKRS metastatic brain tumor were enrolled. Two readers independently calculated the percentile histogram cutoffs for normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging and initial area under the time signal-intensity curve (IAUC) from DCE imaging, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and interreader agreement were assessed. For differentiating tumor recurrence from therapy effect, adding DCE imaging to diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) significantly improved AUC from 0.79 to 0.95 for reader 1 and from 0.80 to 0.96 for reader 2, respectively. There was no significant difference of AUC between the combination of DWI with DSC imaging and the combination of DWI with DCE imaging for both readers. With the combination of DWI and DCE imaging, the sensitivity and specificity were 86.7 and 88.1 % for reader 1 and 90.0 and 85.7 % for reader 2, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between readers was highest for calculation of the 90th percentile histogram cutoffs for IAUC (ICC, 0.87). Adding perfusion MR imaging to DWI significantly improves the prediction of recurrent metastatic tumor; however, the diagnostic performance is not affected by selection of either DSC or DCE MR perfusion method. (orig.)

  17. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been exposed to something harmful. An outbreak of mass psychogenic illness is a time of anxiety and worry. During an outbreak, a lot of media coverage and the presence of ambulances or emergency ...

  18. Chronic Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... everyday activities than they needed before this illness. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ... pain. Some have difficulty sleeping. Some are depressed. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team ...

  19. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  20. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  1. Parasites and Foodborne Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Parasites and Foodborne Illness Introduction Giardia duodenalis or intestinalis ... gondii Trichinella spiralis Taenia saginata/Taenia solium (Tapeworms) Parasites may be present in food or in water ...

  2. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  5. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses ...

  6. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cost Global More Prevalence Disability Suicide Cost Global Statistics Understanding the scope of mental illnesses and their ... those affected receive treatment. The information on these statistics pages includes the best statistics currently available on ...

  7. Nonthyroidal Illness (NTIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Nanny Natalia Mulyani Soetedjo

    2009-01-01

    Nonthyroidal illness (NTIs) can be described as abnormal findings on thyroid function tests that occur in the setting of a nonthyroidal illness (NTI) without preexisting hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland dysfunction. After recovery from an NTI, these thyroid function test result abnormalities should be completely reversible. Multiple alterations in serum thyroid function test findings have been recognized in patients with a wide variety of NTI without evidence of preexisting thyroid or...

  8. Violence and Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, includi...

  9. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  10. Sculpting the Illness Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-01-01

    Otto Kamensek provided the cover art for the Fall 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. “Glimmer of Hope” is part of Otto’s collection “Shard’s, Bone Deep,” which includes hand-built ceramic sculptures that portray his experiences with a lifelong chronic illness. Engaging in ceramic sculpture helps him process the experiences associated with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and provides a means to support others experiencing chronic illness.

  11. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Margret; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2016-08-01

    Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure "illness beliefs" in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; (c) effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention. PMID:27496811

  12. Needs of people with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can b

  13. Using the Trajectory Framework: reconceptualizing cardiac illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M H

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac disease is known to be the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. Nursing management of cardiac illnesses, as such, is a primary concern for most practicing nurses. Dramatic changes in cardiac patient populations and associated technology available for treatment indicate a need to reconceptualize the nature of cardiac illness and to consider alternative approaches to guide the care of these patients. Traditional care, to a large degree, has focused upon acute illness, consequently limiting needed attention to the increasing group of patients suffering chronic illness and disability. In the present paper, the major changes in the cardiac patient population and in utilization of available technology are presented. The application of the Corbin and Strauss trajectory framework as an appropriate and useful framework for conceptualizing cardiac illness and care is then discussed. Five characteristics of the framework which render the model particularly well suited to address cardiac care are identified and discussed. These characteristics are: 1) comprehensiveness of care, 2) patient-centered care, 3) gender issues in care, 4) family-focused care, 5) technology and cardiac care. PMID:1763241

  14. [Mental illness and media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

  15. Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well.” 11 Managing Advanced Parkinson Disease DENTAL CARE Oral hygiene should remain an important part of the daily routine in order to prevent serious dental problems and the development of other illnesses. The ...

  16. Life disruption, life continuation: contrasting themes in the lives of African-American elders with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Faith Pratt; Thornton, Nancy; Martin, Lindsey; Zalenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the need for more information about how urban African-American elders experience advanced heart failure. Participants included 35 African Americans aged 60 and over with advanced heart failure, identified through records from a community hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Four focus groups (n = 13) and 22 individual interviews were conducted. We used thematic analysis to examine qualitative focus groups and interviews. Themes identified included life disruption, which encompassed the sub-themes of living scared, making sense of heart failure, and limiting activities. Resuming life was a contrasting theme involving culturally relevant coping strategies, and included the sub-themes of resiliency, spirituality, and self-care that helped patients regain and maintain a sense of self amid serious illness. Participants faced numerous challenges and invoked a variety of strategies to cope with their illness, and their stories of struggles, hardship, and resilience can serve as a model for others struggling with advanced illness. PMID:22352363

  17. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  18. Evaluating the systematic implementation of the 'Let Me Decide' advance care planning programme in long term care through focus groups: staff perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cornally, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The \\'Let Me Decide\\' Advance Care Planning (LMD-ACP) programme offers a structured approach to End-of-Life (EoL) care planning in long-term care for residents with and without capacity to complete an advance care directive\\/plan. The programme was implemented in three homes in the South of Ireland, with a view to improving quality of care at end of life. This paper will present an evaluation of the systematic implementation of the LMD-ACP programme in the homes.

  19. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Suzanne Myers; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article briefly summarizes thyroid function alterations generally seen in the euthyroid sick syndrome, provides an overview of specific thyroidal adaptations during several clinical conditions and secondary to specific pharmacologic agents, and discusses the current controversy in thyroid hormone treatment of nonthyroidal illness.

  20. Foodborne Illness Retrospective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-07

    Dr. Paul Mead and Dr. Peter Drotman discuss the historic October 1999 article, Food-related Illness and Death in the United States.  Created: 5/7/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/7/2015.

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Your Blood Pressure Score is as Important as ...

  2. Scaffolding Online Discourse in Collaborative Ill-Structured Problem-Solving for Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deller James FERREIRA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work highlights the importance of verbal creativity, providing a productive online discourse definition, in which students intertwine convergent and divergent thinking by means of a transactional and controversial dialog. Developing the formulated productive online discourse definition, it is also presented and evaluated, an original scaffolding process designed here to further collaborative knowledge building, during ill-structured problem-solving, focusing on creativity and innovation. Evidence from qualitative online discourse analysis indicated an improvement in the knowledge building processes, and knowledge advancement and deepening after teacher's scaffolding.

  3. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness. PMID:26657684

  4. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  5. Independent contributors to overall quality of life in people with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M Rodríguez, A; Mayo, N. E.; Gagnon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The definition of health for people with cancer is not focused solely on the physiology of illness and the length of life remaining, but is also concerned with improving the well-being and the quality of the life (QOL) remaining to be lived. This study aimed to identify the constructs most associated with QOL in people with advanced cancer. Methods: Two hundred three persons with recent diagnoses of different advanced cancers were evaluated with 65 variables representing individua...

  6. Disparities in oral cancer survival among mentally ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Shou Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported excess cancer mortality in patients with mental illness. However, scant studies evaluated the differences in cancer treatment and its impact on survival rates among mentally ill patients. Oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. We investigated differences in treatment type and survival rates between oral cancer patients with mental illness and without mental illness. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance (NHI database, we compared the type of treatment and survival rates in 16687 oral cancer patients from 2002 to 2006. The utilization rate of surgery for oral cancer was compared between patients with mental illness and without mental illness using logistic regression. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for survival analysis. RESULTS: Oral cancer patients with mental disorder conferred a grave prognosis, compared with patients without mental illness (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. After adjusting for patients' characteristics and hospital characteristics, patients with mental illness were less likely to receive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.34-0.65; P<0.001. In multivariate analysis, oral cancer patients with mental illness carried a 1.58-times risk of death (95% CI = 1.30-1.93; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cancer patients with mental illness were less likely to undergo surgery with or without adjuvant therapy than those without mental illness. Patients with mental illness have a poor prognosis compared to those without mental illness. To reduce disparities in physical health, public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  7. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  8. Long-term survival after gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: focus on supplementary treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Sengelov, Lisa; von der Maase, Hans

    2007-01-01

    radiotherapy as supplementary treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, NED following chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus supplementary cystectomy or radiotherapy is essential to achieve long-term survival. Patients with a partial response should be offered radical......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate response and survival, as well as efficacy of subsequent supplementary treatment and follow-up strategy in patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder following combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC......: A total of 25 patients (29.8%) with complete response to chemotherapy were followed by close surveillance. This group achieved a median overall survival of 47.6 mo. Another 25 patients had partial response to chemotherapy. Of these patients, 16 had supplementary treatment, with 10 achieving "no evidence...

  9. Critical illness neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular syndrome of acute limb and respiratory weakness that commonly accompanies patients with multi-organ failure and sepsis constitutes critical illness polyneuropathy. It is a major cause of difficulty in weaning off the patient from the ventilator after respiratory and cardiac causes have been excluded. It is usually an axonal motor-sensory polyneuropathy, and is usually associated with or accompanied with a coma producing septic encephalopathy. The neuropathy is usually not apparent until the patient′s encephalopathy has peaked, and may be noted only when the brain dysfunction is resolving. Patients usually have a protracted hospital course complicated by multi-organ failure and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Elevated serum glucose levels and reduced albumin are risk factors for nerve dysfunction, as is prolonged intensive care unit stay. Polyneuropathy may develop after only one week of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, but the frequency tends to correlate with the duration of the severe illness.

  10. ILL. Annual report 1979. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second volume, entitled 'Annex to the Annual Report' deals in more detail with the scientific work of the I.L.L. The scientific activity of theoreticians at the I.L.L. for 1979 is described. The experimental reports giving details on the experiments performed at the I.L.L. up to October 1, 1979 have been compiled. They are published here under their proposal number within the classification cheme in use at the I.L.L

  11. Psychosocial reactions to physical illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowski, Z J

    1983-01-01

    Recently medical educators have emphasized the need for physicians to acquire the skills to deal with psychologic aspects of patient care. To facilitate this task a descriptive schema is presented for use in evaluating patients' psychosocial reactions to physical illness. Three core components of such reactions are: the personal meaning of illness, emotional responses to illness and modes of coping with illness. Clinical application of this schema may help with patient management and prevent ...

  12. Darwin's illness revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell., A; Matthews, S

    2005-01-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, ...

  13. Explanatory style and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  14. Nonthyroidal Illness (NTIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Natalia Mulyani Soetedjo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonthyroidal illness (NTIs can be described as abnormal findings on thyroid function tests that occur in the setting of a nonthyroidal illness (NTI without preexisting hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid gland dysfunction. After recovery from an NTI, these thyroid function test result abnormalities should be completely reversible. Multiple alterations in serum thyroid function test findings have been recognized in patients with a wide variety of NTI without evidence of preexisting thyroid or hypothalamic-pituitary disease. The most prominent alterations are low serum triiodothyronine (T3 and elevated reverse T3 (rT3, leading to the general term low T3 syndrome. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroxine (T4, and free T4 also are affected in variable degrees based on the severity and duration of the NTI. It cannot diagnosed NTIs only by measure one thyroid hormone. As the severity of the NTI increases, both serum T3 and T4 levels drop and gradually normalize as the patient recovers. It's still be an argument for administration of replacement T3 and T4 hormone in patients with NTIS. However, it is impossible to be certain at this time that it is beneficial to replace hormone, or whether this could be harmful. Only a prospective study will be adequate to prove this point, and probably this would need to involve hundreds of patients. Ongoing studies document the beneficial effects of replacement of other hormones in these acutely and severely ill patients.

  15. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  16. A NARRATIVE: MEDITATION IN THE LIVES OF CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taunya WIDEMAN-JOHNSTON

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic illness in one’s life often entails endless appointments, tests, medications, treatments, and procedures. In the instances of children with chronic illness, they do not know what life consists of without their illness, and consequently, have lived with many restrictions. Children with chronic illness and their families are not only in need of traditional methods and strategies from the medical model but are often in need of additional strategies to support and cope with the nature and effects of the chronic illness. This paper focuses on how mediation, mindfulness, and visualization strategies aid individuals with chronic illness.

  17. Assessing Hopelessness in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: Development of the Hopelessness Assessment in Illness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Lewis, Charles; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan; Sachs, Emily; Amakawa, Lia; Kolva, Elissa; Brescia, Robert; Breitbart, William

    2011-01-01

    Hopelessness has become an increasingly important construct in palliative care research, yet concerns exist regarding the utility of existing measures when applied to patients with a terminal illness. This article describes a series of studies focused on the exploration, development, and analysis of a measure of hopelessness specifically intended…

  18. Focus on Advancing High Performance Mass Spectrometry, Honoring Dr. Richard D. Smith, Recipient of the 2013 Award for a Distinguished Contribution in Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Erin Shammel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Muddiman, David C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Loo, Joseph [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-18

    This special focus issue of the Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry celebrates the accomplishments of Dr. Richard D. Smith, the recipient of the 2013ASMS Award for a Distinguished Contribution in Mass Spectrometry, and who serves as a Battelle Fellow, Chief Scientist in the Biological Sciences Division, and Director of Proteomics Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA. The award is for his development of the electrodynamic ion funnel.

  19. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  20. Mental Illness And Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrick Jeffrey D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  1. ILL Annual report 97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2{pi} image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron {beta}-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL`s neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  2. Locating legacy in illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  3. Post-chemoradiation intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy boost in resected locally advanced rectal cancer: Long-term results focused on topographic pattern of locoregional relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) have a dismal prognosis. We investigated outcomes and risk factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT), surgery and IOERT. Methods: A total of 335 patients with LARC [⩾cT3 93% and/or cN+ 69%) were studied. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for LRR, IFLR and OFLR were assessed. Results: Median follow-up was 72.6 months (range, 4–205). In multivariate analysis distal margin distance ⩽10 mm [HR 2.46, p = 0.03], R1 resection [HR 5.06, p = 0.02], tumor regression grade 1–2 [HR 2.63, p = 0.05] and tumor grade 3 [HR 7.79, p < 0.001] were associated with an increased risk of LRR. A risk model was generated to determine a prognostic index for individual patients with LARC. Conclusions: Overall results after multimodality treatment of LARC are promising. Classification of risk factors for LRR has contributed to propose a prognostic index that could allow us to guide risk-adapted tailored treatment

  4. Aliskiren attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: focus on oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products, and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelezz, Sally A; Hendawy, Nevien; Osman, Wesam M

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disorder with high mortality rate and limited successful treatment. This study was designed to assess the potential anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic effects of aliskiren (Alsk) during bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Male Wistar rats were used as control untreated or treated with the following: a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg of BLM endotracheally and BLM and Alsk (either low dose 30 mg/kg/day or high dose 60 mg/kg/day), and another group was given Alsk 60 mg/kg/day alone. Alsk was given by gavage. Alsk anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic effects were assessed. BLM significantly increased relative lung weight and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total and differential leucocytic count in bronchoalveolar lavage that was significantly ameliorated by high-dose Alsk treatment. As markers of oxidative stress, BLM caused a significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide accompanied with a significant decrease of superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase enzymes. High-dose Alsk treatment restored these markers toward normal values. Alsk counteracted the overexpression of advanced glycation end products, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in lung tissue induced by BLM. Fibrosis assessed by measuring hydroxyproline content, which markedly increased in the BLM group, was also significantly reduced by Alsk. These were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination which revealed that Alsk attenuates signs of pulmonary fibrosis and decreased the overexpressed MMP-9 and transforming growth factor β1. Collectively, these findings indicate that Alsk has a potential anti-fibrotic effect beside its anti-oxidant activity. PMID:27154762

  5. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  6. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of pat...

  7. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  8. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice. PMID:26914090

  9. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.; Morris, J. G.;

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other...... source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored...... the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component...

  10. Siblings of the Child with a Life-Threatening Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, Barbara M.

    1987-01-01

    The experience of siblings of a child with a life-threatening illness may be seen at the juncture of the following perspectives: (1) the family system; (2) a focus on living rather than on dying; and (3) a view toward positive adaptation rather than toward psychopathology. The most critical focus is on the sibling-patient relationship itself. (BJV)

  11. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  12. Barriers to involvement in physical activities of persons with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2016-03-01

    Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity.

  13. Tsunami focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, M. C.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Aydin, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Tsunamis are long waves generated by impulsive disturbances of the seafloor or coastal topography caused by earthquakes, submarine/subaerial mass failures. They evolve substantially through three dimensional - 2 spatial+1 temporal - spreading as the initial surface deformation propagates. This is referred to as its directivity and focusing. A directivity function was first defined by Ben-Menahem (1961, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 401-435) using the source length and the rupture velocity. Okal (2003, Pure Appl. Geophys. 160, 2189-2221) discussed the details of the analysis of Ben-Menahem (1961) and demonstrated the distinct difference between the directivity patterns of landslide and earthquake generated tsunamis. Marchuk and Titov (1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, July 31 - August 3, 1989, Novosibirsk, USSR. p.11-17) described the process of tsunami focusing for a rectangular initial deformation combining positive and negative surface displacements. They showed the existence of a focusing point where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered. Here, first, we describe and quantify numerically tsunami focusing processes for a combined positive and negative - N-wave type - strip source representing the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events. Specifically, considering field observations and tsunami focusing, we propose a source mechanism for the 17 July 2006 Java event. Then, we introduce a new analytical solution for a strip source propagating over a flat bottom using the linear shallow-water wave equation. The analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Computer Modeling In Engineering & Sciences, 10(2), 113-121) appears to have two drawbacks. One, the solution involves singular complete elliptic integral of the first kind which results in a self-similar approximate solution for the far-field at large times. Two, only the propagation of Gaussian shaped finite-crest wave profiles can be modeled. Our solution is not only

  14. Heat Illness in Football: Current Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Austin R; Sikka, Robby; Olson, David E

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing health and safety concerns, American football remains a vastly popular sport in the United States. Unfortunately, even with increased efforts in promoting education and hydration, the incidence of death from exertional heat stroke continues to rise. General risk factors such as hydration status, obesity, fitness level, and football-specific risk factors such as timing of training camp and equipment all contribute to the development of heat illness. At the professional level, changes have been made to effectively reduce mortality from heat stroke with no deaths since August 2001. However, there have been at least 33 total deaths at the high school and collegiate levels since this time. More efforts need to be focused at these levels to mandate exertional heat illness prevention guidelines in order to reverse this trend of mortality in our younger athletes.

  15. Aspects of spirituality concerning illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemasen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    2007-01-01

    The spiritual dimension of illness, health and care may be seen as a unique aspect in addition to the physical, mental and social dimension. This contribution describes experiences of patients, nurses and hospital chaplains in relation to the spiritual aspects of being ill. Qualitative research was

  16. Staging of unipolar affective illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ferensztajn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness (recurrent depression is presented. In respective subchapters, three most important aspects of this issue have been discussed: 1 staging of unipolar affective illness; 2 staging of treatment-resistant depression; and 3 conversion of unipolar into bipolar affective illness. The evidence for so called neuroprogression of the illness, accumulated in recent years, has allowed for a classification of staging based on a concept of allostasis and allostatic load. In the course of illness, changes in neuroendocrine system (mainly hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, immunological system, mechanisms of oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors as well as structural and functional changes of the brain occur. In their paper of 2007, Fava and Tossani elaborated a concept of staging of unipolar affective illness presenting a continuum model of five consecutive stages with specific clinical features. In the present paper, a concept of treatment-resistant depression and staging of treatment resistance is presented in the context of several models. An important determinant of treatment-resistant depression is so called subthreshold bipolarity which is connected with worse efficacy of antidepressant drugs. In the course of illness, there is a possibility of changing diagnosis from recurrent depression into bipolar affective illness. The studies on this issue show that frequency of such diagnostic conversion is 1,5% of depressed patients per year.

  17. Long-term psychosocial impact reported by childhood critical illness survivors: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Aim To undertake a qualitative systematic review that explores psychological and social impact, reported directly from children and adolescents at least 6 months after their critical illness. Background Significant advances in critical care have reduced mortality from childhood critical illness, with the majority of patients being discharged alive. However, it is widely reported that surviving critical illness can be traumatic for both children and their family. Despite a growing body of lite...

  18. The Future of Psychotherapy for Mentally Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Given striking advances in translational developmental neuroscience and its convergence with developmental psychopathology and developmental epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact has enormous implications for the nature and organization of psychotherapy…

  19. ILL Annual report 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the reactor operated for the planned 225 days and more than 750 experiments were carried out. Among the experimental highlights are 2 contrasting examples of the new types of experiments now possible using the new high-intensity diffractometer D2O: stroboscopic measurements of kinetic processes and rapid texture measurements of structural materials. Some early results from the new high-resolution gamma spectrometer in the study of nuclear structure are also presented. Another new facility is just coming into service: the 2π image-plate detector LADI, optimised for Laue measurements on biological crystals. The contrast between biological experiments and for example those on superconductivity or neutron β-decay, illustrates very well the range of scientific questions addressed through the use of ILL's neutron beams. 30 brief accounts of research work achieved during this year are given, they are classified under 9 topics: polymers and colloids, chemistry and structure, biology, materials science, liquids and glasses, magnetism, strongly correlated electron systems, quantum systems, nuclear and fundamental physics. The scheduled new developments are described and a list of the publications is also given

  20. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.

  1. Youth blogging and serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesby, Linda; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, a growing number of young people who experience illness tend to blog about it. In this paper, we question whether and how illness blogs illustrate the intercommunicative aspect of blogging by bringing forth both the literary concept of the implied reader and the sociological concepts of empowerment and agency in the analysis. We argue that young people blogging about serious illness demonstrate the inherent intercommunicative potential of blogging. We also argue that youth blogging about serious illness may represent a fruitful strategy for ill young people to create meaning, stay front-stage in youth communities and build self-esteem and confidence out of chaos. Furthermore, we argue that these blogs may contribute rather unique experience-based knowledge and reflections about existential issues to other young blog readers, who may otherwise not get access to this aspect of life. Youth blogging about serious illness thereby reflects a patient group so far not very visible and through the genre youth stand out as more competent when it comes to illness and healthcare issues than what is often presumed.

  2. Concepts of Illness Among the Swahili of Lamu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Rebecca; Abdulrehman, Munib Said

    2014-07-01

    The Swahili of Lamu, Kenya, understand illness as the result of a spiritual imbalance caused by personal transgression or an attack by harmful forces directed by an envious person. Another underlying component of the Swahili concept of illness is that each person's physical body operates in conjunction with personal attributes that are fixed at birth and determine moral character, behavior, and predisposition to ailments. When physical symptoms occur, the Swahili focus on identifying the human or supernatural entity that caused the illness in consultation with a range of healers who specialize in a variety of curing strategies. Two case studies illustrate how culturally congruent nursing care can be achieved when health care providers understand the Swahili framework of diagnosing and treating illness. PMID:24381118

  3. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  4. 巷道聚焦电流法超前探测的三维有限元数值模拟%3D finite element numerical simulation of advanced detection in roadway for DC focus method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小康; 柳建新; 刘海飞; 童孝忠; 柳卓

    2013-01-01

    Within the roadway advanced detection methods, DC resistivity method has an extensive application because of its simple principle and operation. Numerical simulation of the effect of focusing current on advanced detection was carried out using a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM), meanwhile the electric-field distribution of the point source and nine-point power source were calculated and analyzed with the same electric charges. The results show that the nine-point power source array has a very good ability to focus, and the DC focus method can be used to predict the aquifer abnormality body precisely. By comparing the FEM modelling results with physical simulation results from soil sink, it is shown that the accuracy of forward simulation meets the requirement and the artificial disturbance from roadway has no impact on the DC focus method.%  在巷道超前探测的方法中,电阻率法由于原理简单、操作方便,有着很好的应用前景。运用三维有限元法对聚焦电流法的超前预报效果进行数值模拟,计算和分析点电源和九点式电源在供相同电流的情况下电场的分布情况。结果表明:九点式布极方式有很好的聚焦能力,聚焦电流法能准确地发现掘进面前方含水异常体。将数值模拟和物理土槽试验进行对比,正演模拟精度符合要求,巷道中的人为干扰对聚焦电流法超前探测没有影响。

  5. Early Psychological Therapy in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V; Philbrick, Kemuel L; Parker, Ann M; Needham, Dale M

    2016-02-01

    Survivors of critical illness often experience long-lasting impairments in mental, cognitive, and physical functioning. Acute stress reactions and delusional memories appear to play an important role in psychological morbidity following critical illness, and few interventions exist to address these symptoms. This review elucidates acute psychological stressors experienced by the critically ill. The effects of psychological stress and state of mind on disease are discussed using examples from the non-intensive care unit (ICU) literature, including a review of placebo and nocebo effects. After reviewing the effect of the mind on both psychological and physiological outcomes, we then focus on the role of memories-including their malleable nature and the consequences of false memories. Memory may play a role in the genesis of subsequent psychological trauma. Traumatic memories may begin forming even before the patient arrives in the ICU and during their state of unconsciousness in the ICU. Hence, practical interventions for redirecting patients' thoughts, such as positive suggestion techniques and actively involving patients in the treatment process as early as possible, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26820280

  6. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  7. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most at risk. Illnesses Linked to Powdered Infant Formula In some outbreak investigations, Cronobacter was found in ... other sources of this rare sickness. Powdered Infant Formula is Not Sterile Manufacturers report that, using current ...

  8. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  9. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  10. Life Event, Stress and Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, Mohd. Razali

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between stress and illness is complex. The susceptibility to stress varies from person to person. Among the factors that influenced the susceptibility to stress are genetic vulnerability, coping style, type of personality and social support. Not all stress has negative effect. Studies have shown that short-term stress boosted the immune system, but chronic stress has a significant effect on the immune system that ultimately manifest an illness. It raises catecholamine and sup...

  11. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  12. Staging of bipolar affective illness [Etapy przebiegu choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferensztajn, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of staging as a description of clinical advancement of illness is prevalent and commonly used in medicine. Regarding bipolar mood disorder (BD a staging model assumes a progression from prodromal (at-risk to more severe and treatment-refractory conditions. Four different staging models of BD have been proposed. The concept of Robert Post’s is based on the phenomenon of kindling and neurosensitization, assuming a role of stressors in triggering the first episode of illness, with subsequent persistent changes in the activity of neurones, greater vulnerability to relapse and worse response to treatment. The concept of Anne Duffy’s is based on the research of high risk bipolar offspring and describes the early development of the illness as successive stages, i.e. non-mood disorders, minor mood disorders and acute episodes of illness, starting in childhood, with an attempt to distinguish subtypes of the disease depending on the parent’s response to prophylactic lithium treatment. The model of Michael Berk’s has been constructed in parallel to the therapeutic algorithms and classifies the stages of illness based on clinical features, prognosis, and response to treatment. It also identifies high risk individuals, highlights need of early intervention and is proposed as a course specifier for BD. The model of Flavio Kapczinski’s is based on a phenomenon of allostatic load and evaluation of the changes of biomarkers and cognitive functions during the episode and between episodes. A significant consequence of introducing the staging model is employing treatment which is adequate to a stage of the illness. The model underlines a necessity of early intervention and defines the first episode of the illness as a critical target of it, in a hope to a possibility of prevention against neuroanatomical, neuropsychological, clinical and functional consequence of the illness.

  13. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  14. Historical Context, Institutional Change, Organizational Structure, and the Mental Illness Career

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Charles Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation demonstrates how patients' mental illness treatment careers depend on the change and/or stability among differing levels of social structure. Theorists of the mental illness career tend to ignore the role that higher levels of social structural change have on individuals' mental illness career. Researchers using an organizational perspective tend to focus on the organizational environment but ignore the treatment process from the individual's point of view. Both perspectives...

  15. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  16. The stigma of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordosi A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the individual. The search for sources of this review was made through books on the topic and articles of the last twenty years, from online internet sources (pubmed, scopus, google scholar. Literature Review:Stigma brought about by illness from mental illness, is a complex process and concept, located in social interaction and the dynamics of social relations. The social stigma borne by mental illness in general, as well as the lack of information, ignorance, stereotypes, myths and prejudices, are the main reasons that characterize, even today, depression as a taboo subject. The stigma of mental illness is indeliblyimprinted in the identity of human suffering. In any case, the impact of stigma is critical for people who are sick. The psychological stress and difficult conditions that shape their daily lives aggravate their already compromised mental health, having a significant impact on the course and outcome of the disease itself. Key strategies to address stigma are protest, education and contact. Conclusions:A significant step in combating the stigma is to raise public awareness on the issues of mental health and their inclusion in society.

  17. Promoting physical health in severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanner Kristiansen, C.; Juel, A.; Vinther Hansen, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical health problems and their causes in patients with severe mental illness, as well as possibilities for prevention and treatment from the patients' and staff's perspectives. Method: We conducted six focus groups with patients and staff separately, from three out......-patient clinics treating patients with schizophrenia or substance-use disorder comorbid to another psychiatric disorder. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a template approach. Results: Paramount physical health problems are weight issues, cardiovascular diseases and poor...... physical shape. Main causes are lifestyle, the mental disorder and organisational issues. Patients and staff expressed similar opinions regarding physical health problems and their causes. Possibilities for prevention and treatment includes a case manager and binding communities with like-minded, as well...

  18. Consent for Dental Therapy in Severely Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litch, C. Scott; Liggett, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    Legal standards for informed consent are discussed in the context of dental care for the elderly and severely ill. Variations in state common law and legislation are analyzed, focusing on differences between practitioner-oriented and patient-oriented approaches to informed consent. Implications for educators and practitioners are examined.…

  19. Teaching Students with Emotional Disorders and/or Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This resource manual is designed to assist Alberta teachers in the identification and education of students with emotional disorders and/or mental illnesses. It takes a comprehensive look at six emotional disorders. The first section focuses on eating disorders. It describes the characteristics and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa,…

  20. Enhancement Approach in Well&Illness Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The component of tourism preparatory parties is to make tourists, whether they are medical or companion, feel more comfortable and bring back home good health attached to good memories. In order to lead a satisfactory discussion primarily wellness and illness tourism concepts are properly described. After explaining their dynamics, factors which are constitutive in these kind of touristic activities, mainly tourists‟ motivations are mentioned. As being a new era of medical tourism, it is shown that facilitators are of great significance. They offer medical value tourism by eliminating too many unknowns for the tourist. Not only empathy but queries also enable highlighting the tourists‟ expectations, experiences and showing the ways of understanding their situation better. New medical hubs and the future ones have to take into account, promote consumer researches that they can advance themselves in the light of new information. The best way to develop well&illness tourism is to make tourist, patient and their companion satisfied with their activities and/or treatment.

  1. Mental Illness and Mental Health: The Two Continua Model Across the Lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Keyes, Cory L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core co

  2. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  3. Rehabilitation of mentally ill women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Rajni; Hashim, Uzma

    2015-07-01

    Women, the fair sex, are principal providers of care and support to families. But, they are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. The provision of Rehabilitation for mentally ill women has been, and still is, one of the major challenges for mental health systems reform in the last decades, for various reasons. The present paper discusses the global and Indian scenario of rehabilitation of mentally ill women and goes on to detail the contribution of the state and voluntary agencies in this regard. It explores the need of recovery, multilayered strategy of Rehabilitation services and the availability of present services. The stigma attached and legal defects which interfere in good quality of life for the mentally ill women are reviewed. Strategies for changes in future are recommended. PMID:26330653

  4. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness. PMID:26658917

  5. Perspectives of Treatment Providers and Clients with Serious Mental Illness Regarding Effective Therapeutic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Alison; Pollock, Michele; Pope, Leah Gogel; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Smith, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    This study explores the nature of clinical therapeutic relationships between mental health treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued treatment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews of 56 clients with serious mental illness who had recently discontinued care and 25 mental health treatment providers were completed. Both clients with serious mental illness and treatment providers emphasized the importance of client-focused goal setting, time and availability of treatment providers, a caring approach, and trust and honesty in the relationship. However, clients with serious mental illness placed greater emphasis on goals involving tangible services, a notable area of discord between the two groups. Individuals with serious mental illness and treatment providers agreed regarding several key elements to a positive clinical relationship. Further attention to client goals related to tangible services may serve to improve relationships between treatment providers and high-need clients with serious mental illness.

  6. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Seth D

    2009-12-01

    Neuroendocrine changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis during critical illness result in nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) characterized by abnormal thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormone levels. Studies looking at the natural history of neuroendocrine changes during critical illness have revealed the presence of NTIS. NTIS has been described in a variety of patient settings. Many studies have tried to uncover the pathophysiology behind NTIS and several theories are proposed. Whether NTIS requires treatment or intervention is still controversial and the results of the treatment studies are arguably mixed. Whether implicitly stated or not, the underlying purpose of all the natural history, pathophysiology, or treatment studies is to determine whether NTIS is adaptive or maladaptive. Some studies have illustrated a correlation between illness severity and the degree of NTIS but a cause and effect relationship is still elusive. The human studies can be divided between those with either adult or pediatric subjects, with much less data available in the latter. This review examines the available literature on NTIS with an emphasis on the pediatric literature.

  7. Mental illness in inner London.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    From the perspective of general practice, hospital data indicating that the prevalence of mental illness is much higher in inner London than elsewhere in Britain may be misleading. A study in five inner London practices found morbidity patterns for mental disorder similar to those recorded in a national survey.

  8. Marriage, mental illness and law

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-01-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward.

  9. Marriage, mental illness and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Reddy, Karri Rama; Kamath, Rabindra Mukund

    2015-07-01

    The Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954 and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955 have put restrictions on the marriage of persons with mental illness, which are proving to be detrimental to patients and their families. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The deficiencies in the existing legislation have been projected and constructive suggestions have been put forward. PMID:26330652

  10. New chopper control at ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, F. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Proper phasing is an essential characteristic of the chopper systems used at ILL. A wide variety of choppers and selectors differing in weight, speed and bearing types are controlled by a unique electronic card performing digital adaptative filtering. The chopper regulation system is described. (author).

  11. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  12. Multiculturalism, chronic illness, and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, N E; Zola, I K

    1993-05-01

    To gain at least an initial understanding of the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a cross-cultural situation, we believe that the three key points discussed in this paper should prove a significant point of departure: 1. Traditional beliefs about the cause of chronic illness or disability will play a significant role in determining family and community attitudes toward individuals with a disability and will influence when, how, and why medical input is sought. 2. The expectation of survival on the part of parents and community will have an effect on the amount of time, energy, and cooperation shown by family and community for the individual who has an impairment. 3. The expectations by family and community for the social role(s) and individual with a chronic illness or disability will hold will affect a broad range of issues, including education, social integration, and independence. Furthermore, although chronic illness and disability are often considered as issues distinct from the full range of problems encountered in society for immigrant and minority groups, in fact, these issues could not be more closely tied. The frequently discussed concerns within the ethnic and minority community about the role of the family, integration and acculturation, social articulation with the greater American society, stress, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and outright prejudice can all compound the problems encountered for the chronically ill or disabled individual in a multicultural society. PMID:8479830

  13. Program for the Chronically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Arline; Schnarr, Barbara

    The program for chronically ill students in the Detroit public schools is described. Forms are presented listing needed information and implications for teachers of the following conditions: diabetes, sickle cell anemia, chronic renal failure, congenital heart disease, hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, leukemia, and cystic fibrosis. The…

  14. Evaluating illness representations in heart transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle, Caroline; O'Connor, Kieron; Dupuis, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to see whether qualitative analysis improved quantitative measurement of illness perception after heart transplant. Two methods of evaluating illness representations were compared: one quantitative (administration of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) and one qualitative (phenomenological reduction). The qualitative analysis provided greater insight into the idiosyncratic and dynamic nature of the concept of illness representations. Adjustments to the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised are suggested to improve the evaluation of illness perception in terms of dispersion of scores, emotional impact, coping strategies and treatment, and social support, and ultimately to enhance interventions designed to promote treatment compliance. PMID:25626700

  15. Patterns of Stove Usage after Introduction of an Advanced Cookstove: The Long-Term Application of Household Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pillarisetti, Ajay; Vaswani, Mayur; Jack, Darby; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Bates, Michael N.; Arora, Narendra K; Smith, Kirk R.

    2014-01-01

    Household air pollution generated from solid fuel use for cooking is one of the leading risk factors for ill-health globally. Deployment of advanced cookstoves to reduce emissions has been a major focus of intervention efforts. However, household usage of these stoves and resulting changes in usage of traditional polluting stoves is not well characterized. In Palwal District, Haryana, India, we carried out an intervention utilizing the Philips HD4012 fan-assisted stove, one of the cleanest bi...

  16. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused.

  17. Advanced Directives and Advanced Care Planning for Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Adam T; Lehna, Carlee

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess healthcare professionals' need for information on advanced directives and to implement and evaluate an educational plan for change in knowledge and behaviors related to advanced directives. End-of-life (EOL) care is an important topic for patients to discuss with their families and healthcare professionals (HP). Needs assessment data were collected from healthcare providers at an urban trauma intensive care unit (ICU) in Louisville, Kentucky on concepts related to end-of-life. Next, healthcare professionals participated in an educational intervention focused on: knowledge about advanced directives; communication techniques for healthcare professionals to use with patients and their families; awareness of the patient's level of illness in advanced care planning; and specifics about living wills in Kentucky and how to complete one. Pre- and post-test data were collected to evaluate change in knowledge, capability an average of 8.7 years (SD = 9.1; range = 1.9-35 years) in healthcare and worked an average of 8.4 years (SD = 9.3; range = 4 months to 35 years) in their respective ICUs. Eighty-seven percent did not have an AD in place even though their perceived knowledge about AD remained moderate throughout pre- and post-test scores (3.3 to 3.8 on a 5 point scale, respectively). Total post-test scores revealed a 2% improvement in correct responses. These findings point to the need for education of healthcare providers in the ICU to increase early AD and ACP discussions with patients and their families. PMID:27183766

  18. Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160011.html Helping a Child Manage a Chronic Illness Feeling they have control over their ... News) -- Children and teens who feel confident handling a chronic illness on their own appear better able ...

  19. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  20. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations. PMID:23858262

  1. 'Chronic' identities in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Peter, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The term 'chronicity' is still widely used in psychiatric discourse and practice. A category employed in political, administrative and therapeutic contexts, it guides practitioners' beliefs and actions. This paper attempts a review of the attitudes and procedures that result as a consequence of identifying 'chronically' disturbed identities in clinical practice. An essentially social, relational and materialist understanding of mental illness is used to highlight the kind of thinking underlying the notion of 'chronic' identities in day-to-day psychiatric routines. Problematising the notions of singularity and expressiveness, as well as mind/body- and self/other-distinctions, it claims the category itself is responsible for creating a 'chronic' kind of being. A spatial metaphor is presented in the conclusion, illustrating a mental strategy by which we can re-shape our thinking about 'chronic' identities. It attempts to describe how the shift from an epistemological to a praxeographic approach could build a more complete understanding of mental illness. PMID:23528064

  2. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  3. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    OpenAIRE

    S K Padhy; S Khatana; Sarkar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal o...

  4. How to improve interactions between police and the mentally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen eKrameddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.

  5. Probiotics in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit C; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Gut microflora contribute greatly to immune and nutritive functions and act as a physical barrier against pathogenic organisms across the gut mucosa. Critical illness disrupts the balance between host and gut microflora, facilitating colonization, overgrowth, and translocation of pathogens and microbial products across intestinal mucosal barrier and causing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Commonly used probiotics, which have been developed from organisms that form gut microbiota, singly or in combination, can restore gut microflora and offer the benefits similar to those offered by normal gut flora, namely immune enhancement, improved barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and prevention of bacterial translocation. Enteral supplementation of probiotic strains containing either Lactobacillus alone or in combination with Bifidobacterium reduced the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants. Orally administered Lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were effective in the prevention of late-onset sepsis and GIT colonization by Candida in preterm very low birth weight infants. In critically ill children, probiotics are effective in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Oral administration of a mix of probiotics for 1 week to children on broad-spectrum antibiotics in a pediatric intensive care unit decreased GIT colonization by Candida, led to a 50% reduction in candiduria, and showed a trend toward decreased incidence of candidemia. However, routine use of probiotics cannot be supported on the basis of current scientific evidence. Safety of probiotics is also a concern; rarely, probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia, and sepsis in immunocompromised critically ill children. More studies are needed to answer questions on the effectiveness of a mix versus single-strain probiotics, optimum dosage regimens

  6. Nutritional interventions in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2007-02-01

    The metabolism of critical illness is characterised by a combination of starvation and stress. There is increased production of cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon and growth hormone and increased insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Phagocytic, epithelial and endothelial cells elaborate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemokines, pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, and antioxidant depletion ensues. There is hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlactataemia, increased gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen production. Insulin resistance, particularly in relation to the liver, is marked. The purpose of nutritional support is primarily to save life and secondarily to speed recovery by reducing neuropathy and maintaining muscle mass and function. There is debate about the optimal timing of nutritional support for the patient in the intensive care unit. It is generally agreed that the enteral route is preferable if possible, but the dangers of the parenteral route, a route of feeding that remains important in the context of critical illness, may have been over-emphasised. Control of hyperglycaemia is beneficial, and avoidance of overfeeding is emphasised. Growth hormone is harmful. The refeeding syndrome needs to be considered, although it has been little studied in the context of critical illness. Achieving energy balance may not be necessary in the early stages of critical illness, particularly in patients who are overweight or obese. Protein turnover is increased and N balance is often negative in the face of normal nutrient intake; optimal N intakes are the subject of some debate. Supplementation of particular amino acids able to support or regulate the immune response, such as glutamine, may have a role not only for their potential metabolic effect but also for their potential antioxidant role. Doubt remains in relation to arginine supplementation. High-dose mineral and vitamin antioxidant therapy may have a place. PMID:17343768

  7. [DGSMP - Interdisciplinarity to Advance Social Medicine and Prevention of Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis. PMID:26906538

  8. The role of illness perceptions in the attachment-related process of affect regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Dekel, Rachel; Asher, Zvia; Leibowitz, Morton; Mosseri, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Based on the predictions of the attachment theory and the Common Sense Model of illness perceptions, the current study focused on the role played by illness perceptions in explaining the path linking attachment orientations to negative affect during recovery from cardiac illness. We predicted two putative mechanisms: (1) illness perceptions would mediate the direct association between attachment-related insecurity (especially attachment anxiety) and levels of distress at follow-up and (2) illness perceptions would interact with attachment orientations (attachment avoidance in particular) in explaining patients' distress. The sample consisted of 111 male patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit of the Meir Medical Center, located in the central region of Israel. Patients completed a measure of attachment orientations during hospitalization (baseline). One month later, patients' illness perceptions were measured. Patients' depression and anxiety symptoms were measured at baseline and at the six-month follow-up. The associations between attachment-related anxiety and anxiety symptoms at follow-up were fully mediated by illness perceptions. Attachment-related avoidance was found to interact with illness perceptions in the prediction of depressive symptoms at follow-up. The findings shed light on the possible dynamics among personality, cognitive appraisals, and affect regulation efforts when coping with illness.

  9. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  10. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We pro...

  11. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. PMID:27312081

  12. Disparities in appendicitis rupture rate among mentally ill patients

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    Bai Ya-Mei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have been carried out that focus on mental patients' access to care for their mental illness, but very few pay attention on these same patients' access to care for their physical diseases. Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency. Our population-based study was to test for any possible association between mental illness and perforated appendicitis. We hypothesized that there are significant disparities in access to timely surgical care between appendicitis patients with and without mental illness, and more specifically, between patients with schizophrenia and those with another major mental illness. Methods Using the National Health Insurance (NHI hospital-discharge data, we compared the likelihood of perforated appendix among 97,589 adults aged 15 and over who were hospitalized for acute appendicitis in Taiwan between the years 1997 to 2001. Among all the patients admitted for appendicitis, the outcome measure was the odds of appendiceal rupture vs. appendicitis that did not result in a ruptured appendix. Results After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES and hospital characteristics, the presence of schizophrenia was associated with a 2.83 times higher risk of having a ruptured appendix (odds ratio [OR], 2.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–3.64. However, the presence of affective psychoses (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.77–1.73 or other mental disorders (OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 0.89–2.81 was not a significant predictor for a ruptured appendix. Conclusion These findings suggest that given the fact that the NHI program reduces financial barriers to care for mentally ill patients, they are still at a disadvantage for obtaining timely treatment for their physical diseases. Of patients with a major mental illness, schizophrenic patients may be the most vulnerable ones for obtaining timely surgical care.

  13. Integration of Biosensors and Drug Delivery Technologies for Early Detection and Chronic Management of Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viness Pillay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biosensor design and sensing efficacy need to be amalgamated with research in responsive drug delivery systems for building superior health or illness regimes and ensuring good patient compliance. A variety of illnesses require continuous monitoring in order to have efficient illness intervention. Physicochemical changes in the body can signify the occurrence of an illness before it manifests. Even with the usage of sensors that allow diagnosis and prognosis of the illness, medical intervention still has its downfalls. Late detection of illness can reduce the efficacy of therapeutics. Furthermore, the conventional modes of treatment can cause side-effects such as tissue damage (chemotherapy and rhabdomyolysis and induce other forms of illness (hepatotoxicity. The use of drug delivery systems enables the lowering of side-effects with subsequent improvement in patient compliance. Chronic illnesses require continuous monitoring and medical intervention for efficient treatment to be achieved. Therefore, designing a responsive system that will reciprocate to the physicochemical changes may offer superior therapeutic activity. In this respect, integration of biosensors and drug delivery is a proficient approach and requires designing an implantable system that has a closed loop system. This offers regulation of the changes by means of releasing a therapeutic agent whenever illness biomarkers prevail. Proper selection of biomarkers is vital as this is key for diagnosis and a stimulation factor for responsive drug delivery. By detecting an illness before it manifests by means of biomarkers levels, therapeutic dosing would relate to the severity of such changes. In this review various biosensors and drug delivery systems are discussed in order to assess the challenges and future perspectives of integrating biosensors and drug delivery systems for detection and management of chronic illness.

  14. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness. PMID:26330650

  15. Unexpected effects of transfusion in the critically ill

    OpenAIRE

    Straat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the first recorded successful blood transfusion was performed in 1665 and the first Intensive Care Unit (ICU) was founded in 1952, a transfusion has gradually become a common medical procedure in the ICU. However, recent studies have shown an association between transfusion and adverse outcome. This thesis contains both clinical and pre-clinical investigations of the effects of a transfusion in the critically ill. The studies focus on investigations of mechanisms of the association betw...

  16. What is the best nutritional support for critically ill patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffer, L. John; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2014-01-01

    Optimum nutritional support in critical illness remains controversial. A recent review of nutritional interventions in the ICU concluded that few of them improved clinical outcomes. In our view, it is a serious shortcoming of these trials that they focused on calories, falling far short of current recommendations for protein provision. Well designed clinical trials that ensure sufficient protein provision are urgently needed if we are to improve the quality of nutritional support in the ICU.

  17. Use of severity of illness to evaluate quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, T A; Greenaway-Coates, A; Djurfeldt, M S; Hopman, W M

    1996-04-01

    This study compared a severity of illness system (APACHE II) and a 10% random sample of charts in terms of their ability to identify cases with quality problems. Using condition-specific data bases of 337 pneumonia, 363 acute myocardial infarction and 266 hip fracture charts, severity of illness information was used to separate cases into those with a high and a low likelihood of a poor outcome. Cases with low admission severity of illness combined with subsequent death were flagged as potential quality problems. Physician evaluation was used as the gold standard to measure flag performance. Flags were tested against a 10% random sample drawn from within the three condition-specific data bases. Analyses focused on a combination of sensitivity and positive predictive value. The low severity plus death flag performed much better than a 10% random sample approach, suggesting that outcomes monitoring flags based on severity of illness could play an important role in screening cases for potential quality problems. PMID:8792167

  18. End-of-Life Decisions and Palliative Care in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Deborah E; Goodlin, Sarah J

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) therapies are focused on extending life and improving function. In contrast, palliative care is a holistic approach that focuses on symptom alleviation and patients' physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. HF clinicians can integrate palliative care strategies by incorporating several important components of planning and decision-making for HF patients. Future care planning (FCP) for HF patients should incorporate the basic tenets of shared decision-making (SDM). These include understanding the patient's perspective and care preferences, articulating what is medically feasible, and integrating these considerations into the overall care plan. Use of defined triggers for FCP can stimulate important patient-caregiver conversations. Guidelines advocate an annual review of HF status and future care preferences. Advance directives are important for any individual with a chronic, life-limiting illness and should be integrated into FCP. Nevertheless, use of advance directives by HF patients is extremely low. Consideration of illness trajectories and risk-scoring tools might facilitate prognostication and delivery of appropriate HF care. Decisions about heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation should include planning for potential complications associated with these therapies. Such decisions also should include a discussion of palliative management, as an alternative to intervention and also as an option for managing symptoms or adverse events after intervention. Palliative care, including FCP and SDM, should be integrated into the course of all patients with advanced HF. Clinicians who provide HF care should acquire the skills necessary for conducting FCP and SDM discussions.

  19. End-of-Life Decisions and Palliative Care in Advanced Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Deborah E; Goodlin, Sarah J

    2016-09-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) therapies are focused on extending life and improving function. In contrast, palliative care is a holistic approach that focuses on symptom alleviation and patients' physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. HF clinicians can integrate palliative care strategies by incorporating several important components of planning and decision-making for HF patients. Future care planning (FCP) for HF patients should incorporate the basic tenets of shared decision-making (SDM). These include understanding the patient's perspective and care preferences, articulating what is medically feasible, and integrating these considerations into the overall care plan. Use of defined triggers for FCP can stimulate important patient-caregiver conversations. Guidelines advocate an annual review of HF status and future care preferences. Advance directives are important for any individual with a chronic, life-limiting illness and should be integrated into FCP. Nevertheless, use of advance directives by HF patients is extremely low. Consideration of illness trajectories and risk-scoring tools might facilitate prognostication and delivery of appropriate HF care. Decisions about heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation should include planning for potential complications associated with these therapies. Such decisions also should include a discussion of palliative management, as an alternative to intervention and also as an option for managing symptoms or adverse events after intervention. Palliative care, including FCP and SDM, should be integrated into the course of all patients with advanced HF. Clinicians who provide HF care should acquire the skills necessary for conducting FCP and SDM discussions. PMID:27568873

  20. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  1. Using simulation to educate police about mental illness: A collaborative initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Stanyon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is a major public health concern in Canada and also globally. According to the World Health Organization, five of the top ten disabilities worldwide are mental health disorders. Within Canada, one in five individuals is living with mental illness each year. Currently, there are 6.7 million Canadians living with mental illness and over 1 million Canadian youth living with mental illness. Police are frequently the first responders to situations in the community involving people with mental illness, and police services are increasingly aware of the need to provide officers with additional training and strategies for effectively interacting with these citizens. This study examined the effectiveness of four online, interactive video-based simulations designed to educate police officers about mental illness and strategies for interacting with people with mental illness. The simulations were created through the efforts of a unique partnership involving a police service, a mental health facility and two postsecondary institutions. Frontline police officers from Ontario were divided into one of three groups (simulation, face to face, control. Using a pre- and post-test questionnaire, the groups were compared on their level of knowledge and understanding of mental illness. In addition, focus groups explored the impact of the simulations on officers’ level of confidence in engaging with individuals with mental illness and officers’ perceptions of the simulations’ ease of use and level of realism. The study’s findings determined that the simulations were just as effective as face-to-face learning, and the officers reported the simulations were easy to use and reflected real-life scenarios they had encountered on the job. As mental health continues to be a major public concern, not only in Canada but also globally, interactive simulations may provide an effective and affordable education resource not only for police officers but for

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  3. Selfies of Ill Health: Online Autopathographic Photography and the Dramaturgy of the Everyday

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    Tamar Tembeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a preliminary investigation into what I term “selfies of ill health” and traces the expansion of the autopathographic genre in visual media from professional art photography to the vernacular selfie in recent years. In this context, the word autopathography is used to describe self-representational practices that offer a first-person perspective on experiences of illness or hospitalization. I first situate the genre by identifying several typologies of selfies of ill health, including diagnostic selfies, cautionary selfies, and treatment impact selfies. I then focus on the forms of identity performance that selfies, and selfies of ill health in particular, deploy. I argue that the performative qualities of certain selfies of ill health overlap with salient characteristics of autopathographic practice in the arts. Using Karolyn Gehrig’s #HospitalGlam series as a case study, I examine how autopathographic selfies can also construct a politicized dramaturgy of the lived body, notably by enabling individuals like Gehrig to “come out” as being invisibly ill. I conclude that the dramaturgical thrust of such autopathographic imagery is to convey both the centrality of medical experiences in subjects’ lives and their specific desire to be publicly identified as persons living with illness. In light of this, although selfies of ill health may have opened up new avenues for autopathographic practice thanks to the affordances of social media, their communicative intents remain consistent with those of earlier forms of autopathographic photography.

  4. Attitude about mental illness of health care providers and community leaders in rural Haryana, North India

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    Harshal Ramesh Salve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.

  5. Seasonal Patterns of Gastrointestinal Illness and Streamflow along the Ohio River

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    Elena N. Naumova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne gastrointestinal (GI illnesses demonstrate seasonal increases associated with water quality and meteorological characteristics. However, few studies have been conducted on the association of hydrological parameters, such as streamflow, and seasonality of GI illnesses. Streamflow is correlated with biological contamination and can be used as proxy for drinking water contamination. We compare seasonal patterns of GI illnesses in the elderly (65 years and older along the Ohio River for a 14-year period (1991–2004 to seasonal patterns of streamflow. Focusing on six counties in close proximity to the river, we compiled weekly time series of hospitalizations for GI illnesses and streamflow data. Seasonal patterns were explored using Poisson annual harmonic regression with and without adjustment for streamflow. GI illnesses demonstrated significant seasonal patterns with peak timing preceding peak timing of streamflow for all six counties. Seasonal patterns of illness remain consistent after adjusting for streamflow. This study found that the time of peak GI illness precedes the peak of streamflow, suggesting either an indirect relationship or a more direct path whereby pathogens enter water supplies prior to the peak in streamflow. Such findings call for interdisciplinary research to better understand associations among streamflow, pathogen loading, and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses.

  6. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in pediatric critical illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran B. Hebbar, MD, FCCM; Michael Wittkamp, MD, FAAP; Jessica A. Alvarez, PhD, RD; Courtney E. McCracken, PhD; Vin Tangpricha, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The potential role for vitamin D in infection has been well described in adults. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status and markers of innate immunity and infection in critically ill children. Hypothesis: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children with critical illness and correlates with the severity of illness and dysfunction in innate immunity. Methods: We ...

  8. Sexual dysfunction and chronic illness: the role of flexibility in coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Jennifer L; Friedman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common among individuals with chronic illnesses and is associated with distress and reduced quality of life. Because of the long-term, often irreversible nature of sexual dysfunction in chronic illness and limitations of pharmacological treatments, there is a need to understand cognitive and behavioral coping processes in this population. We present a model of coping with sexual dysfunction that focuses on the construct of flexibility, including the definition of sexual functioning and its centrality to overall self-concept. We describe how this model can be applied in a comprehensive approach to treating sexual dysfunction in individuals with chronic illnesses. PMID:16809251

  9. [Home care for the chronically ill: a self-care health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leticia Robles

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on home care for chronically ill adults and seniors. According to our thesis, home care should be understood as a self-care system, and its aim is to guarantee the individual's social and bodily survival. Home care consists of three areas, related to illness, the home, and to life history. Caregiving, usually under women's responsibility, is present throughout the history of the illness and the health-seeking process. The article analyzes these issues in light of the ageing process, the epidemiological changes occurring worldwide, and the urgency to incorporate this analysis into the heath care research agenda. PMID:15073644

  10. Finding Identity and Meaning as a Nurse with a Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ashley L

    2016-10-01

    Through professional acculturation, nurses establish their identities as nurses. They also develop of an understanding what mental illness and associated phenomena mean. When nurses themselves develop mental illness, they must learn to establish a new identity as a patient and more specifically as a nurse-patient, and come to a new understanding of what mental illness means to them. This autoethnographic paper focuses on the author's own experience of finding an identity as nurse-patient and discovering what that really meant, at the same time incorporating analysis to connect the personal and the cultural.

  11. Investigation of putative regulatory loci relevant to the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Rosie May

    2013-01-01

    The genetic contribution to the aetiology of psychiatric illness is well-established; however, few variants that alter the encoded protein have been irrefutably identified as causative, leading to the hypothesis that variants affecting gene regulation may play a pathogenic role. This thesis focuses on two genes, Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), for which there is strong genetic evidence for involvement in psychiatric illness, as well as evidence for...

  12. Work integration of people with severe mental illness in social enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Villotti, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Lack of employment and short job tenure are still a major issue for people that suffer of a severe mental illness. One of the main issues in the rationale for this thesis was the opportunity to deeply investigate and better understand why getting and sustaining a job for this population is so difficult and challenging. In particular, we focused on individual and environmental factors associated with the work integration of people with mental illness employed in Italian social enterprises and...

  13. Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual ...

  14. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  15. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations. PMID:27215871

  16. Illness in a redeployed soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana R

    2007-05-01

    Overseas deployments place military personnel at risk for tropical diseases not typically observed on the U.S. mainland. This case describes the first reported case of brucellosis returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. A 31-year-old infantry soldier complained of a 6-week history of headaches, relapsing fever, and constitutional symptoms since returning from Iraq. This soldier was determined to have the only reported case of brucellosis, but was one of many soldiers at risk from eating unpasteurized cheese on the local economy. Although malaria and leishmaniasis continue to be the most common deployment-related illnesses, brucellosis must also be considered in the differential of any redeployed soldier with headache, fever, and body aches. Public health as well as command elements must reinforce their role in preventing exposure to this pathogen. PMID:17521107

  17. Social networks and neurological illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhand, Amar; Luke, Douglas A; Lang, Catherine E; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2016-10-01

    Every patient is embedded in a social network of interpersonal connections that influence health outcomes. Neurologists routinely need to engage with a patient's family and friends due to the nature of the illness and its social sequelae. Social isolation is a potent determinant of poor health and neurobiological changes, and its effects can be comparable to those of traditional risk factors. It would seem reasonable, therefore, to map and follow the personal networks of neurology patients. This approach reveals influential people, their habits, and linkage patterns that could facilitate or limit health behaviours. Personal network information can be particularly valuable to enhance risk factor management, medication adherence, and functional recovery. Here, we propose an agenda for research and clinical practice that includes mapping the networks of patients with diverse neurological disorders, evaluating the impact of the networks on patient outcomes, and testing network interventions. PMID:27615420

  18. Hyponatremia in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Padhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disturbance in critically ill hence understanding its implications is important. Aims: This study was carried out to ascertain frequency, predisposing conditions and outcome in critically ill patients with hyponatremia on intensive care unit (ICU admission. Settings and Design: This was an observational, prospective study of a series of ICU patients during a 12-month period. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: Hyponatremic (serum sodium < 135 mmol/L and Eunatremic groups (135-145 mmol/L. Clinical examination included volume status and drug history, biochemistries, clinical diagnosis and cause of hyponatremia. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher′s exact test, unpaired t-tests Wilcoxon ranksum tests, profile-likelihood method, log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier curves were used. P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: In the hyponatremic group, the frequency of hyponatremia on ICU admission was 34.3%, most were euvolumic, 58.96%. Females comprised of 36.5%. The mean age was 60.4 ± 17.2. The Syndrome of inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH criteria was met in ninety-one patients (36.25%, peumonia being the leading cause of SIADH. Patients with severe sepsis, elective surgery patients, renal failure and heart failure, cirrhosis of liver and subarachnoid hemorrhage were other more likely etiologic causes (P < 0.05. The hyponatremic group spent a longer time in the ICU (P = 0.02, had longer mechanical ventilator days (P < 0.05 and had an increased mortality rate (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Hyponatremia present on admission to the ICU is independent risk factors for poor prognosis.

  19. Positive psychology: an approach to supporting recovery in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, B; Brownell, T; Tylee, A; Slade, M

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on positive psychology with a special focus on people with mental illness. It describes the characteristics, critiques, and roots of positive psychology and positive psychotherapy, and summarises the existing evidence on positive psychotherapy. Positive psychology aims to refocus psychological research and practice on the positive aspects of experience, strengths, and resources. Despite a number of conceptual and applied research challenges, the field has rapidly developed since its introduction at the turn of the century. Today positive psychology serves as an umbrella term to accommodate research investigating positive emotions and other positive aspects such as creativity, optimism, resilience, empathy, compassion, humour, and life satisfaction. Positive psychotherapy is a therapeutic intervention that evolved from this research. It shows promising results for reducing depression and increasing well-being in healthy people and those with depression. Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy are increasingly being applied in mental health settings, but research evidence involving people with severe mental illness is still scarce. The focus on strengths and resources in positive psychology and positive psychotherapy may be a promising way to support recovery in people with mental illness, such as depression, substance abuse disorders, and psychosis. More research is needed to adapt and establish these approaches and provide an evidence base for their application.

  20. Daily life for chronically ill oldest old persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Moe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the study of old age often focused on the losses and problems associated with ageing. In recent times, the focus has been on the positive aspects, such as quality of life, inner strength, and enjoying life. The aims of this study were to highlight the ways in which chronically ill older persons experience the meaning of daily life and to understand what it means to live at home with chronic disease. In-depth interviews were used to illustrate individual experiences. The sample consisted of 13 chronically ill persons, aged 80 to 94 years, living at home and receiving assistance in the form of home nursing care. Data were analyzed using the phenomenological hermeneutical method. After a naïve reading and a structural analysis of the text, we identified three themes: being insufficient, becoming dependent, and enjoying life. The comprehensive understanding suggested that daily life involved bad days, described as illness with dysfunctions, limited energy, and dependency on others. Daily life also had its positive aspects, described as enjoying life. Dignity was threatened by feelings of being a burden to others and was affirmed by experiencing a will to live. It was concluded that bad days with experiences of suffering and good days that provided the older with experiences of enjoying life could help them meet adversity through qualities of resilience that gave meaning to daily life and helped them to think positively in times of greater difficulty.

  1. The GH/IGF-1 System in Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, Itoro; Branski, Ludwik K.; Finnerty, Celeste F.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The Growth Hormone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 axis plays a pivotal role in critical illness, with a derangement leading to profound changes in metabolism. Protein wasting with skeletal muscle loss, delayed wound healing, and impaired recovery of organ systems are some of the most feared consequences. The use of human recombinant Growth Hormone (rhGH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) - alone and in combination - has been studied extensively in preclinical and clinical trials. This article reviews the current knowlegde and clinical practice of the use of rhGh and IGF-1 in critically ill patients, with a special focus on the trauma and burns patient population. PMID:21925076

  2. Forecasting recidivism in mentally ill offenders released from prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Gregg J; Lovell, David; Peterson, Paul D; Jemelka, Ron

    2004-04-01

    Little research has focused on assessing the risk of mentally ill offenders (MIOs) released from state prisons. Here we report findings for 333 mentally ill offenders released from Washington State prisons. Logistic regression identified sets of variables that forecasted felony and violent reconviction as accurately as state-of-the-art risk assessment instruments. Sums of simple recoded versions of these variables predicted reoffense as well as complex logistic regression equations. Five of these 9 variables were found to be relative protective factors. Findings are discussed in terms of the value of stock correctional variables in forecasting risk, the need to base actuarial risk assessments on local data, the importance of protective factors in assessing MIO risk, and the need for dynamic, situational, and clinical variables that can further sharpen predictive accuracy of emergent risk in the community. PMID:15141775

  3. Creative writing in recovery from severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority.

  4. A meta-ethnographic synthesis on phenomenographic studies of patients’ experiences of chronic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Röing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenography is a qualitative research approach developed within an educational framework, focusing on the qualitative experience of learning. It is also being used, to a lesser degree, in healthcare research. In the present study, we conducted a meta-ethnographic synthesis of phenomenographic studies on chronic illness, in order to give a broader perspective of how chronic illness can be experienced. Our aim was not to describe patients’ various individual experiences of illness, but instead to identify the different ways chronic illness can be experienced by patients. Our synthesis and phenomenographic interpretation of 12 selected articles found that patients’ experiences of chronic illness can be described in terms of a different lived body, a struggle with threat to identity and self-esteem, a diminished lifeworld, and a challenging reality. These experiences relate to each other in a process of recurring loops, where the different ways of experiencing continue to influence each other over time. According to these findings, the use of phenomenography as a research approach has the potential to add to the understanding of how chronic illness can be experienced. Patients may benefit from seeing that their illness can be experienced in many different ways and that it has many aspects, which then can lead to a better understanding and coping with their illness. We suggest that it may be worthwhile to expand the scope of phenomenography outside pedagogics. This presupposes a revision of the application to include a wider and more comprehensive description, for instance, of the different ways illness and healthcare phenomena can be experienced, and how these different ways are related to each other, with less focus on hierarchical relations.

  5. Dementing illnesses in rural populations: the need for research and challenges confronting investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover, R W; Rankin, E D; Keyl, P M; Wells, J C; Martin, J; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    Expansion of the world's elderly populations has increased concerns about aging-related medical disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In the United States, one fourth of those older than age 65 and at greatest risk for developing dementia live in rural environments that may influence its manifestation. The objectives of this study were to determine the need for and potential benefits of further epidemiological research concerning dementia and similar disorders in rural U.S. populations and to identify pertinent methodological issues related to rural dementia research. This study employed a National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) document search based on the key words "cognitive disorders," "dementia," "Alzheimer's disease," and "rural," followed by recovery of literature resources references in the bibliographies of selected articles. Nineteen studies focusing on dementia or related disorders in rural settings have been reported from around the world. While four of these were conducted in the United States, only one rural dementia prevalence study has been undertaken in this country. Because of methodological variability, comparisons of prevalence estimates between these rural studies, as well as with those from urban investigations, is difficult. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that certain potentially dementing illnesses are more common in rural populations. There is also evidence to suggest that the screening instruments commonly used in such studies tend to misclassify rural elders as "false positive" dementia cases. Information regarding dementing disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease, in rural populations is scarce. Preliminary observations that dementia may be more common in rural settings and that rural families are more likely to maintain their dementing elders in the community imply that further rural dementia research could yield important insights into the risk factors for these illnesses, the variables influencing their

  6. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  7. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  8. Illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M.W.; van Wilgen, C.P.; Hilberdink, W.K.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Schans, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Former studies in chronic diseases showed the importance of patients' beliefs and perceptions. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire was developed to assess these illness perceptions. Our goal was to investigate psychometric properties of the IPQ-R for Fibromyalgia Dutch language v

  9. Illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ittersum, M. W.; van Wilgen, C. P.; Hilberdink, W. K. H. A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Former studies in chronic diseases showed the importance of patients' beliefs and perceptions. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire was developed to assess these illness perceptions. Our goal was to investigate psychometric properties of the IPQ-R for Fibromyalgia Dutch language v

  10. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  11. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  12. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  13. Advances in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mastorakis, Nikos E

    2009-01-01

    Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.

  14. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  15. Focus On Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Long stigmatized, behavioral health conditions are finally becoming a focal point not just for policy makers but also in public discussions about the well-being of the United States. This is in part because of a rising opioid epidemic; the concentration of people with mental illnesses in prisons and jails; and a greater appreciation of the toll taken by depression and other mental disorders on individuals, families, and the economy. The United States spends more on mental health and addiction than on any other medical condition, including heart disease, trauma, and cancer. Within this spending, there's been a shift toward outpatient and other types of community treatment and away from inpatient care. Meanwhile, the Affordable Care Act has made it possible for more people with serious mental illnesses to obtain care, but treatment rates for racial and ethnic minorities still trail those of whites. PMID:27269009

  16. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. (Erasme Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Illness perception in Polish patients with chronic diseases: Psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka-Sauer, Katarzyna; Banaszkiewicz, Dorota; Staśkiewicz, Izabela; Kopczyński, Piotr; Hajduk, Adam; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Ejdys, Mariola; Szostakiewicz, Małgorzata; Sablińska, Agnieszka; Kałużna, Anna; Tomaszewska, Magda; Siebert, Janusz

    2016-08-01

    The study evaluates the psychometric properties of a Polish translation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. A total of 276 patients with chronic conditions (58.7% women) completed the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire measured with Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory (α = 0.74). Structural validity was demonstrated by significant inter-correlations between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire components. Discriminant validity was supported by the fact that the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire enables patients with various conditions to be differentiated. Significant correlations were found between Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and depression and anxiety levels. The Polish Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire thus evaluated is a reliable and valid tool.

  18. The Impact of Illness Identity on Recovery from Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H

    2010-04-01

    The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.

  19. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  20. Trends In News Media Coverage Of Mental Illness In The United States: 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031

  1. The effects of news stories on the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J

    2013-03-01

    The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness. PMID:23407209

  2. For better or worse? Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood : Long-term outcome of critical illness in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this thesis was to investigate the long-term outcome of critically ill children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Erasmus MC – Sophia Children’s’ Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Our main focus was to investigate the long-term

  3. Nutritional Needs of the Child with a Handicap or Chronic Illness. Manual II: Clinical Nutrition. Presentations from a National Interdisciplinary Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekvall, Shirley M.; Wheby, Elizabeth A.

    The following papers were presented at a symposium on clinical nutrition for the child who is chronically ill or handicapped: (1) "Food Allergy"; (2) "Anemia and the Chronically Ill or Handicapped Child"; (3) "Nutrition and Neurotransmitters--Clinical Implications"; (4) "The Importance of Lipid Type in the Diet after Burn Injury"; (5) "Advances of…

  4. Pessimistic explanatory style and response to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E H; Peterson, C

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for illness, but the factors linking explanatory style and illness are unknown. One's characteristic response to poor health may mediate this relationship. Perhaps pessimistic individuals act helplessly in the face of their symptoms, thereby exacerbating disease. In the present study, we investigated this possibility by asking 96 young adults to complete measures of explanatory style, habitual response to illness, and ways of coping during their most recent episode of illness. Subjects who explain bad events pessimistically (with internal, stable, and global causes) reported more frequent illnesses during the past year and rated their overall health more poorly than those who habitually favor external, unstable, and specific explanations. When ill, the pessimistic subjects were less likely than their optimistic counterparts to take active steps to combat their illness. Our results suggest that one pathway leading from pessimistic explanatory style to poor health is mundane: passivity in the face of disease. PMID:2369407

  5. How do in-patients with advanced terminal cancer feel ?

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Aiko; Iwamoto, Teruyo; Kaneyasu, Hisae

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know how in-patients with advanced terminal lcancer feel, thereby, determining ways that nurses in he hospital who care for patients who are terminally ill can improve their care for patient who are terminally ill.

  6. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  7. Management of critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes:The need for personalised therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness in patients with pre-existing diabetesfrequently causes deterioration in glycaemic control.Despite the prevalence of diabetes in patients admittedto hospital and intensive care units, the idealmanagement of hyperglycaemia in these groups isuncertain. There are data that suggest that acutehyperglycaemiain critically ill patients without diabetesis associated with increased mortality and morbidity.Exogenous insulin to keep blood glucose concentrations〈 10 mmol/L is accepted as standard of care in thisgroup. However, preliminary data have recently beenreported that suggest that chronic hyperglycaemia mayresult in conditioning, which protects these patientsagainst damage mediated by acute hyperglycaemia.Furthermore, acute glucose-lowering to 〈 10 mmol/Lin patients with diabetes with inadequate glycaemiccontrol prior to their critical illness appears to havethe capacity to cause harm. This review focuses onglycaemic control in critically ill patients with type 2diabetes, the potential for harm from glucose-loweringand the rationale for personalised therapy.

  8. ILL experimental reports and theory college activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the collection of reports describing experimental work performed at the I.L.L. They have been arranged by subject (from the I.L.L. classification scheme) and are published under their proposal number. (Only those reports received up to Jan. 19, 1987 have been included). In order to have connection between the theory group and the experimental activities of the I.L.L., scientific activity of theoreticians has been included in the form of a personal review of activity. For any further details, readers should contact directly individual scientists

  9. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    In October 2004, a case of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child was identified in a children's hospital in the Midwest. This case report begins with a discussion and explanation of the various nomenclatures that have been used by the healthcare community such as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious disorder by proxy, medical child abuse, and caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. A discussion of case facts is then presented, which includes key concepts that nurses should know regarding a diagnosis of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child and the interventions that should be taken. PMID:25900681

  10. Household out-of-pocket payments for illness: Evidence from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janlert Urban

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, illnesses create high out-of-pocket health care expenditures for households. In this study, the burden of illness in the Bavi district, Vietnam is measured based upon individual household health expenditures for communicable and non-communicable illnesses. The focus of the paper is on the relative effect of different illnesses on the total economic burden of health care on households in general and on households that have catastrophic health care spending in particular. Methods The study was performed by twelve monthly follow-up interviews of 621 randomly selected households. The households are part of the FilaBavi project sample – Health System Research Project. The heads of household were interviewed at monthly intervals from July 2001 to June 2002. Results For the population in the Bavi district, communicable illnesses predominate among the episodes of illness and are the reason for most household health care expenditure. This is the case for almost all groups within the study and for the study population as a whole. However, communicable illnesses are more dominant in the poor population compared to the rich population, and are more dominant in households that have very large, or catastrophic, health care expenditure, compared to those without such expenditures. Conclusion The main findings indicate that catastrophic health care spending for a household is not usually the result of one single disastrous event, but rather a series of events and is related more to "every-day illnesses" in a developing country context than to more spectacular events such as injuries or heart illnesses.

  11. Water quality as a predictor of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; DeFlorio-Barker, Stephanie; Jones, Rachael M; Liu, Li

    2015-10-15

    Microbial measures of water quality are predictors of gastrointestinal illness among swimmers in some settings but not in others. Little is known whether water quality measures predict illness among people who engage in popular water recreation activities such as paddling, rowing, fishing, or boating ("incidental contact water recreation"). We sought to evaluate indicator microbes, protozoan pathogens, and turbidity as predictors of gastrointestinal illness following incidental contact water recreation. A cohort study of incidental contact water recreation was conducted in the Chicago, USA area. Recreation took place on inland lakes, rivers, Lake Michigan, and an urban waterway heavily impacted by wastewater effluent. Water samples were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic coliphages, F+ coliphages, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. (oo)cysts, and for turbidity. Median enterococci concentrations were 71.0 and 199.8 colony forming units/100  mL at general use and effluent-dominated waters, respectively. Among 4694 study participants with complete covariate data, 193 (4.1%) developed gastrointestinal illness within three days of water recreation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, water quality metrics did not predict gastrointestinal illness among water recreators. Several variables other than water quality were associated acute gastrointestinal illness. The odds of such illness was increased by approximately two-fold by the presence of a chronic gastrointestinal condition, water exposure to the face, and by approximately 50% among those who fished (as opposed to other incidental contact activities). The odds of illness were reduced by approximately 50% among individuals who frequently used a water body for recreation. Unlike studies of swimmers at wastewater-impacted beaches that observed associations between water quality and illness incidence, this study did not. Public health protections for incidental contact recreation might

  12. Advance Care Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  13. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin during periods of mania. Either substance abuse or mental illness can develop first. A person experiencing a mental health condition may turn to drugs and alcohol as ...

  14. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model.

  15. The incretin effect in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Janum, Susanne; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit often develop hyperglycaemia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully described. The incretin effect is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and critical illness have phenotypical similarities...

  16. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Critical illness afflicts millions of people worldwide and is associated with a high risk of organ failure and death or an adverse outcome with persistent physical or cognitive deficits. Spontaneous hyperglycemia is common in critically ill patients and is associated with an adverse outcome...... compared to normoglycemia. Insulin is used for treating hyperglycemia in the critically ill patients but may be complicated by hypoglycemia, which is difficult to detect in these patients and which may lead to serious neurological sequelae and death. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1...... characteristics and are, among other things, both characterized by different grades of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. The GLP-1 might be a potential new treatment target in critically ill patients with stress-induced hyperglycemia....

  17. Concept Analysis of Illness Engulfment in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Danny; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms. The analysis discussed two defining attributes of experience of illness and impact on self-concept with a total of seven indicators. The article listed antecedents, consequences, and discussed the Modified Engulfment Scale as empirical referents. Fictional cases were developed to illustrate the concept. Finally, the concept of illness engulfment was discussed within the framework of the Roy Adaptation Model. PMID:27256943

  18. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  19. Insulin therapy in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ellahham, Samer

    2010-01-01

    Samer EllahhamSamer Ellahham and Associates, Falls Church, VA, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia frequently occurs with acute medical illness, especially among patients with cardiovascular disease, and has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Even patients who are normoglycemic can develop hyperglycemia in response to acute metabolic stress. An expanding body of literature describes the benefits of normalizing hyperglycemia with insulin therapy in hospitalized...

  20. Illness Insight and Recovery: How Important is Illness Insight in Peoples’ Recovery Process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Topic: This account reflects on the topic of illness insight and recovery. Purpose: The purpose of the account is to clarify our understanding about the importance of illness insight in peoples’ recovery process, especially when relating the question of illness insight to the question of identity....... Sources Used:The writing is based on research literature related to illness insight and on personal recovery experiences.Conclusions and Implications for Practice: It is helpful to consider the integration of the issue of illness insight when addressing the questions and consequences of diagnosis......, and to assist individuals to work through the false analogy between illness and identity while supporting the transformation from patient to person. It is also necessary for clinicians to develop a clear understanding of peoples’ actual needs and gain more knowledge about peoples’ own views and experiences...

  1. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  2. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  3. Intensive case management for severe mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Marina; Irving, Claire B; Park, Bert; Marshall, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive Case Management (ICM) is a community based package of care, aiming to provide long term care for severely mentally ill people who do not require immediate admission. ICM evolved from two original community models of care, Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) and Case Management (CM), where ICM emphasises the importance of small caseload (less than 20) and high intensity input. Objectives To assess the effects of Intensive Case Management (caseload Management (caseload > 20) and with standard community care in people with severe mental illness. To evaluate whether the effect of ICM on hospitalisation depends on its fidelity to the ACT model and on the setting. Search methods For the current update of this review we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (February 2009), which is compiled by systematic searches of major databases, hand searches and conference proceedings. Selection criteria All relevant randomised clinical trials focusing on people with severe mental illness, aged 18 to 65 years and treated in the community-care setting, where Intensive Case Management, non-Intensive Case Management or standard care were compared. Outcomes such as service use, adverse effects, global state, social functioning, mental state, behaviour, quality of life, satisfaction and costs were sought. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes we calculated relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data we estimated mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We performed a random-effects meta-regression analysis to examine the association of the intervention’s fidelity to the ACT model and the rate of hospital use in the setting where the trial was conducted with the treatment effect. Main results We included 38 trials (7328 participants) in this review. The

  4. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Michelle; Takahashi, Paul Y; Cha, Stephen S; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Gajic, Ognjen; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg

    2016-01-01

    . This model can facilitate efficient enrollment of patients into clinical programs such as care transition programs and studies aimed at the prevention of critical illness. It also can serve as a reminder to initiate advance care planning for high-risk elderly patients. External validation of this tool in different populations may enhance its generalizability. PMID:27382266

  5. The Advance in the Clinical and Experimental Studies of High-IntensityFocused Ultrasound for Cancer Treatment%超声聚焦治疗肿瘤的临床和实验研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王修杰; 李幼平

    2001-01-01

    超声聚焦(HIFU)由换能器发射的超声波组成,该高强度聚焦超声波主要通过热效应及其他机理引起组织损伤。用HIFU处理过的肿瘤组织表现为热细胞毒坏死和纤维化,导致肿瘤生长抑制。因此,HIFU是以高新技术为基础,微创治疗肿瘤的手段之一,且无放射毒副作用。目前已有多种肿瘤用HIFU治疗的研究报道,如:前列腺癌、肝癌、肾肿瘤、膀胱癌、乳腺癌和脑肿瘤等,其中一些肿瘤在临床和实验研究中获得了有效控制肿瘤生长的疗效,尤其是前列腺癌。虽然HIFU作为一种治疗肿瘤的微创外科技术由于其卫生经济、病人易接受、死亡率低而引起了人们的极大关注,但其用于治疗人类肿瘤的可行性及其机理有待进一步研究证实。%High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) consists of focused ultrasound waves emitted from a transducer that are potential of inducing tissue damage. By means of this themal effect and other mechanisms, HIFU treated tumor tissues showed direct thermal cytotoxic necrosis and fibrosis, which lead to inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, HIFU was thought to be a new sophisticated high-technology based, minimally invasive treatment option for some cancers, which allows radiation-free treatment. Until now there are many kinds of tumors, such as tumors of prostate, liver, kidney, bladder, breast and brain, especially the prostate cancers treated with HIFU. Some of which showed effective tumor growth controlled clinically and experimentally. Although HIFU as one of the ~ninimally invasive surgical techniques for cancer treatment is of great interest today, particularly for reasons of health economics, patient acceptability and reduced mortality. The feasibility and mechanisms of HIFU for treatment of human cancers need to be confirmed further.

  6. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  7. Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha D Benakappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child′s productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.

  8. 高强度聚焦超声治疗胰腺癌的研究进展%Advances of High-intensity Focused Ultrasound on the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈依静(综述); 许青(审校)

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound( HIFU) is a non-invasive technique used for thermal abla-tion in multiple benign and malignant solid tumors. Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis, and most patients are diagnosed at an inoperable stage. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy is not satisfactory enough. So,there is an urge need for new treatments to improve the situation. Clinical trials suggest that HIFU,as part of the comprehensive treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer,may increase the effective rate,median survival time,1-year survival rate and improve the quality of life.%高强度聚焦超声(HIFU)是一种无创局部热消融技术,适用于多种良恶性实体肿瘤的治疗。胰腺癌起病隐匿,恶性程度高,多数患者确诊时已失去手术机会,且化疗、放疗效果欠佳,故需要新的治疗手段改善现状。临床研究显示,HIFU作为综合治疗手段可能提高胰腺癌患者的治疗有效率、中位生存期及1年生存率,改善患者的生活质量。

  9. The transfigured body and the ethical turn in Australian illness memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettelbeck, Amanda

    2008-09-01

    Within the fields of social medicine and the medical humanities, chronic illness is acknowledged not just as an individually but as a socially transformative experience. The proliferation of published 'illness narratives' in recent years attests to the socially compelling nature of this particular story of transformation. Indeed, illness narratives have, in the past decade or so, become a rich source of interest in sociological and medical anthropological work for their capacity to map the material transformation of person to patient, of an assumed to a newly fluid model of subjectivity. Their significance is particularly visible in the cultural context of the west, where more people live both to be diagnosed with chronic illnesses (such as cancer) and to survive them. With a focus on two recently published Australian works, Eating the Underworld: A Memoir in Three Voices (2001), by the psychologist Doris Brett, and Tiger's Eye: A Memoir (2001), by the historian Inga Clendinnen, this paper will consider how the illness experience marks a transformation of embodied subjectivity that, in turn, triggers transformations of other kinds. These works have quite different intents, but they provide models for exploring how physical and individual transformation through illness becomes the occasion for reconsidering the body of history, and of the resonances of history in social memory.

  10. Genitive focus in Supyire

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Robert,

    2006-01-01

    Supyire has two distinct genitive constructions, one consisting of juxtaposed nouns, and the other marked with a particle. This study demonstrates that the marked genitive correlates significantly in natural discourse with contrastive focus as operationally defined in Myhill and Xing (1996). The method used avoids the vicious circularity of many discourse-based studies of focus. Contrastive focus, rather than being "coded", is a pragmatic construal which is dependent on other elements in the ...

  11. Life satisfaction post stroke : The role of illness cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, M. L.; van Heugten, C. M.; Post, M. W M; de Kort, P. L M; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe illness cognitions two months and two years post stroke and to investigate changes in illness cognitions over time. We also examined the associations between illness cognitions and life satisfaction at two months and two years post stroke and investigated if changes in illness

  12. Life satisfaction post stroke : The role of illness cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, M. L.; van Heugten, C. M.; Post, M. W. M.; de Kort, P. L. M.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe illness cognitions two months and two years post stroke and to investigate changes in illness cognitions over time. We also examined the associations between illness cognitions and life satisfaction at two months and two years post stroke and investigated if changes in illness

  13. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  14. Conceptualizing Social Integration among Formerly Homeless Adults with Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple dimensions of social integration among formerly homeless adults with severe mental illness have not been well-studied. Previous studies have focused on clinical measures or narrow components of social integration. We used a multisite study of chronically homeless adults who were provided housing to (a) identify the main factors…

  15. Social Determinants of Influenza Illness and Outbreaks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Evette; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants-such as education, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, access to health care services and vaccination, neighborhood-level stressors, and workplace or school policies-can impact influenza illness and outbreaks in the United States. To reduce transmission and disparities in influenza infection, policies should focus on removing existing vaccination barriers and supporting equitable social policies. PMID:27621346

  16. New insights towards the acute nonthyroidal illness syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LUIZA eMAIA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS refers to changes in serum thyroid hormone levels observed in critically-ill patients in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid primary dysfunction. Affected individuals have low T3, elevated rT3 and inappropriately normal TSH levels. The pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood but the acute and chronic changes in pituitary–thyroid function are probably the consequence of the action of multiple factors. The early phase seems to reflect changes occurring primarily in the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism, best seen in humans since 80-90% of the circulating T3 are derived from the pro-hormone T4. The conversion of T4-to-T3 is catalyzed by type 1 (D1 and type 2 (D2 deiodinases via outer-ring deiodination. In contrast, type 3 deiodinase (D3 catalyzes the inactivation of both T4 and T3. Over the last decades, several studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes on circulating thyroid hormones in NTIS. Increased inflammatory cytokines, which occurs in response to virtually any illness, has long been speculated to play a role in derangements of deiodinase expression. On the other hand, oxidative stress due to augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS generation is characteristic of many diseases that are associated with NTIS. Changes in the intracellular redox state may disrupt deiodinase function by independent mechanisms, which might include depletion of the as yet unidentified endogenous thiol cofactor. Here we aim to present an updated picture of the advances in understanding the mechanisms that result in the fall of thyroid hormone levels in the acute phase of NTIS.

  17. Application of mental illness stigma theory to Chinese societies: synthesis and new directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L H

    2007-11-01

    The rapidly-evolving literature concerning stigma towards psychiatric illnesses among Chinese groups has demonstrated pervasive negative attitudes and discriminatory treatment towards people with mental illness. However, a systematic integration of current stigma theories and empirical findings to examine how stigma processes may occur among Chinese ethnic groups has yet to be undertaken. This paper first introduces several major stigma models, and specifies how these models provide a theoretical basis as to how stigma broadly acts on individuals with schizophrenia through three main mechanisms: direct individual discrimination, internalisation of negative stereotypes, and structural discrimination. In Chinese societies, the particular manifestations of stigma associated with schizophrenia are shaped by cultural meanings embedded within Confucianism, the centrality of "face", and pejorative aetiological beliefs of mental illnesses. These cultural meanings are reflected in severe and culturally-specific expressions of stigma in Chinese societies. Implications and directions to advance stigma research within Chinese cultural settings are provided. PMID:17975685

  18. Non-communicable diseases, mental ill-health: Is it a failure of the food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michel A

    2013-01-01

    The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life. Is there any reason why the brain would not be similarly susceptible to a nutritional background departing from its specific needs? The changing food system likely bears responsibility for the rise in mental ill health that has now overtaken all other burdens of ill health. Its globalisation is threatening civil society. PMID:26715646

  19. Non-communicable diseases, mental ill-health: Is it a failure of the food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Michel A

    2013-01-01

    The rise in brain disorders and mental ill-health is the most serious crisis facing the survival of humanity. Starting from an understanding of the origins of the nervous system and the brain, together with its nutritional requirements, the present direction of the food system since World War II (WWII) can be seen as departing from the biological essence of brain chemistry and its nutritional needs. Such advances in the food system would lead to epigenetic changes. Improper maternal/foetal nutrition is considered in this manner to lead to heart disease, stroke and diabetes in later life. Is there any reason why the brain would not be similarly susceptible to a nutritional background departing from its specific needs? The changing food system likely bears responsibility for the rise in mental ill health that has now overtaken all other burdens of ill health. Its globalisation is threatening civil society.

  20. What Proportion of Terminally Ill and Dying People Require Specialist Palliative Care Services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, around 55 million people die each year worldwide. That number is expected to increase rapidly with accelerating population aging. Despite growth in the number of palliative care specialists and specialist services in most countries, the prospect of an increasing number of terminally ill and dying persons is daunting. This paper attempts to answer the question: what proportion of terminally ill and dying persons require specialist palliative care services? To address this question and highlight which persons require specialist palliative care, the current state of access to specialist palliative care services and specialists in Canada and other countries is highlighted, along with available evidence-based information on specialist services utilization and the care needs of terminally ill and dying persons. Current evidence and information gaps reveal that this question cannot be answered now, but it should be answered in advance of a crisis of unmet end-of-life care needs with the rising death toll.

  1. Life threatening illness and hospice care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Forrest, G C; Woolley, H; Baum, J D

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of 25 families and their 26 ill children attending the first children's hospice in the United Kingdom. The study examined the family's perceptions of the care offered and the impact of chronic and life threatening illness. Eighteen (72%) of the families felt they had been well supported by the hospice and valued the family like atmosphere, perceiving the staff to be friendly, approachable, and helpful. The actual nature of hospice care, in an environment with other terminally ill children, was, however, considered a drawback for a few families. A number of families still had unmet needs, notably appropriate child minding when away from the hospice. The impact of chronic life threatening illness on the families was substantial. The parents (particularly the mothers), the index children, and their siblings all experienced much higher levels of psychological symptomatology than would have been expected from normal samples. While families felt greatly helped over symptom control, a proportion remained very worried about certain symptoms, particularly breathlessness, seizures, and pain. A high proportion of families were experiencing financial and employment difficulties as a result of their children's illnesses. PMID:2730123

  2. [Physical illness in the transference and countertransference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewig, K

    1995-06-01

    The significance of severe physical illness in terms of the repercussions it may have on the course of psychoanalytic treatment is a topic that has received very little attention in the literature. The author approaches the problem from the point of view of transference and counter-transference on the one hand, and from a distinction between self and body-self on the other. Rodewig proceeds on the assumption that a physical ailment can have the character of an object and may thus attain the status of third object. Given the threat posed by dangerous physical illness, the ego has recourse to defence mechanisms such as splitting and separate projective identification of positive and negative object- and self-parts, projecting the omnipotent, idealizing desires onto the therapist and the negative desires onto the ailment itself. In a later stage a de-idealization of the therapist sets in and the latter is identified with the illness so that the illness is then bandied back and forth between patient and analyst. The most challenging technical problem for analysts is avoiding the projection of their own illness and death anxieties onto the patient with a view to resolving them there. Instead, they need to be worked in independently and then given back to the patient devoid of their original virulence. The author illustrates the various facets of the problem with brief reference to various case histories. PMID:7610265

  3. Stress in adolescents with a chronically ill parent: inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Sieh; A.L.C. Dikkers; J.M.A. Visser-Meily; A.M. Meijer

    2012-01-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland’s Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in th

  4. Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesut, Dragica P; Bursuc, Bogdana N; Bulajic, Milica V; Solovic, Ivan; Kruczak, Katarzyna; Duarte, Raquel; Sorete-Arbore, Adriana; Raileanu, Marinela; Strambu, Irina; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Adzic, Tatjana; Lazic, Zorica; Zlatev-Ionescu, Maria; Bhagyabati, Sorokhaibam; Singh, Irom Ibungo; Srivastava, Govind Narayan

    2014-01-01

    How patients relate to the experience of their illness has a direct impact over their behavior. We aimed to assess illness perception in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) by means of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) in correlation with patients' demographic features and clinical TB score. Our observational questionnaire based study included series of consecutive TB patients enrolled in several countries from October 2008 to January 2011 with 167 valid questionnaires analyzed. Each BIPQ item assessed one dimension of illness perceptions like the consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, identity, coherence, emotional representation and concern. An open question referred to the main causes of TB in each patient's opinion. The over-all BIPQ score (36.25 ± 11.054) was in concordance with the clinical TB score (p ≤ 0.001). TB patients believed in the treatment (the highest item-related score for treatment control) but were unsure about the illness identity. Illness understanding and the clinical TB score were negatively correlated (p < 0.01). Only 25% of the participants stated bacteria or TB contact as the first ranked cause of the illness. For routine clinical practice implementation of the BIPQ is convenient for obtaining fast and easy assessment of illness perception with potential utility in intervention design. This time saving effective personalized approach may improve communication with TB patients and contribute to better behavioral strategies in disease control. PMID:25485200

  5. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma, Intimate Relationships, and Sexual Risk Behavior in Youth with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…

  6. Mental Illness among Us: A New Curriculum to Reduce Mental Illness Stigma among Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…

  7. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'. PMID:26756851

  8. The Emerging Role of Meditation in Addressing Psychiatric Illness, with a Focus on Substance Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dakwar, Elias; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the practice of meditation has become increasingly popular in clinical settings. In addition to evidence-based medical uses, meditation may have psychiatric benefits. In this review, the literature on the role of meditation in addressing psychiatric issues, and specifically substance use disorders, is discussed. Each of the three meditation modalities that have been most widely studied—transcendental meditation, Buddhist meditation, and mindfulness-based meditation—is c...

  9. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  10. Care-related pain in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasrah, S

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in pain management, critically ill patients continue to have unacceptably high rates of uncontrolled pain. Using the Behavioural Pain Scale and physiological indicators of pain, this study examines pain levels in mechanically ventilated patients prior to and during routine nursing procedures. A prospective descriptive design was used to assess and describe care-related pain associated with nociceptive procedures (repositioning, endotracheal suctioning, and vascular punctures) and non-nociceptive procedures (mouth care, eye care and dressing change). A sample of 247 mechanically ventilated Jordanian patients was recruited from intensive care units in a military hospital. The overall mean procedural pain score of 6.34 (standard deviation [SD] 2.36) was significantly higher than the mean preprocedural pain score of 3.43 (SD 0.67, t[246]=20.82, Pindicating that patients were either anxious or responsive to command only. The mean physiological indicators of pain increased during repositioning and endotracheal suctioning and decreased during the rest of the procedures. Mechanically ventilated patients experience pain prior to and during routine nursing procedures. Harmless and comfort procedures are actually painful. When caring for nonverbal critically ill patients, clinicians need to consider care-related pain associated with their interventions. Relying on changes in vital signs as a primary indicator of pain can be misleading. PMID:27456175

  11. The detection and treatment of depression in the physically ill

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Depression and chronic physical illness are in reciprocal relationship with one another: not only do many chronic illnesses cause higher rates of depression, but depression has been shown to antedate some chronic physical illnesses. Depression associated with physical illness is less well detected than depression occurring on its own, and various ways of improving both the detection and treatment of depression accompanying physical illness are described. This paper is in fou...

  12. An unexplained illness in West Otago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, M; Snow, P; Paul, C

    1984-06-13

    An apparent epidemic of undiagnosed illness in a rural general practice was investigated. The aims were to describe the illness, the characteristics of the people affected, and to look for possible causes. The patients were questioned about their symptoms, and both patients and controls matched for age and sex, were questioned about possible aetiological factors. Twenty-eight cases were identified; all but three were less than 45 years of age; there were equal numbers of females and males. The most commonly experienced symptoms were tiredness, mood and sleep disturbances, headache, and joint or muscle pains. Results of the case-control study suggested that pollution of the water supply, zoonotic infections, contact with agricultural chemicals, and self-dosing with selenium were unlikely to be causes of this illness. An unidentified virus was regarded as the most likely cause.

  13. Inequality in the social consequences of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Whitehead, M; Lindholm, C;

    2000-01-01

    The demand for unskilled labor has collapsed across industrialized societies, including Britain and Sweden, and rates of unemployment and economic inactivity have increased. The result is a reduction in total employment, primarily among men. These trends could be expected to hit particularly hard...... those people with chronic illness. The study tests two opposing hypotheses: (1) the increasingly flexible, deregulated labor market in Britain would result in an increased number of new jobs, and thus better employment opportunities for unskilled workers, including those with chronic illness; (2......) the more regulated labor market in Sweden, with the associated health and social policies, would provide greater opportunities for jobs and job security for workers with chronic illness. Analysis of data on men from the British General Household Survey and the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, 1979...

  14. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training. PMID:24937101

  15. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed. PMID:20149149

  16. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  17. Absorption driven focus shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, N.; Wolf, S.; Maerten, O.; Dudek, K.; Ballach, S.; Kramer, R.

    2016-03-01

    Modern high brilliance near infrared lasers have seen a tremendous growth in applications throughout the world. Increased productivity has been achieved by higher laser power and increased brilliance of lasers. Positive impacts on the performance and costs of parts are opposed to threats on process stability and quality, namely shift of focus position over time. A high initial process quality will be reduced by contamination of optics, eventually leading to a focus shift or even destruction of the optics. Focus analysis at full power of multi-kilowatt high brilliance lasers is a very demanding task because of high power densities in the spot and the high power load on optical elements. With the newly developed high power projection optics, the High-Power Micro-Spot Monitor High Brilliance (HP-MSM-HB) is able to measure focus diameter as low as 20 μm at power levels up to 10 kW at very low internal focus shift. A main driving factor behind thermally induced focus shift is the absorption level of the optical element. A newly developed measuring system is designed to determine the relative absorption level in reference to a gold standard. Test results presented show a direct correlation between absorption levels and focus shift. The ability to determine the absorption level of optical elements as well as their performance at full processing power before they are put to use, enables a high level of quality assurance for optics manufacturers and processing head manufacturers alike.

  18. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/15/2010.

  19. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Shrivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the quality and effectiveness of mental health treatments and services have improved greatly over the past 50 years, therapeutic revolutions in psychiatry have not yet been able to reduce stigma. Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care. It is evident that delay due to stigma can have devastating consequences. This review will discuss the causes and consequences of stigma related to mental illness.

  20. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...

  1. New focused crawling algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Guiyang; Li Jianhua; Ma Yinghua; Li Shenghong; Song Juping

    2005-01-01

    Focused carawling is a new research approach of search engine. It restricts information retrieval and provides search service in specific topic area. Focused crawling search algorithm is a key technique of focused crawler which directly affects the search quality. This paper first introduces several traditional topic-specific crawling algorithms, then an inverse link based topic-specific crawling algorithm is put forward. Comparison experiment proves that this algorithm has a good performance in recall, obviously better than traditional Breadth-First and Shark-Search algorithms. The experiment also proves that this algorithm has a good precision.

  2. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  3. Facility Focus: Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes four operating libraries located at Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, Emory University in Georgia, Kean College in New Jersey, and Community College of Philadelphia. Their size, cost, date completed, architect, and various features are provided. Despite technological advances, the college library is a feasible part of higher…

  4. Adaptive leadership framework for chronic illness: framing a research agenda for transforming care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth A; Bailey, Donald E; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S; Thygeson, N Marcus; Docherty, Sharron L

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness as a novel framework for conceptualizing, studying, and providing care. This framework is an application of the Adaptive Leadership Framework developed by Heifetz and colleagues for business. Our framework views health care as a complex adaptive system and addresses the intersection at which people with chronic illness interface with the care system. We shift focus from symptoms to symptoms and the challenges they pose for patients/families. We describe how providers and patients/families might collaborate to create shared meaning of symptoms and challenges to coproduce appropriate approaches to care. PMID:25647829

  5. Passive focus sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Knop, Karl

    1995-05-01

    A focus-sensor module that could take the place of the visual-image control for professional large-format cameras was fabricated. In addition, a passive focus-sensing method was shown to work at arbitrary locations and orientations in the recording plane of large-format professional cameras. A focus resolution of better than 0.1 mm and a range of measurement of +/- 5 mm at the image side were obtained at a minimum level of illuminance and with an aperture f/5.6 of the imaging lens. In the current method, three out of four images that arose from various sections of the camera's objective lens were applied for triangulation. The demonstrated approach was based on a linear photodiode array and employed one-dimensional image information for focus sensing.

  6. Focus on Compression Stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy may be recommended as part of a treatment plan. There are several situations when compression may be helpful, including: tired legs, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), lymphedema, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This brochure focuses ...

  7. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  8. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  9. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  10. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  11. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  12. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness.

  13. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  14. Development of neutron optical components at ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, P; Humblot, H; Alianelli, L; Pfeiffer, F O

    2002-01-01

    The neutron optics laboratory at ILL carries out an innovative research program in various fields of neutron optics with the aim of developing new and improved tools for neutron instrumentation. An overview of some recent highlights is presented, indicating the breadth of the potential applications. (orig.)

  15. Doing gender, doing away with illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolling, Marie

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented in biomedical literature that impotence is a common complication of diabetes. What has received much less attention is how diabetes challenges male gender identity and how the illness interferes in intimate matters. Drawing on empirical findings from an anthropological field...

  16. Annex to the ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume deals with the scientific work carried out at ILL during 1974 using the HFR (Grenoble), cold and hot neutron sources. Theory, nuclear physics, pure crystals, crystalline and magnetic structures, liquids gases, amorphous substances, imperfections, biochemistry and physical chemistry are subject areas covered

  17. Wellness within illness: happiness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barton W; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Depp, Colin A; Glorioso, Danielle K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is typically a chronic disorder and among the most severe forms of serious mental illnesses in terms of adverse impact on quality of life. Yet, there have been suggestions that some people with schizophrenia can experience an overall sense of happiness in their lives. We investigated happiness among 72 outpatients with non-remitted chronic schizophrenia with a mean duration of illness of 24.4 years, and 64 healthy comparison subjects (HCs). Despite continued treatment with antipsychotic medications, the individuals with schizophrenia manifested a mild to moderate level of psychopathology. People with schizophrenia reported lower mean levels of happiness than HCs, but there was substantial heterogeneity within the schizophrenia group. Level of happiness in persons with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with higher mental health-related quality of life, and several positive psychosocial factors (lower perceived stress, and higher levels of resilience, optimism, and personal mastery). However, level of happiness was not related to sociodemographic characteristics, duration of illness, severity of positive or negative symptoms, physical function, medical comorbidity, or cognitive functioning. Except for an absence of an association with resilience, the pattern of correlations of happiness with other variables seen among HCs was similar to that in individuals with schizophrenia. Although happiness may be harder to achieve in the context of a serious mental illness, it nonetheless appears to be a viable treatment goal in schizophrenia. Psychotherapies targeting positive coping factors such as resilience, optimism, and personal mastery warrant further investigation.

  18. Examining the Education Gradient in Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Pinka; Joo, Heesoo; Lahiri, Kajal

    2015-01-01

    We examine the education gradient in diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol. We take into account diagnosed as well as undiagnosed cases and use methods accounting for the possibility of unmeasured factors that are correlated with education and drive both the likelihood of having illness and the propensity to be diagnosed. Data come from the…

  19. Attitudes toward patient expertise in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, S E; Ternulf Nyhlin, K; Paterson, B L

    2000-08-01

    Although it has become an accepted standard to acknowledge the patient as a full partner in health care decisions, replacing traditional authoritative relationships with those based on an emancipatory model, the experiences of persons living with chronic illness confirm that this paradigm shift is not yet apparent in many health care relationships. In this paper, the authors present a qualitative secondary analysis of combined data sets from their research into chronic illness experience with two quite different chronic diseases - Type I Diabetes (a socially legitimized chronic disease) and Environmental Sensitivities (a disease which is currently treated with considerable scepticism). Comparing the experiences of individuals with diseases that are quite differently socially constructed, it becomes possible to detect common underlying health professional values and attitudes that powerfully influence the experience of living with and negotiating health care for a chronic illness. In the discussion of findings from this study, the authors examine the implications of the spiral of behaviors that fuels mutual alienation in chronic illness care relationships if professionals are unable to value patient expertise.

  20. International comparison of cost of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink R; Koopmanschap MA; Polder JJ; Erasmus MC, Instituut voor; VTV

    2007-01-01

    All Western countries spent every year a lot of money on health care. Cost of illness (COI) studies describe how health care costs are related to epidemiological and demographic variables. This report compares COI-studies for some European and OECD countries as the Netherlands, Germany, France, Can

  1. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  2. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  3. Pancreatic Involvement in Critically ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Agrawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of pancreatic enzymes is often observed in patients admitted to intensive care units in the United States. Elevated pancreatic enzymes can occur due to acute pancreatitis or numerous non-specific reasons. Non-specific enzyme elevation can be seen in patients with head injury, acute renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis or patients on hemodialysis. Patients with severe acute pancreatitis can be admitted to the intensive care units for intensive care or patients admitted to the intensive care units for other critical illness can develop acute pancreatitis due to a variety of reasons like ischemia, hypoperfusion, drugs or hypercalcemia. It can be a challenging task to distinguish between acute pancreatitis and non-specific enzyme elevation, especially in critically ill patients with multiple co-morbidities admitted to the intensive care units in whom historical information may not be always available. In addition, the clinical consequences of pancreatic enzyme elevation in the critically ill patients are also not very clear. This review attempts to describe the complex interplay of various factors that can lead to either pancreatic inflammation and/or pancreatic enzyme elevation in the critically ill patients along with the clinical consequences and approach to patient with pancreatic enzyme elevation in the intensive care units.

  4. Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark D.; Murdoch, David R.; Rozmajzl, Patrick J.; Basnyat, Buddha; Woods, Christopher W.; Richards, Allen L.; Belbase, Ram Hari; Hammer, David A.; Anderson, Trevor P.; Reller, L. Barth

    2008-01-01

    Murine typhus was diagnosed by PCR in 50 (7%) of 756 adults with febrile illness seeking treatment at Patan Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Of patients with murine typhus, 64% were women, 86% were residents of Kathmandu, and 90% were unwell during the winter. No characteristics clearly distinguished typhus patients from those with blood culture–positive enteric fever.

  5. Coagulation Biomarkers in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses coagulation biomarkers in critically ill patients where coagulation abnormalities occur frequently and may have a major impact on the outcome. An adequate explanation for the cause is important, since many underlying disorders may require specific treatment and supportive ther

  6. Communication with older, seriously ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, L.M. van; Lindenberger, E.; Weert, J.C.M. van

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to provide more insight into effective communication with older people with serious illness and their surrogates/caregivers. To do so, if focusses on specific skills in three core functions of communication (i) empathic behavior, (ii) information provision and (iii) enabling decisi

  7. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Wetterslev, Jørn; Brok, Jesper Sune;

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation in critically ...

  8. On a Monotone Ill-posed Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen BUONG

    2005-01-01

    A class of a posteriori parameter choice strategies for the operator version of Tikhonovregularization (including variants of Morozov's and Arcangeli's methods) is proposed and used in investigating the rate of convergence of the regularized solution for ill-posed nonlinear equation involving a monotone operator in Banach space.

  9. Acute Stress Response in Critically Ill Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. den Brinker (Marieke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe understanding of the endocrine changes in critically ill children is important, as it provides insights in the pathophysiology of the acute stress in children and its differences compared with adults. Furthermore, it delineates prognostic factors for survival and supports the rati

  10. Diagnosing Febrile Illness in a Returned Traveler

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-01

    This podcast will assist health care providers in diagnosing febrile illness in patients returning from a tropical or developing country.  Created: 3/1/2012 by National Center for Enteric, Zoonotic, and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/1/2012.

  11. Clinical risk of stigma and discrimination of mental illnesses: Need for objective assessment and quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Bureau, Yves; Rewari, Nitika; Johnston, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination continue to be a reality in the lives of people suffering from mental illness, particularly schizophrenia, and prove to be one of the greatest barriers to regaining a normal lifestyle and health. Research advances have defined stigma and assessed its implications and have even examined intervention strategies for dealing with stigma. We are of the opinion that stigma is a potential clinical risk factor. It delays treatment seeking, worsens course and outcome, reduces...

  12. Difficulties in diagnosing and treating depression in the terminally ill cancer patient

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Williams, M

    2000-01-01

    It is estimated that for a quarter of all patients with advanced metastatic cancer, depression will be significant symptom. However up to 80% of the psychological and psychiatric morbidity which develops in cancer patients goes unrecognised and untreated. One of the main difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of an illness where there are no biological markers, physical signs, or diagnostics tests is deciding what can be called "appropriate sadness" as patients approach the end of life and ...

  13. A social/emotional theory of 'mental illness'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    One reason that theories of mental illness have made little progress may be their focus on individuals, omitting the social/relational and emotional world. Adding these components will be difficult, however: in modern societies they have become virtually invisible, particularly the emotion of shame. The theory outlined here is based on the work of Cooley, Elias, Lewis and Goffman: shame is both social and individual and, if anticipation is included, virtually omnipresent in modern societies. It is proposed that most symptoms of mental illness are products of shame and relational feedback loops: emotion and alienation can both spiral leading to further alienation and chaotic or hidden emotions. Almost everyone is especially ashamed of their shame. Being ashamed of one's shame and/or anger can spiral when not acknowledged. Under certain conditions, these spirals continue without limit, generating immense force for acting out symptoms or depression. To the extent that this theory is true, we would need to rename the field using non-medical terms, such as emotional/social dysfunction.

  14. Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Arrigo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is common in ICU patients and is associated with a two- to fivefold increase in mortality. This paper provides a reappraisal of the management of AF with a special focus on critically ill patients with haemodynamic instability. AF can cause hypotension and heart failure with subsequent organ dysfunction. The underlying mechanisms are the loss of atrial contraction and the high ventricular rate. In unstable patients, sinus rhythm must be rapidly restored by synchronised electrical cardioversion (ECV. If pharmacological treatment is indicated, clinicians can choose between the rate control and the rhythm control strategy. The optimal substance should be selected depending on its potential adverse effects. A beta-1 antagonist with a very short half-life (e.g., esmolol is an advantage for ICU patients because the effect of beta-blockade on cardiovascular stability is unpredictable in those patients. Amiodarone is commonly used in the ICU setting but has potentially severe cardiac and noncardiac side effects. Digoxin controls the ventricular response at rest, but its benefit decreases in the presence of adrenergic stress. Vernakalant converts new-onset AF to sinus rhythm in approximately 50% of patients, but data on its efficacy and safety in critically ill patients are lacking.

  15. From data patterns to mechanistic models in acute critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Jean-Marie; Haddad, Wassim M; An, Gary; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    The complexity of the physiologic and inflammatory response in acute critical illness has stymied the accurate diagnosis and development of therapies. The Society for Complex Acute Illness was formed a decade ago with the goal of leveraging multiple complex systems approaches to address this unmet need. Two main paths of development have characterized the society's approach: (i) data pattern analysis, either defining the diagnostic/prognostic utility of complexity metrics of physiologic signals or multivariate analyses of molecular and genetic data and (ii) mechanistic mathematical and computational modeling, all being performed with an explicit translational goal. Here, we summarize the progress to date on each of these approaches, along with pitfalls inherent in the use of each approach alone. We suggest that the next decade holds the potential to merge these approaches, connecting patient diagnosis to treatment via mechanism-based dynamical system modeling and feedback control and allowing extrapolation from physiologic signals to biomarkers to novel drug candidates. As a predicate example, we focus on the role of data-driven and mechanistic models in neuroscience and the impact that merging these modeling approaches can have on general anesthesia. PMID:24768566

  16. Theorizing health and illness: functionalism, subjectivity and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, H J

    2000-05-01

    Health and illness in contemporary psychology are remarkably undertheorized, with the consequence that implicit definitions of these topics are unquestionably imported into health psychology. Largely inspired and oriented to the medical system, health psychology is often subservient to biomedically inspired theory or directed to solving the problems of the health care system, not those of its patients or those who might ultimately benefit from health knowledge. Qualitative approaches have attempted to reintroduce the voice of the patient/sufferer/individual back into health psychology but without adequate theoretical integration this work has been marginalized and ignored by mainstream health psychology in the service of medical modelling. The point is not to develop a health psychology as an exclusive disciplinary enclave but rather to open up the possibilities of a responsible knowing. Using Kathryn Addelson's work on professional knowing I argue that the collective activity that constitutes health psychology can be made more explicit not only by devising reflexive theories and practices but by focusing on what the outcomes of that activity might be. Functional theories of health and illness, on the other hand, obscure our epistemological and moral commitments.

  17. [Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, B; Haase, U; Rundshagen, I

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is an essential part of life with many important roles which include immunologic, cognitive and muscular functions. Of the working population 20% report sleep disturbances and in critically ill patients an incidence of more than 50% has been shown. However, sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) population have not been investigated in detail. Sleep disturbances in ICU patients have a variety of reasons: e.g. patient-related pathologies like sepsis, acute or chronic pulmonary diseases, cardiac insufficiency, stroke or epilepsy, surgery, therapeutical interventions like mechanical ventilation, noise of monitors, pain or medication. Numerous scales and questionnaires are used to quantify sleep and the polysomnogramm is used to objectify sleep architecture. To improve sleep in ICU patients concepts are needed which include in addition to pharmacological treatment (pain reduction and sedation) synchronization of ICU activities with daylight, noise reduction and music for relaxation. In order to establish evidence-based guidelines, research activities about sleep and critical illness should be intensified. Questions to be answered are: 1) Which part of sleep disturbances in critically ill patients is directly related to the illness or trauma? 2) Is the grade of sleep disturbance correlated with the severity of the illness or trauma? 3) Which part is related to the medical treatment and can be modified or controlled? In order to define non-pharmacological and pharmacological concepts to improve sleep quality, studies need to be randomized and to include different ICU populations. The rate of nosocomial infections, cognitive function and respiratory muscle function should be considered in these studies as well. This will help to answer the question, whether it is useful to monitor sleep in ICU patients as a parameter to indicate therapeutical success and short-term quality of life. Follow-up needs to be long enough to detect adverse effects of

  18. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  19. Research on the Positioning, Focus and Strategy of Tianjin Advanced Manufacturing Industry from the Perspective of Synergy Development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei%天津先进制造业发展“短板”分析及应对策略--基于京津冀协同的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余桂玲

    2016-01-01

    Tianjin development process of advanced manufacturing industry exposed many shortcomings:Information technology does not close with industry, weak industrial technology innovation, low degree of industrial integration, and low proportion of high-tech industry has seriously affected the development of the industry.In the perspective of the Industrial Synergy development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, Tianjin has to accelerate the implementation of the national advanced manufacturing R&D base construction, promote development of advanced manufacturing, accelerating the international strategy of advanced manufacturing industry for positioning, clear the work focus of filling the shorts, through institutional innovation to promote the depth of integration of the industries in three provinces, accelerating independent innovation to stimulate industrial driving force, constantly optimize the industrial structure, accelerate the formation of industrial clusters, vigorously develop the productive service industry, improve the industrial development environment measures to enhance the competitiveness of Tianjin advanced manufacturing industry.%天津先进制造业发展过程中暴露出诸多短板:信息技术与产业结合不紧密、产业技术创新水平弱化、产业融合程度低、高新技术产业比例低等问题已经严重影响产业的发展。在京津冀产业协同发展视角下,天津先进制造业要以加速落实全国先进制造研发基地建设、推动先进制造业加速发展、加速先进制造业“走出去”为战略定位,明确“补短板”中的工作重点,通过制度创新推进三地产业的深度融合;通过企业自主创新,激发产业内驱力;不断优化产业结构,加速产业集群的形成;大力发展生产性服务业,优化产业发展环境等措施,提升推进天津先进制造业的竞争力。

  20. An analysis of two indigenous reproductive health illnesses in a Nahua community in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Oka Vania

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article describes the local concepts indigenous Nahua women hold regarding their reproduction. Specifically it provides a description of two indigenous illnesses—isihuayo and necaxantle, it discusses their etiology, symptoms, and treatments, and it analyzes them within the local ethnomedical framework and sociopolitical context. A perception of female vulnerability is shown to be an underlying shaper of women’s experiences of these illnesses. Methods This research took place in a small Nahua village in Mexico. Qualitative data on local perceptions of these illnesses were collected by a combination of participant observation and interviews. Ethnobotanical data was obtained through interviews, and medicinal plants were collected in home gardens, fields, stream banks, and forested areas. The total study population consisted of traditional birth attendants (N = 5, clinicians (N = 8, and laywomen (N = 48. Results Results showed that 20% of the village women had suffered from one or both of these illnesses. The article includes a detailed description of the etiology, symptoms, and treatments of these illnesses. Data shows that they were caused by mechanical, physical, and social factors related to a woman’s weakness and/or lack of support. Traditional birth attendants often treated women’s illnesses. Five medicinal plants were salient in the treatment of these illnesses: Ocimum basilicum L., Mentzelia aspera L., Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Poit., and Piper umbellatum L. were used for isihuayo, while Solanum wendlandii Hook f. was used for necaxantle. Conclusions The research on these two ethnomedical conditions is a useful case study to understanding how indigenous women experience reproductive health. Reproductive health is not simply about clinically-based medicine but is also about how biomedicine intersects with the local bodily concepts. By describing and analyzing indigenous women’s ill health, one can focus

  1. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  2. Endocrine and metabolic considerations in critically ill patients 4: Thyroid function in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fliers, Eric; Bianco, Antonio C.; Langouche, Lies; Boelen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) typically present with decreased concentrations of plasma tri-iodothyronine, low thyroxine, and normal range or slightly decreased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone. This ensemble of changes is collectively known as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The extent of NTIS is associated with prognosis, but no proof exists for causality of this association. Initially, NTIS is a consequence of the acute phase response to systemic illness and ...

  3. Understanding international differences in terminology for delirium and other types of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A; Pandharipande, P; Trabucchi, M; Rozzini, R; Mistraletti, G; Trompeo, A C; Gregoretti, C; Gattinoni, L; Ranieri, M V; Brochard, L; Annane, D; Putensen, C; Guenther, U; Fuentes, P; Tobar, E; Anzueto, A R; Esteban, A; Skrobik, Y; Salluh, J I F; Soares, M; Granja, C; Stubhaug, A; de Rooij, S E; Ely, E Wesley

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium (acute brain dysfunction) is a potentially life threatening disturbance in brain function that frequently occurs in critically ill patients. While this area of brain dysfunction in critical care is rapidly advancing, striking limitations in use of terminology related to delirium

  4. Early Efforts By Medicare Accountable Care Organizations Have Limited Effect On Mental Illness Care And Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alisa B; Huskamp, Haiden A; McWilliams, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    People with mental illness use more health care and have worse outcomes than those without such illnesses. In response to incentives to reduce spending, accountable care organizations (ACOs) may therefore attempt to improve their management of mental illness. We examined changes in mental health spending, utilization, and quality measures associated with ACO contracts in the Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer model for beneficiaries with mental illness, using Medicare claims for the period 2008-13 and difference-in-differences comparisons with local non-ACO providers. Pioneer contracts were associated with lower spending on mental health admissions in the first year of the contract, an effect that was attenuated in the second year. Otherwise, ACO contracts were associated with no changes in mental health spending or readmissions, outpatient follow-up after mental health admissions, rates of depression diagnosis, or mental health status. These results suggest that ACOs have not yet focused on mental illness or have been largely unsuccessful in early efforts to improve their management of it. PMID:27385241

  5. Psychological distress among survivors of esophageal cancer: the role of illness cognitions and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K; Brennan, Emma; Donnelly, Michael; Murray, Liam; Johnston, Brian T

    2012-04-01

    Leventhal's common sense model has provided a useful framework for explaining psychological distress in several chronic illnesses. The model indicates that a person's perception of their illness and their coping strategies are the key determinants of their experience of psychological distress. The present research examines whether illness perceptions and coping strategies are related to levels of psychological distress among survivors of esophageal cancer. Everyone registered with the Oesophageal Patients' Association in the UK was mailed a questionnaire booklet, which included the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised, the Cancer Coping Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Complete responses were received from 484 people. Regression models indicated that the variables measured could explain 51% of the variance in anxiety and 42% of the variance in depression. Perceptions of esophageal cancer explained the majority of this variance. Positive focus coping strategies were also found to be important in explaining psychological distress. The results of this study are consistent with previous research demonstrating that illness perceptions are stronger correlates of adaptive outcomes than coping strategies. The findings suggest that cognition-based interventions could potentially be most effective in minimizing emotional distress among survivors of esophageal cancer.

  6. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.

  7. Control of hypertension in the critically ill: a pathophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Diamantino Ribeiro; Silva, Eliezer; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Severe acute arterial hypertension can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. After excluding a reversible etiology, choice of therapeutic intervention should be based on evaluation of a number of factors, such as age, comorbidities, and other ongoing therapies. A rational pathophysiological approach should then be applied that integrates the effects of the drug on blood volume, vascular tone, and other determinants of cardiac output. Vasodilators, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blocking agents can all decrease arterial pressure but by totally different modes of action, which may be appropriate or contraindicated in individual patients. There is no preferred agent for all situations, although some drugs may have a more attractive profile than others, with rapid onset action, short half-life, and fewer adverse reactions. In this review, we focus on the main mechanisms underlying severe hypertension in the critically ill and how using a pathophysiological approach can help the intensivist decide on treatment options. PMID:23806076

  8. Before and after fieldwork: ingredients for an ethnography of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    W.H.R. Rivers asked what light anthropology could throw on the emergence of medicine. But this early lead was not soon followed up. Social anthropology had first to establish itself. The new social anthropology championed holistic fieldwork in small-scale societies. Some did choose to study illness or misfortune ethnographically. Evans-Pritchard, Victor Turner and Max Marwick provided outstanding models in this field. Political change and decolonisation made some of the older assumptions about the place and aims of anthropological research less easy to sustain. Growth in the subject encouraged specialisation. Medical anthropology was one among many possible developments. But it also had to identify a distinctive focus and place in relation to medicine and other health-related social studies.

  9. Illness narratives in cancer: CAM and spiritual practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Anita; Evron, Lotte; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann

    2011-01-01

    be related to CAM. The analysis is based on empirical findings from a recent PhD project. During a two-year period first author followed 32 cancer patients, family, friends and alternative practitioners through interviews, telephone conversations, treatments and in focus groups. Results: As a general pattern......Objectives: In this paper,we investigate Danish cancer patients’ narratives on spiritual beliefs and practices and the relationship these practices may have to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design: Narrative inquiry is used to uncover how spiritual beliefs and practices may......, religious and spiritual issues were not extensively unfolded in participants’ illness narratives. However, these issues were significantly elaborated on in narratives by four female participants. Conclusion: We propose that for some cancer patients CAM may function, not only or primarily as a treatment...

  10. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? PMID:25874748

  11. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  12. Adolescent Literacy. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a crisis in adolescent literacy. Part of the problem is that students often receive little literacy instruction after elementary school. This "Focus On" examines the literacy instruction that adolescents need to be successful as they move on to more challenging texts in middle and high school. In addition, this…

  13. Optimally focusing wave packets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, K., E-mail: karl.vogel@uni-ulm.de [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Gleisberg, F. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Harshman, N.L. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Department of Physics, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20016-8058 (United States); Kazemi, P.; Mack, R.; Plimak, L.; Schleich, W.P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2010-10-05

    An appropriately prepared real-valued wave packet moving in one space dimension will focus during a brief period of time even in the absence of any force. We illustrate this phenomenon by considering the time evolution of the elementary superposition of the ground state and the second excited state of a harmonic oscillator. Moreover, we show that a variation of the superposition parameter leads us from a domain of enhanced spreading via a point of suppressed spreading to a region where the wave packets focuses before it spreads again. We determine the points of maximal spreading and optimal focusing. Our analysis of this unusual behavior of a free quantum particle rests on the time dependence of (i) the average separation of the wave packet from the origin, (ii) the probability density in position space, and (iii) the Wigner phase space distribution. We conclude our search for optimally focusing wave packets by solving the corresponding variational problem with respect to a family of measures expressing the width of the wave packet.

  14. Advanced Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Florida-Brazil Seminar on Materials and the Second State Meeting about new materials in Rio de Janeiro State show the specific technical contribution in advanced ceramic sector. The others main topics discussed for the development of the country are the advanced ceramic programs the market, the national technic-scientific capacitation, the advanced ceramic patents, etc. (C.G.C.)

  15. Why focus on mental health systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global situation for people with mental illness – in developing and developed countries – is dire. Legislative and human rights protections are frequently lacking. Mental health budgets are inadequate. There are insufficient numbers of skilled policy makers, managers and clinicians. Communities are poorly informed about mental health and illness and not well organised for purposes of advocacy. In most of the world, mental health services are inaccessible or of poor quality. Most people who would benefit from psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation do not have affordable access to such services. Leadership – at all levels – for mental health system development needs to be greatly strengthened. While mental health research attention and funds are devoted predominantly to neuroscience and clinical research, we believe that the highest global mental health research priority is mental health systems research. There is an urgent need to focus on the development of effective, appropriate, affordable mental health services. The evidence base for such development is currently weak. The International Journal of Mental Health Systems aims to stimulate greater attention to the central importance of building functioning mental health systems. Rapid publication and global reach through open access will make this journal a resource for all those who wish to contribute to such development.

  16. Treatment engagement of individuals experiencing mental illness: review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lisa B; Holoshitz, Yael; Nossel, Ilana

    2016-02-01

    Individuals living with serious mental illness are often difficult to engage in ongoing treatment, with high dropout rates. Poor engagement may lead to worse clinical outcomes, with symptom relapse and rehospitalization. Numerous variables may affect level of treatment engagement, including therapeutic alliance, accessibility of care, and a client's trust that the treatment will address his/her own unique goals. As such, we have found that the concept of recovery-oriented care, which prioritizes autonomy, empowerment and respect for the person receiving services, is a helpful framework in which to view tools and techniques to enhance treatment engagement. Specifically, person-centered care, including shared decision making, is a treatment approach that focuses on an individual's unique goals and life circumstances. Use of person-centered care in mental health treatment models has promising outcomes for engagement. Particular populations of people have historically been difficult to engage, such as young adults experiencing a first episode of psychosis, individuals with coexisting psychotic and substance use disorders, and those who are homeless. We review these populations and outline how various evidence-based, recovery-oriented treatment techniques have been shown to enhance engagement. Our review then turns to emerging treatment strategies that may improve engagement. We focus on use of electronics and Internet, involvement of peer providers in mental health treatment, and incorporation of the Cultural Formulation Interview to provide culturally competent, person-centered care. Treatment engagement is complex and multifaceted, but optimizing recovery-oriented skills and attitudes is essential in delivery of services to those with serious mental illness.

  17. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  18. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  19. Depression Strikes, Stays with Many Caregivers of Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158780.html Depression Strikes, Stays With Many Caregivers of Critically Ill ... News) -- Caregivers for the critically ill often suffer depression that lingers long after their loved one's hospital ...

  20. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  1. CDC 2011 Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most likely to cause—acute gastroenteritis. Table 1. Estimated annual number of domestically acquired, foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, ... agents transmitted through food, United States Foodborne Agents Estimated annual number of illnesses (90% credible interval) % Estimated ...

  2. Depression Strikes, Stays with Many Caregivers of Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158780.html Depression Strikes, Stays With Many Caregivers of Critically Ill ... News) -- Caregivers for the critically ill often suffer depression that lingers long after their loved one's hospital ...

  3. Outbreak of Mysterious Illness Among Hospital Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2016-01-01

    the following 9 days, 14 possible poisoning victims were identified, 6 of whom were transferred for HBO. After hospital stays with repeated HBO treatment and examinations without identification of significant physical disease, the majority of the 10 HBO-treated victims remained symptomatic, some on prolonged......BACKGROUND: Hospitals are rarely reported as settings for mass psychogenic illness (MPI). The present report scrutinizes an outbreak of probable MPI among hospital staff, with medical intervention reinforcing the course of the illness. CASE REPORT: Four of seven staff members in an emergency...... influence from dramatic intervention was probably a strong driving force in the outbreak. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Awareness of MPI may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment as well as improve health care resilience, particularly with respect to preparedness...

  4. Intrahospital Transit Care of the Critically Ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagappan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal patient transport system should indeed be a mobile ICU. Optimal features to be desired are light weight, unhindered access for patient evaluation and management, uncluttered environment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in transit, low cost and, where relevant, adaptability to surface and air transportation. In appropriate situations, suitability for inter-hospital and intra-hospital transport of the critically ill with the same transit-care equipment will be an added advantage. Such systems could also be adapted for pre-hospital evacuation of the critically ill. The investment of time, intellect and technological labour in devising and maintaining a good transit care team with affordable equipment and trained medical and nursing staff is an integral part of running an intensive care service.

  5. The discovery of drug-induced illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, H

    1977-03-01

    The increased use of drugs (and the concurrent increased risks of drug-induced illness) require definition of relevant research areas and strategy. For established marketed drugs, research needs depend on the magnitudes of risk of an illness from a drug and the base-line risk. With the drug risk high and the base-line risk low, the problem surfaces in premarketing studies or through the epidemic that develops after marketing. If the drug adds slightly to a high base-line risk, the effect is undetectable. When both risks are low, adverse effects can be discovered by chance, but systematic case-referent studies can speed discovery. If both risks are high, clinical trials and nonexperimental studies may be used. With both risks intermediate, systematic evaluations, especially case-referent studies are needed. Newly marketed drugs should be routinely evaluated through compulsory registration and follow-up study of the earliest users.

  6. Ill-Posed Point Neuron Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Wyller, John

    2016-12-01

    We show that point-neuron models with a Heaviside firing rate function can be ill posed. More specifically, the initial-condition-to-solution map might become discontinuous in finite time. Consequently, if finite precision arithmetic is used, then it is virtually impossible to guarantee the accurate numerical solution of such models. If a smooth firing rate function is employed, then standard ODE theory implies that point-neuron models are well posed. Nevertheless, in the steep firing rate regime, the problem may become close to ill posed, and the error amplification, in finite time, can be very large. This observation is illuminated by numerical experiments. We conclude that, if a steep firing rate function is employed, then minor round-off errors can have a devastating effect on simulations, unless proper error-control schemes are used. PMID:27129667

  7. The relationship between ILL/document supply and journal subscriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardini, Elena; Mangiaracina, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide insights into the relationship between ILL/ document supply and journal subscriptions and to assess recent trends in the ILL service. Design/methodology/Approach: This survey is based on data from the ILL service conducted over the five year period 2005-2009 through the Italian NILDE (Network for Inter-Library Document Exchange) network. Findings: This article bears out important previous findings that ILL is not used as a surrogate for...

  8. The prediction of different experiences of longterm illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    To analyse the role played by socioeconomic factors and self rated general health in the prediction of the reporting of severe longterm illness, and the extent to which these factors explain social class differences in the reporting of such illness.......To analyse the role played by socioeconomic factors and self rated general health in the prediction of the reporting of severe longterm illness, and the extent to which these factors explain social class differences in the reporting of such illness....

  9. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. Review and Meta-analysis of Couple-Oriented Interventions for Chronic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Small, Brent J.; Saghafi, Ester M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence continues to build for the impact of the marital relationship on health as well as the negative impact of illness on the partner. Targeting both patient and partner may enhance the efficacy of psychosocial or behavioral interventions for chronic illness. Purpose The purpose of this report is to present a cross-disease review of the characteristics and findings of studies evaluating couple-oriented interventions for chronic physical illness. Methods We conducted a qualitative review of 33 studies and meta-analyses for a subset of 25 studies. Results Identified studies focused on cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, HIV, and Type 2 diabetes. Couple interventions had significant effects on patient depressive symptoms (d=0.18, p<0.01, k=20), marital functioning (d=0.17, p<0.01, k=18), and pain (d=0.19, p<0.01, k=14) and were more efficacious than either patient psychosocial intervention or usual care. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions have small effects that may be strengthened by targeting partners’ influence on patient health behaviors and focusing on couples with high illness-related conflict, low partner support, or low overall marital quality. Directions for future research include assessment of outcomes for both patient and partner, comparison of couple interventions to evidence-based patient interventions, and evaluation of mechanisms of change. PMID:20697859

  8. A one-season prospective study of injuries and illness in elite junior tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluim, B M; Loeffen, F G J; Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Verhagen, E A L M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of injury and illness among elite junior tennis players. A cohort of 73 players (11-14 years) in the 2012-2013 Dutch national high-performance program was followed for 32 weeks; all participants completed the study. The OSTRC Questionnaire on Health Problems was used to record self-reported injuries and illnesses and to record training and match exposure. Main outcome measures were average prevalence of overuse injury and illness and incidence density of acute injury. On average, players practiced 9.1 h/week (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0) and had 2.2 h of match play (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0). During the course of the study, 67 players reported a total of 187 health problems. The average weekly prevalence of all health problems was 21.3% (95% CI: 19.2-22.9), of which 12.1% (95% CI: 10.9-13.3) constituted overuse injuries and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.6-6.9) illnesses. The incidence of acute injuries was 1.2/1000 h of tennis play (95% CI: 0.7-1.7). The high occurrence of overuse injuries among elite junior tennis players suggests that an early focus on preventative measures is warranted, with a particular focus on the monitoring and management of workload.

  9. A one-season prospective study of injuries and illness in elite junior tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluim, B M; Loeffen, F G J; Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Verhagen, E A L M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of injury and illness among elite junior tennis players. A cohort of 73 players (11-14 years) in the 2012-2013 Dutch national high-performance program was followed for 32 weeks; all participants completed the study. The OSTRC Questionnaire on Health Problems was used to record self-reported injuries and illnesses and to record training and match exposure. Main outcome measures were average prevalence of overuse injury and illness and incidence density of acute injury. On average, players practiced 9.1 h/week (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0) and had 2.2 h of match play (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0). During the course of the study, 67 players reported a total of 187 health problems. The average weekly prevalence of all health problems was 21.3% (95% CI: 19.2-22.9), of which 12.1% (95% CI: 10.9-13.3) constituted overuse injuries and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.6-6.9) illnesses. The incidence of acute injuries was 1.2/1000 h of tennis play (95% CI: 0.7-1.7). The high occurrence of overuse injuries among elite junior tennis players suggests that an early focus on preventative measures is warranted, with a particular focus on the monitoring and management of workload. PMID:25944058

  10. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K

    2009-01-01

    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  11. Family illness, work absence and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Begoña Álvarez

    2002-01-01

    Combining family and work demands has become a tough challenge for many workers in modern societies. Using data from a random sample of Spanish employees, this paper investigates the effects of attending to family health needs on work absence decisions of working individuals. The estimates reveal that men and women respond in a different way to several forces influencing work absence due to family illness. The analysis also shows that workers declaring to have used working time to attend to i...

  12. Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness: Nameless Dread

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Diane E.

    2002-01-01

    Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness is a guide to the use of arts therapies in the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In the last few years arts therapies have been used in an increasingly wide range of applications with new groups of patients, such as patients in palliative care, or with learning disabilities - Diane Waller has been a driving force behind this expansion. This book covers treatment such as art therapy, dance movement therapy and mus...

  13. Illness related deception: social or psychiatric problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Bass, Christopher; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we question the validity of factitious disorder as a meaningful psychiatric diagnosis. When the diagnosis is used there is often the assumption that the person engaging in the ‘deception’ is not lying in the traditional sense of being deliberately misleading. Moreover, little is known about the aetiology or psychopathology underlying factitious disorder, and the legitimacy of deception as a mental disorder has been questioned. It is argued that while illness deception may be mor...

  14. Poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, H. K.; Björkstén, B

    1980-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl with a combination of paralytic disease, resembling poliomyelitis, and asthma is described. The girl developed neurological symptoms 5 days after a severe attack of asthma. No aetiology to the flaccid paralysis could be demonstrated although Coxsackie B5 virus was isolated from a stool. A similar poliomyelitis-like illness associated with asthma has previously been reported in 13 cases from Australia and the UK.

  15. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE), Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobi...

  16. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vitrat V; Hautefeuille S; Janssen C; Bougon D; Sirodot M; Pagani L

    2014-01-01

    Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE), Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial t...

  17. Transportation of the Critically Ill and Injured

    OpenAIRE

    Ailsby, R L

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of cookbook-style protocols to emergency treatment of critically ill and injured patients has significantly improved the quality of pre-hospital care and the organization of transportation of these patients. The systematic implementation of pre-planned protocols by physicians, nursing staff, and ambulance personnel, combined with regular post-incident performance evaluations, will enhance the level of medical care both in large and small community settings.

  18. The neutron EDM experiment at the ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, P G; Pendlebury, J M; Shiers, D; Smith, K F; Grinten, M G D; Baker, C A; Green, K; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S; Geltenbort, P

    2000-01-01

    The latest-generation neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment has been collecting data at the ILL since 1996. It uses a 'cohabiting' atomic-mercury magnetometer to measure and compensate for the magnetic field fluctuations that were the principal source of systematic errors in previous experiments. The first results, which are soon to be published, essentially verify the existing limit on the dipole moment d sub n; however, this new measurement is clearly limited by statistical rather than systematic uncertainties.

  19. Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, CN; Blacksell, SD; Paris, DH; Arjyal, A; Karkey, A; Dongol, S.; Giri, A.; Dolecek, C.; Day, N; Baker, S.; Thwaites, G; Farrar, J.; Basnyat, B

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) are common in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively investigated the causes of UFIs in 627 patients presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with microbiologically confirmed enteric fever (218 of 627; 34.8%) randomized to gatifloxacin or ofloxacin treatment were previously reported. We randomly selected 125 of 627 (20%) of these UFI patients, consisting of 96 of 409 (23%) cases with sterile blood cultures a...

  20. Images of Illness: The shaking palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician.

  1. The illness flexibility model and sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gun

    2007-01-01

    Research on sickness absence has repeatedly been described as theoretically undeveloped. In this thesis the model of illness flexibility is introduced. In this model, sickness absence is assumed to be caused by people’s ability and motivation to work. Ability and motivation will in turn be affected by conditions met in and outside work. In the model, five basic components are discerned describing such conditions. Adjustment latitude describes opportunities to adjust work to ...

  2. Learning methods for ill-posed problems. Applications to γ-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to recent days, feature extraction bas been mostly considered a supervised process of (linear filters) mapping the original measurements into more effective features so as to minimize a criterion, assuming that the variables are already selected and given. Furthermore, data are rare and/or expensive, even sometimes not representative of the exact distribution. From an experimental device, the physicist gets some measurements, spoiled by noise and some determinist distortions. The 'problem' is then to seek 'good' values of a 'number' of 'interesting' parameters. But, neither 'good', nor the 'number', nor 'interesting' are clearly defined notions. Frequently, the physicist is unable to write the mathematical equations of the observed phenomenon. He hopes that usual recipes called Fourier transform, deconvolution, least squares... Will produce shining revelations. Of course, these recipes are well-known and their honorability well established, sometimes with a name of a mathematician as a quality-label. In Pattern Recognition the input items have to be identified under various transformations of their representations. Contemporary neural-network research concentrates mostly on decision making systems, whereas the fundamental functions associated with the preprocessing of observations have often been ignored. This paper is a step toward theories that are expected to help the emergence of invariant-features. In this context, the Learning Theory approach (through advances tools like ACP, CCA or factorial cumulants) offers a great potential for archiving optimal solutions of complex real world problems, because it deals with undefined knowledge which is in mind of the physicist before he carries out the experiment: non-linear correlations, hidden dependencies... These questions are complex and very problem-dependant, but we focus on a specific one: ill-conditioned problems, i.e. when the physicist has not a sufficient amount of experimental data. In order to illustrate

  3. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...

  4. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  5. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  6. 78 FR 28292 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  7. 76 FR 65321 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. VA is inviting...

  8. 75 FR 16577 - Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). ACTION... the Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force (GWVI-TF) in August 2009 to conduct a comprehensive review... Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Draft Written Report is now complete. The VA is inviting public comments...

  9. Concepts, Structures, and Goals: Redefining Ill-Definedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Collin; Ashley, Kevin D.; Pinkwart, Niels; Aleven, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider prior definitions of the terms "ill-defined domain" and "ill-defined problem". We then present alternate definitions that better support research at the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and Education. In our view both problems and domains are ill-defined when essential concepts, relations, or criteria are un- or…

  10. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  11. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  14. Thrombo-prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Saigal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombo-prophylaxis has been shown to reduce the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE and mortality in surgical patients. The purpose of this review is to find out the evidence-based clinical practice criteria of deep vein thrombosis (DVT prophylaxis in acutely ill medical and critically ill patients. English-language randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the critically ill and medically ill population. For the same, we searched MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. In acutely ill medical patients on the basis of meta-analysis by Lederle et al. (40 trials and LIFENOX study, heparin prophylaxis had no significant effect on mortality. The prophylaxis may have reduced PE in acutely ill medical patients, but led to more bleeding events, thus resulting in no net benefit. In critically ill patients, results of meta-analysis by Alhazzani et al. and PROTECT Trial indicate that any heparin prophylaxis compared with placebo reduces the rate of DVT and PE, but not symptomatic DVT. Major bleeding risk and mortality rates were similar. On the basis of MAGELLAN trial and EINSTEIN program, rivaroxaban offers a single-drug approach to the short-term and continued treatment of venous thrombosis. Aspirin has been used as antiplatelet agent, but when the data from two trials the ASPIRE and WARFASA study were pooled, there was a 32% reduction in the rate of recurrence of venous thrombo-embolism and a 34% reduction in the rate of major vascular events.

  15. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  16. Nutritional assessment in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, E M; Shenkin, A

    1995-07-01

    Although many of the measurements and techniques outlined in this article may be epidemiologically useful and correlate with morbidity and mortality, no single indicator is of consistent value in the nutritional assessment of critically ill patients. Measurements such as anthropometrics, total body fat estimation, or delayed hypersensitivity skin testing either are liable to non-nutritional influences or lack accuracy and precision in individual patients. Plasma concentrations of hepatic proteins are affected significantly by the patient's underlying disease state and therapeutic interventions and therefore lack specificity. Although the measurement of these proteins is of little value in the initial nutritional assessment of the critically ill, serial measurement, particularly of plasma pre-albumin, may be useful in monitoring the response to nutritional support. Nitrogen balance is a widely used and valuable nutritional indicator in the critically ill. Direct measurement of urine nitrogen is the preferred test, although nitrogen excretion often is derived from 24-hour urine urea measurement, an inexpensive and easy procedure, but one that is less accurate. More accurate techniques of assessing change in nutritional status, such as IVNAA of total body nitrogen or isotopic measurement of exchangeable potassium or sodium, are more expensive, less available, unsuitable for repeated analyses, and less feasible in severely ill patients. Total body nitrogen measured using IVNAA and total-body potassium, however, are the most accurate ways of measuring body composition in the presence of large amounts of edema fluid. The application of body composition measurements to patient care remains poorly defined because of the many problems encountered with the various techniques, including cost, availability, and radiation exposure. Improved, more sensitive and, preferably, bedside methods for the measurement of body composition are needed. It is of paramount importance that

  17. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Hsiu-Hua; Hsu Chien-Wei; Kang Shiu-Ping; Liu Ming-Yi; Chang Sue-Joan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic...

  18. Islamic views on artificial nutrition and hydration in terminally ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsolamy, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Withholding and withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from terminally ill patients poses many ethical challenges. The literature provides little information about the Islamic beliefs, attitudes, and laws related to these challenges. Artificial nutrition and hydration may be futile and reduce quality of life. They can also harm the terminally ill patient because of complications such as aspiration pneumonia, dyspnea, nausea, diarrhea, and hypervolemia. From the perspective of Islam, rules governing the care of terminally ill patients are derived from the principle that injury and harm should be prevented or avoided. The hastening of death by the withdrawal of food and drink is forbidden, but Islamic law permits the withdrawal of futile, death-delaying treatment, including life support. Nutritional support is considered basic care and not medical treatment, and there is an obligation to provide nutrition and hydration for the dying person unless it shortens life, causes more harm than benefit, or is contrary to an advance directive that is consistent with Islamic law. The decision about withholding or withdrawing artificial nutrition and hydration from the terminally ill Muslim patient is made with informed consent, considering the clinical context of minimizing harm to the patient, with input from the patient, family members, health care providers, and religious scholars.

  19. Antiproton Focus Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet.For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  20. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  1. 手足口病相关细胞因子的研究进展%Advances in the cytokines related to hand, foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹美银; 章幼奕

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease occurs commonly in children, and severe and critically ill patients progress rapidly with a poor prognosis. This review focuses on the research advances in the cytokines in patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.%手足口病为儿童常见病,其中重型、危重型患者病情发展迅速,预后较差.本文就手足口病患者细胞因子方面的研究进展进行综述.

  2. Progress in pediatrics in 2013: choices in allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2014-07-12

    This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections.

  3. Moving towards effective chronic illness management: asthma as an exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Tracy S

    2011-01-01

    The United States health care system is at a pivotal point in its ability to manage chronic illness. The demands and philosophical differences between the management of acute and chronic illnesses suggest the need for different strategies for effective and efficient management of chronic illness. The purpose of this article is to discuss the Chronic Care Model and the collaborative approach to managing chronic illnesses. Asthma, as an exemplar, will be used to illustrate the need for the development of new models of collaborative care for the treatment of chronic illnesses.

  4. CERN In Focus

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2008-01-01

    First edition 2008 of Cern in Focus. On behalf of the audiovisual team, a selection of the latest videos filmed at CERN. Every six weeks, we will bring you the latest in CERN's activities, from LHC start up to the Computing Grid, featuring the experiments and many other goings-on at CERN. The agenda of this first edition of CERN in Focus features the visit of the prime minister of Malta, Lawrence Gonzi... CMS and the final descent of the YE-1 end cap... The departure of UA1 magnets to Japan... The start up of sectors 4 and 5... And finally, in our sports round up... We'll talk about football. New in brief this month... The final bolt is in place : On 7th November, in the bowels of the LHC tunnel, CERN's Director General Robert Aymar tightened a gold-plated bolt for the last arc interconnection of sector 1-2. This symbolic gesture marks the completion of all the arc interconnections of the LHC. Last welding work: it was never going to be an easy task. On this day last year just one sector had been completed,...

  5. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Naslund

    Full Text Available Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  6. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  7. Care giving of people with severe mental illness: An Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaneetham Janardhana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring is a fundamental issue in the rehabilitation of a person with mental illness and more so for people with severe mental illness. The lack of adequate manpower resources in the country is adding and enlisting the responsibility of providing care on the families to provide physical, medical, social and psychological care for their severely unwell mentally ill people. Aim of the Study: To examine the load of caregiving with reference to the types of care during the symptomatic and remission phases of severe mental illness and the various ways in which caregivers adapt their lives to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness. Materials and Methods: The present research draws its data from the 200 families with mental illness in Andra Pradesh and Karnataka in India. The data presented in the study was collected from interviews using an interview schedule with open-ended questions. Results: The study diffuses the notion of ′care′ as ′physical′, ′medical, ′psychological′ and ′social′ care. The present article focuses on the caregiving roles of the caregivers of people with schizophrenia, affective disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS and found that the caregiving does not differ much between the different diagnosis, but caregiving roles changes from active involvement in physical and medical care to more of social and psychological care during the remission. Conclusion: The study records the incredulous gratitude of caregivers at being acknowledged for the work they do. In that regard, the study itself provides a boost to the morale of tired, unacknowledged caregivers.

  8. Conceptual development of “at-homeness” despite illness and disease: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Öhlén

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Only one empirical study, the one by Zingmark, Norberg and Sandman published in 1995, explicitly focuses on at-homeness, the feeling of being metaphorically at-home, as a particular aspect of wellness. However, other studies reveal aspects of at-homeness, but if or how such aspects of at-homeness are related to each other is unclear. For this reason, the aim was to review Scandinavian nursing research related to at-homeness in the context of wellness–illness in severe and long-term conditions in order to take a step towards conceptual clarification of “at-homeness.” The review included interpretive studies related to severe and long-term illness conducted in Sweden: 10 original articles and 5 doctoral theses. “At-homeness” was found to be a contextually related meaning of wellness despite illness and disease embedded in the continuum of being metaphorically at-home and metaphorically homeless. This was characterized by three interrelated aspects and four processes: being safe through expanding–limiting experiences of illness and time, being connected through reunifying–detaching ways of relating, and being centred through recognition–non-recognition of oneself in the experience and others giving–withdrawing a place for oneself. This conceptualization is to be regarded as a step in conceptual clarification. Further empirical investigation and theoretical development of “at-homeness” are needed. The conceptualization will be a step of plausible significance for the evaluation of interventions aimed at enhancing wellness for people with severe long-term illness, such as the frail elderly, and people with chronic illness or palliative care needs.

  9. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  10. Advance care directives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  11. Safe performance of ECT in severely ill patients: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sartorius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is nowadays known as a first line therapy in many certain illness conditions. Despite the fact that psychotic depression and treatment resistant depression are more common in geriatric psychiatry, the use of ECT is not. The aim of our study was to show that ECT can be safely performed even if patients show high comorbidity and are therefore per se at a higher risk for experiencing severe side effects. Methods: We examined 25 ECT treated and severely ill patients of advanced age (mean 66 years by chart review. Results: Mean age corrected Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI was 4.1, mean Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G 10.5. Generally, ECT- related complications were rated as mild and short termed, 14 patients showed no complications at all. Complications did not correlate with age or comorbidity. Post hoc, we noted a significant advantage for the use of propofol or etomidate compared with thiopental as narcotic agents. Conclusions: Under optimized somatic treatment conditions ECT can be performed safely in comorbid patients of advanced age. However, a risk/benefit analysis should always be performed individually.

  12. A severe form of breakdown in communication in the psychoanalysis of an ill adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R

    1990-01-01

    The paper focuses on a particularly severe kind of breakdown in communication that can arise in the psychoanalysis of ill adolescents who have experienced a real breakdown in functioning, such as a severe suicide attempt or one or more psychotic breakdowns. Clinical material is presented from the analysis of a suicidal and self-mutilating adolescent as an illustration of the theme. Included is a discussion of different types of breakdown in communication. PMID:2365550

  13. Public Stigma of Mental Illness in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2013-01-01

    Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public’s stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public’s stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental...

  14. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...

  15. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  16. Application of automated topography focus corrections for volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Timothy J.; Liegl, Bernhard R.; Hwang, Emily M.; Lucksinger, Mark R.

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the implementation and performance of AGILE focus corrections for advanced photo lithography in volume production as well as advanced development in IBM's 300mm facility. In particular, a logic hierarchy that manages the air gage sub-system corrections to optimize tool productivity while sampling with sufficient frequency to ensure focus accuracy for stable production processes is described. The information reviewed includes: General AGILE implementation approaches; Sample focus correction contours for critical 45nm, 32nm, and 22nm applications; An outline of the IBM Advanced Process Control (APC) logic and system(s) that manage the focus correction sets; Long term, historical focus correction data for stable 45nm processes as well as development stage 32nm processes; Practical issues encountered and possible enhancements to the methodology.

  17. Exposing the Expert Discourse in Psychiatry: A Critical Analysis of an Anti-Stigma/Mental Illness Awareness Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daniel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a situational analysis of a recent anti-stigma campaign in psychiatry (Defeat Denial: Help Defeat Mental Illness this paper seeks to engage with the reader on the use of an expert discourse that focuses on the brain and its disruption as a way to address stigma associated with mental illness. To begin, we briefly highlight key statistics regarding the impact of mental illness in Canada and introduce the concept of stigma. We then introduce the Defeat Denial media campaign and describe the analytical process employed for this paper - Situational Analysis with a specific focus on discourse. We then expand on the use of the expert discourse in the awareness campaign by making connections with Rose’s concept of biological citizen and, in the final sections, present recent studies on stigma that highlight the paradox and contested construction of the (biopsychiatric self

  18. Alliance-focused training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks-Carter, Catherine; Muran, J Christopher; Safran, Jeremy D

    2015-06-01

    Alliance-focused training (AFT) aims to increase therapists' ability to recognize, tolerate, and negotiate alliance ruptures by increasing the therapeutic skills of self-awareness, affect regulation, and interpersonal sensitivity. In AFT, therapists are encouraged to draw on these skills when metacommunicating about ruptures with patients. In this article, we present the 3 main supervisory tasks of AFT: videotape analysis of rupture moments, awareness-oriented role-plays, and mindfulness training. We describe the theoretical and empirical support for each supervisory task, provide examples based on actual supervision sessions, and present feedback about the usefulness of the techniques from trainees in our program. We also note some of the challenges involved in conducting AFT and the importance of maintaining a strong supervisory alliance when using this training approach.

  19. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic of......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge that...... interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ, not as...

  20. Plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron source not permanently active is obtained from an electric discharge plasma focus (PF) device. A small PF device, a Mather model device, works in the limit of low energy, 100 to 200 J at charging voltage of 20 to 30 kV with a capacitor bank of 160 nF, and a characteristic inductance of 25 to 50 nH. A theoretical model leads us to estimate the optimum values of capacitance, inductance, initial charging voltage and electrode geometry. In this work is presented the design evolution and construction of a first PF neutron source prototype, preliminary measures of current, voltage and temporal evolution of the current with the end of have an electric characterization. This parameters must be optimized with the objective of geeting an emission of 104 to 105 neutrons per pulse when Deuterium is used like filled gas (C.W)

  1. Focused Ultrasound and Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Teiichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy has generally been a first choice for kidney stone removal. The shock wave lithotripter uses an order of microsecond pulse durations and up to a 100 MPa pressure spike triggered at approximately 0.5-2 Hz to fragment kidney stones through mechanical mechanisms. One important mechanism is cavitation. We proposed an alternative type of lithotripsy method that maximizes cavitation activity to disintegrate kidney stones using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Here we outline the method according to the previously published literature (Matsumoto et al., Dynamics of bubble cloud in focused ultrasound. Proceedings of the second international symposium on therapeutic ultrasound, pp 290-299, 2002; Ikeda et al., Ultrasound Med Biol 32:1383-1397, 2006; Yoshizawa et al., Med Biol Eng Comput 47:851-860, 2009; Koizumi et al., A control framework for the non-invasive ultrasound the ragnostic system. Proceedings of 2009 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems (IROS), pp 4511-4516, 2009; Koizumi et al., IEEE Trans Robot 25:522-538, 2009). Cavitation activity is highly unpredictable; thus, a precise control system is needed. The proposed method comprises three steps of control in kidney stone treatment. The first step is control of localized high pressure fluctuation on the stone. The second step is monitoring of cavitation activity and giving feedback on the optimized ultrasound conditions. The third step is stone tracking and precise ultrasound focusing on the stone. For the high pressure control we designed a two-frequency wave (cavitation control (C-C) waveform); a high frequency ultrasound pulse (1-4 MHz) to create a cavitation cloud, and a low frequency trailing pulse (0.5 MHz) following the high frequency pulse to force the cloud into collapse. High speed photography showed cavitation collapse on a kidney stone and shock wave emission from the cloud. We also conducted in-vitro erosion tests of model and natural

  2. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  3. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akogun Oladele B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next" as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them.

  4. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  5. [Somatization disorder - an overdiagnosed but underestimated illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Juha T; Läksy, Kristian; Räsänen, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Physical symptoms often occur in the absence of physical illness. This is termed somatization when the symptoms are caused by psychic factors. When abundant symptoms affect the functional capacity and cause subjective harm and seeking healthcare services, a psychic disorder may be in question. Somatization may be associated with numerous psychic disorders. It may, however, also be a question of a somatoform disorder having a physical symptom picture. Somatization disorder is one of the somatoform disorders. Recognition of the disorder is often the problem in its treatment. Establishing a long-term treatment relationship actually forms the basis for therapy. PMID:26951025

  6. Research using ultracold neutrons at the ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk I will make no effort to give an exhaustive, detailed description of the well-published results of recent work with ultracold neutrons (UCN) at the ILL. Instead, there will be a biased selection of some topics in which author happens to be most interested, though in some cases as a spectator from a considerable distance than as an actor. The selection includes the recent lifetime experiment using a Fomblin-coated bottle, the continuing search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron and some ideas on high precision neutron optics experiments

  7. Hypocaloric support in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, J F; de Pimiento, S E; Vergara, A; Savino, P; Rodríguez, M; Escallón, J

    1999-06-01

    The critically ill patient exhibits a well defined endocrine and metabolic adaptive response to stressor agents, characterized by incremented resting energy expenditure (hypermetabolism, which is believed to signify increased energy requirements), accelerated whole-body proteolysis (hypercatabolism), and lipolysis. These phenomena occur in the acute stage, which is also characterized by hyperglycemia, typically accompanied by a hyperdynamic cardiovascular reaction manifested by high cardiac output, increased oxygen consumption, high body temperature, and decrease peripheral vascular resistance. High provisions of glucose-derived calories tend to accentuate these reactions and increase the degree of hyperglycemia. We have adopted a hypocaloric-hyperproteic regimen which is provided only during the first days of the flow phase of the adaptive response to injury, sepsis, or critical illness. Our regimen includes a daily supply of 100 to 200 g of glucose and 1.5 to 2.0 g of protein (synthetic amino acids) per kilogram of ideal body weight. We have analyzed the data on 107 critically ill patients, 70 men and 37 women, who were admitted to the surgical intensive care unit and who received nutritional support by the TPN hypocaloric modality for a minimum of 3 days. We found that the high caloric loads contained in TPN regimens results in additional metabolic stress, with consequent hyperdynamic cardiorespiratory repercussion, high CO2 production, and frequently hepatic steatosis. In contrast, our hypocaloric-hyperproteic approach has resulted in a more physiologic clinical course and considerable reduction in cost. The infusion of high glucose loads, such as those used in hypercaloric TPN, does not seem to suppress the excessive endogenous production of glucose but instead markedly exacerbates the hyperglycemia of the postinjury and acute stress condition. We believe that the hypocaloric-hyperproteic regimen we utilize during the first few days of the stress situation is

  8. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  9. Heisenberg's Uncertainty : an Ill-Defined Notion ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosinger, Elemer Elad

    2012-01-01

    The often cited book [11] of Asher Peres presents Quantum Mechanics without the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, a principle which it calls an "ill-defined notion". There is, however, no argument in this regard in the mentioned book, or comment related to the fact that its use in the realms of quanta is not necessary, let alone, unavoidable. A possible comment in this respect is presented here. And it is related to certain simple, purely logical facts in axiomatic theories, facts ...

  10. Ill-posed inverse problems in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A parameter of an econometric model is identified if there is a one-to-one or many-to-one mapping from the population distribution of the available data to the parameter. Often, this mapping is obtained by inverting a mapping from the parameter to the population distribution. If the inverse mapping is discontinuous, then estimation of the parameter usually presents an ill-posed inverse problem. Such problems arise in many settings in economics and other fields in which the parameter of intere...

  11. Thrombosis in the critically ill neonate: incidence, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Veldman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex Veldman1, Marcel F Nold2, Ina Michel-Behnke31Monash Newborn and Ritchie Centre for Baby Health Research, Monash Medical Centre and Monash Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Dept of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA; 3Dept of Pediatric Cardiology, Pediatric University Hospital, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: Among children, newborn infants are most vulnerable to development of thrombosis and serious thromboembolic complications. Amongst newborns, those neonates who are critically ill, both term and preterm, are at greatest risk for developing symptomatic thromboembolic disease. The most important risk factors are inflammation, DIC, impaired liver function, fluctuations in cardiac output, and congenital heart disease, as well as exogenous risk factors such as central venous or arterial catheters. In most clinically symptomatic infants, diagnosis is made by ultrasound, venography, or CT or MRI angiograms. However, clinically asymptomatic vessel thrombosis is sometimes picked up by screening investigations or during routine imaging for other indications. Acute management of thrombosis and thromboembolism comprises a variety of approaches, including simple observation, treatment with unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin, as well as more aggressive interventions such as thrombolytic therapy or catheter-directed revascularization. Long-term follow-up is dependent on the underlying diagnosis. In the majority of infants, stabilization of the patients’ general condition and hemodynamics, which allows removal of indwelling catheters, renders long-term anticoagulation superfluous. Nevertheless, in certain types of congenital heart disease or inherited thrombophilia, long-term prophylaxis may be warranted. This review article focuses on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute and long-term management of thrombosis in critically ill term and preterm neonates.Keywords: thrombosis, neonate

  12. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Linear Algebra, Second Edition takes a gentle approach that starts with familiar concepts and then gradually builds to deeper results. Each section begins with an outline of previously introduced concepts and results necessary for mastering the new material. By reviewing what students need to know before moving forward, the text builds a solid foundation upon which to progress. The new edition of this successful text focuses on vector spaces and the maps between them that preserve their structure (linear transformations). Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stud

  13. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  14. ILLNESS IS WORK: Revisiting the concept of illness careers and recognizing the identity work of patients with ME/CFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The concept of careers has an extensive history in the sociology of health and illness. Among other things, the notion of a career has been used to describe the changing identities of patients diagnosed with mental illness, to identify distinct stages in the progression of various illnesses, and to recognize the cooperative efforts of hospitalized patients. However, the career concept may be reanalyzed as part of an analytical metaphor that makes salient both the agency of people with illnesses and the social structures in which they are enmeshed. This metaphor, ILLNESS IS WORK, can valorize and aid understanding of the identity work and actions of patients with chronic illnesses, particularly illnesses with a low degree of social recognition and medical prestige such as myalgic encephalopathy and chronic fatigue syndrome. PMID:26843550

  15. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  16. Measuring public attitudes to severe mental illness in Greece: Development of a new scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Madianos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to develop an attitudinal schedule, the Attitudes to Severe Mental Illness (ASMI scale, which synthesizes elements from different conceptual frameworks of the field, while addressing gaps on the existing literature on stigma measurement. Methods: A national representative sample of 2039 adults from the general population was interviewed by telephone. Results: Factor analysis revealed 4 factors to underlie the data, namely "stereotyping" "optimism", "coping" and "understanding", which explained 67% of total variance. The instrument's face and predictive validity were also supported, while its internal consistency and test -retest reliability were found to be high for the overall scale and its factors. Conclusions: Consistent with these, the ASMI scale emerges as a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of attitudes towards severe mental illness, while it opens new directions for advancing scientific understanding of the topic.

  17. Role of Borna Disease Virus in neuropsychiatric illnesses : Are we inching closer ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological cause of psychiatric illnesses continues to be under intense scrutiny. Among the various neurotropic viruses, Borna disease virus (BDV is another virus that preferentially targets the neurons of the limbic system and has been shown to be associated with behavioural abnormalities. Presence of various BDV markers, including viral RNA, in patients with affective and mood disorders have triggered ongoing debate worldwide regarding its aetiopathogenic relationship. This article analyses its current state of knowledge and recent advances in diagnosis in order to prove or refute the association of BDV in causation of human neuropsychiatric disorders. This emerging viral causative association of behavioural disorders, which seems to be inching closer, has implication not only for a paradigm shift in the treatment and management of neuropsychiatric illnesses but also has an important impact on the public health systems.

  18. Stress causing psychosomatic illness among nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane Pratibha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress in nurses is an endemic problem. It contributes to health problems in nurses and decreases their efficiency. Documenting the causes and extent of stress in any healthcare unit is essential for successful interventions . Aim : Establishing the existence and extent of work stress in nurses in a hospital setting, identifying the major sources of stress, and finding the incidence of psychosomatic illness related to stress. Materials and Methods: This study used a questionnaire relating to stressors and a list of psychosomatic ailments. One hundred and six nurses responded and they were all included in the study. Stressors were based on four main factors: work related, work interactions, job satisfaction, and home stress. The factors relating to stress were given weights according to the severity. The total score of 50 was divided into mild, moderate, severe, and burnout. Results: Most important causes of stress were jobs not finishing in time because of shortage of staff, conflict with patient relatives, overtime, and insufficient pay. Psychosomatic disorders like acidity, back pain, stiffness in neck and shoulders, forgetfulness, anger, and worry significantly increased in nurses having higher stress scores. Increase in age or seniority did not significantly decrease stress. Conclusion: Moderate levels of stress are seen in a majority of the nurses. Incidence of psychosomatic illness increases with the level of stress. Healthcare organizations need to urgently take preemptive steps to counter this problem.

  19. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence. PMID:25394694

  20. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitrat, Virginie; Hautefeuille, Serge; Janssen, Cécile; Bougon, David; Sirodot, Michel; Pagani, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. PMID:25349478

  1. Small nerve fiber pathology in critical illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Latronico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF is a hallmark of small fiber neuropathy of different etiology, whose clinical picture is dominated by neuropathic pain. It is unknown if critical illness can affect IENF. METHODS: We enrolled 14 adult neurocritical care patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU stay and artificial ventilation (≥ 3 days, and no previous history or risk factors for neuromuscular disease. All patients underwent neurological examination including evaluation of consciousness, sensory functions, muscle strength, nerve conduction study and needle electromyography, autonomic dysfunction using the finger wrinkling test, and skin biopsy for quantification of IENF and sweat gland innervation density during ICU stay and at follow-up visit. Development of infection, sepsis and multiple organ failure was recorded throughout the ICU stay. RESULTS: Of the 14 patients recruited, 13 (93% had infections, sepsis or multiple organ failure. All had severe and non-length dependent loss of IENF. Sweat gland innervation was reduced in all except one patient. Of the 7 patients available for follow-up visit, three complained of diffuse sensory loss and burning pain, and another three showed clinical dysautonomia. CONCLUSIONS: Small fiber pathology can develop in the acute phase of critical illness and may explain chronic sensory impairment and pain in neurocritical care survivors. Its impact on long term disability warrants further studies involving also non-neurologic critical care patients.

  2. Psychiatric illness in the New Zealand Maori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, P S

    1989-12-01

    This paper compares psychiatric illness in the contemporary Maori with that in the non-Maori New Zealander. The ethnic data available are all from secondary sources. The limitations of this and the problems of achieving a satisfactory definition of "a Maori" are discussed. The data suggest that the Maori have a slightly greater risk of psychiatric hospitalization than the non-Maori. First admission rates for schizophrenia are higher for the Maori, as are the readmission rates. First admission rates for major affective illness are roughly comparable in the two groups, and those for neuroses and neurotic depression are lower in the Maori. Rates of admission for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders are much higher for the Maori male aged 20-40 years and this group is at greatest risk of psychiatric hospitalization. A larger proportion of Maori are admitted involuntarily, especially under the Criminal Justice Act. The median stay in hospital is not longer for the Maori but their re-admissions are more frequent. The Maori have shown an increase in first psychiatric admission rates since the 1950s, with rapid increases in the early 60s and the 80s. The rates for psychotic disorders have been relatively constant and the most significant changes have been for alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and personality disorders. The author relates this historical change to socioeconomic and politico-cultural factors, particularly the stress of rapid urbanization. PMID:2610653

  3. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  4. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence.

  5. Birds of ill omen in Slavic beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksić Nina V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with birds of ill omen and beliefs related to their cries and calls. According to the presence of the ill omen attribute, these birds are sorted into three groups. The paper describes various divination types according to the calls of so-called unclean birds, as well as various prophecies, i.e. their ominous „weight“, on the basis of numerous examples from the Slavic cultural sphere, with additional, more recent examples from the Serbian space. The final remarks are related to four segments: the type of the listed birds’ bad omen (death, disease / year of famine, fire, bad weather; prophecy of evil or merely information, i.e. warning about a possible bad event; the manner of the bird’s prophecy or report of misfortune (a call, a manner of flight etc.; existence of undesirable actions related to certain birds (actions that could result in negative consequences for the person who performs them. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije i izrada multimedijalnog internet portala „Pojmovnik srpske kulture

  6. Indoor nitrogen dioxide and childhood respiratory illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, L S; Douglas, R M

    1992-09-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and as an emission from gas-fired appliances, and is also a component of tobacco smoke. Nitrogen dioxide has been shown in experimental animals to be toxic to the respiratory tract. A n number of recent studies have suggested that children exposed to significant levels of nitrogen dioxide in the home may be more susceptible to respiratory illness than children exposed to normal ambient levels. Respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity in children everywhere. Here, we review the available evidence of this association and explore methodological issues in measurement of nitrogen dioxide exposure--misclassification of subjects, symptom bias and confounding. It has recently been shown that some New South Wales school rooms, where unflued gas heaters are often used as a source of warmth, have nitrogen dioxide levels which are above recommended ambient levels for outside air. This has underlined the need for setting standards for indoor levels of various pollutants, and cohort studies are suggested, to include personal monitoring and prospective data collection techniques. PMID:1482716

  7. Monitoring the microcirculation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Daniel; Durand, Arthur

    2014-12-01

    Alterations in microvascular perfusion have been identified in critically ill patients, especially in sepsis but also in cardiogenic shock, after cardiac arrest, and in high-risk surgery patients. These alterations seem to be implicated in the development of organ dysfunction and are associated with outcome. Even though microvascular perfusion can sometimes be homogenously decreased as in acute hemorrhage or in non-resuscitated cardiogenic shock, heterogeneity of perfusion is observed in sepsis and in resuscitated hemorrhagic/cardiogenic shock. Heterogeneity of perfusion has major implications for monitoring, as many techniques cannot detect microcirculatory alterations when heterogeneity of flow is present in significant amount. Indeed, devices such as laser Doppler or O2 electrodes and near-infrared spectroscopy have a relatively large sampling volume and measurements are affected by the highest values in the field. Using these techniques during a vascular occlusion test may help to characterize microvascular reactivity; however, microvascular reactivity sometimes fails to represent actual microvascular perfusion. Videomicroscopic techniques can nowadays be applied at bedside but are still restricted to some selected patients (quiet or sedated patients). Tissue PCO2 is an elegant alternative but is not yet broadly used. In this manuscript, we discuss the main advantages and limitations of the techniques available for bedside evaluation of the microcirculation in critically ill patients. PMID:25480773

  8. Focusing on flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Middleman, Amy B

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To describe adolescents' perspectives regarding the use of school-located immunization programs (SLIP) for influenza vaccination. More importantly, adolescents were asked what factors would make them more or less likely to use a SLIP offering influenza vaccine. Results: Participants were generally found to be knowledgeable about influenza and to have positive attitudes toward receiving the vaccine via SLIP. Students were more willing to participate in a SLIP if it were low cost or free, less time-consuming than going to a doctor, and if they felt they could trust vaccinators. Overall, high school and middle school students ranked the benefits of SLIP similarly to each other. Methods: Focus groups using nominal group method were conducted with middle and high school students in a large, urban school district. Responses were recorded by each school, and then, responses were ranked across all participating schools for each question. Conclusions: A wide range of issues are important to middle and high school students when considering participation in SLIPs including convenience, public health benefits, trust in the program, program safety, and sanitary issues. Further research will be needed regarding the generalizability of these findings to larger populations of students. PMID:24018398

  9. Advances of mechanism of habenula in reward and its role in mental illness%缰核在中枢奖赏调控的机制及其在精神疾病中的作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨澍均; 张茵; 张富强

    2014-01-01

    缰核是一个在生物进化过程中古老且保守的中枢核团,参与许多重要的生物学功能,如母性行为、疼痛、睡眠、应激、学习和奖赏等。作为多巴胺奖赏网络中一个重要的节点,缰核在奖赏(也包括维持个体生存的趋利避害)过程中的功能和作用机制近年来引起学术界的广泛关注并成为研究的热点中枢核团之一。缰核的功能紊乱与许多精神疾病如抑郁、精神分裂症、成瘾等密切相关,也可能成为这些精神疾病临床治疗的潜在靶点。阐明缰核在奖赏和觅药动机中的作用和神经生物学机制具有重要的理论意义和临床应用价值。%The habenula complex,an ancient and conservative nucleus during biological evolution, is involved in many i mportant biological functions,such as maternal behavior,pain,sleep,learning and reward.As an important node in the dopamine reward network,its functions(including the maintenance of individual survival while avoiding disadvantages)and mechanis m in the reward process have attracted wide attention.The dysfunction of habenula is closely related to many psychotic disorders,such as de-pression,schizophrenia and drug habituation.Habenula may also become a potential target for clinical treatment of these mental illnesses.So clarifying the role and neurobiological mechanisms of habenula in the central nervous system is of great theoretical and clinical value.

  10. The role of illness perceptions in labour participation of the chronically ill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Heijmans, M.; Gulden, J.W.J. van der; Rijken, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations between work disability and illness perceptions, over and above medical assessment and self-reported health. METHODS: A representative sample of people aged 15-64 years with various chronic physical diseases was derived from the Panel of Patients with

  11. Approaching the concept of self-managing illness in long term illness. A review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou V

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The management of long term illness is globally challenging and the common concerns are mainly found in developed, developing and transitory countries as the increase in the ageing of the population deteriorates the problems. For patients who are suffering from long term illnesses, there is an interest for programs of self managing the disease, which highlight the core essence of educating patients on managing the disease. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to a present the basic definitions of self managing the disease, b identify the current situation and c discuss and support nursing staff in educating the patient on self managing the illness. Materials- Methods: A review of relevant articles was conducted on the electronic database Medline/ Pubmed as well as through Scholar Google search engine and a secondary search on the references found on the articles. This occurred irrespective of the publication time.Conclusions The role of the nurse as a member of the interdisciplinary group is important because it helps the patient to develop skills of self care. Complete programs of self-managing the illness with the participation of the nurses in the planning, application and evaluation of the results, will contribute significantly to the patient, notwithstanding the professional benefit for the nurses.

  12. The placebo puzzle: examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Shawn; Cibulka, Nancy J; Palmer, Janice L; Lorenz, Rebecca A; SmithBattle, Lee

    2013-03-01

    The placebo response presents an enigma to biomedical science: how can 'inert' or 'sham' procedures reduce symptoms and produce physiological changes that are comparable to prescribed treatments? In this study, we examine this puzzle by explicating the discordant space between the prevailing biomedical paradigm, which focuses on a technical understanding of diagnosis and treatment, and a broader understanding of illness and healing as relational and embodied. Although biomedical achievements are impressive, the knowledge resulting from this paradigm is limited by its ontological and epistemological assumptions. When the body and world are objectified, illness meanings, therapeutic relationships, and healing practices are dismissed or distorted. In spite of a robust critique of the tenets of biomedicine for guiding practice, the biomedical paradigm retains a tenacious hold on evidence-based medicine and nursing, downplaying our clinical understanding of the sentient body, patients' life-worlds, and illness and healing. In reality, skilled nurses rely on multiple forms of knowledge in providing high-quality care to particular patients. Clinically wise nurses integrate their experience and knowledge of patients' priorities, fears, and illness trajectories along with biomedical findings to make astute judgments and promote health and healing.

  13. Gut Microbial Translocation in Critically Ill Children and Effects of Supplementation with Pre- and Pro Biotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Papoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial translocation as a direct cause of sepsis is an attractive hypothesis that presupposes that in specific situations bacteria cross the intestinal barrier, enter the systemic circulation, and cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Critically ill children are at increased risk for bacterial translocation, particularly in the early postnatal age. Predisposing factors include intestinal obstruction, obstructive jaundice, intra-abdominal hypertension, intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury and secondary ileus, and immaturity of the intestinal barrier per se. Despite good evidence from experimental studies to support the theory of bacterial translocation as a cause of sepsis, there is little evidence in human studies to confirm that translocation is directly correlated to bloodstream infections in critically ill children. This paper provides an overview of the gut microflora and its significance, a focus on the mechanisms employed by bacteria to gain access to the systemic circulation, and how critical illness creates a hostile environment in the gut and alters the microflora favoring the growth of pathogens that promote bacterial translocation. It also covers treatment with pre- and pro biotics during critical illness to restore the balance of microbial communities in a beneficial way with positive effects on intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation.

  14. Acute Muscular Sarcocystosis: an international investigation among ill travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two provider-based traveler-focused networks allowed for the detection of a large outbreak of acute muscular sarcocystosis (AMS). Clinicians evaluating travelers returning ill from Malaysia with fever and myalgia noted the biphasic aspect of the disease, the later onset of elevated CPK and eosinophi...

  15. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Scholten; A.M. Willemen; M.A. Grootenhuis; H. Maurice-Stam; C. Schuengel; B.F. Last

    2011-01-01

    Coping with a chronic illness (CI) challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the int

  16. A challenging empirical question: What are the effects of media on psychogenic illness during a community crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Elizabeth; Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Dorf, Dennis; Broderick, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic illness during disasters can cripple emergency healthcare services. Almost all research into this phenomenon has been retrospective and observational, and much of it suggests that media coverage can amplify psychogenic outbreaks. But there is little empirical evidence that this is true or that, conversely, media reports can mitigate psychogenic symptoms. In their work experimentally inducing psychogenic illness, the authors became sharply aware that it is difficult to experimentally mimic real-time media coverage. Yet clarifying media's effects on psychogenic illness is important if we want to prevent psychological disturbance. To meet this challenge, the authors advocate the funding and development of research protocols in advance of public emergencies, ready to be implemented in real-time. Coupled with digital media, which can track the reading and viewing behavior of millions of people, this approach can help us better understand media's impact on public health during an emergency, for better or for worse.

  17. Social networks, the 'work' and work force of chronic illness self-management: a survey analysis of personal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Vassilev

    Full Text Available Self-management support forms a central aspect of chronic Illness management nationally and globally. Evidence for the success of self-management support has mainly focussed on individually-centred outcomes of behavioural change. While it is recognised that social network members play an important role there is currently a gap in knowledge regarding who provides what type of support and under what circumstances. This is relevant for understanding the division of labour and the meeting of needs for those living with a long-term condition. We therefore took a network approach to explore self-management support conceptualising it as types of illness 'work' undertaken within peoples' social networks. 300 people from deprived areas and with chronic illnesses took part in a survey conducted in 2010 in the North West of England. A concentric circles diagram was used as a research tool with which participants identified 2,544 network members who contributed to illness management. The results provide an articulation of how social network members are substantially involved in illness management. Whilst partners and close family make the highest contributions there is evidence of inputs from a wide range of relationships. Network member characteristics (type of relationship, proximity, frequency of contact impact on the amount of illness work undertaken in peoples' networks. In networks with 'no partner' other people tend to contribute more in the way of illness related work than in networks with a partner. This indicates a degree of substitutability between differently constituted networks, and that the level and type of input by different members of a network might change according to circumstances. A network perspective offers an opportunity to redress the balance of an exclusively individual focus on self-management because it addresses the broader set of contributions and resources available to people in need of chronic illness management and support.

  18. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M

    2016-06-01

    receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75, which indicated good discrimination. Conclusion: A simple model based on easily obtainable administrative data predicted critical illness in the next 2 years in elderly outpatients with up to 14% of the highest risk population suffering from critical illness. This model can facilitate efficient enrollment of patients into clinical programs such as care transition programs and studies aimed at the prevention of critical illness. It also can serve as a reminder to initiate advance care planning for high-risk elderly patients. External validation of this tool in different populations may enhance its generalizability. Keywords: aged, prognostication, critical care, mortality, elder risk assessment

  19. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  20. Prostate Focused Ultrasound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier; Crouzet, Sébastien; Gelet, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress in engineering and computing power coupled with ultrasound transducer technology and imaging modalities over the past 20 years have encouraged a revival of clinical interest in ultrasound therapy, mainly in High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). So far, the most extensive results from HIFU obtained in urology involve transrectal prostate ablation, which appears to be an effective therapeutic alternative for patients with malignant prostate tumors. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in men. Several treatment options with different therapeutic approaches exist, including HIFU for localized PCa that has been in use for over 15 years. Since the early 2000s, two systems have been marketed for this application, and other devices are currently in clinical trials. HIFU treatment can be used either alone or in combination with (before- or after-) external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (before or after HIFU) and can be repeated multiple times. HIFU treatment is performed under real-time monitoring with ultrasound or guided by MRI. Two indications are validated today: Primary care treatment and EBRT failure. The results of HIFU for primary care treatment are similar to standard conformal EBRT, even though no randomized comparative studies have been performed and no 10-year follow up data is yet available for HIFU. Salvage HIFU after EBRT failure is increasing with oncological outcomes, similar to those achieved with surgery but with the advantage of fewer adverse effects. HIFU is an evolving technology perfectly adapted for focal treatment. Thus, HIFU focal therapy is another pathway that must be explored when considering the accuracy and reliability for PCa mapping techniques. HIFU would be particularly suited for such a therapy since it is clear that HIFU outcomes and toxicity are relative to the volume of prostate treated. PMID:26486330