WorldWideScience

Sample records for advanced hydrogen transport

  1. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Joseph [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Porter, Jason [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Patki, Neil [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kelley, Madison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Stanislowski, Josh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Makuch, David [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  2. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephen; Frank E. Anderson; Shandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton

    2004-01-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites with hydrogen permeable alloys. The primary technical challenge in achieving the goals of this project will be to optimize membrane composition to enable practical hydrogen separation rates and chemical stability. Other key aspects of this developing technology include catalysis, ceramic processing methods, and separation unit design operating under high pressure. To achieve these technical goals, Eltron Research Inc. has organized a consortium consisting of CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Inc. (SCI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and NORAM. Hydrogen permeation rates in excess of 50 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were routinely achieved under less than optimal experimental conditions using a range of membrane compositions. Factors that limit the maximum permeation attainable were determined to be mass transport resistance of H{sub 2} to and from the membrane surface, as well as surface contamination. Mass transport resistance was partially overcome by increasing the feed and sweep gas flow rates to greater than five liters per minute. Under these experimental conditions, H2 permeation rates in excess of 350 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were attained. These results are presented in this report, in addition to progress with cermets, thin film fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

  3. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-10-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-07-31

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

  5. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Richard Treglio; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-07-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates as high as 423 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was investigated by comparison to composite alloy membranes. Permeation of alloyed membranes showed a strong dependence on the alloying element. Impedance analysis was used to investigate bulk and grain boundary conductivity in cermets. Thin film cermet deposition procedures were developed, hydrogen dissociation catalysts were evaluated, and hydrogen separation unit scale-up issues were addressed.

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  8. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TURBINE DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John

    2015-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: ⟂ A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant. ⟂ 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant. ₜ NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  9. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  14. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  17. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  18. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  19. Membrane transport of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Gerd P; Schjoerring, Jan K; Jahn, Thomas P

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) belongs to the reactive oxygen species (ROS), known as oxidants that can react with various cellular targets thereby causing cell damage or even cell death. On the other hand, recent work has demonstrated that H2O2 also functions as a signalling molecule controlling different essential processes in plants and mammals. Because of these opposing functions the cellular level of H2O2 is likely to be subjected to tight regulation via processes involved in production, distribution and removal. Substantial progress has been made exploring the formation and scavenging of H2O2, whereas little is known about how this signal molecule is transported from its site of origin to the place of action or detoxification. From work in yeast and bacteria it is clear that the diffusion of H2O2 across membranes is limited. We have now obtained direct evidence that selected aquaporin homologues from plants and mammals have the capacity to channel H2O2 across membranes. The main focus of this review is (i) to summarize the most recent evidence for a signalling role of H2O2 in various pathways in plants and mammals and (ii) to discuss the relevance of specific transport of H2O2.

  20. Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A macroeconomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mennel, Tim; Jokisch, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today?s transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This working paper assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model PACE-T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European countries from the introduction of hydrogen. The magnitude of ...

  1. Hydrogen vacancies facilitate hydrogen transport kinetics in sodium hydride nanocrystallites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Eijt, S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory, of the vacancy-mediated hydrogen migration energy in bulk NaH and near the NaH(001) surface. The estimated rate of the vacancy mediated hydrogen transport, obtained within a hopping diffusion model, is consistent with the reaction

  2. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  3. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  5. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  9. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hendricks, C. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and W.J. Schafer Associates (WJSA). The authors plan to experimentally verify the performance characteristics of engineered glass microspheres that are relevant to the storage and transport of hydrogen for energy applications. They will identify the specific advantages of hydrogen transport by microspheres, analyze the infrastructure implications and requirements, and experimentally measure their performance characteristics in realistic, bulk storage situations.

  10. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  11. Hydrogen vacancies facilitate hydrogen transport kinetics in sodium hydride nanocrystallites

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Eijt, S.W.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations based on density-functional theory, of the vacancy-mediated hydrogen migration energy in bulk NaH and near the NaH(001) surface. The estimated rate of the vacancy mediated hydrogen transport, obtained within a hopping diffusion model, is consistent with the reaction rates of H-D exchange in nano-NaH at the relatively low temperatures observed in recent neutron studies on TiCl3-doped NaAlH4. We further obtained the formation energy for hydrogen vacancies and in...

  12. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  13. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  14. Hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to review the factors already discussed in the literature and identify gaps or issues which seem to require further debate in relation of the introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector. Studies in the academic and grey literature have analysed transport systems with a rather wide range of hydrogen penetration rates, utilisation of the infrastructure, hypotheses on the dynamics of the systems, capital costs of the infrastructure and hydrogen price. Most of the issues which could widen the debate in the literature are related to policy instruments. In particular, more attention should be paid to the policy instruments needed to foster co-ordination among stakeholders, persuade drivers to buy hydrogen vehicles despite the existence of a sparse infrastructure; guarantee investment in the early, possibly loss-making, retail stations and to foster financially sustainable government commitments. The effect of limited availability of hydrogen vehicle models on the penetration rates in the literature and the sensitivity of the hydrogen price to taxation from the government are other two issues deserving a more in-depth discussion. (author)

  15. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  16. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  17. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  18. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William; Hughes, Michael; Berry, Jonathan; Russell, Tamara; Lau, Y. C.; Liu, Shan; Arnett, Michael; Peck, Arthur; Tralshawala, Nilesh; Weber, Joseph; Benjamin, Marc; Iduate, Michelle; Kittleson, Jacob; Garcia-Crespo, Andres; Delvaux, John; Casanova, Fernando; Lacy, Ben; Brzek, Brian; Wolfe, Chris; Palafox, Pepe; Ding, Ben; Badding, Bruce; McDuffie, Dwayne; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-04-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  19. Geometry, stability and thermal transport of hydrogenated graphene nanoquilts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping

    2016-01-01

    Geometry, stability, and thermal transport of graphene nanoquilts folded by hydrogenation are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The hydrogenated graphene nanoquilts show increased thermodynamic stability and better transport properties than folded graphene structures without hydrogenation. For the two-fold graphene nanoquilt, both geometry and thermal conductivity are very sensitive to the adsorbed hydrogen chains, which is interpreted by the red-shift of PDOS. For the multi-fold ...

  20. Hydrogen from Biomass for Urban Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, William

    2008-02-18

    The objective of this project was to develop a method, at the pilot scale, for the economical production of hydrogen from peanut shells. During the project period a pilot scale process, based on the bench scale process developed at NREL (National Renewable Energy Lab), was developed and successfully operated to produce hydrogen from peanut shells. The technoeconomic analysis of the process suggests that the production of hydrogen via this method is cost-competitive with conventional means of hydrogen production.

  1. Advanced Mass Spectrometers for Hydrogen Isotope Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastagner, P.

    2001-08-01

    This report is a summary of the results of a joint Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) - Savannah River Plant (SRP) ''Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program''. The program was undertaken to evaluate two prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometers and obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometers to replace obsolete instruments.

  2. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  3. Hydrogen for road transport: implementations and developments; L'hydrogene pour le transport sur route: realisations et developpements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, M.; Bocquet, L.; Bendif, M.; Karboviac, D. [Alphea, 57 - Forbach (France)

    2000-07-01

    The different technologies for the use of hydrogen in the road transport are overviewed: type of propulsion (fuel cell and electric motor or internal combustion motor), hydrogen production, on-board storage, infrastructure. The aspects of safety, standardization and regulation are approached too. At the present time, main of the hydrogen buses are equipped with polymer membrane cells (PEMFC), directly supplied in hydrogen and stored in tanks under pressure (300 bars). On the other hand, the automobile manufacturers are developing different types of prototypes: internal combustion engines with liquid hydrogen storage, PEM cell cars with hydrogen storage (liquid, gas or hydrides) or with methanol storage. The infrastructure type will depend on the primary fuel chosen by the automobile manufacturers and on the requirements of the petroleum firms. Several hydrogen service stations have been constructed. They deliver hydrogen, on a gaseous or liquid state; the hydrogen being produced by natural gas reforming or by electrolysis. The setting of a 'Hydrogen system' require indeed the development of specific means of production, transport, distribution and storage. The public acceptance will be won by safeguards of safety, reliability, performance and competitiveness. The research and development studies are nowadays particularly centred on: 1)the on-board hydrogen storage 2)the on-board systems of hydrogen production from methanol and gasoline 3)the standardization and regulation. (O.M.)

  4. Characterization of hydrogen embrittlement in automotive advanced high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, O.; Veith, S.; Goebel, T. [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Loidl, M.

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen embrittlement is the limiting factor when it comes to the utilization of advanced highest strength steels in a car body frame. Steels with a tensile strength of greater than 1000 MPa are deemed to be susceptible to hydrogen induced delayed fracture and therefore are not yet widely used. To characterize the deleterious effects of hydrogen embrittlement in advanced highest strength steels the slow strain rate testing in gaseous hydrogen atmosphere is a suitable method for investigating the effect of hydrogen on the materials ductility. Additionally the hydrogen content after slow strain rate testing was measured by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy. By using this technique it is possible to differentiate between diffusible and trapped hydrogen. Diffusible hydrogen may interact with dislocations and therefore changes the fracture behaviour of metals. This was also documented by analysing the fracture surface of the tensile specimen by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The investigations yield a comprehensive view on the susceptibility towards hydrogen induced cracking and allow a comparative view among different steel grades. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Advanced research and technology program for advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  6. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  7. Novel sugar-to-hydrogen technology promises transportation fuel independence

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not a futuristic concept. The U.S. Department of Energy's 2006 Advance Energy Initiative calls for competitive ethanol from plant sources by 2012 and a good selection of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles by 2020.

  8. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  9. Hydrogen production for transportation fuels using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing solid-oxide cells for the efficient High Temperature Electrolytic (HTE) production of hydrogen using the heat and electricity of advanced nuclear reactors. This team, which includes Ceramatec, Inc. of Salt Lake City, ANL and UNL V, has been conducting experiments at progressively larger sizes and longer durations to build on the technology developed for solid-oxide fuel cells and to investigate the technical challenges unique to electrolytic operation. By operating at temperatures of 800-850 deg. C, the cell voltage of the electrolyzer can be reduced by about 40% from the room temperature voltage and the reaction rates are much faster at the high temperatures. The planar cells are electrolyte-supported and consist of 0.150 mm- thick yttria- or scandia-stablized zirconia. The use of precious metals has been avoided in the design. The inlet to the cells is 90 v/o steam, 10 v/o hydrogen, while the outlet is about 25 v/o steam and 75 v/o hydrogen. The hydrogen in the inlet is needed to maintain reducing conditions on the nickel-cermet electrode. In addition to producing hydrogen, we have been conducting a series of experiments in which the O-2 ion-conducting electrolytes can be used for the co-electrolysis of CO2 as well as H2O. The resulting CO + 2 H2 mixture ('synthesis gas') can serve as feedstock in the Fischer Tropsch reaction for the formation of liquid fuels, such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel and of synthetic lubricating oils. This process, which we have named Syntrolysis, is potentially a direct application of nuclear energy to the production of synthetic fuels very similar to the conventional transportation fuels we now use. We have conducted studies of the use of nuclear-generated hydrogen in the upgrading of heavy crude oil, oil sands and for coal to liquids processes. By using nuclear energy, instead of fossil fuels, for the production of the necessary hydrogen, the carbon dioxide emissions from the overall process can be greatly

  10. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  11. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  12. Influence of hydrogen chemisorption kinetics on the interpretation of hydrogen transport through iron membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanabarger, M. R.; Taslami, A.; Nelson, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of a specific surface reaction on the transport of gas-phase hydrogen through iron membranes has been investigated on the basis of model calculations. The surface reaction involves an adsorbed molecular hydrogen precursor between the gas phase and the dissociated chemisorbed state. The calculations demonstrate that the surface reaction for the H2/Fe system makes significant contributions to the time delay associated with the transient hydrogen transport through iron membranes, even under conditions where the steady-state hydrogen transport is independent of the surface reaction. These contributions to the time delay are interpreted in terms of an effective diffusivity, which is a function of the pressure on the entrance side and the thickness of the membrane.

  13. Metal hydride hydrogen compression: recent advances and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Mykhaylo; Linkov, Vladimir; Grant, David; Stuart, Alastair; Eriksen, Jon; Denys, Roman; Bowman, Robert C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is one of the more important applications of the MHs. The present paper reviews recent advances in the field based on the analysis of the fundamental principles of this technology. The performances when boosting hydrogen pressure, along with two- and three-step compression units, are analyzed. The paper includes also a theoretical modelling of a two-stage compressor aimed at describing the performance of the experimentally studied systems, their optimization and design of more advanced MH compressors. Business developments in the field are reviewed for the Norwegian company HYSTORSYS AS and the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry. Finally, future prospects are outlined presenting the role of the MH compression in the overall development of the hydrogen-driven energy systems. The work is based on the analysis of the development of the technology in Europe, USA and South Africa.

  14. Analytical modelling of hydrogen transport in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A versatile computational model of hydrogen transport in nuclear plant containment buildings is developed. The background and significance of hydrogen-related nuclear safety issues are discussed. A computer program is constructed that embodies the analytical models. The thermofluid dynamic formulation spans a wide applicability range from rapid two-phase blowdown transients to slow incompressible hydrogen injection. Detailed ancillary models of molecular and turbulent diffusion, mixture transport properties, multi-phase multicomponent thermodynamics and heat sink modelling are addressed. The numerical solution of the continuum equations emphasizes both accuracy and efficiency in the employment of relatively coarse discretization and long time steps. Reducing undesirable numerical diffusion is addressed. Problem geometry options include lumped parameter zones, one dimensional meshs, two dimensional Cartesian or axisymmetric coordinate systems and three dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical regions. An efficient lumped nodal model is included for simulation of events in which spatial resolution is not significant. Several validation calculations are reported

  15. Chill Down Process of Hydrogen Transport Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Renwei; Klausner, James

    2006-01-01

    A pseudo-steady model has been developed to predict the chilldown history of pipe wall temperature in the horizontal transport pipeline for cryogenic fluids. A new film boiling heat transfer model is developed by incorporating the stratified flow structure for cryogenic chilldown. A modified nucleate boiling heat transfer correlation for cryogenic chilldown process inside a horizontal pipe is proposed. The efficacy of the correlations is assessed by comparing the model predictions with measured values of wall temperature in several azimuthal positions in a well controlled experiment by Chung et al. (2004). The computed pipe wall temperature histories match well with the measured results. The present model captures important features of thermal interaction between the pipe wall and the cryogenic fluid, provides a simple and robust platform for predicting pipe wall chilldown history in long horizontal pipe at relatively low computational cost, and builds a foundation to incorporate the two-phase hydrodynamic interaction in the chilldown process.

  16. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  17. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovicu, Gianfranco; Bottazzi, Mauro; D'Aiuto, Fabio; De Sanctis, Massimo; Dimatteo, Antonella; Santus, Ciro; Valentini, Renzo

    2012-11-01

    Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have a better combination between strength and ductility than conventional HSS, and higher crash resistances are obtained in concomitance with weight reduction of car structural components. These steels have been developed in the last few decades, and their use is rapidly increasing. Notwithstanding, some of their important features have to be still understood and studied in order to completely characterize their service behavior. In particular, the high mechanical resistance of AHSS makes hydrogen-related problems a great concern for this steel grade. This article investigates the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of four AHSS steels. The behavior of one transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), two martensitic with different strength levels, and one hot-stamping steels has been studied using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests on electrochemically hydrogenated notched samples. The embrittlement susceptibility of these AHSS steels has been correlated mainly to their strength level and to their microstructural features. Finally, the hydrogen critical concentrations for HE, established by SSRT tests, have been compared to hydrogen contents absorbed during the painting process of a body in white (BIW) structure, experimentally determined during a real cycle in an industrial plant.

  19. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  20. Transport modeling and advanced computer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop was held at the University of Texas in June 1988 to consider the current state of transport codes and whether improved user interfaces would make the codes more usable and accessible to the fusion community. Also considered was the possibility that a software standard could be devised to ease the exchange of routines between groups. It was noted that two of the major obstacles to exchanging routines now are the variety of geometrical representation and choices of units. While the workshop formulated no standards, it was generally agreed that good software engineering would aid in the exchange of routines, and that a continued exchange of ideas between groups would be worthwhile. It seems that before we begin to discuss software standards we should review the current state of computer technology --- both hardware and software to see what influence recent advances might have on our software goals. This is done in this paper

  1. The rate-limiting process of hydrogen transport in Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkoshi, Keishiro; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Bandourko, V.; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yamawaki, Michio [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope transport characteristics of Mo, whose refractory properties are considered to be suitable as plasma facing material, was investigated by applying 3 keV D{sub 2}{sup +} beam to the membrane specimen. The Arrhenius plot of deuterium permeation probability showed linear increase against the reciprocal temperature and its apparent activation energy was determined as 41.5 kJ/mol. The simultaneous irradiation of 3 keV Ar{sup +} onto backside surface of specimen had little effect on the deuterium permeation rate. According to these results, the rate-limiting process of deuterium transport in Mo was determined. (author)

  2. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Barazesh, JM; Hennebel, T; Jasper, JT; Sedlak, DL

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low con...

  3. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  4. CREATION OF AUTORECIPIENTS FOR STORAGE, TRANSPORTATIONS AND DELIVERIES OF THE COMPRESSED HYDROGEN

    OpenAIRE

    Павлов, Н. В.

    2015-01-01

    Growing use of hydrogen in various industries and predictable in the near future a change to hydrogen economy make actual the creation of automobile recipients for transportation and storages of the hydrogen compressed up to high pressures. For substantiation of development of automobile hydrogen recipient the comparison of some parameters (specific consumption of energy, specific volume) three possible systems of storage: compressed hydrogen; hydrogen in liquid kind at cryogenic temperatures...

  5. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  6. Recent advances in understanding hepatic drug transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cells need to strictly control their internal milieu, a function which is performed by the plasma membrane. Selective passage of molecules across the plasma membrane is controlled by transport proteins. As the liver is the central organ for drug metabolism, hepatocytes are equipped with numerous drug transporters expressed at the plasma membrane. Drug disposition includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug and hence multiple passages of drugs and their metabolites across membranes. Consequently, understanding the exact mechanisms of drug transporters is essential both in drug development and in drug therapy. While many drug transporters are expressed in hepatocytes, and some of them are well characterized, several transporters have only recently been identified as new drug transporters. Novel powerful tools to deorphanize (drug) transporters are being applied and show promising results. Although a large set of tools are available for studying transport in vitro and in isolated cells, tools for studying transport in living organisms, including humans, are evolving now and rely predominantly on imaging techniques, e.g. positron emission tomography. Imaging is an area which, certainly in the near future, will provide important insights into "transporters at work" in vivo. PMID:27781095

  7. Method of making a hydrogen transport membrane, and article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph M.; Corpus, Joseph M.; Lim, Hankwon

    2015-07-21

    The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a hydrogen transport membrane and the composite article itself. More specifically, the invention relates to producing a membrane substrate, wherein the ceramic substrate is coated with a metal oxide slurry, thereby eliminating the need for an activation step prior to plating the ceramic membrane through an electroless plating process. The invention also relates to modifying the pore size and porosity of the substrate by oxidation or reduction of the particles deposited by the metal oxide slurry.

  8. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Appendiks 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  9. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  10. Steam Methane Reforming System for Hydrogen Production: Advanced Exergetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Morosuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Steam methane reforming (SMR is one of the most promising processes for the production of hydrogen. Therefore, the overall thermodynamic efficiency of this process is of particular importance. The thermodynamic inefficiencies in a thermal system are related to exergy destruction and exergy loss. However, a conventional exergetic analysis cannot evaluate the mutual interdependencies among the system components nor the real potential for improving the energy conversion system being considered. One of the tools under development for the improvement of energy conversion systems from the thermodynamic viewpoint is the advanced exergetic analysis. In this paper, the avoidable part of the exergy destruction is estimated and the interactions among components of the overall system are evaluated in terms of endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction. The assumptions required for these calculations are discussed in detail, especially for those components that are typically used in chemical processes. Results of this paper suggest options for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of hydrogen production by steam-methane reforming.

  11. Who farted? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, Håkan; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    On September 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on September 10 in the interior parts of county V\\"asterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO_2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO_2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO_2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  12. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  13. What's that smell? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Håkan; von Schoenberg, Pontus; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-09-01

    On Sep 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on Sep 10 in the interior parts of county Västerbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Transport in the Lung and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shlyonsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal and lung epithelial cells are exposed to some significant concentrations of H2O2. In urine it may reach 100 μM, while in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung it is estimated to be in micromolar to tens-micromolar range. Hydrogen peroxide has a stimulatory action on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC single-channel activity. It also increases stability of the channel at the membrane and slows down the transcription of the ENaC subunits. The expression and the activity of the channel may be inhibited in some other, likely higher, oxidative states of the cell. This review discusses the role and the origin of H2O2 in the lung and kidney. Concentration-dependent effects of hydrogen peroxide on ENaC and the mechanisms of its action have been summarized. This review also describes outlooks for future investigations linking oxidative stress, epithelial sodium transport, and lung and kidney function.

  15. Advanced Transport Systems Showcased in La Rochelle

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandrini, Adriano; Parent, Michel; Holguin, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    International audience CityMobil project, a large integrated project co-funded by DG RESEARCH of the European Commission, organized in La Rochelle an advanced city car showcase in which it gave to the citizens the possibility to ride driverless vehicles. 256 users where interviewed. Responses where very positive with all indicators passing the threshold of positive acceptance; only the perception of safety was on the threshold but not above. Such positive response of the citizens to the ne...

  16. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  17. The impact of emerging technologies on an advanced supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, C.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of advances in propulsion systems, structure and materials, aerodynamics, and systems on the design and development of supersonic transport aircraft are analyzed. Efficient propulsion systems with variable-cycle engines provide the basis for improved propulsion systems; the propulsion efficienies of supersonic and subsonic engines are compared. Material advances consist of long-life damage-tolerant structures, advanced material development, aeroelastic tailoring, and low-cost fabrication. Improvements in the areas of aerodynamics and systems are examined. The environmental problems caused by engine emissions, airport noise, and sonic boom are studied. The characteristics of the aircraft designed to include these technical advances are described.

  18. Atom-hydrogen energy and influence of transport pollution to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The justification of feasibility of atomic-hydrogen energy is important to take into consideration of the results of comparative analysis of environmental impact of combustion of organic fuels and hydrogen. The use of gasoline, natural gas and hydrogen in the transport sector leads to various impacts on environment. The assessment of environmental impact

  19. Recent advances in mass transport in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ochsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present topical volume presents a representative cross-section of some recent advances made in the area of diffusion. The range of topics covered is very large, and, this reflects the enormous breadth of the topic of diffusion. The areas covered include diffusion in intermetallics, phenomenological diffusion theory, diffusional creep, kinetics of steel-making, diffusion in thin films, precipitation, diffusional phase transformations, atomistic diffusion simulations, epitaxial growth and diffusion in porous media. Review from Book News Inc.: In 13 invited and peer-reviewed papers, scientist

  20. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-07-01

    observed. Its absence can be explained using an extended two point model including heat convection applied to the region dominated by parallel transport (laminar region). The radial penetration depth of the neutral hydrogen particles ({lambda}{sub n} {approx} 3-4 cm) estimated from spectroscopic measurements was found to be often larger than the varying radial extent of this laminar region (few mm up to 6 cm) which finally leads to convective heat transport reducing parallel temperature gradients. Increasing the radial extent of the laminar region especially in front of the divertor strike points could lead to an improvement in this respect and provide access to a high recycling regime. The radiation instability developing at high plasma densities in the helical divertor in TEXTOR is preceded by a transient partial detachment of the plasma from the divertor target plates and leads to the formation of a poloidally structured and helically inclined radiating belt, a helical divertor MARFE. While typically leading to a density limit disruption, this MARFE has been stabilised using a feedback system and could provide some divertor functionality such as low target temperature, increased neutral density and increased radiation within the stochastic boundary. Simulations using two different cross-field transport coefficients showed, that an agreement is only found at a certain level of cross-field transport (D {sub perpendicular} {sub to} =1 m{sup 2}s{sup -1}). The inclusion of carbon impurities in the simulations results in the experimentally observed reduction of the recycling flux. (orig.)

  1. Advancing Transportation through Vehicle Electrification - PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as an historic opportunity to learn about and develop PHEV technologies and create the FCA US LLC engineering center for Electrified Powertrains. The ARRA funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies for production on future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next-generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components and common modules. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also utilized this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original proposal of this project was submitted in May 2009 and selected in August 2009. The project ended in December 2014.

  2. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  3. Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervice Pouokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a “gasotransmitter.” A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations.

  4. Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Ervice; Althaus, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a “gasotransmitter.” A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations. PMID:26904165

  5. Air Force funded researcher engineers enzymes to advance the hydrogen economy

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Y. H. Percival Zhang, assistant professor of biological systems engineering at Virginia Tech, has received an Air Force Young Investigator award to advance development of an onboard process to convert a cellulosic material into hydrogen to power fuel cell vehicles.

  6. Recent advances in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation:Renaissance of the monodentate phosphorus ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hongchao; DING Kuiling; DAI Lixin

    2004-01-01

    The history for the development of chiral phosphorus ligands in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation is briefly highlighted. This review focuses on the recent advances in the synthesis of the monodentate phosphorus ligands and their applications in catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation. The examples highlighted in this article clearly demonstrated the importance and advantages of monodentate phosphorus ligands, which had been ignored for 30 a and experienced a renaissance at the very beginning of this millennium, particularly in the area of asymmetric hydrogenation.

  7. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  8. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies, including...

  9. Recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based hydrogen production and the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naterer, G. [Canada Research Chair Professor, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Suppiah, S. [Manager, Hydrogen Isotopes Technology Branch, AECL, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lewis, M. [Chemist, Chemical Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gabriel, K. [Associate Provost, Research, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Fowler, M. [Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Rizvi, G. [Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Easton, E.B. [Assistant Professor of Chemistry, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ikeda, B.M.; Pioro, I. [Associate Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe St., Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada); Kaye, M.H.; Lu, L. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, UOIT, 2000 Simcoe Street, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Spekkens, P. [Vice President of Science and Technology Development, Ontario Power Generation, 889 Brock Road, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Tremaine, P. [Professor of Chemistry, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mostaghimi, J. [Canada Research Chair Professor, Mechanical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Avsec, J. [Assistant Professor, Faculty of Energy Technology, Univ. of Maribor, Hocevarjev trg 1, 8270 Krsko (Slovenia); Jiang, J. [Professor and NSERC/UNENE Senior Industrial Research Chair, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents recent Canadian advances in nuclear-based production of hydrogen by electrolysis and the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. This includes individual process and reactor developments within the Cu-Cl cycle, thermochemical properties, advanced materials, controls, safety, reliability, economic analysis of electrolysis at off-peak hours, and integrating hydrogen plants with Canada's nuclear power plants. These enabling technologies are being developed by a Canadian consortium, as part of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for hydrogen production from the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  10. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  11. Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the...

  12. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

    2004-04-26

    During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates in excess of 400 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was characterized by repeated thermal and pressure cycling. The effect of cermet grain size on permeation was determined. Finally, progress is summarized on thin film cermet fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

  13. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  14. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  15. Parametric Evaluation of Large-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Using Different Advanced Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered

  16. Parametric evaluation of large-scale high-temperature electrolysis hydrogen production using different advanced nuclear reactor heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800-950 oC, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an intermediate heat exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the sweep gas loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed with the objective of evaluating the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency of the integrated plant design for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycles producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered.

  17. Recent Advances in the Use of Sodium Borohydride as a Solid State Hydrogen Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new practical hydrogen storage materials with high volumetric and gravimetric hydrogen densities is necessary to implement fuel cell technology for both mobile and stationary applications. NaBH4, owing to its low cost and high hydrogen density (10.6 wt%, has received extensive attention as a promising hydrogen storage medium. However, its practical use is hampered by its high thermodynamic stability and slow hydrogen exchange kinetics. Recent developments have been made in promoting H2 release and tuning the thermodynamics of the thermal decomposition of solid NaBH4. These conceptual advances offer a positive outlook for using NaBH4-based materials as viable hydrogen storage carriers for mobile applications. This review summarizes contemporary progress in this field with a focus on the fundamental dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation pathways and properties and on material design strategies towards improved kinetics and thermodynamics such as catalytic doping, nano-engineering, additive destabilization and chemical modification.

  18. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  19. Advanced rocket propulsion technology assessment for future space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Single-stage and two-stage launch vehicles were evaluated for various levels of propulsion technology and payloads. The evaluation included tradeoffs between ascent flight performance and vehicle sizing that were driven by engine mass, specific impulse, and propellant requirements. Numerous mission, flight, and vehicle-related requirements and constraints were satisfied in the design process. The results showed that advanced technology had a large effect on reducing both single- and two-stage vehicle size. High-pressure hydrocarbon-fueled engines that were burned in parallel with two-position nozzle hydrogen-fueled engines reduced dry mass by 23% for the two-stage vehicle and 28% for the single-stage vehicle as compared to an all-hydrogen-fueled system. The dual-expander engine reduced single-stage vehicle dry mass by 41%. Using advanced technology, the single-stage vehicle became comparable in size and sensitivity to that of the two-stage vehicle for small payloads.

  20. Hydrogen as a near-term transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.D.

    1995-06-29

    The health costs associated with urban air pollution are a growing problem faced by all societies. Automobiles burning gasoline and diesel contribute a great deal to this problem. The cost to the United States of imported oil is more than US$50 billion annually. Economic alternatives are being actively sought. Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range (>480 km) with emissions well below the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being required in California. These vehicles can also be manufactured without excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining engine and other component efficiencies, the overall vehicle efficiency should be about 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to what US vehicle operators pay today. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing low-cost, large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus can be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  1. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  2. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  3. Steam Methane Reforming System for Hydrogen Production: Advanced Exergetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morosuk, Tatiana; Boyano, Alicia; Blanco-Marigorta, Ana-Maria; Tsatsaronis, George

    2012-01-01

    Steam methane reforming (SMR) is one of the most promising processes for the production of hydrogen. Therefore, the overall thermodynamic efficiency of this process is of particular importance. The thermodynamic inefficiencies in a thermal system are related to exergy destruction and exergy loss. However, a conventional exergetic analysis cannot evaluate the mutual interdependencies among the system components nor the real potential for improving the energy conversion system being considered....

  4. Advances in ethanol reforming for the production of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic steam reforming of ethanol (SRE is a promising route for the production of renewable hydrogen (H2. This article reviews the influence of doping supported-catalysts used in SRE on the conversion of ethanol, selectivity for H2, and stability during long reaction periods. In addition, promising new technologies such as membrane reactors and electrochemical reforming for performing SRE are presented.

  5. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  6. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  7. Trace component analysis of process hydrogen streams at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronfenbrenner, J.C.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes subcontracted work done by the Radian Corporation to analyze trace components in process hydrogen streams at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The data will be used to help define whether the gas streams to be treated in the hydrogen processing unit in the SRC-I Demonstration Plant will require further treatment to remove trace contaminants that could be explosive under certain conditions. 2 references.

  8. Standard practice for evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals by an electrochemical technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice gives a procedure for the evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals using an electrochemical technique which was developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. While this practice is primarily intended for laboratory use, such measurements have been conducted in field or plant applications. Therefore, with proper adaptations, this practice can also be applied to such situations. 1.2 This practice describes calculation of an effective diffusivity of hydrogen atoms in a metal and for distinguishing reversible and irreversible trapping. 1.3 This practice specifies the method for evaluating hydrogen uptake in metals based on the steady-state hydrogen flux. 1.4 This practice gives guidance on preparation of specimens, control and monitoring of the environmental variables, test procedures, and possible analyses of results. 1.5 This practice can be applied in principle to all metals and alloys which have a high solubility for hydrogen, and for which the hydrogen permeation is ...

  9. Embrittlement of steels for hydrogen transport and storage under high pressure; Fragilisation des aciers destines au transport et au stockage de l'hydrogene sous haute pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouinot, P.; Gantchenko, V.; Katundi, D. [Institut Superieur de Mecanique de Paris (ISMEP-Sumeca), 93 - Saint-Ouen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This work deals with gaseous hydrogen embrittlement of steels for pipelines having a relatively high mechanical resistance (elasticity limit: 550 MPa, Grade 80). The studied materials come from 5 tube steels batch already used for hydrocarbons transport. Plates have been obtained by continuous casting followed by a hot controlled rolling: the rolling temperature is adjusted for obtaining a strain hardening in order to increase the mechanical resistance of the steel. These materials have been tested under hydrogen pressure and the resistance to hydrogen has been measured for each of them. The results show that the hydrogen embrittlement decreases when the mechanical resistance of the plate (or its hardness) increases. The inclusion state of the different steels has been quantified by images analysis at different depths in the plates. These steels contain only globular oxides or aligned aluminates. The hydrogen embrittlement increases with the amount of the globular oxides (or with the length of the aligned aluminates). Micrographic and fractographic analyses show that even small globular inclusions ({phi}=1 {mu}m) concentrate enough hydrogen to induce a crack in the material or to lead to a crack propagation. In order to estimate the homogeneity of the ferrito-perlitic structure, the thickness of ferrite bands have been measured. The hydrogen embrittlement increases as the thickness of the ferrite bands, that is to say, as the heterogeneity of the structure. Micrographs have shown that the hydrogen cracking is initiated on perlite aggregates; the crack propagates then in ferrite and joins then others perlitic areas. This study shows that relatively resistant steels (Grade 80, elasticity limit: 550 MPa) can be used for manufacturing pipelines submitted to high hydrogen pressure. (O.M.)

  10. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  11. Integrated analysis of transportation demand pathway options for hydrogen production, storage, and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.S. [Directed Technologies Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Directed Technologies, Inc. has begun the development of a computer model with the goal of providing guidance to the Hydrogen Program Office regarding the most cost effective use of limited resources to meet national energy security and environmental goals through the use of hydrogen as a major energy carrier. The underlying assumption of this programmatic pathway model is that government and industry must work together to bring clean hydrogen energy devices into the marketplace. Industry cannot provide the long term resources necessary to overcome technological, regulatory, institutional, and perceptual barriers to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, and government cannot provide the substantial investments required to develop hydrogen energy products and increased hydrogen production capacity. The computer model recognizes this necessary government/industry partnership by determining the early investments required by government to bring hydrogen energy end uses within the time horizon and profitability criteria of industry, and by estimating the subsequent investments required by industry. The model then predicts the cost/benefit ratio for government, based on contributions of each hydrogen project to meeting societal goals, and it predicts the return on investment for industry. Sensitivity analyses with respect to various government investments such as hydrogen research and development and demonstration projects will then provide guidance as to the most cost effective mix of government actions. The initial model considers the hydrogen transportation market, but this programmatic pathway methodology will be extended to other market segments in the future.

  12. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Final report for PSO projekt; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Slutrapport for PSO-projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jens

    2006-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  13. The importance of economies of scale, transport costs and demand patterns in optimising hydrogen fuelling infrastructure: An exploration with SHIPMod (Spatial hydrogen infrastructure planning model)

    OpenAIRE

    Agnolucci, P.; McDowall, W.; Akgul, O.; Papageorgiou, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen is widely recognised as an important option for future road transportation, but a widespread infrastructure must be developed if the potential for hydrogen is to be achieved. This paper and related appendices which can be downloaded as Supplementary material present a mixed-integer linear programming model (called SHIPMod) that optimises a hydrogen supply chains for scenarios of hydrogen fuel demand in the UK, including the spatial arrangement of carbon capture and storage infrastruc...

  14. Hydrogen Vent Ground Umbilical Quick Disconnect - Flight Seal Advanced Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Doug; Jankowski, Fred; Minich, Mark C.; Yu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This project is a team effort between NASA Engineering (NE) and Team QNA Engineering personnel to provide support for the Umbilical Systems Development project which is funded by Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) and 21st Century Launch Complex. Specifically, this project seeks to develop a new interface between the PPBE baselined Legacy SSP LH2 Vent Arm QD probe and SLS vent seal.

  15. Support of future lighthouse projects and beyond. Managing the transition to hydrogen for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale demonstration projects as the 'Lighthouse projects' are an important step towards commercialisation. However, costs for disruptive technologies such as hydrogen, are high in the first phase of market introduction. Therefore, policy support is needed to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen. But, how can the government support and stimulate (early) market introduction and use of hydrogen in the transportation sector? What kind of policy instruments are needed in what phase of the introduction trajectory? And what are the current instruments in the EU and US? Can these affect the introduction of hydrogen in transport? Generally, the hydrogen chain can be stimulated by providing an investment subsidy, production subsidy, tax exemptions and a (production or sales) obligation. Technology specific configurations of these support mechanisms for the diverse technologies in the hydrogen chain have to be taken into account. Besides that the support measures have to act upon each other for every technology development stage. A comparison of the EU and US policies shows differences in the approach of bringing the hydrogen vehicles to the market. The amount of support differs. The US funds RD and D 50% and stimulates the market by obligating sales (ZEV obligation) and procurement, while the EU funds R and D 50%, demonstration 35% and is now looking into large scale demonstration projects, after which the commercial market introduction of hydrogen vehicles is envisaged

  16. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  17. Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-06-01

    An overview of ORNL`s three-dimensional neutral particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed; they include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; Adjacent cell Preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications are disucssed. Speculation on the next generation of neutron particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, are also mentioned.

  18. Effect of irradiation by argon ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer of zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsin, A. E.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Gumarov, A. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Luchkin, A. G.; Vakhitov, I. R.; Yanilkin, I. V.; Tagirov, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    Effect of zirconium irradiation by 1 keV Ar+ ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer is studied. It is shown that deuterium trapping under subsequent irradiation of the Ar-treated sample by deuterium atoms of thermal energies in D2 + 30at.% O2 gas mixture is 2 times less than trapping in the untreated sample. Besides, irradiation of the untreated sample by D-atoms provokes desorption of ≈25% of hydrogen contained therein, whereas hydrogen desorption from the ion-treated zirconium surface does not occur. It is proposed that oxygen depletion of the surface oxide layer, caused by ion bombardment, is a reason of mitigation of the hydrogen transport through this layer in both directions.

  19. Hydrogen transport in molten salt Flinak measured by solid electrolyte sensors with Pd electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of hydrogen (H2) in Flinak was investigated using hydrogen sensor made of proton conductive solid electrolyte. The test in Flinak was performed after the validity of the sensor was checked in the test in Ar-H2 gas mixture with known hydrogen partial pressure. The sensor showed stable output in the Flinak at homogeneous temperature condition. The electromotive force (EMF) of the sensor agreed with theoretically estimated EMF. The sensor however showed the EMF much different from the theoretically estimated EMF when there was temperature difference between the free surface and the immersed sensor position. The temperature dependence of the Henry's law which controlled the hydrogen transport in Flinak was investigated from the sensor EMF. It was indicated that the Henry's constant for H2 in Flinak had the negative temperature dependence, which agrees with the previous study.

  20. Ion transport in alkaline and earth alkaline hydrogen fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroger, C; Niggemeier, H; Wiemhofer, HD; Glumov, O; Murin, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    The impedance of the hydrogen fluorides KHF2, NH4HF2 and BaHF3 was investigated as a function of temperature and in the presence of HF and H2O. A comparison of results on different electrode materials. (graphite, silver, palladium, Sn \\ SnF2, and Sn \\ SnF2 \\ LaF3) was used to elucidate the contribut

  1. Analysis CFD for the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison among the CFD GASFLOW and OpenFOAM codes which are related with the phenomenon of hydrogen transport and other gases in the primary containment of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). GASFLOW is a commercial license code that is well validated and that was developed in Germany for the analysis of the gases transport in containments of nuclear reactors. On the other hand, OpenFOAM is an open source code that offers several evaluation solvers for different types of phenomena; in this case, the solver reacting-Foam is used to analyze the hydrogen transport inside the primary containment of the BWR. The results that offer the solver reacting-Foam of OpenFOAM are evaluated in the hydrogen transport calculation and the results are compared with those of the program of commercial license GASFLOW to see if is viable the use of the open source code in the case of the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR. Of the obtained results so much quantitative as qualitative some differences were identified between both codes, the differences (with a percentage of maximum error of 4%) in the quantitative results are small and they are considered acceptable for this analysis type, also, these differences are attributed mainly to the used transport models, considering that OpenFOAM uses a homogeneous model and GASFLOW uses a heterogeneous model. (Author)

  2. Integrated analysis of hydrogen passenger vehicle transportation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles will reduce local air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and oil imports. Other alternative vehicles such as gasoline- or methanol-powered fuel cell vehicles, natural gas vehicles and various hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines may also provide significant environmental and national security advantages. This report summarizes a two-year project to compare the direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with other alternatives in terms of estimated cost and estimated societal benefits, all relative to a conventional gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicle. The cost estimates used in this study involve ground-up, detailed analysis of the major components of a fuel cell vehicle system, assuming mass production in automotive quantities. The authors have also estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers, electrolyzers, compressors and stationary storage systems. Sixteen different vehicle types are compared with respect to mass production cost, local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  4. Life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen mixtures for transportation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D. [Gerencia Quimica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina); Pasquevich, D. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a model to assess the life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen (CNG-H{sub 2}) mixtures used for transportation in Argentina. The overall fuel life cycle is assessed through a well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis for different hydrogen generation and distribution options. The combustion stage in road vehicles is modeled using the COPERT IV model. Hydrogen generation options include classical steam methane reforming (SMR) and water electrolysis (WE) in central plants and distributed facilities at the refueling stations. Centralized hydrogen generation by electrolysis in nuclear plants as well as the use of solar photovoltaic and wind electricity is also considered. Hydrogen distribution options include gas pipeline and refrigerated truck transportation for liquefied hydrogen. A total number of fifteen fuel pathways are studied; in all the cases the natural gas-hydrogen mixture is made at the refueling station. The use of WE using nuclear or wind electricity appears to be less contaminant that the use of pure CNG. (author)

  5. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  6. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NOx concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NOx in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NOx) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality

  7. Application of COBRA-NC to hydrogen transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COBRA-NC, a thermal-hydraulic computer code for the analysis of light water reactor (LWR) containment system transients is presented. A brief description of the code is provided. While the code is being developed for all phases of a containment transient, data comparisons with hydrogen distribution test data obtained in the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory test facility and in the Battelle Memorial Institute's test facility are presented in this paper. The advantages this code features over other containment codes is also discussed

  8. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission. PMID:26724182

  9. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  10. Advancement of Systems Designs and Key Engineering Technologies for Materials Based Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Hassel, Bart A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2015-09-18

    UTRC lead the development of the Simulink Framework model that enables a comparison of different hydrogen storage systems on a common basis. The Simulink Framework model was disseminated on the www.HSECoE.org website that is hosted by NREL. UTRC contributed to a better understanding of the safety aspects of the proposed hydrogen storage systems. UTRC also participated in the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of both the chemical- and the adsorbent-based hydrogen storage system during Phase 2 of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. UTRC designed a hydrogen storage system with a reversible metal hydride material in a compacted form for light-duty vehicles with a 5.6 kg H2 storage capacity, giving it a 300 miles range. It contains a heat exchanger that enables efficient cooling of the metal hydride material during hydrogen absorption in order to meet the 3.3 minute refueling time target. It has been shown through computation that the kinetics of hydrogen absorption of Ti-catalyzed NaAlH4 was ultimately limiting the rate of hydrogen absorption to 85% of the material capacity in 3.3 minutes. An inverse analysis was performed in order to determine the material property requirements in order for a metal hydride based hydrogen storage system to meet the DOE targets. Work on metal hydride storage systems was halted after the Phase 1 to Phase 2 review due to the lack of metal hydride materials with the required material properties. UTRC contributed to the design of a chemical hydrogen storage system by developing an adsorbent for removing the impurity ammonia from the hydrogen gas, by developing a system to meter the transport of Ammonia Borane (AB) powder to a thermolysis reactor, and by developing a gas-liquid-separator (GLS) for the separation of hydrogen gas from AB slurry in silicone oil. Stripping impurities from hydrogen gas is essential for a long life of the fuel cell system on board of a vehicle. Work on solid transport of AB was halted after the

  11. An advanced control system for a next generation transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J; Grantham, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of modern control theory to develop a high-authority stability and control system for the next generation transport aircraft is described with examples taken from work performed on an advanced pitch active control system (PACS). The PACS was configured to have short-period and phugoid modes frequency and damping characteristics within the shaded S-plane areas, column force gradients with set bounds and with constant slope, and a blended normal-acceleration/pitch rate time history response to a step command. Details of the control law, feedback loop, and modal control syntheses are explored, as are compensation for the feedback gain, the deletion of the velocity signal, and the feed-forward compensation. Scheduling of the primary and secondary gains are discussed, together with control law mechanization, flying qualities analyses, and application on the L-1011 aircraft.

  12. Performance testing of hydrogen transport membranes at elevated temperatures and pressures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Cugini, A. V.; Dorris, S. E.; Fisher, E. P.; Graham, W. J.; Martello, D. V.; Poston, J. A.; Rothenberger, K. S.; Siriwardane, R. W.

    1999-06-16

    The development of hydrogen transport ceramic membranes offers increased opportunities for hydrogen gas separation and utilization. Commercial application of such membranes will most likely take place under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure, where industrial processes producing and or utilizing hydrogen occur, and where such membranes are theoretically expected to have the greatest permeability. Hydrogen separation membrane performance data at elevated temperature is quite limited, and data at elevated pressures is conspicuously lacking. This paper will describe the design, construction, and recent experimental results obtained from a membrane testing unit located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The membrane testing unit is capable of operating at temperatures up to 900 C and pressures up to 500 psi. Mixed-oxide ceramic ion-transport membranes, fabricated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), were evaluated for hydrogen permeability and characterized for surface changes and structural integrity using scanning electron microscopy/X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), as a function of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen exposure.

  13. Advanced Palladium Membrane Scale-up for Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Sean; Magdefrau, Neal; She, Ying; Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine

    2012-10-31

    The main objective of this project was to construct, test, and demonstrate a Pd-Cu metallic tubular membrane micro-channel separator capable of producing 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} at 95% recovery when operating downstream of an actual coal gasifier. A key milestone for the project was to complete a pilot-scale gasifier test by 1 September 2011 and demonstrate the separation of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} to verify progress toward the DOE's goals prior to down-selection for larger-scale (100 lb day{sup -1}) hydrogen separator development. Three different pilot-scale (1.5 ft{sup 2}) separators were evaluated downstream of coal gasifiers during four different tests and the key project milestone was achieved in August 2011, ahead of schedule. During three of those tests, all of the separators demonstrated or exceeded the targeted separation rate of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2}. The separator design was proved to be leak tight and durable in the presence of gasifier exhaust contaminants at temperatures and pressures up to 500 °C and 500 psia. The contaminants in the coal gasifier syngas for the most part had negligible impact on separator performance, with H{sub 2} partial pressure being the greatest determinant of membrane performance. Carbon monoxide and low levels of H{sub 2}S (<39 ppmv) had no effect on H{sub 2} permeability, in agreement with laboratory experiments. However, higher levels of H{sub 2}S (>100 ppmv) were shown to significantly reduce H{sub 2} separation performance. The presence of trace metals, including mercury and arsenic, appeared to have no effect based on the experimental data. Subscale Pd-Cu coupon tests further quantified the impact of H{sub 2}S on irreversible sulfide formation in the UTRC separators. Conditions that have a thermodynamic driving force to form coke were found to reduce the performance of the separators, presumably by blockage of effective separation area with carbon deposits. However, it was demonstrated that both in situ

  14. An issue paper on the use of hydrogen getters in transportation packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of hydrogen is usually an undesirable occurrence because buildup in sealed systems pose explosion hazards under certain conditions. Hydrogen scavengers, or getters, can avert these problems by removing hydrogen from such environments. This paper provides a review of a number of reversible and irreversible getters that potentially could be used to reduce the buildup of hydrogen gas in containers for the transport of radioactive materials. In addition to describing getters that have already been used for such purposes, novel getters that might find application in future transport packages are also discussed. This paper also discusses getter material poisoning, the use of getters in packaging, the effects of radiation on getters, the compatibility of getters with packaging, design considerations, regulatory precedents, and makes general recommendations for the materials that have the greatest applicability in transport packaging. At this time, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory composite getter, DEB [1,4-(phenylethylene)benzene] or similar polymer-based getters, and a manganese dioxide-based getter appear to be attractive candidates that should be further evaluated. These getters potentially can help prevent pressurization from radiolytic reactions in transportation packaging

  15. Hydrogen , Hybrid and Electric Propulsion in a Strategy for Sustainable Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the scope for application of hydrogen and electric propulsion for improvement of the fuel cycle efficiency and introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector. The paper compares these fuels with each other as well as with other fuels (especially bio fuels) and outlines their...

  16. Advanced materials for solid state hydrogen storage: “Thermal engineering issues”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been widely recognized as the “Energy Carrier” of the future. Efficient, reliable, economical and safe storage and delivery of hydrogen form important aspects in achieving success of the “Hydrogen Economy”. Gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities become important when one considers portable and mobile applications of hydrogen. In the case of solid state hydrogen storage, the gas is reversibly embedded (by physisorption and/or chemisorption) in a solid matrix. A wide variety of materials such as intermetallics, physisorbents, complex hydrides/alanates, metal organic frameworks, etc. have been investigated as possible storage media. This paper discusses the feasibility of lithium– and sodium–aluminum hydrides with emphasis on their thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. Drawbacks such as poor heat transfer characteristics and poor kinetics demand special attention to the thermal design of solid state storage devices. - Highlights: • Advanced materials suitable for solid state hydrogen storage are discussed. • Issues related to thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of hydriding materials are brought out. • Hydriding and dehydriding behavior including sorption kinetics of complex hydrides with emphasis on alanates are explained

  17. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  19. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Denmark is one of the Northern European countries that have set up ambitious longterm targets to reduce GHG emissions from the transport as well as from other sectors. In Denmark the target is to make the transport sector independent of fossilfuel consumption by 2050 at the latest. This paper compares a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. ...

  20. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  1. The use of the natural-gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport in a changing market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the transport and distribution aspects of hydrogen during the transition period towards a possible full-blown hydrogen economy are carefully looked at. Firstly, the energetic and material aspects of hydrogen transport through the existing natural-gas (NG) pipeline infrastructure is discussed. Hereby, only the use of centrifugal compressors and the short-term security of supply seem to constitute a problem for the NG to hydrogen transition. Subsequently, the possibility of percentwise mixing of hydrogen into the NG bulk is dealt with. Mixtures containing up to 17 vol% of hydrogen should not cause difficulties. As soon as more hydrogen is injected, replacement of end-use applications and some pipelines will be necessary. Finally, the transition towards full-blown hydrogen transport in (previously carrying) NG pipelines is treated. Some policy guidelines are offered, both in a regulated and a liberalised energy (gas) market. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the use of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures seems well suited for the transition from natural gas to hydrogen on a distribution (low pressure) level. However, getting the hydrogen gas to the distribution grid, by means of the transport grid, remains a major issue. In the end, the structure of the market, regulated or liberalised, turns out not to be important. (author)

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  4. Heat, mass, and momentum transport model for hydrogen diffusion flames in nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now possible to analyze the time-dependent, fully three-dimensional behavior of hydrogen diffusion flames in nuclear reactor containments. This analysis involves coupling the full Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species transport to the global chemical kinetics of hydrogen combustion. A transport equation for the subgrid scale turbulent kinetic energy density is solved to produce the time and space dependent turbulent transport coefficients. The heat transfer coefficient governing the exchange of heat between fluid computational cells adjacent to wall cells is calculated by a modified Reynolds analogy formulation. The analysis of a MARK-III containment indicates very complex flow patterns that greatly influence fluid and wall temperatures and heat fluxes. 18 refs., 24 figs

  5. Experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source spectrum of the NBSR reactor at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Barker, J. G.; Rowe, J. M.; Williams, R. E.; Gagnon, C.; Lindstrom, R. M.; Ibberson, R. M.; Neumann, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    The recent expansion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research facility has offered a rare opportunity to perform an accurate measurement of the cold neutron spectrum at the exit of a newly-installed neutron guide. Using a combination of a neutron time-of-flight measurement, a gold foil activation measurement, and Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron guide transmission, we obtain the most reliable experimental characterization of the Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source brightness to date. Time-of-flight measurements were performed at three distinct fuel burnup intervals, including one immediately following reactor startup. Prior to the latter measurement, the hydrogen was maintained in a liquefied state for an extended period in an attempt to observe an initial radiation-induced increase of the ortho (o)-hydrogen fraction. Since para (p)-hydrogen has a small scattering cross-section for neutron energies below 15 meV (neutron wavelengths greater than about 2.3 Å), changes in the o- p hydrogen ratio and in the void distribution in the boiling hydrogen influence the spectral distribution. The nature of such changes is simulated with a continuous-energy, Monte Carlo radiation-transport code using 20 K o and p hydrogen scattering kernels and an estimated hydrogen density distribution derived from an analysis of localized heat loads. A comparison of the transport calculations with the mean brightness function resulting from the three measurements suggests an overall o- p ratio of about 17.5(±1) % o- 82.5% p for neutron energies<15 meV, a significantly lower ortho concentration than previously assumed.

  6. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  7. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  8. Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Joan M.; Yang, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The development of a hydrogen infrastructure has been identified as a key barrier to implementing hydrogen as for a future transportation fuel. Several recent studies of hydrogen infrastructure have assessed near-term and long-term alternatives for hydrogen supply [1-2]. In this paper, we discuss how advances in material science related to hydrogen storage could change how a future hydrogen infrastructure is designed. Using a simplified engineering/economic model for hydrogen infrastructure d...

  9. Advances in the biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzillo, Giuseppe; Scoma, Alberto; Faraloni, Cecilia; Giannelli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production is being evaluated for use as a fuel, since it is a promising substitute for carbonaceous fuels owing to its high conversion efficiency and high specific energy content. The basic advantages of biological hydrogen production over other "green" energy sources are that it does not compete for agricultural land use, and it does not pollute, as water is the only by-product of the combustion. These characteristics make hydrogen a suitable fuel for the future. Among several biotechnological approaches, photobiological hydrogen production carried out by green microalgae has been intensively investigated in recent years. A select group of photosynthetic organisms has evolved the ability to harness light energy to drive hydrogen gas production from water. Of these, the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is considered one of the most promising eukaryotic H2 producers. In this model microorganism, light energy, H2O and H2 are linked by two excellent catalysts, the photosystem 2 (PSII) and the [FeFe]-hydrogenase, in a pathway usually referred to as direct biophotolysis. This review summarizes the main advances made over the past decade as an outcome of the discovery of the sulfur-deprivation process. Both the scientific and technical barriers that need to be overcome before H2 photoproduction can be scaled up to an industrial level are examined. Actual and theoretical limits of the efficiency of the process are also discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on algal biohydrogen production outdoors, and guidelines for an optimal photobioreactor design are suggested. PMID:24754449

  10. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  11. QUANTUM-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PROTON TRANSPORT IN THE HYDROGEN-BONDED MOLECULAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG XIAO-FENG; LI PING

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic equations of the proton transport along the hydrogen bonded molecular systems have been obtainedby using completely quantum-mechanical method to be based on new Hamiltonian and model we proposed. Somequantum-mechanical features of the proton-solitons have also been given in such a case. The alternate motion of twodefects resulting from proton transfer occurred in the systems can be explained by the results. The results obtainedshow that the proton-soliton has corpuscle feature and obey classical equations of motion, while the free soliton movesin uniform velocity along the hydrogen bonded chains.

  12. Effect of hydrogen on dynamic charge transport in amorphous oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Nam, Yunyong; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen in zinc oxide based semiconductors functions as a donor or a defect de-activator depending on its concentration, greatly affecting the device characteristics of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thus, controlling the hydrogen concentration in oxide semiconductors is very important for achieving high mobility and minimizing device instability. In this study, we investigated the charge transport dynamics of the amorphous semiconductor InGaZnO at various hydrogen concentrations as a function of the deposition temperature of the gate insulator. To examine the nature of dynamic charge trapping, we employed short-pulse current‑voltage and transient current‑time measurements. Among various examined oxide devices, that with a high hydrogen concentration exhibits the best performance characteristics, such as high saturation mobility (10.9 cm2 v‑1 s‑1), low subthreshold slope (0.12 V/dec), and negligible hysteresis, which stem from low defect densities and negligible transient charge trapping. Our finding indicates that hydrogen atoms effectively passivate the defects in subgap states of the bulk semiconductor, minimizing the mobility degradation and threshold voltage instability. This study indicates that hydrogen plays a useful role in TFTs by improving the device performance and stability.

  13. Effect of hydrogen on dynamic charge transport in amorphous oxide thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Nam, Yunyong; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-08-12

    Hydrogen in zinc oxide based semiconductors functions as a donor or a defect de-activator depending on its concentration, greatly affecting the device characteristics of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thus, controlling the hydrogen concentration in oxide semiconductors is very important for achieving high mobility and minimizing device instability. In this study, we investigated the charge transport dynamics of the amorphous semiconductor InGaZnO at various hydrogen concentrations as a function of the deposition temperature of the gate insulator. To examine the nature of dynamic charge trapping, we employed short-pulse current-voltage and transient current-time measurements. Among various examined oxide devices, that with a high hydrogen concentration exhibits the best performance characteristics, such as high saturation mobility (10.9 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1)), low subthreshold slope (0.12 V/dec), and negligible hysteresis, which stem from low defect densities and negligible transient charge trapping. Our finding indicates that hydrogen atoms effectively passivate the defects in subgap states of the bulk semiconductor, minimizing the mobility degradation and threshold voltage instability. This study indicates that hydrogen plays a useful role in TFTs by improving the device performance and stability. PMID:27363543

  14. Two-phase model of hydrogen transport to optimize nanoparticle catalyst loading for hydrogen evolution reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Erno; Halme, Janne; Hansen, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    gas volume fraction is sufficiently high to facilitate H2 transfer to bubbles within a distance shorter than the diffusion layer thickness. At current densities below about 40 mA/cm2 the model reduces to an analytical approximation that has characteristics similar to the diffusion of H2. At higher...... current densities the increase in the gas volume fraction makes the H2 surface concentration nonlinear with respect to the current density. Compared to the typical diffusion layer model, our model is an extension that allows more detailed studies of reaction kinetics and mass transport in the electrolyte...

  15. The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-03-20

    Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Transport in Melasomatic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    As indicated on the title page, this book is an outgrowth of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) on Chemical Transport in Metasomatic Processes, which was held in Greece, June 3-16, 1985. The ASI consisted of five days of invited lectures, poster sessions, and discussion at the Club Poseidon near Loutraki, Corinthia, followed by a two-day field trip in Corinthia and Attica. The second week of the ASI consisted of an excursion aboard M/S Zeus, M/Y Dimitrios II, and the M/S Irini to four of the Cycladic Islands to visit, study, and sample outstanding exposures of metasomatic activity on Syros, Siphnos, Seriphos, and Naxos. Nine­ teen invited lectures and 10 session chairmen/discussion leaders participated in the ASI, which was attended by a total of 92 professional scientists and graduate stu­ dents from 15 countries. Seventeen of the invited lectures and the Field Excursion Guide are included in this volume, together with 10 papers and six abstracts representing contributed poster sessions. Although more...

  17. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  18. Parametric HECTR calculations of hydrogen transport and combustion at N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a limited number of parametric calculations of hydrogen transport and combustion in the N Reactor confinement for selected accident sequences. The calculations are performed using the HECTR computer code, which is a lumped-parameter code developed specifically for evaluating hydrogen behavior in reactor containments. A number of parameters are evaluated in this study, including hydrogen source rate, spray effects, and source location. The calculations indicate that mixing within major compartments tends to occur fairly rapidly, but that mixing between compartments can be inhibited in certain situations, resulting in the formation of flammable mixtures. These results are being compared to calculations performed with other computer codes, including a code that uses finite-difference models. United Nuclear Corporation will present the results of these code comparisons in future reports

  19. Modulating the spin transport behaviors in ZBNCNRs by edge hydrogenation and position of BN chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we study the spin transport behaviors in zigzag boron-nitrogen-carbon nanoribbons (ZBNCNRs by modulating the edge hydrogenation and the position of B-N nanoribbons (BNNRs chain. The different edge hydrogenations of the ZBNCNRs and the different position relationships of the BNNRs have been considered systematically. Our results show that the metallic, semimetallic and semiconductive properties of the ZBNCNRs can be modulated by the different edge hydrogenations and different position relationships of BN chains. And our proposaled ZBNCNRs devices act as perfect spin-filters with nearly 100% spin polarization. These effects would have potential applications for boron-nitrogen-carbon-based nanomaterials in spintronics nano-devices.

  20. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  1. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  2. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential system-wide energy and air emissions implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. The analysis uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) technology database and model to simultaneously consider competition among alternative technologies and fuels, with a focus on the transportation and the electric sectors. Our modeled reference case suggests that economics alone would not yiel...

  3. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  4. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  5. Mechanisms of Hydrogen Transport in Flexible-Wall Narrow Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Hao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between hydrogen and carbon nanotubes is crucial to enhancing the performance of hydrogen storage and nanofluidic carbon-adsorbent systems. Accordingly, this study performs a series of molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the transport properties of hydrogen molecules confined within a flexible narrow carbon nanotube. The tube’s diameter is 10.8 Å at temperatures in the range of 100~800 K. The particle loadings inside carbon nanotubes are ranging from 0.01∼1 No/Å. The results show that the hydrogen molecules exhibit three distinct diffusion regimes, namely, single-file, Fickian, and ballistic, depending on the value of the Knudsen number. In addition, it is shown that with the Knudsen number of less than 1, the tube-wall long wavelength acoustic phonons induced Rayleigh traveling wave prompts a longitudinal wave slip and compression-expansion of the hydrogen molecule crowds within the CNT, which leads to a significant increase in the mean square displacement of the molecules.

  6. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    50 hours of gasification on a petroleum coke from the Hunt Oil Refinery and an additional 73 hours of operation on a high-ash coal from India. Data from these tests indicate that while acceptable fuel gas heating value was achieved with these fuels, the transport gasifier performs better on the lower-rank feedstocks because of their higher char reactivity. Comparable carbon conversions have been achieved at similar oxygen/coal ratios for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation for each fuel; however, carbon conversion was lower for the less reactive feedstocks. While separation of fines from the feed coals is not needed with this technology, some testing has suggested that feedstocks with higher levels of fines have resulted in reduced carbon conversion, presumably due to the inability of the finer carbon particles to be captured by the cyclones. These data show that these low-rank feedstocks provided similar fuel gas heating values; however, even among the high-reactivity low-rank coals, the carbon conversion did appear to be lower for the fuels (brown coal in particular) that contained a significant amount of fines. The fuel gas under oxygen-blown operation has been higher in hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentration since the higher steam injection rate promotes the water-gas shift reaction to produce more CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at the expense of the CO and water vapor. However, the high water and CO{sub 2} partial pressures have also significantly reduced the reaction of (Abstract truncated)

  7. The influence of hydrogen on the chemical, mechanical, optical/electronic, and electrical transport properties of amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Bradley J.; Karki, Sudarshan; Nguyen, Thuong D.; Rulis, Paul; Caruso, A. N.; Purohit, Sudhaunshu S.; Li, Han; King, Sean W.; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Gidley, David; Lanford, William A.; Paquette, Michelle M.

    2015-07-01

    Because of its high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant (κ), high thermal neutron capture cross section, and robust chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-BxC:Hy) has garnered interest as a material for low-κ dielectric and solid-state neutron detection applications. Herein, we investigate the relationships between chemical structure (atomic concentration B, C, H, and O), physical/mechanical properties (density, porosity, hardness, and Young's modulus), electronic structure [band gap, Urbach energy (EU), and Tauc parameter (B1/2)], optical/dielectric properties (frequency-dependent dielectric constant), and electrical transport properties (resistivity and leakage current) through the analysis of a large series of a-BxC:Hy thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from ortho-carborane. The resulting films exhibit a wide range of properties including H concentration from 10% to 45%, density from 0.9 to 2.3 g/cm3, Young's modulus from 10 to 340 GPa, band gap from 1.7 to 3.8 eV, Urbach energy from 0.1 to 0.7 eV, dielectric constant from 3.1 to 7.6, and electrical resistivity from 1010 to 1015 Ω cm. Hydrogen concentration is found to correlate directly with thin-film density, and both are used to map and explain the other material properties. Hardness and Young's modulus exhibit a direct power law relationship with density above ˜1.3 g/cm3 (or below ˜35% H), below which they plateau, providing evidence for a rigidity percolation threshold. An increase in band gap and decrease in dielectric constant with increasing H concentration are explained by a decrease in network connectivity as well as mass/electron density. An increase in disorder, as measured by the parameters EU and B1/2, with increasing H concentration is explained by the release of strain in the network and associated decrease in structural disorder. All of these correlations in a-BxC:Hy are found to be very similar to those

  8. Study of Advanced Railgun Hydrogen Pellet Injectors for Fusion Reactor Refueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tony Levone

    An advanced railgun system has been developed to assess its feasibility as a hypervelocity hydrogen pellet injector for magnetically confined plasmas. It consists of a pellet generator/gas gun assembly for freezing hydrogen pellets and injecting them into the railgun at velocities as high as 1.5 km/s. A plasma armature is formed by ionizing the low-Z propellant gas behind the pellet and firing the railgun. This fuseless operation prevents high-Z impurities from entering the reactor during pellet injection. The railgun system has several features that distinguish it from its predecessors, including: (1) a more compact, versatile pellet generator, (2) a new gas gun configuration that produces significantly higher pellet speeds, (3) a perforated coupling piece between the gas gun and railgun to prevent spurious arcing, and (4) ablation-resistant sidewalls, perforated sidewalls and transaugmentation to reduce inertial and viscous drag, the primary obstacles to achieving hypervelocity. A unique system of sophisticated controls and diagnostics has been assembled to operate the railgun system and assess its performance, including fully automated pellet freezing and gas gun operation, an automatic timing circuit that is immune to mistriggering caused by pellet fragmentation or electromagnetic interference, a streak camera, photostations, light gates, current trans formers, B-dot probes, laser interferometry and optical spectroscopy. Free-arc and hydrogen pellet experiments were conducted to evaluate various railgun designs. Transaugmented and simple railguns 1.2 and 2 m long were tested. The performances of railguns using Mullite, solid Lexan and perforated Lexan sidewalls were compared. The railgun theory of operation and anticipated losses are also examined. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The advanced railgun system has set several world records for bare hydrogen pellet velocity, including a 3.3 km/s shot on

  9. Multi-component transport in polymers: hydrocarbon / hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membrane; Transport multi-composants dans les polymeres: separation hydrocarbures / hydrogene par membrane a selectivite inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauviel, G.

    2003-12-15

    Hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membranes is investigated. The first goal is to develop materials showing an increased selectivity. Silicone membranes loaded with inorganic fillers have been prepared, but the expected enhancement is not observed. The second goal is to model the multi- component transport through rubbers. Indeed the permeability model is not able to predict correctly permeation when a vapour is present. Thus many phenomena have to be considered: diffusional inter-dependency, sorption synergy, membrane swelling and drag effect. The dependence of diffusivities with the local composition is modelled according to free-volume theory. The model resolution allows to predict the permeation flow-rates of mixed species from their pure sorption and diffusion data. For the systems under consideration, the diffusional inter-dependency is shown to be preponderant. Besides, sorption synergy importance is pointed out, whereas it is most often neglected. (author)

  10. Advance in highly efficient hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) through a solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) has been receiving increasing research and development attention worldwide because of its high conversion efficiency (about 45%-59%) and its potential usage for large-scale production of hydrogen. The mechanism, composition, structure, and developing challenges of SOEC are summarized. Current situation, key materials, and core technologies of SOEC (solid oxide electrolytic cell) in HTSE are re- viewed, and the prospect of HTSE future application in advanced energy fields is proposed. In addition, the recent research achievements and study progress of HTSE in Tsinghua University are also intro- duced and presented.

  11. Advance in highly efficient hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Bo; ZHANG WenQiang; CHEN Jing; XU JingMing; WANG ShaoRong

    2008-01-01

    High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) through a solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) has been receiving increasing research and development attention worldwide because of its high conversion efficiency (about 45%-59%) and its potential usage for large-scale production of hydrogen. The mechanism, composition, structure, and developing challenges of SOEC are summarized. Current situation, key materials, and core technologies of SOEC (solid oxide electrolytic cell) in HTSE are re-viewed, and the prospect of HTSE future application in advanced energy fields is proposed. In addition, the recent research achievements and study progress of HTSE in Tsinghua University are also intro-duced and presented.

  12. Thermodynamic Properties and Transport Coefficients of Nitrogen,Hydrogen and Helium Plasma Mixed with Silver Vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xue; CUI Xinglei; CHEN Mo; ZHAI Guofu

    2016-01-01

    Species composites of Ag-N2,Ag-H2 and Ag-He plasmas in the temperature range of 3,000-20,000 K and at 1 atmospheric pressure were calculated by using the minimization of Gibbs free energy.Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of nitrogen,hydrogen and helium plasmas mixed with a variety of silver vapor were then calculated based on the equilibrium composites and collision integral data.The calculation procedure was verified by comparing the results obtained in this paper with the published transport coefficients on thc case of pure nitrogen plasma.The influences of the silver vapor concentration on composites,thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients were finally analyzed and summarized for all the three types of plasmas.Those physical properties were important for theoretical study and numerical calculation on arc plasma generated by silver-based electrodes in those gases in sealed electromagnetic relays and contacts.

  13. Studies of hydrogen absorption and desorption processes in advanced intermetallic hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Masashi

    2005-07-01

    This work is a part of the research program performed in the Department of Energy Systems, Institute for Energy Technology (Kjeller, Norway), which is focused on the development of the advanced hydrogen storage materials. The activities are aimed on studies of the mechanisms of hydrogen interactions with intermetallic alloys with focus on establishing an interrelation between the crystal structure, thermodynamics and kinetics of the processes in the metal-hydrogen systems, on the one hand, and hydrogen storage properties (capacity, rates of desorption, hysteresis). Many of the materials under investigation have potential to be applied in applications, whereas some already have been commercialised in the world market. A number of metals take up considerable amounts of hydrogen and form chemical compounds with H, metal hydrides. Unfortunately, binary hydrides are either very stable (e.g. for the rare earth metals [RE], Zr, Ti, Mg: metal R) or are formed at very high applied pressures of hydrogen gas (e.g. for the transition metals, Ni, Co, Fe, etc.: Metal T). However, hydrogenation process becomes easily reversible at very convenient from practical point of view conditions, around room temperature and at H2 pressures below 1 MPa for the two-component intermetallic alloys R{sub x}T{sub y}. This raised and maintains further interest to the intermetallic hydrides as solid H storage materials. Materials science research of this thesis is focused on studies of the reasons staying behind the beneficial effect of two non-transition elements M(i.e., In and Sn) contributing to the formation of the ternary intermetallic alloys R{sub x}T{sub y}M{sub 2}., on the hydrogen storage behaviours. Particular focus is on two aspects where the remarkable improvement of ordinary metal hydrides is achieved via introduction of In and Sn: a) Increase of the volume density of stored hydrogen in solid materials to the record high level. b) Improvement of the kinetics of hydrogen charge and

  14. Structural advances for the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nieng

    2013-03-01

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of secondary active transporters conserved from bacteria to humans. MFS proteins selectively transport a wide spectrum of substrates across biomembranes and play a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes. Despite intense investigation, only seven MFS proteins from six subfamilies have been structurally elucidated. These structures were captured in distinct states during a transport cycle involving alternating access to binding sites from either side of the membrane. This review discusses recent progress in MFS structure analysis and focuses on the molecular basis for substrate binding, co-transport coupling, and alternating access.

  15. Energy analysis and CO2 emission evaluation of a hydrogen energy system for the transportation system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of hydrogen energy system for the transportation system in Japan is proposed to replace all the fuel oil used by the transportation means with liquefied hydrogen (LH2) in order to conserve petroleum and to reduce CO2 emission into the atmosphere. The hydrogen is produced by way of electrolysis with solar photovoltaic cells on a large number of ocean rafts in the South Pacific Ocean. All the elements of the hydrogen energy system for production, storage, and transportation are assumed to be built or fabricated with such conventional energies as coal, oil and electricity. The hydrogen energy system, at the present state of technologies, consumes the conventional energies more than the present petroleum energy system does. At the future developed state of technologies the hydrogen energy system can replace all the fuel oil consumed by the transportation means, 69 Mm3 a year, with LH2 of 24.9 Tg a year. The LH2 is produced on the rafts of which total area is about 6,000 km2 and is transported to Japan by 270 LH2 tankers of which capacity is 125,000 m3. The hydrogen energy system can save 785 of the petroleum energy which the current transportation system would consume and can suppress 80% of the CO2 emission which the petroleum consumption by the transportation means would release. If concrete is applied to the structure of the rafts, even the present technologies make the hydrogen energy system reduce 14% of the CO2 emission

  16. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnier, Serge; Gross, Andrew J.; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  17. Advanced DC-DC converter for power conditioning in hydrogen fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacevic, G.; Tenconi, A.; Bojoi, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The fuel cell (FC) generators can produce electric energy directly from hydrogen and oxygen. The DC voltage generated by FC is generally low amplitude and it is not constant, depending on the operating conditions. Furthermore, FC systems have dynamic response that is slower than the transient responses typically requested by the load. For this reason, in many applications the FC generators must be interfaced with other energy/power sources by means of an electronic power converter. An advanced full-bridge (FB) DC-DC converter, which effectively achieves zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching (ZVS-ZCS), is proposed for power-conditioning (PC) in hydrogen FC applications. The operation and features of the converter are analyzed and verified by simulations results. The ZVS-ZCS operation is obtained by means of a simple auxiliary circuit. Introduction of the soft-switching operation in PC unit brings improvements not only from the converter efficiency point of view, but also in terms of increased converter power density. Quantitative analysis of hard and soft-switching operating of the proposed converter is also made, bringing in evidence the benefits of soft-switching operation mode. The proposed converter can be a suitable solution for PC in hydrogen FC systems, especially for the medium to high-power applications. (author)

  18. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  20. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  1. Correlation of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties of a novel hydrogen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun

    A key part of the FutureGen concept is to support the production of hydrogen to fuel a "hydrogen economy," with the use of clean burning hydrogen in power-producing fuel cells, as well as for use as a transportation fuel. One of the key technical barriers to FutureGen deployment is reliable and efficient hydrogen separation technology. Most Hydrogen Transport Membrane (HTM) research currently focuses on separation technology and hydrogen flux characterization. No significant work has been performed on thermo-mechanical properties of HTMs. The objective of the thesis is to understand the structure-property correlation of HTM and to characterize (1) thermo mechanical properties under different reducing environments and thermal cycles (thermal shock), and (2) evaluate the stability of the novel HTM material. A novel HTM cermet bulk sample was characterized for its physical and mechanical properties at both room temperature and at elevated temperature up to 1000°C. Micro-structural properties and residual stresses were evaluated in order to understand the changing mechanism of the microstructure and its effects on the mechanical properties of materials. A correlation of the microstructural and thermo mechanical properties of the HTM system was established for both HTM and the substrate material. Mechanical properties of both selected structural ceramics and the novel HTM cermet bulk sample are affected mainly by porosity and microstructural features, such as grain size and pore size-distribution. The Young's Modulus (E-value) is positively correlated to the flexural strength for materials with similar crystallographic structure. However, for different crystallographic materials, physical properties are independent of mechanical properties. Microstructural properties, particularly, grain size and crystallographic structure, and thermodynamic properties are the main factors affecting the mechanical properties at both room and high temperatures. The HTM cermet behaves

  2. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid an

  3. The influence of hydrogen on the chemical, mechanical, optical/electronic, and electrical transport properties of amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordell, Bradley J.; Karki, Sudarshan; Nguyen, Thuong D.; Rulis, Paul; Caruso, A. N.; Paquette, Michelle M., E-mail: paquettem@umkc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (United States); Purohit, Sudhaunshu S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (United States); Li, Han; King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Dutta, Dhanadeep; Gidley, David [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Lanford, William A. [Department of Physics, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Because of its high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant (κ), high thermal neutron capture cross section, and robust chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-B{sub x}C:H{sub y}) has garnered interest as a material for low-κ dielectric and solid-state neutron detection applications. Herein, we investigate the relationships between chemical structure (atomic concentration B, C, H, and O), physical/mechanical properties (density, porosity, hardness, and Young's modulus), electronic structure [band gap, Urbach energy (E{sub U}), and Tauc parameter (B{sup 1/2})], optical/dielectric properties (frequency-dependent dielectric constant), and electrical transport properties (resistivity and leakage current) through the analysis of a large series of a-B{sub x}C:H{sub y} thin films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from ortho-carborane. The resulting films exhibit a wide range of properties including H concentration from 10% to 45%, density from 0.9 to 2.3 g/cm{sup 3}, Young's modulus from 10 to 340 GPa, band gap from 1.7 to 3.8 eV, Urbach energy from 0.1 to 0.7 eV, dielectric constant from 3.1 to 7.6, and electrical resistivity from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 15} Ω cm. Hydrogen concentration is found to correlate directly with thin-film density, and both are used to map and explain the other material properties. Hardness and Young's modulus exhibit a direct power law relationship with density above ∼1.3 g/cm{sup 3} (or below ∼35% H), below which they plateau, providing evidence for a rigidity percolation threshold. An increase in band gap and decrease in dielectric constant with increasing H concentration are explained by a decrease in network connectivity as well as mass/electron density. An increase in disorder, as measured by the parameters E{sub U} and B{sup 1/2}, with increasing H concentration is explained by the release of strain in the network and associated decrease in

  4. Graphite/Polyimide Composites. [conference on Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B. (Editor); Davis, J. G., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed under the Composites for Advanced Space Transportation System Project is reported. Specific topics covered include fabrication, adhesives, test methods, structural integrity, design and analysis, advanced technology developments, high temperature polymer research, and the state of the art of graphite/polyimide composites.

  5. Analysis CFD for the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR; Analisis CFD para el transporte de hidrogeno en la contencion primaria de un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez P, D. A.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: guerreroazteca_69@hotmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This study presents a qualitative and quantitative comparison among the CFD GASFLOW and OpenFOAM codes which are related with the phenomenon of hydrogen transport and other gases in the primary containment of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). GASFLOW is a commercial license code that is well validated and that was developed in Germany for the analysis of the gases transport in containments of nuclear reactors. On the other hand, OpenFOAM is an open source code that offers several evaluation solvers for different types of phenomena; in this case, the solver reacting-Foam is used to analyze the hydrogen transport inside the primary containment of the BWR. The results that offer the solver reacting-Foam of OpenFOAM are evaluated in the hydrogen transport calculation and the results are compared with those of the program of commercial license GASFLOW to see if is viable the use of the open source code in the case of the hydrogen transport in the primary containment of a BWR. Of the obtained results so much quantitative as qualitative some differences were identified between both codes, the differences (with a percentage of maximum error of 4%) in the quantitative results are small and they are considered acceptable for this analysis type, also, these differences are attributed mainly to the used transport models, considering that OpenFOAM uses a homogeneous model and GASFLOW uses a heterogeneous model. (Author)

  6. Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction of antidepressant drugs with serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Bang-Andersen, Benny;

    2009-01-01

    The biogenic monoamine transporters are integral membrane proteins that perform active transport of extracellular dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants, as well as addictive substances such as cocaine...... and amphetamine. Seminal advances in the understanding of the structure and function of this transporter family have recently been accomplished by structural studies of a bacterial transporter, as well as medicinal chemistry and pharmacological studies of mammalian transporters. This feature article focuses...... on antidepressant drugs that act on the serotonin and/or the norepinephrine transporters. Specifically, we focus on structure-activity relationships of these drugs with emphasis on relationships between their molecular properties and the current knowledge of transporter structure....

  7. Formation and Transport of Atomic Hydrogen in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on diamond film hot-filament chemical vapor deposition reactors where the only reactant ishydrogen so as to study the formation and transport of hydrogen atoms. Analysis of dimensionless numbers forheat and mass transfer reveals that thermal conduction and diffusion are the dominant mechanisms for gas-phaseheat and mass transfer, respectively. A simplified model has been established to simulate gas-phase temperature andH concentration distributions between the filament and the substrate. Examination of the relative importance ofhomogeneous and heterogeneous production of H atoms indicates that filament-surface decomposition of molecularhydrogen is the dominant source of H and gas-phase reaction plays a negligible role. The filament-surface dissociationrates of H2 for various filament temperatures were calculated to match H-atom concentrations observed in the liter-ature or derived from power consumption by filaments. Arrhenius plots of the filament-surface hydrogen dissociationrates suggest that dissociation of H2 at refractory filament surface is a catalytic process, which has a rather lowereffective activation energy than homogeneous thermal dissociation. Atomic hydrogen, acting as an important heattransfer medium to heat the substrate, can freely diffuse from the filament to the substrate without recombination.

  8. Transport coefficients for carbon, hydrogen, and the organic mixture C2H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical and thermal transport coefficients are calculated for amorphous elemental carbon and hydrogen, using the best available systematic theoretical methods. The density range considered is 10-3g/cm3 less than or equal to rho less than or equal to 106g/cm3 for carbon, and 10-4g/cm3 less than or equal to rho less than or equal to 105g/cm3 for hydrogen. The temperature range considered is 10-2eV less than or equal to kT less than or equal to 104eV. Calculational methods include relativistic partial-wave analysis of the extended Ziman theory, and nonrelativistic plane-wave analysis (Born approximation) of the original Ziman theory. Physical models include relativistic Dirac-Fock-Slater and nonrelativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac electron-ion potentials, and one-component-plasma ion-ion structure factors. A mixing algorithm is used to obtain approximate transport coefficients for the atomic ratio C2H3. 10 refs., 31 figs

  9. Single-step chemistry model and transport coefficient model for hydrogen combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJian; WEN Jennifer; LU ShouXiang; GUO Jin

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of large-scale hydrogen combustion and explosion simulation,a method is presented to establish single-step chemistry model and transport model for fuel-air mixture.If the reaction formula for hydrogen-air mixture is H2+0.5O2→H2O,the reaction rate model is ω =1.13×1015[H2][O2]exp(-46.37T0/T) mol (cm3 s)-1,and the transport coefficient model is μ=K/Cp=pD=7.0×10-5T 0.7 g (cm s)-1.By using current models and the reference model to simulate steady Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) wave and free-propagating laminar flame,it is found that the results are well agreeable.Additionally,deflagration-to-detonation transition in an obstructed channel was also simulated.The numerical results are also well consistent with the experimental results.These provide a reasonable proof for current method and new models.

  10. Citymobil, advanced transport for the urban environment : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, J.P. van; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van

    2012-01-01

    CityMobil was an integrated project in the Sixth Framework Program of the European Union. The objective of the project was to achieve more effective organization of urban transport for more rational use of motorized traffic with less congestion and pollution, safer driving, a higher quality of livin

  11. Advancing the electrochemistry of the hydrogen-evolution reaction through combining experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The electrocatalytic hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER), as the main step of water splitting and the cornerstone of exploring the mechanism of other multi-electron transfer electrochemical processes, is the subject of extensive studies. A large number of high-performance electrocatalysts have been developed for HER accompanied by recent significant advances in exploring its electrochemical nature. Herein we present a critical appraisal of both theoretical and experimental studies of HER electrocatalysts with special emphasis on the electronic structure, surface (electro)chemistry, and molecular design. It addresses the importance of correlating theoretical calculations and electrochemical measurements toward better understanding of HER electrocatalysis at the atomic level. Fundamental concepts in the computational quantum chemistry and its relation to experimental electrochemistry are also presented along with some featured examples. PMID:25384712

  12. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  13. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M.; Mills, W. B.; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Summers, Karen V.; Crossan, A. Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world’s FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  14. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  15. APOLLO-2: An advanced transport code for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    APOLLO-2 is a fully modular code in which each module corresponds to a specific task: access to the cross-sections libraries, creation of isotopes medium or mixtures, geometry definition, self-shielding calculations, computation of multigroup collision probabilities, flux solver, depletion calculations, transport-transport or transport-diffusion equivalence process, SN calculations, etc... Modules communicate exclusively by ''objects'' containing structured data, these objects are identified and handled by user's given names. Among the major improvements offered by APOLLO-2 the modelization of the self-shielding: it is possible now to deal with a great precision, checked versus Montecarlo calculations, a fuel rod divided into several concentric rings. So the total production of Plutonium is quite better estimated than before and its radial distribution may be predicted also with a good accuracy. Thanks to the versatility of the code some reference calculations and routine ones may be compared easily because only one parameter is changed; for example the self-shielding approximations are modified, the libraries or the flux solver being exactly the same. Other interesting features have been introduced in APOLLO-2: the new isotopes JEF.2 are available in 99 and 172 energy groups libraries, the surface leakage model improves the calculation of the control rod efficiency, the flux-current method allows faster calculations, the possibility of an automatic convergence checking during the depletion calculations coupled with fully automatic corrections, heterogeneous diffusion coefficients used for voiding analysis. 17 refs, 1 tab

  16. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  17. Microbicidal efficacy of an advanced oxidation process using ozone/hydrogen peroxide in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, R; Pribil, W; Pfleger, S; Haider, T; Werderitsch, M; Gehringer, P

    2004-01-01

    The combined application of ozone and hydrogen peroxide represents a kind of advanced oxidation for water treatment. The radicals that are generated during the process are used for the degradation of organic pollutants from groundwater and industrial effluents. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible microbicidal, and particularly virucidal, efficacy of such a process, since no substantial data were available. The investigations were performed at a pilot plant installed for the elimination of perchloroethylene from polluted groundwater (reduction efficacy for perchloroethylene from 26 microg/L to 5 microg/L). To enable a reliable evaluation of the microbicidal effect, a set of alternate test organisms was used. As model viruses we chose bacteriophages MS2 (F+ specific, single-stranded RNA), phiX174 (single-stranded DNA) and PRD-1 (coated, double-stranded DNA). Furthermore, spores of Bacillus subtilis were included as possible surrogates for protozoa and Escherichia coli as representative for traditional indicator bacteria used in water analysis. The microbicidal efficiency was compared to the inactivation by means of ozone under two standard conditions (20 degrees C): (a) 0.4 mg/L residual after 4 min and (b) 0.1 mg/L residual after 10 min. Surprisingly, a good microbicidal effect of the ozone/hydrogen peroxide process was found. This was somewhat unexpected, because we had assumed that the disinfection potential of ozone would have been interfered with by the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Escherichia coli and the three test viruses revealed a reduction of about 6-log. In contrast, spores of Bacillus subtilis showed after the total process a reduction of 0.4-log. These results matched the effect of the ozone treatment (a) with a residual of 0.4 mg/L after 4 min contact time (20 degrees C). The test condition (b) with a residual of 0.1 mg/L ozone after a contact time of 10 min at 20 degrees C gave a higher reduction of the B. subtilis spores (1.5-log

  18. Hydrogen plasma-mediated modification of the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanowire field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the electrical transport properties of ZnO nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with a back gate configuration. After hydrogen plasma treatment of the FET devices, the effective carrier density and mobility of the nanowire FETs increased with a threshold voltage shift toward a negative gate bias direction. This can be attributed to the desorption of oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of the nanowire channel, to passivation and to doping effects due to the incorporation of energetic hydrogen ions generated in plasma. (paper)

  19. Electron transport nonlocality in monolayer graphene modified with hydrogen silsesquioxane polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaverzin, Alexey

    Physical properties of electrons in graphene offer not only functionality in terms of conventional charge transport, but also allow to explore spin and valley degrees of freedom. The presence of internal coupling between the nontrivial current states and normal charge current provides the effective mechanism for studying these properties. At the same time a nonlocal geometry of the transport experiments allows to separate the useful signal associated with either spin or valley degree of freedom from trivial charge contribution. In this work using the nonlocal geometry we study the transport properties of hydrogenated graphene Hall bar devices. The observed nonlocal signal is seen to substantially exceed the background ohmic contribution and, therefore, has to be understood in terms of nontrivial mediative current. The channel length dependence of the useful signal falls into direct/inverse spin Hall effect description, however, the absence of the modulation of the measured effect with the applied in plane magnetic field discredits the spin nature of the observed phenomenon. Our findings cannot be explained with the existing models suggesting that further investigation is required. European Union's Seventh Framework Programme Grant 604391 Graphene Flagship, FOM, NWO.

  20. Thermodynamic Properties and Transport Coefficients of Nitrogen, Hydrogen and Helium Plasma Mixed with Silver Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Cui, Xinglei; Chen, Mo; Zhai, Guofu

    2016-05-01

    Species composites of Ag-N2, Ag-H2 and Ag-He plasmas in the temperature range of 3,000-20,000 K and at 1 atmospheric pressure were calculated by using the minimization of Gibbs free energy. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of nitrogen, hydrogen and helium plasmas mixed with a variety of silver vapor were then calculated based on the equilibrium composites and collision integral data. The calculation procedure was verified by comparing the results obtained in this paper with the published transport coefficients on the case of pure nitrogen plasma. The influences of the silver vapor concentration on composites, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients were finally analyzed and summarized for all the three types of plasmas. Those physical properties were important for theoretical study and numerical calculation on arc plasma generated by silver-based electrodes in those gases in sealed electromagnetic relays and contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277038 and 51307030)

  1. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  2. Advances in carbon dioxide compression and pipeline transportation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Majkut, Mirosław; Rulik, Sebastian; Stolecka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive analysis of CO2 compression, transportation processes and safety issues for post combustion CO2 capture applications for a 900 MW pulverized hard coal-fired power plant, this book assesses techniques for boosting the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressure values with a minimal amount of energy. Four different types of compressors are examined in detail: a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, integrally geared centrifugal compressor, supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines. The study demonstrates that the total compression power is closely related

  3. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  4. Acoustic charge transport technology investigation for advanced development transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Acoustic charge transport (ACT) technology has provided a basis for a new family of analog signal processors, including a programmable transversal filter (PTF). Through monolithic integration of ACT delay lines with GaAs metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) digital memory and controllers, these devices significantly extend the performance of PTF's. This article introduces the basic operation of these devices and summarizes their present and future specifications. The production and testing of these devices indicate that this new technology is a promising one for future space applications.

  5. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  6. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric J. Carlson

    2004-10-20

    PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

  7. An overview of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer for hydrogen production: Modeling and mass transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdol Rahim, A. H.; Tijani, Alhassan Salami; Kamarudin, S. K.; Hanapi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is a candidate for advanced engineering technology. There are many polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) models that have been reported, but none regarding PEME. This paper presents state of the art mass transport models applied to PEME, a detailed literature review of these models and associate methods have been conducted. PEME models are typically developed using analytical, semi empirical and mechanistic techniques that are based on their state and spatial dimensions. Methods for developing the PEME models are introduced and briefly explained. Furthermore the model cell voltage of PEME, which consists of Nernst voltage, ohmic over potential, activation over potential, and diffusion over potential is discussed with focus on mass transport modeling. This paper also presents current issues encountered with PEME model.

  8. Electric vehicles or use of hydrogen in the Danish transport sector in 2050?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy mixes...... in 2050. Compared to the EV scenario, H2 generation from electrolysis is more flexible and the production can therefore to a larger degree be used to out-balance fluctuating electricity surplus from a high share of wind energy in the power system. H2 production may generate heat that can be used...... as district heating - replacing traditional heating plants, heat pumps and in some cases combined heat and power plants. Therefore the energy generation mix (electricity and heat) is more affected in the H2 scenario than in the EV scenario. Whether the H2 scenario is more costly to implement than the EV...

  9. Spin transport properties of partially edge-hydrogenated MoS2 nanoribbon heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Yao, Kailun; Zhu, Sicong; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Wang, Shuling; Guo, Bin; Tian, Yong

    2014-06-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic transport properties of heterostructure based on MoS2 nanoribbons. The heterostructure consists of edge hydrogen-passivated and non-passivated zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons (ZMoS2NR-H/ZMoS2NR). Our calculations show that the heterostructure has half-metallic behavior which is independent of the nanoribbon width. The opening of spin channels of the heterostructure depends on the matching of particular electronic orbitals in the Mo-dominated edges of ZMoS2NR-H and ZMoS2NR. Perfect spin filter effect appears at small bias voltages, and large negative differential resistance and rectifying effects are also observed in the heterostructure.

  10. Dispersive transport in hydrogenated a-Si prepared by rf sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-of-flight measurement of photo-excited carriers has been carried out in hydrogenated a-Si deposited by rf sputtering method. Both electrons and holes show highly dispersive transport. The electron drift mobility near room temperature ranges from 5 x 10-3 to 4 x 10-5 cm2/V.s, much lower than that of GD samples, and the activation energy is about 0.3 eV. The value of the hole mobility is comparable with that in GD specimens, but its activation energy is about 0.2 eV which is about half of that observed in GD a-Si. (author)

  11. Use of electric vehicles or hydrogen in the Danish transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    compares a likely scenario with two alternative ways to achieve the goal - either with a high percentage of electric vehicles (EV) or with a high percentage of hydrogen (H2) use in the transport sector. The STREAM model - an energy scenario simulating tool - provides insight into different potential energy...... of the energy system in 2050. Electricity demand for H2 generation via electrolysis is more flexible than EV charging and the production can therefore, to a larger degree be used to out-balance variable electricity surplus from a high share of wind and solar energy in the power system. H2 production may...... generate heat that can be used as district heating - replacing traditional heating plants, heat pumps and in some cases combined heat and power plants. Therefore the energy generation mix (electricity and heat) is more affected in the H2 scenario than in the EV scenario. Whether the H2 scenario is more...

  12. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAM® CFD tool for 0D–3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of nano bubbles on hydrogen isotopes inventory at different temperatures as well as the inventory evolution during a He nucleation event. In addition, 1D and 2D axisymmetric cases are exposed showing the effect of a He dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation through a lithium lead eutectic alloy and the effect of vortical structures on hydrogen isotope transport at a backward facing step. Exposed results give a valuable insight on current nuclear technology regarding the importance of controlling hydrogen isotope transport and its interactions with nucleation event through gas absorption processes

  13. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAM® CFD tool for 0D–3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of nano bubbles on hydrogen isotopes inventory at different temperatures as well as the inventory evolution during a He nucleation event. In addition, 1D and 2D axisymmetric cases are exposed showing the effect of a He dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation through a lithium lead eutectic alloy and the effect of vortical structures on hydrogen isotope transport at a backward facing step. Exposed results give a valuable insight on current nuclear technology regarding the importance of controlling hydrogen isotope transport and its interactions with nucleation event through gas absorption processes.

  14. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  15. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  16. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to

  17. Recent Improvements to an Advanced Atmospheric Transport Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. L.; Hunter, C. H.

    2005-10-24

    The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) has developed an advanced atmospheric modeling capability using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and a stochastic Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) for operational use at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For local simulations concerning releases from the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA), RAMS is run in a nested grid configuration with horizontal grid spacing of 8 and 2 km for each grid, with 6-hr forecasts updated every 3 hours. An interface to allow for easy user access to LPDM had been generated, complete with post-processing results depicting surface concentration, deposition, and a variety of dose quantities. A prior weakness in this approach was that observations from the SRS tower network were only incorporated into the three-dimensional modeling effort during the initialization process. Thus, if the forecasted wind fields were in error, the resulting plume predictions would also be erroneous. To overcome this shortcoming, the procedure for generating RAMS wind fields and reading them into LPDM has been modified such that SRS wind measurements are blended with the predicted three-dimensional wind fields from RAMS using the Barnes technique. In particular, the horizontal components in RAMS are replaced with the observed values at a series of 8 towers that exist within the SRS boundary (covering {approx}300 km{sup 2}). Even though LPDM is currently configured to account only for radioactive releases, it was used in a recent chlorine gas release to generate plume concentrations based on unit releases from the site of a train accident in Graniteville, South Carolina. This information was useful to local responders as an indication of potential protective actions downwind of the release.

  18. Wind Energy and Transport Synergy: Electric Vehicle or Hydrogen Vehicle?; Sinergia Energia Eolica Transporte: vehiculo electrico o vehiculo de hidrogeno?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, I.

    2009-07-01

    This article briefly analyzes the potential uses of hydrogen as a form of energy from wind power. It also briefly describes the different experiences gained in wind energy-based hydrogen production by water hydrolysis, and finally it concludes with a brief analysis of the competition between hydrogen and the new ion-lithium batteries used in motor vehicles as potential solutions to support wind energy management. (Author)

  19. Advanced thermal barrier coatings for operation in high hydrogen content fueled gas turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampath, Sanjay [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-04-02

    The Center for Thermal Spray Research (CTSR) at Stony Brook University in partnership with its industrial Consortium for Thermal Spray Technology is investigating science and technology related to advanced metallic alloy bond coats and ceramic thermal barrier coatings for applications in the hot section of gasified coal-based high hydrogen turbine power systems. In conjunction with our OEM partners (GE and Siemens) and through strategic partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (materials degradation group and high temperature materials laboratory), a systems approach, considering all components of the TBC (multilayer ceramic top coat, metallic bond coat & superalloy substrate) is being taken during multi-layered coating design, process development and subsequent environmental testing. Recent advances in process science and advanced in situ thermal spray coating property measurement enabled within CTSR has been incorporated for full-field enhancement of coating and process reliability. The development of bond coat processing during this program explored various aspects of processing and microstructure and linked them to performance. The determination of the bond coat material was carried out during the initial stages of the program. Based on tests conducted both at Stony Brook University as well as those carried out at ORNL it was determined that the NiCoCrAlYHfSi (Amdry) bond coats had considerable benefits over NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Since the studies were also conducted at different cycling frequencies, thereby addressing an associated need for performance under different loading conditions, the Amdry bond coat was selected as the material of choice going forward in the program. With initial investigations focused on the fabrication of HVOF bond coats and the performance of TBC under furnace cycle tests , several processing strategies were developed. Two-layered HVOF bond coats were developed to render optimal balance of density and surface roughness

  20. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  1. 75 FR 38151 - Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Governors' Designees Receiving Advance Notification of Transportation of Nuclear Waste On January 6, 1982 (47 FR 596 and 47 FR 600), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published in the Federal Register final amendments to Title 10 of...

  2. CityMobil: advanced road transport for the urban environment. Final results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, J.P. van

    2011-01-01

    CityMobil is an Integrated Project in the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union. The project addresses the topic “Advanced Road transport for the Urban Environment.” The project started in May 2006 and will run until December 2011. The project is carried out by a group of 29 partners led by

  3. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  4. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a

  5. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  6. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a

  7. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  8. Advanced Fuels Reactor using Aneutronic Rodless Ultra Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak Hydrogenic Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Celso

    2015-11-01

    The use of advanced fuels for fusion reactor is conventionally envisaged for field reversed configuration (FRC) devices. It is proposed here a preliminary study about the use of these fuels but on an aneutronic Rodless Ultra Low Aspect Ratio (RULART) hydrogenic plasmas. The idea is to inject micro-size boron pellets vertically at the inboard side (HFS, where TF is very high and the tokamak electron temperature is relatively low because of profile), synchronised with a proton NBI pointed to this region. Therefore, p-B reactions should occur and alpha particles produced. These pellets will act as an edge-like disturbance only (cp. killer pellet, although the vertical HFS should make this less critical, since the unablated part should appear in the bottom of the device). The boron cloud will appear at midplance, possibly as a MARFE-look like. Scaling of the p-B reactions by varying the NBI energy should be compared with the predictions of nuclear physics. This could be an alternative to the FRC approach, without the difficulties of the optimization of the FRC low confinement time. Instead, a robust good tokamak confinement with high local HFS TF (enhanced due to the ultra low aspect ratio and low pitch angle) is used. The plasma central post makes the RULART concept attractive because of the proximity of NBI path and also because a fraction of born alphas will cross the plasma post and dragged into it in the direction of the central plasma post current, escaping vertically into a hole in the bias plate and reaching the direct electricity converter, such as in the FRC concept.

  9. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Hydrogen in Disordered and Amorphous Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, Robert

    1986-01-01

    This is the second volume in the NATO ASI series dealing with the topic of hydrogen in solids. The first (V. B76, Metal Hydrides) appeared five years ago and focussed primarily on crystalline phases of hydrided metallic systems. In the intervening period, the amorphous solid state has become an area of intense research activity, encompassing both metallic and non-metallic, e.g. semiconducting, systems. At the same time the problem of storage of hydrogen, which motivated the first ASI, continues to be important. In the case of metallic systems, there were early indications that metallic glasses and disordered alloys may be more corrosion resistant, less susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and have a higher hydrogen mobility than ordered metals or intermetallics. All of these properties are desirable for hydrogen storage. Subsequent research has shown that thermodynamic instability is a severe problem in many amorphous metal hydrides. The present ASI has provided an appropriate forum to focus on these issu...

  10. Hydrogenation effects on carrier transport in boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon films prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katamune, Yūki, E-mail: yuki-katamune@kyudai.jp; Takeichi, Satoshi [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ohmagari, Shinya [Diamond Research Group, Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices (UBIQEN), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyoshi-yoshitake@kyudai.jp [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Research Center for Synchrotron Light Applications, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Advanced Energy, Materials, Devices, and Systems, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite (UNCD/a-C:H) films were deposited by coaxial arc plasma deposition with a boron-blended graphite target at a base pressure of <10{sup −3} Pa and at hydrogen pressures of ≤53.3 Pa. The hydrogenation effects on the electrical properties of the films were investigated in terms of chemical bonding. Hydrogen-scattering spectrometry showed that the maximum hydrogen content was 35 at. % for the film produced at 53.3-Pa hydrogen pressure. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra showed strong absorptions by sp{sup 3} C–H bonds, which were specific to the UNCD/a-C:H, and can be attributed to hydrogen atoms terminating the dangling bonds at ultrananocrystalline diamond grain boundaries. Temperature-dependence of the electrical conductivity showed that the films changed from semimetallic to semiconducting with increasing hydrogen pressure, i.e., with enhanced hydrogenation, probably due to hydrogenation suppressing the formation of graphitic bonds, which are a source of carriers. Carrier transport in semiconducting hydrogenated films can be explained by a variable-range hopping model. The rectifying action of heterojunctions comprising the hydrogenated films and n-type Si substrates implies carrier transport in tunneling.

  11. Advanced Approaches to Greatly Reduce Hydrogen Gas Crossover Losses in PEM Electrolyzers Operating at High Pressures and Low Current Densities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes a Phase II program to advance its very successful SBIR Phase I technology effort to the point of minimum hydrogen loss through the electrolyzer...

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  13. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  14. Advanced Public Transportation Sytems; A Taxonomy, Commercial Availability And Deployment, Phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Khattak, Asad; Et. al.,

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the development and availability of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) technologies. The study refines a taxonomy of transit technologies and uses it to explore the availability of new technologies and their impacts in transit agencies. THe taxonomy is based on defining the features, functions and performance characteristics of transit technologies. Based on the taxonomy, three surveys of technology suppliers were conducted. Questions were related to technology ...

  15. System safety engineering in the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnzen, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Applications of system safety engineering to the development of advanced surface transportation vehicles are described. As a pertinent example, the paper describes a safety engineering efforts tailored to the particular design and test requirements of the Tracked Air Cushion Research Vehicle (TACRV). The test results obtained from this unique research vehicle provide significant design data directly applicable to the development of future tracked air cushion vehicles that will carry passengers in comfort and safety at speeds up to 300 miles per hour.

  16. Magnesium-based materials for hydrogen storage: Recent advances and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO XiangDong; LU GaoQing

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen storage is a real challenge for realizing "hydrogen economy" that will solve the critical is-sues of humanity such as energy depletion,air pollution,greenhouse emission and climate change.Recently,tremendous efforts have been devoted to this internationally focused area.Magnesium (Mg) is among the most promising candidates for this purpose and attracts numerous research interests.This paper is aiming at reviewing recent literatures on approaches and progress,the necessity of fur-ther research,and future direction to the research of Mg for hydrogen storage.

  17. Palladium-rare-earth metal alloys-advanced materials for hydrogen power engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen of no less than 99. 999 % (vol. fraction) purity is a principal power media of hydrogen power engineering. A single method for the preparation of high purity hydrogen consists in its separation from vapour-gas mixtures via the selective diffusion of hydrogen through a palladium membrane. The rate of hydrogen diffusion and the strength and stability during the operation in aggressive gases are important characteristics of palladium membranes. The increase in the strength, plasticity, and hydrogen-permeability of membrane alloys can be reached by alloying palladium with the formation of solid solutions.The formation of wide ranges of palladium-rare-earth metal (REM) solid solutions is an interesting feature of palladium. Earlier, we have shown that the alloying of Pd with REM substantially increases the rate of hydrogen diffusion and markedly increases the strength of palladium on retention of the adequate plasticity.In this work, we have studied alloys of the Pd-Y and Pd-Y-Me systems. It was shown that the following conditions should be satisfied to prepare high-quality alloys exhibiting high service properties: (1)the use of high-purity components (whose purity is no less than 99.95%, mass fraction), in particular,high-purity Y prepared by vacuum distillation, and (2) holding the reached purity for the final product.For this purpose, we suggested a cycle of manufacturing operations including the preparation of a vacuumtight foil of 50 (m thick as the final stage.The hydrogen-permeability of the alloys was measured at different temperatures and hydrogen pressures. The instability of operation of binary Pd-Y alloys w alloying the composition with a Ⅷ Group metal. For example, the alloy of the optimum composition Pd-8Y-Me in the annealed state exhibits the following mechanical properties: HV= 75 kg/mm2 , σu = 58 kg/mm2 , and δ= 20%. Its hydrogen-permeability (QH2) measured as a function of the temperature exceeds that of the Pd-23Ag alloy (that is widely

  18. Predicted electron-transport coefficients at high E/N values. I. Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport coefficients of electrons in hydrogen are calculated over the range 10-16-15 V cm2 by solving the Boltzmann equation using a two-term spherical-harmonic expansion which takes into account the effect of the source of new electrons produced by ionization. Recently reported electron cross-section data, both experimental and theoretical, have been used in the calculation. It is shown that the release of new electrons in ionizing collisions has a noticeable effect on the electron distribution function starting from E/Napprox. =1.2 x 10-15 V cm2. The predicted values of the first Townsend ionization coefficient are in excellent agreement with experimental results over the entire range of E/N values considered without using unrealistically large momentum-transfer cross sections at high electron energies. The calculated values for the drift velocity v/sub d/ are in good agreement with the measured values. For the characteristic energy D/sub T//μ, the agreement is good up to E/N=2 x 10-15 V cm2, while for higher E/N it becomes less satisfactory. The electron excitation rates for the vibration, the excitation of the B 1Σ+/sub u/ and C 1Pi/sub u/ electronic states, and the rate of H-atom production are presented as a function of E/N. Results are also given for the fraction of the input power that is transfered to the various inelastic processes

  19. Collisionality scaling of turbulence and transport in advanced inductive plasmas in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C.; Luce, T.; Chen, X.; Holland, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Marinoni, A.; Solomon, W.; DIII-D Team

    2015-11-01

    The collisionality scaling of multiscale turbulence properties and thermal transport characteristics in high-beta, high confinement Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas was determined via systematic dimensionless scaling experiments on DIII-D. Preliminary estimate indicates a weak collisionality dependence of energy confinement as v* varied by a factor of ~2. Electron density and scaled (~Bt2) temperature profiles are well matched in the scan. Interestingly, low-k density fluctuation amplitudes are observed to decrease at lower v* near ρ ~ 0 . 75 . Ion and electron thermal transport values, computed with ONETWO using experimentally measured profiles and sources, will be presented, along with multi-scale turbulence measurements obtained with various fluctuation diagnostics. Altering collisionality should change the relative contribution of different modes to transport.

  20. Recent advances in statistical methods for the estimation of sediment and nutrient transport in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, T. A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper reviews advances in methods for estimating fluvial transport of suspended sediment and nutrients. Research from the past four years, mostly dealing with estimating monthly and annual loads, is emphasized. However, because this topic has not appeared in previous IUGG reports, some research prior to 1990 is included. The motivation for studying sediment transport has shifted during the past few decades. In addition to its role in filling reservoirs and channels, sediment is increasingly recognized as an important part of fluvial ecosystems and estuarine wetlands. Many groups want information about sediment transport [Bollman, 1992]: Scientists trying to understand benthic biology and catchment hydrology; citizens and policy-makers concerned about environmental impacts (e.g. impacts of logging [Beschta, 1978] or snow-fences [Sturges, 1992]); government regulators considering the effectiveness of programs to protect in-stream habitat and downstream waterbodies; and resource managers seeking to restore wetlands.

  1. Assuring containment in reactor accidents: recent advances concerning the mitigation of the hydrogen risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the different programs led in laboratories concerning the mitigation of the hydrogen risk in nuclear power plants. 3 aspects are considered: the generation of hydrogen during a reactor major accident, the distribution of this gas inside the reactor containment building and the different combustion modes of hydrogen. Studies show that it is difficult to prevent at any time and place the formation of a combustible mixture despite the presence of hydrogen recombiners. Studies have led to the setting of criteria concerning flame acceleration and detonation-explosion transitions, it has been shown that a mixture whose expansion parameter stays below a limit value can not lead to a flame acceleration over 400 m/s. (A.C.)

  2. Development of advanced claddings for suppressing the hydrogen emission in accident conditions. Development of advanced claddings for suppressing the hydrogen emission in the accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of accident-tolerant fuels can be a breakthrough to help solve the challenge facing nuclear fuels. One of the goals to be reached with accident-tolerant fuels is to reduce the hydrogen emission in the accident condition by improving the high-temperature oxidation resistance of claddings. KAERI launched a new project to develop the accident-tolerant fuel claddings with the primary objective to suppress the hydrogen emission even in severe accident conditions. Two concepts are now being considered as hydrogen-suppressed cladding. In concept 1, the surface modification technique was used to improve the oxidation resistance of Zr claddings. Like in concept 2, the metal-ceramic hybrid cladding which has a ceramic composite layer between the Zr inner layer and the outer surface coating is being developed. The high-temperature steam oxidation behaviour was investigated for several candidate materials for the surface modification of Zr claddings. From the oxidation tests carried out in 1 200 deg. C steam, it was found that the high-temperature steam oxidation resistance of Cr and Si was much higher than that of zircaloy-4. Al3Ti-based alloys also showed extremely low-oxidation rate compared to zircaloy-4. One important part in the surface modification is to develop the surface coating technology where the optimum process needs to be established depending on the surface layer materials. Several candidate materials were coated on the Zr alloy specimens by a laser beam scanning (LBS), a plasma spray (PS) and a PS followed by LBS and subject to the high-temperature steam oxidation test. It was found that Cr and Si coating layers were effective in protecting Zr-alloys from the oxidation. The corrosion behaviour of the candidate materials in normal reactor operation condition such as 360 deg. C water will be investigated after the screening test in the high-temperature steam. The metal-ceramic hybrid cladding consisted of three major parts; a Zr liner, a ceramic

  3. Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acid derivatives: history, advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James; Filonenko, Georgy A; van Putten, Robbert; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A

    2015-06-01

    The catalytic reduction of carboxylic acid derivatives has witnessed a rapid development in recent years. These reactions, involving molecular hydrogen as the reducing agent, can be promoted by heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts. The milestone achievements and recent results by both approaches are discussed in this Review. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic aspects of the catalytic hydrogenation and highlight the bifunctional nature of the mechanism that is preferred for supported metal catalysts as well as homogeneous transition metal complexes.

  4. Study on transient hydrogen behavior and effect on passive containment cooling system of the advanced PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A certain amount of hydrogen will be generated due to zirconium-steam reaction or molten corium concrete interaction during severe accidents in the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The generated hydrogen releases into the containment, and the formed flammable mixture might cause deflagration or detonation to produce high thermal and pressure loads on the containment, which may threaten the integrity of the containment. The non-condensable hydrogen in containment may also reduce the steam condensation on the containment surface to affect the performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS). To study the transient hydrogen behavior in containment with the PCCS performance during the accidents is significant for the further study on the PCCS design and the hydrogen risk mitigation. In this paper, a new developed PCCS analysis code with self-reliance intellectual property rights, which had been validated by comparison on the transients in the containment during the design basis accidents with other developed PCCS analysis code, is brief introduced and used for the transient simulation in the containment under a postulated small break LOCA of cold-leg. The results show that the hydrogen will flow upwards with the coolant released from the break and spread in the containment by convection and diffusion, and it results in the increase of the pressure in the containment due to reducing the heat removal capacity of the PCCS. (author)

  5. Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlasner, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200—500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels — some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU’ s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450°F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures

  6. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  7. Combining geoelectrical and advanced lysimeter methods to characterize heterogeneous flow and transport under unsaturated transient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, M.; Skowronski, J.; Binley, A. M.; Slater, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    Our ability to predict flow and transport processes in the unsaturated critical zone is considerably limited by two characteristics: heterogeneity of flow and transience of boundary conditions. The causes of heterogeneous - or preferential - flow and transport are fairly well understood, yet the characterization and quantification of such processes in natural profiles remains challenging. This is due to current methods of observation, such as staining and isotope tracers, being unable to observe multiple events on the same profile and offering limited spatial information. In our study we demonstrate an approach to characterize preferential flow and transport processes applying a combination of geoelectrical methods and advanced lysimeter techniques. On an agricultural soil profile, which was transferred undisturbed into a lysimeter container, we applied systematically varied input flow boundary conditions, resembling natural precipitation events. We simultaneously measured the breakthrough of a conservative tracer. Flow and transport in the soil column were observed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), tensiometers, water content probes and a multicompartment suction plate (MSP). These techniques allowed a direct ground-truthing of soil moisture and pore fluid resistivity changes estimated noninvasively using ERT. We were able to image both the advancing infiltration front and the advancing tracer front using time lapse ERT. Water content changes associated with the advancing infiltration front dominated over pore fluid conductivity changes during short term precipitation events. Conversely, long term displacement of the solute front was monitored during periods of constant water content in between infiltration events. We observed preferential flow phenomena through ERT and through the MSP, which agreed in general terms. The preferential flow fraction was observed to be independent of precipitation rate. This suggests the presence of a fingering process

  8. H2FIRST: A partnership to advance hydrogen fueling station technology driving an optimal consumer experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, Christopher D.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Pratt, Joseph William; Balfour, Bruce; Noma, Edwin Yoichi; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; K. Wipke; J. Kurtz; D. Terlip; K. Harrison; S. Sprik

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is establishing the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) partnership, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). FCTO is establishing this partnership and the associated capabilities in support of H2USA, the public/private partnership launched in 2013. The H2FIRST partnership provides the research and technology acceleration support to enable the widespread deployment of hydrogen infrastructure for the robust fueling of light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). H2FIRST will focus on improving private-sector economics, safety, availability and reliability, and consumer confidence for hydrogen fueling. This whitepaper outlines the goals, scope, activities associated with the H2FIRST partnership.

  9. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  10. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fradera, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

  11. The impact of soil uptake on the global distribution of molecular hydrogen: chemical transport model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yashiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The global tropospheric distribution of molecular hydrogen (H2 and its uptake by the soil are simulated using a model called CHemical AGCM (atmospheric general circulation model for the Study of the Environment and Radiative forcing (CHASER, which incorporates a two-layered soil diffusion/uptake process component. The simulated distribution of deposition velocity over land is influenced by regional climate, and has a global average of 3.3×10−2 cm s−1. In the region north of 30° N, the amount of soil uptake shows a large seasonal variation corresponding to change in biological activity due to soil temperature and change in diffusion suppression by snow cover. In the temperate and humid regions in the mid- to low- latitudes, the uptake is mostly influenced by the soil air ratio, which controls the gas diffusivity in the soil. In the semi-arid regions, water stress and high temperatures contribute to the reduction of biological activity, as well as to the seasonal variation in the deposition velocity. A comparison with the observations shows that the model reproduces both the distribution and seasonal variation of H2 relatively well. The global burden and tropospheric lifetime of H2 are 150 Tg and 2.0 yr, respectively. The seasonal variation in H2 mixing ratios at the northern high latitudes is mainly controlled by a large seasonal change in the soil uptake. In the Southern Hemisphere, seasonal change in net chemical production and inter-hemispheric transport are the dominant causes of the seasonal cycle, while large biomass burning contributes significantly to the seasonal variation in the tropics and subtropics. Both observations and the model show large inter-annual variations, especially for the period 1997–1998, associated with large biomass burning in the tropics and at Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. The soil uptake shows relatively small inter-annual variability

  12. The impact of soil uptake on the global distribution of molecular hydrogen: chemical transport model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yashiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular hydrogen (H2 in the troposphere is highly influenced by the strength of H2 uptake by the terrestrial soil surface. The global distribution of H2 and its uptake by the soil are simulated by using a model called CHemical AGCM for Study of Environment and Radiative forcing (CHASER, which incorporates a 2-layered soil diffusion/uptake process component. The simulated distribution of deposition velocity over land reflects regional climate and has a global average of 3.3 × 10−2 cm s−1. In the region north of 30° N, the amount of soil uptake increases, particularly in the summer. However, the increase in the uptake becomes smaller in the winter season due to snow cover and a reduction in the biological activity at low temperatures. In the temperate and humid regions in the mid- and low-latitudes, the uptake is mostly influenced by the soil air ratio, which controls the gas diffusivity in the soil. In the semi-arid region, water stress and high temperature contribute to the reduction of biological activity, as well as to the seasonal variation in the deposition velocity. The comparison with the observations shows that the model reproduces both the distribution and seasonal variation of H2 relatively well. The global burden and tropospheric lifetime are 150 Tg and 2.0 yr, respectively. The seasonal variation of H2 in the northern high latitude is mainly controlled by the large seasonal change in soil uptake. In the Southern Hemisphere, the seasonal change in the net chemical production and inter-hemispheric transport are the dominant cause of the seasonal cycle. Large biomass burning impacts the magnitude of seasonal variation mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Both observation and model show large inter-annual variation, especially for the period 1997–1998, associated with the large biomass burning in tropics and northern high-latitudes. The soil uptake

  13. Hydrogen for transport in Denmark towards 2050. Contribution to electric-powered transport, growth, CO{sub 2} reduction and independence of fossil fuels; Brint til transport i Danmark frem mod 2050. Bidrag til elektrisk transport, vaekst, CO{sub 2} reduktion og fossil uafhaengighed. Baggrundsrapport. Endelig udgave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennike, F. (Hydrogen Link Danmark (Denmark)); Mortensgaard, A. (Brint and Braendselscelle Partnerskabet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Sloth, M. (H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark))

    2011-12-15

    Significant funding has been invested internationally in the development of hydrogen and fuel cells for the last 10 years, among others by the leading car makers. In Denmark alone businesses have, along with contributions from public programs, invested two billion DKK since 2001. The investments have helped to develop and mature hydrogen and fuel cells so that a deployment can be initiated from 2015. With the Danish government's new initiative, ''Our Energy'', which is targeted towards a switch to a fossil fuel-independent society in 2050, it is obvious that hydrogen is included as one of many technologies that can help solve the challenge within the transport sector. The Hydrogen Link Denmark Association and selected Danish players in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Partnership in Denmark has therefore prepared this analysis which describes a possible contribution to electrical transport, growth, CO{sub 2} reduction and fossil fuel independence by introduction of hydrogen for transport in Denmark up to 2050. The analysis is based on a possible share of hydrogen cars in the Danish car fleet in 2050 of 50% and the secondary effects of activation of the energy policy objectives for fossil fuel independence, and not least the significant potential for Danish exports of hydrogen and fuel cell technology and affected jobs. Similarly, the contribution of hydrogen for transport in relation to balancing the increased share of fluctuating renewable energy production was analyzed. (LN)

  14. Hydrogen transport through thin palladium-copper alloy composite membranes at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Wang Weiping [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Jie; Sheng Shishan [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Xiong Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: gxxiong@dicp.ac.cn; Yang Weishen [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)], E-mail: yangws@dicp.ac.cn

    2008-02-29

    Hydrogen permeation performance of three thin palladium-copper composite membranes with different thicknesses had been studied between 398 K and 753 K. Hydrogen permeance was obtained up to 2.7 x 10{sup -6} mol/(m{sup 2} s Pa) with an ideal selectivity over 1000 at 753 K. The hydrogen permeation exhibited two different activation energies over the temperature range: lower activation energy of about 9.8 kJ/mol above 548 K, while higher activation energy of about 26.4 kJ/mol below 548 K. After permeation tests, the alloy membranes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction. Palladium segregation on the surface of these palladium-copper alloys may induce changes of hydrogen permeation performance and thus influence the activation energies.

  15. Hydrogen transport through thin palladium-copper alloy composite membranes at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen permeation performance of three thin palladium-copper composite membranes with different thicknesses had been studied between 398 K and 753 K. Hydrogen permeance was obtained up to 2.7 x 10-6 mol/(m2 s Pa) with an ideal selectivity over 1000 at 753 K. The hydrogen permeation exhibited two different activation energies over the temperature range: lower activation energy of about 9.8 kJ/mol above 548 K, while higher activation energy of about 26.4 kJ/mol below 548 K. After permeation tests, the alloy membranes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and in situ X-ray diffraction. Palladium segregation on the surface of these palladium-copper alloys may induce changes of hydrogen permeation performance and thus influence the activation energies

  16. Recent Advances on Hydrogenic Retention in ITER's Plasma-Facing Materials: BE, C, W.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C H; Alimov, Kh; Bekris, N; Causey, R A; Clark, R.E.H.; Coad, J P; Davis, J W; Doerner, R P; Mayer, M; Pisarev, A; Roth, J

    2008-03-29

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy and the choice of plasma-facing materials is a key factor for in-vessel tritium retention. The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the overall topic of tritium inventory in fusion reactors during the period 2001-2006. This dealt with hydrogenic retention in ITER's plasma-facing materials, Be, C, W, and in compounds (mixed materials) of these elements as well as tritium removal techniques. The results of the CRP are summarized in this article together with recommendations for ITER. Basic parameters of diffusivity, solubility and trapping in Be, C and W are reviewed. For Be, the development of open porosity can account for transient hydrogenic pumping but long term retention will be dominated by codeposition. Codeposition is also the dominant retention mechanism for carbon and remains a serious concern for both Be and C containing layers. Hydrogenic trapping in unirradiated tungsten is low but will increase with ion and neutron damage. Mixed materials will be formed in a tokamak and these can also retain significant amounts of hydrogen isotopes. Oxidative and photon-based techniques for detritiation of plasma-facing components are described.

  17. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  18. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Illias

    2002-06-10

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application this new development. We designed and built a membrane reactor to study the reforming reaction. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was developed to study the performance of the membrane reactor parametrically. The important results are presented in this report.

  19. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Posso, F. [Science Department, ULA - Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela)

    2009-01-15

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO{sub 2} and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  20. Ultra low emission vehicle - transport using advance propulsion (ULEV-TAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, S. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The increasing concern over emission pollutants that is related to the transportation sector has prompted rigorous environmental legislation in the USA and Europe. The zero emission vehicle solution based on battery technology, although attractive, appears to require step improvements in technology not realisable in the short term. The alternative, hybrid electric vehicle, is presently gaining support, with many attractive examples being made available in the market for the passenger vehicle application. The present contribution describes a newly formed project sponsored by the European Community (Brite-EuRam DG12 programme). The Ultra Low Emission Vehicle - Transport using Advanced Propulsion (ULEV-TAP) commenced in August 1997, and aims to demonstrate a hybrid powertrain based on a turbogenerator (high speed generator directly coupled to a gas turbine engine) prime mover and a flywheel energy storage unit. The demonstration vehicle is to be a regional rail vehicle operating in the city of Karlsruhe. (author)

  1. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  2. RADTRAN 4.0: Advanced computer code for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RADTRAN 4.0 is a computer code for transportation risk assessment developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. While retaining the most useful and time-proven features of its predecessors, RADTRAN 4.0 incorporates significant advances over the earlier versions. The most useful new features are: improved route-specific analysis capability, internal radionuclide data library, improved logic for analysis of multiple-radionuclide packages such as spent fuel, separate treatment of gamma and neutron components of Transport Index (TI), and increased number of accident-severity categories. In this paper, each of these features will be described, and, where appropriate, potential applications will be discussed. 11 refs

  3. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  4. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  5. Advanced bulk processing of lightweight materials for utilization in the transportation sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Justin L.

    The overall objective of this research is to develop the microstructure of metallic lightweight materials via multiple advanced processing techniques with potentials for industrial utilization on a large scale to meet the demands of the aerospace and automotive sectors. This work focused on (i) refining the grain structure to increase the strength, (ii) controlling the texture to increase formability and (iii) directly reducing processing/production cost of lightweight material components. Advanced processing is conducted on a bulk scale by several severe plastic deformation techniques including: accumulative roll bonding, isolated shear rolling and friction stir processing to achieve the multiple targets of this research. Development and validation of the processing techniques is achieved through wide-ranging experiments along with detailed mechanical and microstructural examination of the processed material. On a broad level, this research will make advancements in processing of bulk lightweight materials facilitating industrial-scale implementation. Where accumulative roll bonding and isolated shear rolling, currently feasible on an industrial scale, processes bulk sheet materials capable of replacing more expensive grades of alloys and enabling low-temperature and high-strain-rate formability. Furthermore, friction stir processing to manufacture lightweight tubes, made from magnesium alloys, has the potential to increase the utilization of these materials in the automotive and aerospace sectors for high strength - high formability applications. With the increased utilization of these advanced processing techniques will significantly reduce the cost associated with lightweight materials for many applications in the transportation sectors.

  6. Status of advanced light-duty transportation technologies in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases is driving a fundamental change toward more efficient, advanced vehicles, and fuels in the transportation sector. The paper reviews the current status of light duty vehicles in the US and discusses policies to improve fuel efficiency, advanced electric drives, and sustainable cellulosic biofuels. The paper describes the cost, technical, infrastructure, and market barriers for alternative technologies, i.e., advanced biofuels and light-duty vehicles, including diesel vehicles, natural-gas vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell electric vehicles. The paper also presents R and D targets and technology validation programs of the US government. - Highlights: ► Summary of the current status of LDVs and fuels. ► Overview of government policies and incentives for advanced vehicles and fuels. ► Technical and infrastructure barriers for biofuels, PHEVs, and FCEVs. ► Cost targets and research challenges for batteries and fuel cells. ► Summary of near- to mid-term market considerations for vehicles and fuels.

  7. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  8. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  9. The contribution to the energy balance and transport in an advanced-fuel tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of synchrotron radiation emission on the energy balance of an advanced-fuel (such as D-3He, or catalyzed-D) tokamak plasma is considered. It is shown that a region in the β-T space exists, where the fusion energy delivered to the plasma overcomes synchrotron and bremsstrahlung energy losses, and which could then allow for ignited operation. 1-Dimensional codes results are also presented, which illustrate the main features of radial transport in a ignited, D-3He tokamak plasma

  10. Future car transport, Evaluating optimal solutions for future transport in the Netherlands focussing on the electric and hydrogen car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The modern world we are living in today, consumes fasts amounts of fossil fuels in many sectors. One of these sectors is transport which is almost completely dependent on oil derivatives. This heavy dependency on oil and other types of fossil fuel makes i

  11. A review of recent advances of numerical simulations of microscale fuel processors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Microscale (<5W) reformers for hydrogen production have been investigated for over a decade. These devices are intended to provide hydrogen for small fuel cells. Due to the reformer’s small size, numerical simulations are critical to understand heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring in the systems. This paper reviews the development of the numerical codes and details the reaction equations used. The majority of the devices utilized methanol as the fuel due to methanol’s low reforming temperature and high conversion, although, there are several methane fueled systems. As computational power has decreased in cost and increased in availability, the codes increased in complexity and accuracy. Initial models focused on the reformer, while more recently, the simulations began including other unit operations such as vaporizers, inlet manifolds, and combustors. These codes are critical for developing the next generation systems. The systems reviewed included, plate reactors, microchannel reactors, annulus reactors, wash-coated, packed bed systems.

  12. Strong Coupling between Nanofluidic Transport and Interfacial Chemistry: How Defect Reactivity Controls Liquid-Solid Friction through Hydrogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Laurent; Tocci, Gabriele; Merabia, Samy; Michaelides, Angelos

    2016-04-01

    Defects are inevitably present in nanofluidic systems, yet the role they play in nanofluidic transport remains poorly understood. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the friction of liquid water on defective graphene and boron nitride sheets. We show that water dissociates at certain defects and that these "reactive" defects lead to much larger friction than the "nonreactive" defects at which water molecules remain intact. Furthermore, we find that friction is extremely sensitive to the chemical structure of reactive defects and to the number of hydrogen bonds they can partake in with the liquid. Finally, we discuss how the insight obtained from AIMD can be used to quantify the influence of defects on friction in nanofluidic devices for water treatment and sustainable energy harvesting. Overall, we provide new insight into the role of interfacial chemistry on nanofluidic transport in real, defective systems. PMID:27012818

  13. Energy transport mechanism in the form of proton soliton in a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polypeptide chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, L; Priya, R; Ayyappan, N; Gopi, D; Jayanthi, S

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of protons in a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded (HB) polypeptide chain (PC) is investigated theoretically. A new Hamiltonian is formulated with the inclusion of higher-order molecular interactions between peptide groups (PGs). The wave function of the excitation state of a single particle is replaced by a new wave function of a two-quanta quasi-coherent state. The dynamics is governed by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the energy transport is performed by the proton soliton. A nonlinear multiple-scale perturbation analysis has been performed and the evolution of soliton parameters such as velocity and amplitude is explored numerically. The proton soliton is thermally stable and very robust against these perturbations. The energy transport by the proton soliton is more appropriate to understand the mechanism of energy transfer in biological processes such as muscle contraction, DNA replication, and neuro-electric pulse transfer on biomembranes. PMID:26198375

  14. The dimensions of the policy debate over transportation energy: The case of hydrogen in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Environmental and politico-strategic concerns have driven the increase in policy activity related to energy that the United States witnessed in the last few years. The nature of the issues at stake and the level of stakeholder involvement result in a highly complex policy debate. The broad concern of this paper is the study of this energy-policy process and the identification of the main policy issues. Specifically, multivariate analysis is applied to data on a wide variety of stakeholders' policy beliefs and policy preferences to identify the policy dimensions that characterize the debate over energy policy in the United States. The focus is on the policy debate over hydrogen as a transportation fuel, although many results are applicable to the debate over transportation energy at large. The analysis uses a dataset of 502 individuals from 323 different stakeholder organizations obtained via a web-based survey specifically designed for this study. (author)

  15. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  16. New advances in the pathophysiology of intestinal ion transport and barrier function in diarrhea and the impact on therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakraborty, Subhra; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Woodward, Owen M

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhea remains a continuous threat to human health worldwide. Scaling up the best practices for diarrhea prevention requires improved therapies. Diarrhea results from dysregulation of normal intestinal ion transport functions. Host-microbe contact is a key determinant of this response. Underlying mechanisms in the disease state are regulated by intracellular signals that modulate the activity of individual transport proteins responsible for ion transport and barrier function. Similarly, virulence factors of pathogens and their complex interaction with the host has shed light on the mechanism of enteric infection. Great advances in our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of epithelial transport, and host-microbe interaction have been made in recent years. Application of these new advances may represent strategies to decrease pathogen attachment, enhance intestinal cation absorption, decrease anion secretion and repair barrier function. This review highlights the new advances and better understanding in the pathophysiology of diarrheal diseases and their impact on therapy.

  17. A vertical-oriented WS2 nanosheet sensitized by graphene: an advanced electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Zhan, Xueying; Wang, Zhenxing; Liu, Kaili; Safdar, Muhammad; Sun, Lianfeng; He, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Electrocatalytic hydrogen production at low overpotential is a promising route towards a clean and sustainable energy. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (LTMDs) have attracted copious attention for their outstanding activities in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the horizontally laid nanosheets suffer from a paucity of active edge sites. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of vertical-oriented WS2 nanosheets through a hydrothermal method followed by a facile sulfurization process. Furthermore, the surface of synthesized WS2 nanosheets was decorated by ultrathin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates. This is achieved for the first time by bringing the rGO on the surface of vertical-oriented WS2 nanosheets, which is conducive to rapid electron transport during the HER process. Significantly, the as-synthesized rGO/WS2 nanosheets exhibit improved HER activity as compared to the undecorated ones. It needs a low overpotential of only 229 mV vs. RHE to afford a current density of 10 mA cm-2. We believe that this hybrid structure demonstrated remarkable HER activity brought about by a compatible synergism between rGO and WS2.Electrocatalytic hydrogen production at low overpotential is a promising route towards a clean and sustainable energy. Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (LTMDs) have attracted copious attention for their outstanding activities in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, the horizontally laid nanosheets suffer from a paucity of active edge sites. Herein, we report the successful synthesis of vertical-oriented WS2 nanosheets through a hydrothermal method followed by a facile sulfurization process. Furthermore, the surface of synthesized WS2 nanosheets was decorated by ultrathin reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates. This is achieved for the first time by bringing the rGO on the surface of vertical-oriented WS2 nanosheets, which is conducive to rapid electron transport during the HER process. Significantly, the as

  18. Hydrogenic Species Transport Assessments in Ceramic Aluminas Used in ITER ICRH H and CD and Diagnostic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, C.; Sedano, L. A.

    2007-09-27

    Ceramic insulators will be used in the ITER Heating and Current Drive and Diagnostics (H and CD/D) systems as opto-electronic vacuum windows or as feed-troughs. Their performance as materials could come modified by the intake of deuterium-tritium which amounts might be enhanced by ionising radiation effects. Such vacuum windows have a primary safety role as tritium confinement barriers. Tritium transport analyses have major implications on the design and safety assessments of ITER RF H and CD systems. As it is shown, refined tritium transport release-rate models together with detailed parametric studies can precise such assessments. In addition such modeling serves as conceptual framework to quantify precise impact of underlying phenomena (ex. radiation-enhanced diffusion or potential effects of radiation damage on tritium transport through the Vacuum Window) and its fi nal impact on main transport parameters of interest for VW design: permeation flux and D/T inventories. In the present work it has been shown how, for electric implantation of ionized D,T in the VW being the major source for isotopes intake, an hybrid recombination/radiation enhanced diffusion regime determine H-isotopes transport kinetics in the window. Precise values for permeation fluxes and inventories are provided from solution of mass transport equations. Near and medium term work planning is advanced. (Author) 16 refs.

  19. Introduction of hydrogen vehicles in Kathmandu Valley. A clean and sustainable way of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ale, B.B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University (Nepal); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Air quality of Kathmandu Valley, the capital of Nepal, was one of the worse among the big cites in the world. The air quality situation was becoming more critical due to the substantial increase in the conventional fueled vehicles in the valley each year. The bowl-like topography and generally low speeds of wind during the dry seasons create poor dispersion conditions, augmenting the air pollution problem further. The pollution is expected to quadruple by 2020 from the 2005 level in as business as usual scenario. The main source of the pollution in the valley is motor vehicle emissions. The paper highlights the different level of air pollution and emission reductions by introducing hydrogen fuel vehicles in Kathmandu Valley. The entire fleet of vehicles in the valley can be fueled by hydrogen produced from the national hydroelectricity of Nepal using only less than 50% of its surplus energy. This will reduce about 700,000 tonnes of carbon emission in the valley in 2020. In addition, production of hydrogen using the surplus hydroelectricity of Nepal will improve load factor of the grid, and save a substantial amount of hard currency used to import the petroleum fuel in the country. As Nepal is one of the most hydropower potential countries in the world, with a 80,000 MW potential capacity, hydrogen production is renewable, sustainable and pollution free. (author)

  20. AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF HYDROGEN ECONOMY ON TRANSPORTATION, ENERGY USE, AND AIR EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential energy, economic and environmental implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. The approach, which uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation technology database and model, allow...

  1. Ripple transport in helical-axis advanced stellarators - a comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν-1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)

  2. Superconductivity for hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging hydrogen economy is expected to deal with a large amount of liquid hydrogen produced from the renewable energy resources. The main advantage of liquid hydrogen in comparison with other forms of its storage and transportation is in allowing wide use of superconductivity, which would optimise energy efficiency of the economy. The basic element of the infrastructure for hydrogen economy is a network of superconducting pipelines carrying simultaneously liquid hydrogen and loss-free electricity. The most likely material for such infrastructure is MgB2, the only superconductor efficiently working at boiling temperature of liquid hydrogen and not showing strong critical current reduction on grain boundaries. The cheap techniques for the preparation of MgB2 are hot isostatic pressing, resistive sintering and paint coating. These and other advanced techniques are able to provide MgB2 with suitable for the infrastructure structural and superconducting properties. The preparation of a large-area superconducting joint between two pieces of MgB2 as a technique enabling this infrastructure is reported. A potential of synergy between liquid hydrogen and superconductivity is revealed in a range of possible new energy applications.

  3. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions. (letter)

  4. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen; Kang, Byoung Sam; Wang, Hung-Ta; Chang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Jenshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO(2) and C(2)H(4) using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  6. Advances in Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor Technology Using GaN and ZnO-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenshan Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent results in developing gas sensors for hydrogen using various device structures, including ZnO nanowires and GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. ZnO nanowires are particularly interesting because they have a large surface area to volume ratio, which will improve sensitivity, and because they operate at low current levels, will have low power requirements in a sensor module. GaN-based devices offer the advantage of the HEMT structure, high temperature operation, and simple integration with existing fabrication technology and sensing systems. Improvements in sensitivity, recoverability, and reliability are presented. Also reported are demonstrations of detection of other gases, including CO2 and C2H4 using functionalized GaN HEMTs. This is critical for the development of lab-on-a-chip type systems and can provide a significant advance towards a market-ready sensor application.

  7. An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

    2014-03-01

    Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

  8. SEPARATION OF HYDROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE USING A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR IN ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-02-03

    Inorganic membrane reactors offer the possibility of combining reaction and separation in a single operation at high temperatures to overcome the equilibrium limitations experienced in conventional reactor configurations. Such attractive features can be advantageously utilized in a number of potential commercial opportunities, which include dehydrogenation, hydrogenation, oxidative dehydrogenation, oxidation and catalytic decomposition reactions. However, to be cost effective, significant technological advances and improvements will be required to solve several key issues which include: (a) permselective thin solid film, (b) thermal, chemical and mechanical stability of the film at high temperatures, and (c) reactor engineering and module development in relation to the development of effective seals at high temperature and high pressure. In this project, we are working on the development and application of palladium and palladium-silver alloy thin-film composite membranes in membrane reactor-separator configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at high temperature. From our research on Pd-composite membrane, we have demonstrated that the new membrane has significantly higher hydrogen flux with very high perm-selectivity than any of the membranes commercially available. The steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift in Pd-composite membrane reactor is being studied to demonstrate the potential application of this new development. A two-dimensional, pseudo-homogeneous membrane-reactor model was developed to investigate the steam-methane reforming (SMR) reactions in a Pd-based membrane reactor. Radial diffusion was taken into consideration to account for the concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system. The equations were

  9. Investigation of advanced nanostructured multijunction photoanodes for enhanced solar hydrogen generation via water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hidetaka

    As the worldwide demand for fossil-based fuel increases every day and the fossil reserve continues to be depleted, the need for alternative/renewable energy sources has gained momentum. Electric, hybrid, and hydrogen cars have been at the center of discussion lately among consumers, automobile manufacturers, and politicians, alike. The development of a fuel-cell based engine using hydrogen has been an ambitious research area over the last few decades-ever since Fujishima showed that hydrogen can be generated via the solar-energy driven photo-electrolytic splitting of water. Such solar cells are known as Photo-Electro-Chemical (PEC) solar cells. In order to commercialize this technology, various challenges associated with photo-conversion efficiency, chemical corrosion resistance, and longevity need to be overcome. In general, metal oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2, titania) are excellent candidates for PEC solar cells. Titania nanotubes have several advantages, including biocompatibility and higher chemical stability. Nevertheless, they can absorb only 5-7% of the solar spectrum which makes it difficult to achieve the higher photo-conversion efficiency required for successful commercial applications. A two-prong approach was employed to enhance photo-conversion efficiency: 1) surface modification of titania nanotubes using plasma treatment and 2) nano-capping of the titania nanotubes using titanium disilicide. The plasma surface treatment with N2 was found to improve the photo-current efficiency of titania nanotubes by 55%. Similarly, a facile, novel approach of nano-capping titania nanotubes to enhance their photocurrent response was also investigated. Electrochemically anodized titania nanotubes were capped by coating a 25 nm layer of titanium disilicide using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of titania nanotubes were not found to change due to the capping; however, a considerable increase (40%) in the photocurrent

  10. The role of methane and hydrogen in a fossil-free Swedish transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required to limit the severe risks associated with a changing climate. One measure is to disrupt the fossil-fuel dependency in the transport sector, but it appears difficult and costly in comparison to other measures. Vehicles and fuels are available, but no single alternative can replace petrol and diesel in all parts of the transport system. None of them are ideal regarding all of the following aspects: vehicle performance, fuel production ...

  11. The Effect of Al and Fe on the Intergranular Embrittlement of Co3Ti Alloys by Hydrogen Transport from the External Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some observation relating to the solubility, diffusivity and intergranular cracking by hydrogen transport from the external surface in Co3Ti, Co3Ti-Al and Co3Ti-Fe alloys have been carried out. The results show that the addition of alloying elements Al or Fe to Co3Ti alloy can increase the critical hydrogen concentration for changing from transgranular to brittle intergranular fracture, therefore suppress the moisture induced environmental embrittlement.

  12. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles (fabrication/reprocessing/transportation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the French Law for waste management, minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied for a sodium-cooled fast reactors fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes. Americium, neptunium and curium can be transmuted once included together in the standard MOX fuel, or the sole Americium can be incorporated in Am-bearing radial blanket. MAs transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while Plutonium is recycling in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed in light of technical and economic aspects criteria. The purpose of this study is to present the results in terms of impacts of the transmutation scenarios on fuel cycle plants (fabrication, reprocessing) and transportations taking into account thermal, radiation and criticality parameters. Comparison with no transmutation option is also presented. (author)

  13. Motion-base simulator results of advanced supersonic transport handling qualities with active controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, J. B.; Joshi, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling qualities of the unaugmented advanced supersonic transport (AST) are deficient in the low-speed, landing approach regime. Consequently, improvement in handling with active control augmentation systems has been achieved using implicit model-following techniques. Extensive fixed-based simulator evaluations were used to validate these systems prior to tests with full motion and visual capabilities on a six-axis motion-base simulator (MBS). These tests compared the handling qualities of the unaugmented AST with several augmented configurations to ascertain the effectiveness of these systems. Cooper-Harper ratings, tracking errors, and control activity data from the MBS tests have been analyzed statistically. The results show the fully augmented AST handling qualities have been improved to an acceptable level.

  14. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  15. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp.

  16. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  17. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century

  18. Influence of the content of Cr in diffusive transport parameters and trapping of hydrogen in Fe alloys; Influencia del contenido de Cr en los parametros de transporte difusivos y de trapping de hidrogeno en aleaciones de Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Alberro, G.; Orduna, I.; Legarda, F.; Vila, R.; Ortiz, C. J.

    2013-07-01

    The materials candidates to be part of a fusion reactor must characterize properly to carry out the correct selection of the same. In this sense, the interaction of the isotopes of hydrogen with materials Such It is essential, since the transport parameters will Affect the inventory of hydrogen in the reactor Retained and, in Addition, of These components isotopes permeation through structural materials can Affect areas of human.

  19. Spin transport, magnetoresistance, and electrically detected magnetic resonance in amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Michael J.; Lenahan, Patrick M.; King, Sean W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a study of spin transport via electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) and near-zero field magnetoresistance (MR) in silicon nitride films. Silicon nitrides have long been important materials in solid state electronics. Although electronic transport in these materials is not well understood, electron paramagnetic resonance studies have identified a single dominating paramagnetic defect and have also provided physical and chemical descriptions of the defects, called K centers. Our EDMR and MR measurements clearly link the near-zero field MR response to the K centers and also indicate that K center energy levels are approximately 3.1 eV above the a-SiN:H valence band edge. In addition, our results suggest an approach for the study of defect mediated spin-transport in inorganic amorphous insulators via variable electric field and variable frequency EDMR and MR which may be widely applicable.

  20. Pretreatment of whole blood using hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation. Design of the advanced oxidation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bragg, Stefanie A.; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    A new process to pretreat blood samples has been developed. This process combines the Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) treatment (using H2O2 and UV irradiation) with acid deactivation of the enzyme catalase in blood. A four-cell reactor has been designed and built in house. The effect of pH on the AOP process has been investigated. The kinetics of the pretreatment process shows that at high CH2O2,t = 0, the reaction is zeroth order with respect to CH2O2 and first order with respect to Cblood....

  1. Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

    2009-03-01

    In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

  2. Long-term storage and long-distance transportation of hydrogen by use of catalyst-addisted decalin dehydrogenation/naphthalene hydrogenation pair; Dekarin dassuiso/nafutarensuisoka shokubai hannotai wo mochiiru suiso no chokikan chozo/chokyori yuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Sakaguchi, M.; Saito, Y. [Scince Univ.of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    To enable taking in and out hydrogen with little energy consumption, it is sufficient if decalin is dehydrogenated to naphthalene under moderate heating condition. It is found that carbon supporting metal catalyst in liquid film state shows extremely high dehydrogeno-aromatization activity of decalin. The result of comparison with liquid hydrogen or metal hydride as media for hydrogen storage and transportation media is reported. The platinum-tungsten composite metal catalyst is prepared from an aqueous solution of K2PtC16 and Li2WO4 in the ratio of 1 to 1 so as to achieve 5wt-metal% carbon supporting. When hydrogen and naphthalene are discharged from the liquid phase reaction medium to the vapor phase and solid phase, respectively, under boiling and refluxing conditions, hydrogen is produced steadily by heating at 200 to 210degC. If economical efficiency is ignored, development of an inter-season energy storage system is desired to be developed which can be used in the season between summertime when sufficient hydrogen is obtained by photovoltaic power generation and electrolysis of water and wintertime when heat source is obtained by catalytic combustion of hydrogen. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Transport properties of bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons: Negative differential resistances and perfect spin-filtering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of the bare and hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs). The results show that the ZSiNRs with symmetric (asymmetric) edges prefer the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) as their ground states with the semiconductor properties, while the accordingly antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) states exhibit the metallic behaviors. These facts result in a giant magnetoresistance behavior between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in the low bias-voltage regime. Moreover, in the ferromagnetic ZSiNRs with asymmetric edges, a perfect spin-filtering effect with 100% positive electric current polarization can be achieved by altering the bias voltage. In addition, we also find that the negative differential resistances prefer the metastable states. The findings here indicate that the asymmetric and symmetric ZSiNRs are promising materials for spintronic applications.

  4. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a

  5. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  6. A novel sputtered Pd mesh architecture as an advanced electrocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas-Consuegra, Antonio; de la Osa, Ana R.; Calcerrada, Ana B.; Linares, José J.; Horwat, David

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the preparation, characterization and testing of a sputtered Pd mesh-like anode as an advanced electrocatalyst for H2 production from alkaline ethanol solutions in an Alkaline Membrane Electrolyzer (AEM). Pd anodic catalyst is prepared by magnetron sputtering technique onto a microfiber carbon paper support. Scanning Electron Microscopy images reveal that the used preparation technique enables to cover the surface of the carbon microfibers exposed to the Pd target, leading to a continuous network that also maintains part of the original carbon paper macroporosity. Such novel anodic architecture (organic binder free) presents an excellent electro-chemical performance, with a maximum current density of 700 mA cm-2 at 1.3 V, and, concomitantly, a large H2 production rate with low energy requirement compared to water electrolysis. Potassium hydroxide emerges as the best electrolyte, whereas temperature exerts the expected promotional effect up to 90 °C. On the other hand, a 1 mol L-1 ethanol solution is enough to guarantee an efficient fuel supply without any mass transfer limitation. The proposed system also demonstrates to remain stable over 150 h of operation along five consecutives cycles, producing highly pure H2 (99.999%) at the cathode and potassium acetate as the main anodic product.

  7. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Czopf, A.; Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, BME IOP, Budapest (Hungary); Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I. [BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  8. Involvement of aquaporin-3 in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling via hydrogen peroxide transport in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Watanabe, Sachiko; Satooka, Hiroki

    2016-03-18

    Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a water/glycerol channel protein, is capable of transporting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, we show that AQP3-mediated intracellular H2O2 is involved in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell signaling and its dependent cell function in the EGF receptor (EGFR)-positive cancer cell lines A431 and H1666. AQP3 knockdown suppressed the transport into the cells of extracellular H2O2 produced in response to EGF in A431 and H1666 cells. EGF-induced Erk and Akt activation, which occurred through SHP2 and/or PTEN modulation, was impaired by AQP3 knockdown. Cell growth and migration induced by EGF stimulation were attenuated in AQP3 knockdown cells compared with those in control cells. Coincidentally, tumor growth of A431 cell xenografts in immunodeficient mice was decreased by AQP3 knockdown. Accordingly, a xenograft with AQP3 knockdown A431 cells significantly enhanced the survival of recipient mice compared with the transplantation with control cells. In addition, AQP3 associated with EGFR and NADPH oxidase 2, which we propose is linked to AQP3 producing a localized increase in intracellular H2O2 to function as a second messenger during EGFR cell signaling. Therefore, our findings suggest that AQP3 is required for EGF-EGFR cell signaling in cancer cells and is a therapeutic target for cancer progression.

  9. Spin-polarized transport in hydrogen-passivated graphene and silicene nanoribbons with magnetic transition-metal substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fuente, A; Gallego, L J; Vega, A

    2016-08-10

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the electronic transport in hydrogen passivated zigzag graphene and silicene nanoribbons with between zero and four neighboring H atoms on one edge replaced by magnetic transition metals (Fe, Co, and Ni). The calculations were performed using equilibrium transport and density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation to exchange and correlation. We considered the magnetic moments of the two edges aligned both ferromagnetically (Ferro-F form) and antiferromagnetically (Ferro-A form). The Ferro-A graphene-based ribbons were all semiconducting and would support moderate spin-polarized currents of either sign by applying positive or negative gate voltages. The Ferro-F graphene-based ribbons were all metallic; the most interesting for possible spintronic applications being that with a single Ni atom, in which strong spin-filtering at low bias resulted from a deep trough in the transmission of one spin component around the Fermi level. By contrast, in the Si-based analog this trough was split, partially eliminating the polarization of the current. This splitting was found to be related to the buckled structure of the Si-based nanoribbon, which has its origin in its preference for sp(3)-like hybridization.

  10. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications - Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David; Vuille, Francois [E4tech Sarl, Avenue Juste-Olivier 2, 1006 Lausanne (Switzerland); Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep [Shell Hydrogen B.V., Carel van Bylandtlaan 23, 2596 HR The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-08-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address. (author)

  11. Analysis of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the life cycle of bio-hydrogen applied to the Portuguese road transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Baptista, Patricia; Silva, Carla [IDMEC (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In this work the main objective is to analyze energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of biohydrogen for use in the transportation sector in Portugal. A life cycle assessment will be performed in order to evaluate bio-hydrogen pathways, having biodiesel and conventional fossil diesel as reference. The pathways were production of feedstock, pre-treatment, treatment, compression, distribution and applications. For the well-to-tank analysis the SimaPro 7.1 software and excel tools are used. This study includes not only a well-to-tank analysis but also a tank-to-wheel analysis (using ADVISOR software) estimating hydrogen consumption and electricity consumption of a fuel cell hybrid and a plug-in hybrid. Several bio-hydrogen feedstocks to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes will be considered: potato peels. (orig.)

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds implicated in diabetes. Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC at the distal nephron plays an important role in diabetic hypertension. Here, we report that H2S antagonizes AGEs-induced ENaC activation in A6 cells. ENaC open probability (PO in A6 cells was significantly increased by exogenous AGEs and that this AGEs-induced ENaC activity was abolished by NaHS (a donor of H2S and TEMPOL. Incubating A6 cells with the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole (3-AT mimicked the effects of AGEs on ENaC activity, but did not induce any additive effect. We found that the expression levels of catalase were significantly reduced by AGEs and both AGEs and 3-AT facilitated ROS uptake in A6 cells, which were significantly inhibited by NaHS. The specific PTEN and PI3K inhibitors, BPV(pic  and LY294002, influence ENaC activity in AGEs-pretreated A6 cells. Moreover, after removal of AGEs from AGEs-pretreated A6 cells for 72 hours, ENaC PO remained at a high level, suggesting that an AGEs-related “metabolic memory” may be involved in sodium homeostasis. Our data, for the first time, show that H2S prevents AGEs-induced ENaC activation by targeting the ROS/PI3K/PTEN pathway.

  13. Proton and hydrogen atoms transport in the Martian upper atmosphere with an induced magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shematovich, Valery; Bisikalo, Dimitri; Dieval, Catherine; Barabash, Stas; Stenberg, Gabriella; Nilsson, Hans; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats; Gerard, Jean Claude

    2011-01-01

    We have applied the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the kinetic equation for the H/H^+ transport in the upper Martian atmosphere. We calculate the upward H and H^+ fluxes, values that can be measured, and the altitude profile of the energy deposition to be used to understand the energy balance in the Martian atmosphere. The calculations of the upward flux have been made for the Martian atmosphere during solar minimum. We use an energy spectrum of the down moving protons in the a...

  14. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the work breakdown structure (WBS) and its associated WBS dictionary for task area 1 of contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies (ATSS). This WBS format is consistent with the preliminary design level of detail employed by both task area 1 and task area 4 in the ATSS study and is intended to provide an estimating structure for parametric cost estimates.

  15. Transport of carbon ion test particles and hydrogen recycling in the plasma of the Columbia tokamak ''HBT'' [High Beta Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon impurity ion transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (ne ∼ 1 - 5 x 1014 (cm-3), Te ∼ 4 - 10 (eV), Bt ∼ 0.2 - 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of CII(4267A, emitted by the C+ ions) and CIII (4647A, emitted by the C++ ions), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma ions and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon ions is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon ions with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon ion diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon ions is ''classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity ion is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the Hα emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral hydrogen atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time τp is comparable with the plasma energy confinement time τE; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma ions with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma energy

  16. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  17. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Endo, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, M.; Sugahara, N.; Yamamoto, K. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, Elena; Garrido, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Rosa Maria; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Arias, Conchita; Centellas, Francesc [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brillas, Enric, E-mail: brillas@ub.ed [Laboratori d' Electroquimica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Solutions of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin in 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} of pH 3.0 have been comparatively degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) at constant current density. The study has been performed using an undivided stirred tank reactor of 100 ml and a batch recirculation flow plant of 2.5 l with an undivided filter-press cell coupled to a solar photoreactor, both equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene gas diffusion cathode to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from O{sub 2} reduction. In EF, PEF and SPEF, hydroxyl radical (centre dotOH) is formed from Fenton's reaction between added catalytic Fe{sup 2+} and generated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Almost total decontamination of enrofloxacin solutions is achieved in the stirred tank reactor by SPEF with BDD. The use of the batch recirculation flow plant showed that this process is the most efficient and can be viable for industrial application, becoming more economic and yielding higher mineralization degree with raising antibiotic content. This is feasible because organics are quickly oxidized with centre dotOH formed from Fenton's reaction and at BDD from water oxidation, combined with the fast photolysis of complexes of Fe(III) with generated carboxylic acids under solar irradiation. The lower intensity of UVA irradiation used in PEF with BDD causes a slower degradation. EF with BDD is less efficient since centre dotOH cannot destroy the most persistent Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes. AO-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with BDD yields the poorest mineralization because pollutants are only removed with centre dotOH generated at BDD. All procedures are less potent using Pt as anode due to the lower production of centre dotOH at its surface. Enrofloxacin

  19. Degradation of the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes based on hydrogen peroxide electrogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin in 0.05 M Na2SO4 of pH 3.0 have been comparatively degraded by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) at constant current density. The study has been performed using an undivided stirred tank reactor of 100 ml and a batch recirculation flow plant of 2.5 l with an undivided filter-press cell coupled to a solar photoreactor, both equipped with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-polytetrafluoroethylene gas diffusion cathode to generate H2O2 from O2 reduction. In EF, PEF and SPEF, hydroxyl radical (·OH) is formed from Fenton's reaction between added catalytic Fe2+ and generated H2O2. Almost total decontamination of enrofloxacin solutions is achieved in the stirred tank reactor by SPEF with BDD. The use of the batch recirculation flow plant showed that this process is the most efficient and can be viable for industrial application, becoming more economic and yielding higher mineralization degree with raising antibiotic content. This is feasible because organics are quickly oxidized with ·OH formed from Fenton's reaction and at BDD from water oxidation, combined with the fast photolysis of complexes of Fe(III) with generated carboxylic acids under solar irradiation. The lower intensity of UVA irradiation used in PEF with BDD causes a slower degradation. EF with BDD is less efficient since ·OH cannot destroy the most persistent Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate complexes. AO-H2O2 with BDD yields the poorest mineralization because pollutants are only removed with ·OH generated at BDD. All procedures are less potent using Pt as anode due to the lower production of ·OH at its surface. Enrofloxacin decay always follows a pseudo first-order reaction. Its primary aromatic by-products and short intermediates including polyols, ketones

  20. Study of hydrogen migration produced during the corrosion of PWR reactors fuel cans in zircaloy 4 and zirconia; Etude du transport de l`hydrogene produit lors de la corrosion des gaines d`elements combustibles des reacteurs a eau sous pression dans la zircone et le zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufore, L

    1997-12-12

    The corrosion of Zircaloy-4-claddings by water from the primary circuit of nuclear power plant goes hand in hand with the release of hydrogen which penetrates the oxide and then the metal. This work focuses on the mechanisms of hydrogen transport in oxide and in metal. Hydrogen transport in oxide is studied on the basis of corrosion tests performed in the autoclave at 360 deg C. These tests are performed on Zircaloy-4 claddings under different chemical conditions (pure water, and pure water with lithium hydroxide). The distribution of hydrogen in oxide film is measured by SIMS. Hydrogen profiles in the oxide are dependent on the oxide microstructure and vary with oxidation time. These observations are confirmed by experiments in which some samples, previously oxidized in the autoclave, are immersed in heavy water. In the oxide layer, two zones are observed: one external porous zone and one internal dense zone. Deuterium diffusion coefficients in dense oxide are determined using SIMS profiles and Fischer diffusion model. Hydrogen transport in metal is also studied by means of gas-phase permeation experiments. These are set up at different temperature (400-500 deg. C) and under different hydrogen pressures and make it possible to determine the hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a Zircaloy-4 cladding under experimental conditions. All these results lead us to discuss of hydrogen transport evolution in cladding during oxidation. A model taking into account hydrogen transport in oxide and in metal, and the hydrides precipitations is proposed. (author) 110 refs.

  1. Advanced oxidation of liquid effluents with oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Oxidacion avanzada de efluentes liquidos con oxigeno, ozono y agua oxigenada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaigo Regidor, F.

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of liquids with clean oxidants (oxygen, ozone and hydrogen peroxide used in solid or combinated state) let us reach levels of polluting reduction in accordance with the most severe requirements. The improvement of the advanced oxidation allows the minimization of the global cost of treatment. Nevertheless due to the complexity of the industrial effluents, this improvement needs a deep study, from the laboratory till the first tests.

  2. A Complex-Geometry Validation Experiment for Advanced Neutron Transport Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg; Anthony W. LaPorta; Joseph W. Nielsen; James Parry; Mark D. DeHart; Samuel E. Bays; William F. Skerjanc

    2013-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a focused effort to upgrade legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols used for support of core fuel management and experiment management in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC) at the INL.. This will be accomplished through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate new Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols, over the next 12-18 months. Stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and nuclear data packages that support this effort include MCNP5[1], SCALE/KENO6[2], HELIOS[3], SCALE/NEWT[2], and ATTILA[4]. Furthermore, a capability for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI[5] system has also been implemented. Finally, we are also evaluating the Serpent[6] and MC21[7] codes, as additional verification tools in the near term as well as for possible applications to full three-dimensional Monte Carlo based fuel management modeling in the longer term. On the experimental side, several new benchmark-quality code validation measurements based on neutron activation spectrometry have been conducted using the ATRC. Results for the first four experiments, focused on neutron spectrum measurements within the Northwest Large In-Pile Tube (NW LIPT) and in the core fuel elements surrounding the NW LIPT and the diametrically opposite Southeast IPT have been reported [8,9]. A fifth, very recent, experiment focused on detailed measurements of the element-to-element core power distribution is summarized here and examples of the use of the measured data for validation of corresponding MCNP5, HELIOS, NEWT, and Serpent computational models using modern least-square adjustment methods are provided.

  3. Statistically advanced, self-similar, radial probability density functions of atmospheric and under-expanded hydrogen jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents improved statistical insight regarding the self-similar scalar mixing process of atmospheric hydrogen jets and the downstream region of under-expanded hydrogen jets. Quantitative planar laser Rayleigh scattering imaging is used to probe both jets. The self-similarity of statistical moments up to the sixth order (beyond the literature established second order) is documented in both cases. This is achieved using a novel self-similar normalization method that facilitated a degree of statistical convergence that is typically limited to continuous, point-based measurements. This demonstrates that image-based measurements of a limited number of samples can be used for self-similar scalar mixing studies. Both jets exhibit the same radial trends of these moments demonstrating that advanced atmospheric self-similarity can be applied in the analysis of under-expanded jets. Self-similar histograms away from the centerline are shown to be the combination of two distributions. The first is attributed to turbulent mixing. The second, a symmetric Poisson-type distribution centered on zero mass fraction, progressively becomes the dominant and eventually sole distribution at the edge of the jet. This distribution is attributed to shot noise-affected pure air measurements, rather than a diffusive superlayer at the jet boundary. This conclusion is reached after a rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis and inspection of pure air data collected with each hydrogen data set. A threshold based upon the measurement noise analysis is used to separate the turbulent and pure air data, and thusly estimate intermittency. Beta-distributions (four parameters) are used to accurately represent the turbulent distribution moments. This combination of measured intermittency and four-parameter beta-distributions constitutes a new, simple approach to model scalar mixing. Comparisons between global moments from the data and moments calculated using the proposed model show excellent

  4. RECENT ADVANCES OF UPSCALING METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF FLOW TRANSPORT THROUGH HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming Chen

    2006-01-01

    We review some of our recent efforts in developing upscaling methods for simulating the flow transport through heterogeneous porous media. In particular, the steady flow transport through highly heterogeneous porous media driven by extraction wells and the flow transport through unsaturated porous media will be considered.

  5. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  6. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  7. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium Transport in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Coupled with Hydrogen Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2010-06-01

    Abstract – A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) was developed by Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of analyzing tritium distributions in very high temperature reactor (VHTR) systems, including integrated hydrogen production systems. A MATLAB SIMULINK software package was used in developing the code. The TPAC is based on the mass balance equations of tritium-containing species and various forms of hydrogen coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sinks, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, and 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems, including high temperature electrolysis and sulfur-iodine processes.

  8. Design of a pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.; Kesseli, J.

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding a heat transport system to more uniformly supply heat to the heater head tubes. One heat transport system with favorable characteristics is an alkali metal pool boiler. An alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system was designed for a 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS). Solar energy concentrated on the absorber dome boils a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium. The alkali metal vapors condense on the heater head tubes, supplying the Stirling engine with a uniform heat flux at a constant temperature. Boiling stability is achieved with the use of an enhanced boiling surface and noncondensible gas.

  9. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  10. Heterogeneous reactive transport under unsaturated transient conditions characterized by 3D electrical resistivity tomography and advanced lysimeter methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to predict flow and transport processes in the unsaturated critical zone is considerably limited by two characteristics: heterogeneity of flow and transience of boundary conditions. The causes of heterogeneous flow and transport are fairly well understood, yet the characterization and quantification of such processes in natural profiles remains challenging. This is due to current methods of observation, such as staining and isotope tracers, being unable to observe multiple events on the same profile and offering limited spatial information. In our study we demonstrate an approach to characterize preferential flow and transport processes applying a combination of geoelectrical methods and advanced lysimeter techniques. On an agricultural soil profile, which was transferred undisturbed into a lysimeter container, we systematically applied a variety of input flow boundary conditions, resembling natural precipitation events. We measured breakthroughs of a conservative tracer and of nitrate, originating from the application of a slow release fertilizer and serving as a reactive tracer. Flow and transport in the soil column were observed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), tensiometers, water content probes and a multicompartment suction plate (MSP). These techniques allowed a direct validation of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough under transient boundary conditions characterized noninvasively by ERT. We were able to image the advancing infiltration front and the advancing front of tracer and nitrate using time lapse ERT. Water content changes associated with the advancing infiltration front dominated over pore fluid conductivity changes during short term precipitation events. Conversely, long-term displacement of the solute fronts was monitored during periods of constant water content in between infiltration events. We observed preferential flow phenomena through ERT and through the MSP, which agreed in general terms. The preferential

  11. Recent advances in the brain-to-blood efflux transport across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Ken-ichi; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2002-11-01

    Elucidating the details of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport mechanism is a very important step towards successful drug targeting to the brain and understanding what happens in the brain. Although several brain uptake methods have been developed to characterize transport at the BBB, these are mainly useful for investigating influx transport across the BBB. In 1992, P-glycoprotein was found to act as an efflux pump for anti-cancer drugs at the BBB using primary cultured bovine brain endothelial cells. In order to determine the direct efflux transport from the brain to the circulating blood of exogenous compounds in vivo, the Brain Efflux Index method was developed to characterize several BBB efflux transport systems. Recently, we have established conditionally immortalized rat (TR-BBB) and mouse (TM-BBB) brain capillary endothelial cell lines from transgenic rats and mice harboring temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen gene to characterize the transport mechanisms at the BBB in vitro. TR-BBB and TM-BBB cells possess certain in vivo transport functions and express mRNAs for the BBB. Using a combination of newly developed in vivo and in vitro methods, we have elucidated the efflux transport mechanism at the BBB for neurosteroids, excitatory neurotransmitters, suppressive neurotransmitters, amino acids, and other organic anions to understand the physiological role played by the BBB as a detoxifying organ for the brain. PMID:12429456

  12. 8. annual U.S. hydrogen meeting: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings contain 35 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Government`s partnership role for hydrogen technology development; Government/industry partnerships -- Demonstrations; Entering the market -- Partnerships in transportation; Hydrogen -- The aerospace fuel; Codes and Standards; Advanced technologies; and Opportunities for partnerships in the utility market. Of the three markets identified (transportation, power production, and village power) papers are presented dealing with the first two. Three parts of the transportation market were covered: cars, trucks, and buses. Progress was reported in both fuel cell and internal combustion engine vehicle propulsion systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Calculations of hydrogen transport for the simulation of a Sbo in the NPP-L V using the code CFD GASFLOW; Calculos de transporte de hidrogeno para la simulacion de un SBO en la CNLV usando el codigo CFD GASFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C.; Mugica R, C. A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Consultor, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, D-76344 Eggenstein -Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The scenario of electric power total loss in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) has been analyzed using the code MELCOR previously, until reaching fault conditions of the primary container. A mitigation measure to avoid the loss of the primary contention is the realization of a venting toward the secondary contention (reactor building), however this measure bears the potential explosions occurrence risk when the hydrogen accumulated in the primary container with the oxygen of the reactor building atmosphere reacting. In this work a scenario has been supposed that considers the mentioned venting when the pressure of 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} is reached in the primary container. The information for the hydrogen like an entrance fact is obtained of the MELCOR results and the hydrogen transport in both contentions is analyzed with the code CFD GASFLOW that allows predicting the detailed distribution of the hydrogen volumetric concentration and the possible detonation of flammability conditions in the reactor building. The results show that the venting will produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability in the level of the recharge floor. The methodology here described constitutes the base of a detailed calculation system of this type of phenomena that can use to make safety evaluations in the NPP-L V on scenarios that include gases transport. (Author)

  14. Hydrogenated TiO2 Branches Coated Mn3O4 Nanorods as an Advanced Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nana; Yue, Jie; Chen, Liang; Qian, Yitai; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-20

    Rational design and delicate control on the component, structure, and surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries are highly important to their performances in practical applications. Compared with various components and structures for electrodes, the choices for their surface are quite limited. The most widespread surface for numerous electrodes, a carbon shell, has its own issues, which stimulates the desire to find another alternative surface. Here, hydrogenated TiO2 is exemplified as an appealing surface for advanced anodes by the growth of ultrathin hydrogenated TiO2 branches on Mn3O4 nanorods. High theoretical capacity of Mn3O4 is well matched with low volume variation (∼4%), enhanced electrical conductivity, good cycling stability, and rate capability of hydrogenated TiO2, as demonstrated in their electrochemical performances. The proof-of-concept reveals the promising potential of hydrogenated TiO2 as a next-generation material for the surface in high-performance hybrid electrodes. PMID:25928277

  15. Hydrogen-Assisted IC Engine Combustion as a Route to Hydrogen Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre Boehman; Daniel Haworth

    2008-09-30

    The 'Freedom Car' Initiative announced by the Bush Administration has placed a significant emphasis on development of a hydrogen economy in the United States. While the hydrogen-fueled fuel-cell vehicle that is the focus of the 'Freedom Car' program would rely on electrochemical energy conversion, and despite the large amount of resources being devoted to its objectives, near-term implementation of hydrogen in the transportation sector is not likely to arise from fuel cell cars. Instead, fuel blending and ''hydrogen-assisted'' combustion are more realizable pathways for wide-scale hydrogen utilization within the next ten years. Thus, a large potential avenue for utilization of hydrogen in transportation applications is through blending with natural gas, since there is an existing market for natural-gas vehicles of various classes, and since hydrogen can provide a means of achieving even stricter emissions standards. Another potential avenue is through use of hydrogen to 'assist' diesel combustion to permit alternate combustion strategies that can achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency. This project focused on developing the underlying fundamental information to support technologies that will facilitate the introduction of coal-derived hydrogen into the market. Two paths were envisioned for hydrogen utilization in transportation applications. One is for hydrogen to be mixed with other fuels, specifically natural gas, to enhance performance in existing natural gas-fueled vehicles (e.g., transit buses) and provide a practical and marketable avenue to begin using hydrogen in the field. A second is to use hydrogen to enable alternative combustion modes in existing diesel engines, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, to permit enhanced efficiency and reduced emissions. Thus, this project on hydrogen-assisted combustion encompassed two major objectives: (1) Optimization of hydrogen-natural gas mixture

  16. Advances in sediment transport under combined action of waves and currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun Lu; Shouqian Li; Liqin Zuo; Huaixiang Liu; J.A. Roelvink

    2015-01-01

    The coastal zone continuously changes due to natural processes and human activities. In order to understand and predict these morphological changes, an accurate description of sediment transport, caused by waves and currents (tidal or wave-induced), is important. This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art knowledge in this field, including sediment incipient motion, bed forms, bed roughness, bed-load transport, suspended-load transport, equilibrium sediment concentration, and sheet flow. Some possible research fields and topics for future study also are proposed.

  17. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Garmsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.

  18. Technical advances and energy substitutions in the transportation sector; Progres techniques et substitutions energetiques dans le secteur des transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromenschlager-Philippe, F.

    2002-11-01

    Alternative motorization technologies have been proposed in order to achieve energy diversification and a reduction in pollutant emissions. Fuel cell vehicles are, among others, at the centre of research carried out by car manufacturers and oil companies. The use of fuel cell vehicles could contribute, first to a less stringent long-term energy dependence of oil importing countries and, second, to pollutant reduction in the transport sector. First of all, we propose the definition of 'innovation' and its treatment in the frame of mainstream economic theories. Then we proceed to a retrospective analysis of diesel motorization of the car market. In the second part of our work, we conduct a survey among French households aiming to obtain up-to-date information about their degree of acceptance of fuel cell technology. We are concerned about highlighting the determining factors of fuel cell vehicle adoption by consumers. For this, we set up a discrete choice model linking the individual decision to the whole group of technical or socio-economical factors and characteristics. Finally, we develop patterns of fuel cell equipment of passenger cars which differ according to type of vehicle and possible purchase assistance. These patterns lead us to the analysis of long-term fuel cell vehicle development on the French car market. (authors)

  19. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  20. ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex J. Dragt

    2012-08-31

    Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

  1. An advanced model for grain face diffusion transport in irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel. Part 1: Model formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veshchunov, M.S., E-mail: vms@ibrae.ac.r [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52, B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.I. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52, B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    An advanced model for the grain face transport of gas atoms, self-consistently taking into consideration the effects of atom diffusion over the grain surface, their trapping by and irradiation induced resolution from intergranular bubbles is presented. The model allows prediction of a noticeable gas release from UO{sub 2} fuel without visible interlinkage of grain face bubbles, i.e. at very low grain face coverage, below the critical value manifested by formation of bubble channels on grain faces interconnected with open porosity, in accordance with experimental observations of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel behaviour under various irradiation conditions.

  2. An Extension of the Athena++ Code Framework for GRMHD Based on Advanced Riemann Solvers and Staggered-mesh Constrained Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher J.; Stone, James M.; Gammie, Charles F.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code integrated into the Athena++ framework. Improving upon the techniques used in most GRMHD codes, ours allows the use of advanced, less diffusive Riemann solvers, in particular HLLC and HLLD. We also employ a staggered-mesh constrained transport algorithm suited for curvilinear coordinate systems in order to maintain the divergence-free constraint of the magnetic field. Our code is designed to work with arbitrary stationary spacetimes in one, two, or three dimensions, and we demonstrate its reliability through a number of tests. We also report on its promising performance and scalability.

  3. Neutral particle transport based on the advanced method of characteristics (MOCHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the development of MOCHA, the advanced method of characteristics, based on the CHAR and ANEMONA codes, and its applications in a number of assembly and cell calculations. The MOCHA presents an attempt to satisfy the need imposed by the advanced reactor designs by providing the computational ability to account for all heterogeneities within the fuel assembly, the capability of general multi-dimensional geometry simulation, the flexibility in energy-group structure, the capability of multi-assembly simulation, accurate burn-up calculation, and linearly anisotropic scattering approximation

  4. Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs: A Parametric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryar Garmsiri; Marc A. Rosen; Gordon Rymal Smith

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas†(P2G) scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane) for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity...

  5. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  6. Model for transport of glucose across membrane and production of hydrogen by photosynthetic bacteria%光合细菌的葡萄糖跨膜传输及代谢产氢模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学旺; 董舟; 朱恂; 廖强

    2012-01-01

    Based on single photosynthetic bacterial cell in a batch reactor for bio-production of H2, a model was established for transport of glucose across membrane and production of hydrogen. The concentration distribution of glucose and hydrogen in the bioreactor was estimated, and the effect of light wavelength and intensity on glucose concentration in outside of cells as well as concentration profiles of hydrogen was investigated. The results showed that substantial agreement was achieved between the experimental results and model prediction values; and at wavelength and intensity of light 590 nm and 8000 lx respectively, the concentration of glucose was the lowest, and concentration of hydrogen was the highest outside cells.

  7. Parameters measurement transport hydrogen in Fe alloys with low contents of C through the technique of permeation; Medida de los Parametros de Transporte de Hidrogeno en Aleaciones de Fe con Bajo Contenidos de C mediante la Tecnica de Permeacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Alberro, G.; Legarda, F.; Vila, R.; Ortiz, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The characterization of the candidates materials to be part of a fusion reactor implies interaction with hydrogen isotopes. Their transport parameters will affect the inventory of hydrogen retained in components of the fusion reactor and permeation of these isotopes through the materials structure can affect areas of human work. Therefore, the analysis of any concept related to fusion reactors, the plasma stability or radiation safety, lies in the knowledge of these parameters. The main objective of this work was to determine the influence of the C content of the iron alloys in the transport parameters of hydrogen using the technique of permeation. Six samples were analyzed experimentally by EFDA (European Fusion Development Agreement) with microstructure and chemical content of alloys controlled. Three of them, Fe pure, FeP y Fe10%Cr, contained insignificant amounts of C, while the other three, FeC, FePC y Fe10%CrC, had the same metallurgical composition as its corresponding pair, with the exception of the content of C.

  8. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles. Fabrication, Reprocessing and Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: First detailed assessment of plants and transportation in various transmutation scenarios. In case of curium transmutation: large difficulties and uncertainties requiring whole new technology development (more pronounced for ADS option). For Am transmutation: more feasible, still to be demonstrated on specific points for industrial extrapolation

  9. Nano-design of quantum dot-based photocatalysts for hydrogen generation using advanced surface molecular chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation in a suspension system requires a sophisticated nano-device that combines a photon absorber with effective redox catalysts. This study demonstrates an innovative molecular linking strategy for fabricating photocatalytic materials that allow effective charge separation of excited carriers, followed by efficient hydrogen evolution. The method for the sequential replacement of ligands with appropriate molecules developed in this study tethers both quantum dots (QDs), as photosensitizers, and metal nanoparticles, as hydrogen evolution catalysts, to TiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner at the nano-level. Combining hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions on the surface, CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs and an Au-Pt alloy were attached to TiO2 without overlapping during the synthesis. The resultant nano-photocatalysts achieved substantially high-performance visible-light-driven photocatalysis for hydrogen evolution. All syntheses were conducted at room temperature and in ambient air, providing a promising route for fabricating visible-light-responsive photocatalysts.

  10. Advanced modelling of the transport phenomena across horizontal clothing microclimates with natural convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M

    2015-12-01

    The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow

  11. Verification of the Advanced Nodal Method on BWR Core Analyses by Whole-Core Heterogeneous Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent boiling water reactor (BWR) core and fuel designs have become more sophisticated and heterogeneous to improve fuel cycle cost, thermal margin, etc. These improvements, however, tend to lead to a strong interference effect among fuel assemblies, and it my cause some inaccuracies in the BWR core analyses by advanced nodal codes. Furthermore, the introduction of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will lead to a much stronger interference effect between MOX and UO2 fuel assemblies. However, the CHAPLET multiassembly characteristics transport code was developed recently to solve two-dimensional cell-heterogeneous whole-core problems efficiently, and its results can be used as reference whole-core solutions to verify the accuracy of nodal core calculations. In this paper, the results of nodal core calculations were compared with their reference whole-core transport solutions to verify their accuracy (in keff, assembly power and pin power via pin power reconstruction) of the advanced nodal method on both UO2 and MOX BWR whole-core analyses. Especially, it was investigated if there were any significant differences in the accuracy between MOX and UO2 results

  12. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  13. Technology Development of an Advanced Small-scale Microchannel-type Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) for Hydrogen Production in Iodine-sulfur Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Injin; Kim, Chan Soo; Kim, Yong Wan; Park, Jae-Won; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Min-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, ongoing manufacturing processes of the components employed in an advanced small-scale microchannel-type PHE are presented. The components, such as mechanically machined microchannels and a diffusion-bonded stack are introduced. Also, preliminary studies on surface treatment techniques for improving corrosion resistance from the corrosive sulfuric environment will be covered. Ongoing manufacturing process for an advanced small-size microchannel-type PHE in KAERI is presented. Through the preliminary studies for optimizing diffusion bonding condition of Hastelloy-X, a diffusion-bonded stack, consisting of primary and secondary side layer by layer, is scheduled to be fabricated in a few months. Also, surface treatment for enhancing the corrosion resistance from the sulfuric acid environment is in progress for the plates with microchannels. A massive production of hydrogen with electricity generation is expected in a Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) in a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) system. For the application of hydrogen production, a small-scale gas loop for feasibility testing of a laboratory-scale has constructed and operated in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as a precursor to an experimental- and a pilot-scale gas loops.

  14. FY 2007 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    Advanced combustion engines have great potential for achieving dramatic energy efficiency improvements in light-duty vehicle applications, where it is suited to both conventional and hybrid- electric powertrain configurations. Light-duty vehicles with advanced combustion engines can compete directly with gasoline engine hybrid vehicles in terms of fuel economy and consumer-friendly driving characteristics; also, they are projected to have energy efficiencies that are competitive with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles when used in hybrid applications.Advanced engine technologies being researched and developed by the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Sub-Program will also allow the use of hydrogen as a fuel in ICEs and will provide an energy-efficient interim hydrogen-based powertrain technology during the transition to hydrogen/fuelcell-powered transportation vehicles.

  15. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  16. A hybrid wind-PV system performance investigation for the purpose of maximum hydrogen production and storage using advanced alkaline electrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new index for optimal sizing of system is proposed. • Electromechanical model of all components is designed and simulated using MATLAB. • Detailed and accurate model of advanced alkaline electrolyzer is simulated. • Three different conditions of using WT and PV array for this system are discussed. • Actual data for weekly irradiation, wind speed, and temperature of Sahand are used. - Abstract: In this study, design and modelling of hybrid wind–photovoltaic system is done for the purpose of hydrogen production through water electrolysis. Actual data for weekly solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature of Sahand, Iran, are used for performance simulation and analysis of the system examined. The detailed model of components is used. The 10 kW alkaline electrolyzer model, which produces hydrogen, is based on combination of empirical electrochemical relationships, thermodynamics, and heat transfer theory. The operation of this system is optimized using imperial competitive colony algorithm. The objective of optimization is to maximize hydrogen production, considering minimum production of average excess power. This system is analysed in three different conditions of using just wind turbine (WT), photovoltaic (PV) array, and combination of them as power source, producing hydrogen of 8297, 4592, and 10,462 mol, respectively. As for this result and with analysing other results of simulation, it is clarified that the hybrid system is more useful for this study. In hybrid form the ratio of average produced power to nominal power for PV array is 0.247 and for WT is 0.493 which demonstrates that WT is more effective in production

  17. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  18. Staged Combustion Cycle Rocket Engine Design Trade-Offs for Future Advanced Passenger Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Yamashiro, Ryoma

    2012-01-01

    Staged combustion cycle rocket engines with a moderate nominal 16 MPa chamber pressure have been selected as the baseline propulsion system for the visionary intercontinental passenger transport SpaceLiner. Several technical engine design trade-offs are run by numerical simulations and results are pre-sented including: • Fuel rich vs. Full-flow cycle • Useful operational domain in MR • Regenerative cooling options of thrust chamber The engine operational domain is evaluated on ...

  19. Monte Carlo 2000 Conference : Advanced Monte Carlo for Radiation Physics, Particle Transport Simulation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.

  20. Transport modeling of ECH and neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the advanced toroidal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.; Horton, L.D.; Crume, E.C.; Harris, J.H.; Isler, R.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Results of time-dependent transport modeling of the ATF plasmas are compared with a typical ungettered, neutral-beam-heated discharge. A summary of ATF machine parameters is given by Murakami. The model is adjusted to give agreement between measured diagnostics signals and the corresponding values inferred from the model plasma. With this agreement, the main features of the discharge are reproduced including the radiation-induced temperature collapse. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Atmospheric-Biospheric Interactions of Ambient Hydrogen Peroxide: Climatology at MT. Mitchell, N.C., and Transport Into Needles of Red Spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claiborn, Candis Sue

    , but rather was to be limited to surface deposition. This hypothesis of deposition on the spruce needle surface without reaching the inner tissues was tested using a transport model based on the fundamental equations for gas diffusion. The detailed physiology of the spruce needle and its stomatal zone were taken into account in the resulting model. The governing transport equations including the species continuity equations and the Stefan-Maxwell equations modified to take into account molecule-wall collisions were area-averaged in the substomatal zone and in the stomatal pore, and volume-averaged in the wax-filled antechamber. The results of this analysis were consistent with the hypothesis of surface deposition of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide, and suggest that the substomatal concentration of hydrogen peroxide was zero for the range of conditions tested.

  2. CFD analysis for the hydrogen transport in the primary contention of a BWR using the codes OpenFOAM and Gas-Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accidents in Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the United States (March 28th, 1979), the one in Unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl in Ukraine (April 26th, 1986) and the explosions in some units of Fukushima NPP in Japan (March 11th, 2011) boosted the investigations on severe accidents with core damage and, in particular, the threat to the ultimate barrier by an eventual explosion from uncontrolled Hydrogen combustion within the containment was considered of particular relevance. Research programs for analyzing Hydrogen behavior and control during this kind of accidents were early initiated by research and regulatory bodies. Assessment on Hydrogen behavior once it has been postulated to be released on the containment system can be divided into two phases, in the first one, transport and the concentrations of the gas mixtures and steam in each volume or area comprised between the structures of the containment are calculated, in the second one, the propagation of the detonation of the Hydrogen is calculated if there are the conditions to occur. Currently, there are computer programs that can be used in one, or both stages of computation, and they are based on one of the two solution methods in current use, one of them are integrated codes (e.g. MELCOR), which consists in assuming the containment as a network composed of hydraulic tanks or nodes on which the balance equations of mass and energy have to be solved, the network is connected by ducts or connections where the momentum balance equation arise. This methodology relies on the use of semi-empirical relationships and the criteria used to define a geometric pattern, are subjective. The second method, which is having relevance due to the large computing power of modern computers, is the numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in complex geometries. This method of solution is known as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and offers the advantage of using a limited

  3. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhanting

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the advances in the studies of hydrogen-bonding-driven supramolecular systems  made over the past decade. It is divided into four parts, with the first introducing the basics of hydrogen bonding and important hydrogen bonding patterns in solution as well as in the solid state. The second part covers molecular recognition and supramolecular structures driven by hydrogen bonding. The third part introduces the formation of hollow and giant macrocycles directed by hydrogen bonding, while the last part summarizes hydrogen bonded supramolecular polymers. This book is designed to b

  4. Innovative and Advanced Coupled Neutron Transport and Thermal Hydraulic Method (Tool) for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of VHTR/NGNP Prismatic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnema, Farzad; Garimeela, Srinivas; Ougouag, Abderrafi; Zhang, Dingkang

    2013-11-29

    This project will develop a 3D, advanced coarse mesh transport method (COMET-Hex) for steady- state and transient analyses in advanced very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). The project will lead to a coupled neutronics and thermal hydraulic (T/H) core simulation tool with fuel depletion capability. The computational tool will be developed in hexagonal geometry, based solely on transport theory without (spatial) homogenization in complicated 3D geometries. In addition to the hexagonal geometry extension, collaborators will concurrently develop three additional capabilities to increase the code’s versatility as an advanced and robust core simulator for VHTRs. First, the project team will develop and implement a depletion method within the core simulator. Second, the team will develop an elementary (proof-of-concept) 1D time-dependent transport method for efficient transient analyses. The third capability will be a thermal hydraulic method coupled to the neutronics transport module for VHTRs. Current advancements in reactor core design are pushing VHTRs toward greater core and fuel heterogeneity to pursue higher burn-ups, efficiently transmute used fuel, maximize energy production, and improve plant economics and safety. As a result, an accurate and efficient neutron transport, with capabilities to treat heterogeneous burnable poison effects, is highly desirable for predicting VHTR neutronics performance. This research project’s primary objective is to advance the state of the art for reactor analysis.

  5. Hydrogen, this hallucinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the origin of hydrogen for energetic use (mainly by extraction from water), the possible uses of this cumbersome gas (in vehicles, in electricity storage), and outlines that hydrogen economy consumes a lot of other energies (nuclear, wind, sun, biomass, and so on) for a high cost, and that hydrogen is therefore not a solution for the future. Other elements are given in appendix: production methods and processes, figures of energy production, ways to use and to store hydrogen in vehicles, assessment of possibilities for a vehicle, techniques and figures for hydrogen packaging, transport and distribution, energy cost, energetic assessment of hydrogen production, problems associated with distribution (tank filling)

  6. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated

  7. Saenger: An advanced space transport system for Europe - Program overview and key technology needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Heribert

    The West German Saenger two-stage (manned or unmanned cargo upper stage) launch vehicle employs an airbreathing lower stage that may be employed as a hypersonic-cruise passenger transport vehicle. A development status report for Saenger with a view to the technology-readiness issues of most pressing importance. Three turbomechanical configurations are under consideration for the lower stage's propulsion system: a turbojet-ramjet in parallel arrangement with common inlet and nozzle, a turbojet-ramjet in coaxial arrangement with plug nozzle, and a windmilling turbofan-ramjet. Upper stage design features are also presented.

  8. Advanced brain dopamine transporter imaging in mice using small-animal SPECT/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkonen, Miia; Hippeläinen, Eero; Raki, Mari; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Urtti, Arto; Männistö, Pekka T.; Savolainen, Sauli; Saarma, Mart; Bergström, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background Iodine-123-β-CIT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ligand for dopamine transporters (DATs), has been used for in vivo studies in humans, monkeys, and rats but has not yet been used extensively in mice. To validate the imaging and analysis methods for preclinical DAT imaging, wild-type healthy mice were scanned using 123I-β-CIT. Methods The pharmacokinetics and reliability of 123I-β-CIT in mice (n = 8) were studied with a multipinhole SPECT/CT camera after intrav...

  9. Development of an advanced atmospheric/transport model for emergency response purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are based Gaussian distributions and have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven program called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. The WIND system atmospheric models employ certain assumptions that allow the computations of the ground-level concentration of toxic or radioactive materials to be made quickly. Gaussian models, such as PF/PL and 2DPUF, suffer from serious limitations including the inability to represent recirculation of pollutants in complex terrain, the use of one stability class at a given time to represent turbulent mixing over heterogeneous terrain, and the use of a wind field computed at only one height in the atmosphere. These limitations arise because the fundamental conservation relations of the atmosphere have been grossly simplified. Three-dimensional coupled atmospheric-dispersion models are not limited by the over-simplifications of the Gaussian assumption and have been used in the past to predict the transport of pollutants in a variety of atmospheric circulations. The disadvantage of these models is that they require large amounts of computational time; however, technology has progressed enough so that real-time simulations of dispersion may be made. These complex models can be run in an operational mode so that routine forecasts of the wind field and particulate concentration can be made

  10. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D S{sub n} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric (S{sub 2}o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  11. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh-Tuan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor. This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013.

  12. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  13. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  14. Akuna - Integrated Toolsets Supporting Advanced Subsurface Flow and Transport Simulations for Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Karen L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gable, Carl W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gorton, Ian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gosink, Luke J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keating, Elizabeth H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Joerg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Moeglein, William A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pau, George S.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purohit, Sumit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-04-24

    A next generation open source subsurface simulator and user environment for environmental management is being developed through a collaborative effort across Department of Energy National Laboratories. The flow and transport simulator, Amanzi, will be capable of modeling complex subsurface environments and processes using both unstructured and adaptive meshes at very fine spatial resolutions that require supercomputing-scale resources. The user environment, Akuna, provides users with a range of tools to manage environmental and simulator data sets, create models, manage and share simulation data, and visualize results. Underlying the user interface are core toolsets that provide algorithms for sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty quantification. Akuna is open-source, cross platform software that is initially being demonstrated on the Hanford BC Cribs remediation site. In this paper, we describe the emerging capabilities of Akuna and illustrate how these are being applied to the BC Cribs site.

  15. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  16. Advances toward a transportable antineutrino detector system for reactor monitoring and safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyna, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lund, J.; Kiff, S.; Cabrera-Palmer, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bowden, N. S.; Dazeley, S.; Keefer, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the neutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Our SNL/LLNL collaboration has demonstrated that such antineutrino based monitoring is feasible using a relatively small cubic meter scale liquid scintillator detector at tens of meters standoff from a commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). With little or no burden on the plant operator we have been able to remotely and automatically monitor the reactor operational status (on/off), power level, and fuel burnup. The initial detector was deployed in an underground gallery that lies directly under the containment dome of an operating PWR. The gallery is 25 meters from the reactor core center, is rarely accessed by plant personnel, and provides a muon-screening effect of some 20-30 meters of water equivalent earth and concrete overburden. Unfortunately, many reactor facilities do not contain an equivalent underground location. We have therefore attempted to construct a complete detector system which would be capable of operating in an aboveground location and could be transported to a reactor facility with relative ease. A standard 6-meter shipping container was used as our transportable laboratory - containing active and passive shielding components, the antineutrino detector and all electronics, as well as climate control systems. This aboveground system was deployed and tested at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) in southern California in 2010 and early 2011. We will first present an overview of the initial demonstrations of our below ground detector. Then we will describe the aboveground system and the technological developments of the two antineutrino

  17. Recent advances towards a theory of catchment hydrologic transport: age-ranked storage and the Ω-functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Models that faithfully represent spatially-integrated hydrologic transport through the critical zone at sub-watershed scales are essential building blocks for large-scale models of land use and climate controls on non-point source contaminant delivery. A particular challenge facing these models is the need to represent the delay between inputs of soluble contaminants (such as nitrate) at the field scale, and the solute load that appears in streams. Recent advances in the theory of time-variable transit time distributions (e.g. Botter et al., GRL 38(L11403), 2011) have provided a rigorous framework for representing conservative solute transport and its coupling to hydrologic variability and partitioning. Here I will present a reformulation of this framework that offers several distinct advantages over existing formulations: 1) the derivation of the governing conservation equation is simple and intuitive, 2) the closure relations are expressed in a convenient and physically meaningful way as probability distributions Ω(ST)Omega(S_T) over the storage ranked by age STS_T, and 3) changes in transport behavior determined by storage-dependent dilution and flow-path dynamics (as distinct from those due only to changes in the rates and partitioning of water flux) are completely encapsulated by these probability distributions. The framework has been implemented to model to the rich dataset of long-term stream and precipitation chloride from the Plynlimon watershed in Wales, UK. With suitable choices for the functional form of the closure relationships, only a small number of free parameters are required to reproduce the observed chloride dynamics as well as previous models with many more parameters, including reproducing the observed fractal 1/f filtering of the streamflow chloride variability. The modeled transport dynamics are sensitive to the input precipitation variability and water balance partitioning to evapotranspiration. Apparent storage-dependent age

  18. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  19. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411–3490 ha of habitat supporting 30–43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas. (papers)

  20. The use of regional advance mitigation planning (RAMP) to integrate transportation infrastructure impacts with sustainability; a perspective from the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H.; Huber, Patrick R.; O'Donoghue, Elizabeth; Santos, Maria J.

    2014-05-01

    Globally, urban areas are expanding, and their regional, spatially cumulative, environmental impacts from transportation projects are not typically assessed. However, incorporation of a Regional Advance Mitigation Planning (RAMP) framework can promote more effective, ecologically sound, and less expensive environmental mitigation. As a demonstration of the first phase of the RAMP framework, we assessed environmental impacts from 181 planned transportation projects in the 19 368 km2 San Francisco Bay Area. We found that 107 road and railroad projects will impact 2411-3490 ha of habitat supporting 30-43 threatened or endangered species. In addition, 1175 ha of impacts to agriculture and native vegetation are expected, as well as 125 crossings of waterways supporting anadromous fish species. The extent of these spatially cumulative impacts shows the need for a regional approach to associated environmental offsets. Many of the impacts were comprised of numerous small projects, where project-by-project mitigation would result in increased transaction costs, land costs, and lost project time. Ecological gains can be made if a regional approach is taken through the avoidance of small-sized reserves and the ability to target parcels for acquisition that fit within conservation planning designs. The methods are straightforward, and can be used in other metropolitan areas.

  1. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides

  2. Conceptual study of an advanced VTOL transport aircraft; Kosoku VTOL ki no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Endo, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, M.; Sugahara, N.; Yamamoto, K. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The concept of the advanced 100-passenger class VTOL aircraft equipped with new lift fan engines was clarified as domestic passenger aircraft for the 21st century. Under the assumption of a total weight of 40 tons, a seat fuselage diameter of 3.3m as small as possible and a short seat pitch, the airframe shape satisfying a target performance was obtained without any problems about aerodynamic stability, operability and control capability, and noise lower than that of small helicopters was also estimated. In the case of 10 tons in airframe payload and 8 tons in fuel, even if light-weight composite materials were used for most of parts including fuselage structure, a total weight summed to 42.3 tons exceeding a target by 2.3 tons. As this VTOL aircraft was limited to domestic flight use only, the total weight could be reduced without any change in airframe shape and number of passengers by reducing the payload (baggage weight can be probably reduced by 2 tons/100 passengers in the future domestic flight) and fuel (cruising range around 2500km can be secured even if fuel is reduced by 0.3 tons). In conclusion, this concept was thus technologically reasonable. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Computation of wake/exhaust mixing downstream of advanced transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Teske, Milton E.; Bilanin, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing of engine exhaust with the vortical wake of high speed aircraft operating in the stratosphere can play an important role in the formation of chemical products that deplete atmospheric ozone. An accurate analysis of this type of interaction is therefore necessary as a part of the assessment of the impact of proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designs on atmospheric chemistry. This paper describes modifications to the parabolic Navier-Stokes flow field analysis in the UNIWAKE unified aircraft wake model to accommodate the computation of wake/exhaust mixing and the simulation of reacting flow. The present implementation uses a passive chemistry model in which the reacting species are convected and diffused by the fluid dynamic solution but in which the evolution of the species does not affect the flow field. The resulting analysis, UNIWAKE/PCHEM (Passive CHEMistry) has been applied to the analysis of wake/exhaust flows downstream of representative HSCT configurations. The major elements of the flow field model are described, as are the results of sample calculations illustrating the behavior of the thermal exhaust plume and the production of species important to the modeling of condensation in the wake. Appropriate steps for further development of the UNIWAKE/PCHEM model are also outlined.

  4. Pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Saaski, E. L.; Noble, J.; Tower, L.

    Experiments to determine alkali metal/enhanced surface combinations that have stable boiling at the temperatures and heat fluxes that occur in the Stirling engine are reported. Two enhanced surfaces and two alkali metal working fluids were evaluated. The enhanced surfaces were an EDM hole covered surface and a sintered-powder-metal porous layer surface. The working fluids tested were potassium and eutectic sodium-potasium alloy (NaK), both with and without undissolved noncondensible gas. Noncondensible gas (He and Xe) was added to the system to provide gas in the nucleation sites, preventing quenching of the sites. The experiments demonstrated the potential of an alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system for use in a solar-powered Stirling engine. The most favorable fluid/surface combination tested was NaK boiling on a -100 +140 mesh 304L stainless steel sintered porous layer with no undissolved noncondensible gas. This combination provided stable, high-performance boiling at the operating temperature of 700 C. Heat fluxes into the system ranged from 10 to 50 W/sq cm. The transition from free convection to nucleate boiling occurred at temperatures near 540 C. Based on these experiments, a pool boiler was designed for a full-scale 25-kWe Stirling system.

  5. Investigation of the impact of temperature on hydrogen production cost from advanced water splitting technologies - HTR2008-58245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key technology challenges in the development of water splitting technologies is the requirement for high temperature process heat. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) can supply this heat, but challenges multiply as the reactor outlet temperature, and therefore the maximum process temperature rises. A reasonable implementation strategy for applying HTGRs to these technologies would be to begin with a reactor outlet and a maximum process temperature that is achievable with today's technology and increase those temperatures in stages as improved technology emerges. This paper investigates what those temperatures should be in the first commercial demonstration by examining the effect of these temperatures on the cost of production of hydrogen. Parameters investigated include the fundamental thermodynamic limits of each technology, reaction kinetics, materials of construction cost, process complexity, component expected life, and availability. Based on this study, comparisons are made between the leading water splitting technologies and the advantages and disadvantages of each are explained. (authors)

  6. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) - approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) - resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  7. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-07-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications.

  8. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  9. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-06-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  10. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch

    1988-01-01

    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  11. Properties of the hydrogen oxidation reaction on Pt/C catalysts at optimised high mass transport conditions and its relevance to the anode reaction in PEFCs and cathode reactions in electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a high mass transport floating electrode technique with an ultra-low catalyst loading (0.84–3.5 μgPt cm−2) of commonly used Pt/C catalyst (HiSPEC 9100, Johnson Matthey), features in the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were resolved and defined, which have rarely been previously observed. These features include fine structure in the hydrogen adsorption region between 0.18 < V vs. RHE < 0.36 V vs. RHE consisting of two peaks, an asymptotic decrease at potentials greater than 0.36 V vs. RHE, and a hysteresis above 0.1 V vs. RHE which corresponded to a decrease in the cathodic scan current by up to 50% of the anodic scan. These features are examined as a function of hydrogen and proton concentration, anion type and concentration, potential scan limit, and temperature. We provide an analytical solution to the Heyrovsky–Volmer equation and use it to analyse our results. Using this model we are able to extract catalytic properties (without mass transport corrections; a possible source of error) by simultaneously fitting the model to HOR curves in a variety of conditions including temperature, hydrogen partial pressure and anion/H+ concentration. Using our model we are able to rationalise the pH and hydrogen concentration dependence of the hydrogen reaction. This model may be useful in application to fuel cell and electrolyser simulation studies

  12. The Grapevine Uncharacterized Intrinsic Protein 1 (VvXIP1) Is Regulated by Drought Stress and Transports Glycerol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Heavy Metals but Not Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Carlos; Martins, Ana P.; Soveral, Graça; Chaumont, François; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    A MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) subfamily called Uncharacterized Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) was recently described in several fungi and eudicot plants. In this work, we cloned a XIP from grapevine, VvXIP1, and agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the encoded aquaporin shows a preferential localization at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Stopped-flow spectrometry in vesicles from the aqy-null yeast strain YSH1172 overexpressing VvXIP1 showed that VvXIP1 is unable to transport water but is permeable to glycerol. Functional studies with the ROS sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA in intact transformed yeasts showed that VvXIP1 is also able to permeate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Drop test growth assays showed that besides glycerol and H2O2, VvXIP1 also transports boric acid, copper, arsenic and nickel. Furthermore, we found that VvXIP1 transcripts were abundant in grapevine leaves from field grown plants and strongly repressed after the imposition of severe water-deficit conditions in potted vines. The observed downregulation of VvXIP1 expression in cultured grape cells in response to ABA and salt, together with the increased sensitivity to osmotic stress displayed by the aqy-null yeast overexpressing VvXIP1, corroborates the role of VvXIP1 in osmotic regulation besides its involvement in H2O2 transport and metal homeostasis. PMID:27504956

  13. The Grapevine Uncharacterized Intrinsic Protein 1 (VvXIP1) Is Regulated by Drought Stress and Transports Glycerol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Heavy Metals but Not Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Henrique; Araújo, Diogo; Conde, Carlos; Martins, Ana P; Soveral, Graça; Chaumont, François; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2016-01-01

    A MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) subfamily called Uncharacterized Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) was recently described in several fungi and eudicot plants. In this work, we cloned a XIP from grapevine, VvXIP1, and agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the encoded aquaporin shows a preferential localization at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Stopped-flow spectrometry in vesicles from the aqy-null yeast strain YSH1172 overexpressing VvXIP1 showed that VvXIP1 is unable to transport water but is permeable to glycerol. Functional studies with the ROS sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA in intact transformed yeasts showed that VvXIP1 is also able to permeate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Drop test growth assays showed that besides glycerol and H2O2, VvXIP1 also transports boric acid, copper, arsenic and nickel. Furthermore, we found that VvXIP1 transcripts were abundant in grapevine leaves from field grown plants and strongly repressed after the imposition of severe water-deficit conditions in potted vines. The observed downregulation of VvXIP1 expression in cultured grape cells in response to ABA and salt, together with the increased sensitivity to osmotic stress displayed by the aqy-null yeast overexpressing VvXIP1, corroborates the role of VvXIP1 in osmotic regulation besides its involvement in H2O2 transport and metal homeostasis.

  14. The Grapevine Uncharacterized Intrinsic Protein 1 (VvXIP1) Is Regulated by Drought Stress and Transports Glycerol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Heavy Metals but Not Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Henrique; Araújo, Diogo; Conde, Carlos; Martins, Ana P; Soveral, Graça; Chaumont, François; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2016-01-01

    A MIP (Major Intrinsic Protein) subfamily called Uncharacterized Intrinsic Proteins (XIP) was recently described in several fungi and eudicot plants. In this work, we cloned a XIP from grapevine, VvXIP1, and agrobacterium-mediated transformation studies in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the encoded aquaporin shows a preferential localization at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Stopped-flow spectrometry in vesicles from the aqy-null yeast strain YSH1172 overexpressing VvXIP1 showed that VvXIP1 is unable to transport water but is permeable to glycerol. Functional studies with the ROS sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA in intact transformed yeasts showed that VvXIP1 is also able to permeate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Drop test growth assays showed that besides glycerol and H2O2, VvXIP1 also transports boric acid, copper, arsenic and nickel. Furthermore, we found that VvXIP1 transcripts were abundant in grapevine leaves from field grown plants and strongly repressed after the imposition of severe water-deficit conditions in potted vines. The observed downregulation of VvXIP1 expression in cultured grape cells in response to ABA and salt, together with the increased sensitivity to osmotic stress displayed by the aqy-null yeast overexpressing VvXIP1, corroborates the role of VvXIP1 in osmotic regulation besides its involvement in H2O2 transport and metal homeostasis. PMID:27504956

  15. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  16. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

  17. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Sensors and Systems. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Sensor systems research was focused on hydrogen leak detection and smart sensors with adaptive feedback control for fuel cells. The goal was to integrate multifunction smart sensors, low-power high-efficiency wireless circuits, energy harvesting devices, and power management circuits in one module. Activities were focused on testing and demonstrating sensors in a realistic environment while also bringing them closer to production and commercial viability for eventual use in the actual operating environment.

  18. Polygeneration smart grids. A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Mohamed, Essam S.; Papadakis, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of polygeneration smart grids along with experimental results taken during winter 2009-2010 of a pilot polygeneration smart grid focusing on the evolution of the control strategy. In this smart grid the energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine. The system products are electrical energy, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as both medium term energy storage and transportation fuel. Potable water is also used as seasonal energy storage. The components of the system include PV, a wind turbine, batteries, a PEM fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, metal hydride tank, hydrogen vehicle refueling subsystem, reverse osmosis desalination unit, data logging system and a control system. Two different controllers have been developed and tested for this smart grid; an ON/OFF controller which operates the electrolyzer, fuel cell and desalination unit at preset points and a fuzzy logic controller which allows for part load operation. The system is installed at the Agricultural University of Athens and the experimental process is ongoing. (orig.)

  19. Diurnally modulating neutron flux in the Moon's high-latitudes: Evidence for transported hydrogen volatiles and/ or complex regolith compositions in topographic slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy; Mirofanov, Igor; Boynton, William; Chin, Gordon; Livengood, Timothy; Su, Jiao Jang; Sagdeev, Raold; Parsons, Ann; Evans, Larry; Starr, Richard; Hamara, Dave; Bodnarik, Julia; Williams, Jeane-Pierre; Mazarico, Erwan; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Murray, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence that the Moon's diurnally modulating neutron flux is being forced by a latitude dependent mix of 1) transient hydrogen-bearing volatiles near the surface in the upper latitudes and 2) regolith temperature variation in lower latitudes. In this study we investigate diurnally varying neutron flux measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector's Collimated Sensor for Epithermal Neutrons (LEND CSETN) and surface temperature observations from the Diviner radiometer poleward of >±45°. Our presentation shows that the modulating neutron flux is not consistent with a regolith temperature control for latitudes >70°. The anticorrelation may be evidence for transported lunar hydrogen volatiles or highly non-uniform regolith compositional dynamics. Observational evidence is consistent with regolith temperature being the source of the neutron flux modulation in the northern mare (45° to 60°) and may be related to its mafic composition and fast neutron contributions. Predictions for hypothesized regolith temperature effects are evaluated using insolation inferred from the Lunar Observing Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography.

  20. Three-dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Supported Molybdenum Disulfide Nanoparticles as an Advanced Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haifeng; Liu, Conghui; Ye, Haitao; Hu, Linping; Fugetsu, Bunshi; Dai, Wenhao; Cao, Yu; Qi, Xueqiang; Lu, Huiting; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-12-01

    An efficient three-dimensional (3D) hybrid material of nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-RGO) supporting molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles with high-performance electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is fabricated by using a facile hydrothermal route. Comprehensive microscopic and spectroscopic characterizations confirm the resulting hybrid material possesses a 3D crumpled few-layered graphene network structure decorated with MoS2 nanoparticles. Electrochemical characterization analysis reveals that the resulting hybrid material exhibits efficient electrocatalytic activity toward HER under acidic conditions with a low onset potential of 112 mV and a small Tafel slope of 44 mV per decade. The enhanced mechanism of electrocatalytic activity has been investigated in detail by controlling the elemental composition, electrical conductance and surface morphology of the 3D hybrid as well as Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. This demonstrates that the abundance of exposed active sulfur edge sites in the MoS2 and nitrogen active functional moieties in N-RGO are synergistically responsible for the catalytic activity, whilst the distinguished and coherent interface in MoS2/N-RGO facilitates the electron transfer during electrocatalysis. Our study gives insights into the physical/chemical mechanism of enhanced HER performance in MoS2/N-RGO hybrids and illustrates how to design and construct a 3D hybrid to maximize the catalytic efficiency.

  1. Advances in the Research of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity%硫化氢中毒研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志英; 金复生

    2006-01-01

    硫化氢(hydrogen sulfide,H2S)是具有特殊臭鸡蛋气味的无色易燃气体。职业接触H2S中毒多由于生产设备损坏,输送H2S管道和阀门漏气,违反操作规程以及生产故障等致使H2S大量逸出而引起。另外,含H2S的废气及废液排放不当,从事阴沟清理、腐败鱼类处理、咸菜生产及从事病畜处理等均可导致急性H2S中毒。据世界卫生组织资料,接触H2S的职业有70多种。

  2. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  3. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO2-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  4. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  5. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  6. Nanospherical like reduced graphene oxide decorated TiO2 nanoparticles: an advanced catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dejian; Zou, Liling; Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Fengying

    2016-02-01

    Modification of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for H2 generation is a grand challenge due to its high chemical inertness, large bandgap, narrow light-response range and rapid recombination of electrons and holes. Herein, we report a simple process to prepare nanospherical like reduced graphene oxide (NS-rGO) decorated TiO2 nanoparticles (NS-rGO/TiO2) as photocatalysts. This modified TiO2 sample exhibits remarkably significant improvement on visible light absorption, narrow band gap and efficient charge collection and separation. The photocatalytic H2 production rate of NS-rGO/TiO2 is high as 13996 μmol g-1 h-1, which exceeds that obtained on TiO2 alone and TiO2 with parallel graphene sheets by 3.45 and 3.05 times, respectively. This improvement is due to the presence of NS-rGO as an electron collector and transporter. The geometry of NS-rGO should be effective in the design of a graphene/TiO2 composite for photocatalytic applications.

  7. New hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the overall hydrogen system. There are separate sections for production, distribution, transport, storage; and applications of hydrogen. The most important methods for hydrogen production are steam reformation of natural gas and electrolysis of water. Of the renewable energy options, production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from wind turbines or by gasification of biomass were found to be the most economic for Finland. Direct use of this electricity or the production of liquid fuels from biomass will be competing alternatives. When hydrogen is produced in the solar belt or where there is cheap hydropower it must be transported over long distances. The overall energy consumed for the transport is from 25 to 40 % of the initial available energy. Hydrogen storage can be divided into stationary and mobile types. The most economic, stationary, large scale hydrogen storage for both long and short periods is underground storage. When suitable sites are not available, then pressure vessels are the best for short period and liquid H2 for long period. Vehicle storage of hydrogen is by either metal hydrides or liquid H2. Hydrogen is a very versatile energy carrier. It can be used to produce heat directly in catalytic burners without flame, to produce electricity in fuel cells with high efficiency for use in vehicles or for peak power shaving, as a fuel component with conventional fuels to reduce emissions, as a way to store energy and as a chemical reagent in reactions

  8. Jejunal microvilli atrophy and reduced nutrient transport in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis: improvement by Insulin-like Growth Factor I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilla-Cortázar Inma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous results have shown that in rats with non-ascitic cirrhosis there is an altered transport of sugars and amino acids associated with elongated microvilli. These alterations returned to normal with the administration of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I. The aims of this study were to explore the evolution of these alterations and analyse the effect of IGF-I in rats with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. Thus, jejunal structure and nutrient transport (D-galactose, L-leucine, L-proline, L-glutamic acid and L-cystine were studied in rats with ascitic cirrhosis. Methods Advanced cirrhosis was induced by CCl4 inhalation and Phenobarbital administration for 30 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were divided into two groups which received IGF-I or saline during two weeks. Control group was studied in parallel. Jejunal microvilli were studied by electron microscopy. Nutrient transport was assessed in brush border membrane vesicles using 14C or 35S-labelled subtracts in the three experimental groups. Results Intestinal active Na+-dependent transport was significantly reduced in untreated cirrhotic rats. Kinetic studies showed a decreased Vmax and a reduced affinity for sugar and four amino acids transporters (expressed as an increased Kt in the brush border membrane vesicles from untreated cirrhotic rats as compared with controls. Both parameters were normalised in the IGF-I-treated cirrhotic group. Electron microscopy showed elongation and fusion of microvilli with degenerative membrane lesions and/or notable atrophy. Conclusions The initial microvilli elongation reported in non ascitic cirrhosis develops into atrophy in rats with advanced cirrhosis and nutrient transports (monosaccharides and amino acids are progressively reduced. Both morphological and functional alterations improved significantly with low doses of IGF-I.

  9. A theoretical study of a ZnO graphene analogue: adsorption on Ag(111) and hydrogen transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiroglu, Ilker; Illas, Francesc; Bromley, Stefan T [Department de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Stradi, Daniele, E-mail: s.bromley@ub.edu [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-24

    A single sheet of zinc oxide (ZnO) based on the same flat two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal topology as graphene, but with alternating neighbouring Zn and O atoms in place of carbon atoms, is studied theoretically. Following experimental studies, the adsorption of 2D-ZnO with the Ag(111) surface is investigated using density functional theory, with and without a semi-empirical correction for dispersive interactions, and with classical interatomic potentials. The interaction of H atoms with the hexagonal Zn{sub 3}O{sub 3} rings of 2D-ZnO is given special attention where multi-centre bond formation is observed to significantly assist the transport of H atoms through the 2D-ZnO sheet.

  10. A theoretical study of a ZnO graphene analogue: adsorption on Ag(111) and hydrogen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu, Ilker; Stradi, Daniele; Illas, Francesc; Bromley, Stefan T

    2011-08-24

    A single sheet of zinc oxide (ZnO) based on the same flat two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal topology as graphene, but with alternating neighbouring Zn and O atoms in place of carbon atoms, is studied theoretically. Following experimental studies, the adsorption of 2D-ZnO with the Ag(111) surface is investigated using density functional theory, with and without a semi-empirical correction for dispersive interactions, and with classical interatomic potentials. The interaction of H atoms with the hexagonal Zn(3)O(3) rings of 2D-ZnO is given special attention where multi-centre bond formation is observed to significantly assist the transport of H atoms through the 2D-ZnO sheet.

  11. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  12. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  13. Transport phenomena in gas-selective silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio

    Upcoming technology platforms for green fuel production require the development of advanced molecular separation processes for recovering dry liquid biofuels [1,2], biomethane [2] and hydrogen [3]. Replacement of extractive distillation, cryodistillation and adsorption processes by membrane units...... of ultramicroporous silica membranes [5-6] and the transport mechanisms occurring in the different membrane layers [5-7] including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion and activated transport....

  14. A statistical mechanical theory of proton transport kinetics in hydrogen-bonded networks based on population correlation functions with applications to acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, Mark E; Chandra, Amalendu; Marx, Dominik

    2010-09-28

    Extraction of relaxation times, lifetimes, and rates associated with the transport of topological charge defects in hydrogen-bonded networks from molecular dynamics simulations is a challenge because proton transfer reactions continually change the identity of the defect core. In this paper, we present a statistical mechanical theory that allows these quantities to be computed in an unbiased manner. The theory employs a set of suitably defined indicator or population functions for locating a defect structure and their associated correlation functions. These functions are then used to develop a chemical master equation framework from which the rates and lifetimes can be determined. Furthermore, we develop an integral equation formalism for connecting various types of population correlation functions and derive an iterative solution to the equation, which is given a graphical interpretation. The chemical master equation framework is applied to the problems of both hydronium and hydroxide transport in bulk water. For each case it is shown that the theory establishes direct links between the defect's dominant solvation structures, the kinetics of charge transfer, and the mechanism of structural diffusion. A detailed analysis is presented for aqueous hydroxide, examining both reorientational time scales and relaxation of the rotational anisotropy, which is correlated with recent experimental results for these quantities. Finally, for OH(-)(aq) it is demonstrated that the "dynamical hypercoordination mechanism" is consistent with available experimental data while other mechanistic proposals are shown to fail. As a means of going beyond the linear rate theory valid from short up to intermediate time scales, a fractional kinetic model is introduced in the Appendix in order to describe the nonexponential long-time behavior of time-correlation functions. Within the mathematical framework of fractional calculus the power law decay ∼t(-σ), where σ is a parameter of the

  15. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  16. Solar Fuels. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Prashant V.; Bisquert, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The necessity for developing clean energy technology has led to the surge in renewable energy research. A major effort is in discovering new approaches for producing transportable fuels. Hydrogen, which possesses the highest energy density (120 MJ/kg) known for any fuel and no carbon footprint, is regarded as the leading contender for meeting future fuel needs. The term Hydrogen Economy is often referred collectively to the topics of production, storage, and transport of hydrogen.

  17. Possible interstellar formation of glycine from the reaction of CH2=NH, CO and H2O: catalysis by extra water molecules through the hydrogen relay transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhlabatsi, Zanele P; Bhasi, Priya; Sitha, Sanyasi

    2016-01-01

    "How the fundamental life elements are created in the interstellar medium (ISM)?" is one of the intriguing questions related to the genesis of life. Using computational calculations, we have discussed the reaction of CH2=NH, CO and H2O for the formation of glycine, the simplest life element. This reaction proceeds through a concerted mechanism with reasonably large barriers for the cases with one and two water molecules as reactants. For the two water case we found that the extra water molecule exhibits some catalytic role through the hydrogen transport relay effect and the barrier height is reduced substantially compared to the case with one water molecule. These two cases can be treated as ideal cases for the hot-core formation of the interstellar glycine. With an increasing number of water molecules as the reactants, we found that when the numbers of water molecules are three or more than three, the barrier height reduced so drastically that the transition states were more stable than the reactants. Such a situation gives a clear indication that with excess water molecules as the reactants, this reaction will be feasible even under the low temperature conditions existing in the cold interstellar clouds and the exothermic nature of the reaction will be the driving force. PMID:26616741

  18. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  19. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  20. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  1. Hypercars: speeding the transition to solar hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.D. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A discontinuous transformation now underway in automotive technology may accelerate the transition to transportation powered by solar hydrogen. Even using internal-combustion engines, ultralight, ultraslippery, advanced-composite, hybrid-electric ``hypercars`` can be severalfold lighter and lower-drag than present steel cars; many times more efficient and over two orders of magnitude cleaner; yet equally safe, sporty, comfortable, durable, beautiful and (probably) affordable. The required design integration is technically and culturally difficult. Yet important manufacturing advantages permit a free-market commercialization strategy impelled not by government mandates or subsidies but by manufacturers` quest for competitive advantage and customers` desire for superior cars. (author)

  2. Canadian hydrogen safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian hydrogen safety program (CHSP) is a project initiative of the Codes and Standards Working Group of the Canadian transportation fuel cell alliance (CTFCA) that represents industry, academia, government, and regulators. The Program rationale, structure and contents contribute to acceptance of the products, services and systems of the Canadian Hydrogen Industry into the Canadian hydrogen stakeholder community. It facilitates trade through fair insurance policies and rates, effective and efficient regulatory approval procedures and accommodation of the interests of the general public. The Program integrates a consistent quantitative risk assessment methodology with experimental (destructive and non-destructive) failure rates and consequence-of-release data for key hydrogen components and systems into risk assessment of commercial application scenarios. Its current and past six projects include Intelligent Virtual Hydrogen Filling Station (IVHFS), Hydrogen clearance distances, comparative quantitative risk comparison of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) refuelling options; computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling validation, calibration and enhancement; enhancement of frequency and probability analysis, and Consequence analysis of key component failures of hydrogen systems; and fuel cell oxidant outlet hydrogen sensor project. The Program projects are tightly linked with the content of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 19 Hydrogen Safety. (author)

  3. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned...

  4. Worldwide clean energy system technology using hydrogen (WE-NET). subtask 5. Development of hydrogen transfer and storage technology (research and development of technologies for hydrogen transport and storage by hydrogen absorbing alloys); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). subtask 5. Suiso yuso chozo gijutsu no kaihatsu (bunsan yuso chozoyo suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a guiding principle of new hydrogen absorbing alloy design, case studies on the stationary hydrogen storage systems for multiple dwelling houses using hydrogen absorbing alloys and on the hydrogen fuel tank systems for a motor vehicle, and survey on development status in the world. As a result of the investigation of alloys, it was concluded that realization of hydrogen absorbing alloys with new target properties of the WE-NET Project is not easy through the current technology. It was found that two kinds of Mg-based and V-based high capacity materials must be selected as target alloys among current alloys, and that three techniques, i.e., ultra-fine microstructure, composite, and amorphousness, are effective for improving the hydrogen discharge property which has been a problem of these alloys. It was desired that the latest techniques are established by integrating these materials and techniques. It is necessary to promote the development of brake-through new materials by new concepts and technologies through the cooperation of national institutes, universities, and companies. 124 refs., 56 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. An Advanced Integrated Diffusion/Transport Method for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Very-High-Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

  6. An Advanced Integrated Diffusion/Transport Method for the Design, Analysis and Optimization of the Very-High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzad Rahnema; Dingkang Zhang; Abderrafi Ougouag; Frederick Gleicher

    2011-04-04

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated diffusion/transport (IDT) method to substantially improve the accuracy of nodal diffusion methods for the design and analysis of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Because of the presence of control rods in the reflector regions in the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR-VHTR), traditional nodal diffusion methods do not accurately model these regions, within which diffusion theory breaks down in the vicinity of high neutron absorption and steep flux gradients. The IDT method uses a local transport solver based on a new incident flux response expansion method in the controlled nodes. Diffusion theory is used in the rest of the core. This approach improves the accuracy of the core solution by generating transport solutions of controlled nodes while maintaining computational efficiency by using diffusion solutions in nodes where such a treatment is sufficient. The transport method is initially developed and coupled to the reformulated 3-D nodal diffusion model in the CYNOD code for PBR core design and fuel cycle analysis. This method is also extended to the prismatic VHTR. The new method accurately captures transport effects in highly heterogeneous regions with steep flux gradients. The calculations of these nodes with transport theory avoid errors associated with spatial homogenization commonly used in diffusion methods in reactor core simulators

  7. Renewable Hydrogen: Integration, Validation, and Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.

    2008-07-01

    This paper is about producing hydrogen through the electrolysis of water and using the hydrogen in a fuel cell or internal combustion engine generator to produce electricity during times of peak demand, or as a transportation fuel.

  8. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  9. Proceedings of the Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium. Advances of electric drive in urban transportation systems; Actes du colloque Prop'Elec 2000. Progres de la traction electrique dans les transports urbains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of Prop'Elec 2000 colloquium on the advances in electric power drive in urban transportation systems. The colloquium comprises 5 sessions dealing with: 1 - public collective electric-powered transportation system: synthesis of urban guided systems (C. Soulas, INRETS), the fast travelator (A. Cote, RATP), the power supply system of METEOR automatic underground railway (P. Lagrange, W. Seiler, RATP); 2 - electrical drive in urban transportation systems: start-up of a thermal engine with super-capacitors (D. Bouquain (CREEBEL), H. Gualous, A. Djerdir, A. Berthon, J.M. Kauffmann (L2ES, IGE)), The LEV (light weight electric vehicle) project in Mendrisio (U. Schwegler, LEV/Suisse), prototype of electrical bike that use a wheel-engine (C. Espanet, F. Gustin, J.M. Kauffmann (IGE), S. Robert, M. Karmous (EICN)), TWIL: a new generation of small electrical bikes (E. Escallot, T. Bontems (EPMI)), thermal and magnetic analysis of a rectilinear movement actuator (J.C. Vannier, M. Kadiri (SUPELEC)), torque undulation and vibrations in automobile electrical drives (A.L. Bui-Van (Renault), A. Fonseca (LEG)); 3 - collective electric-powered transportation systems: STARS: autonomous transportation system with flywheel charging at the station (P. Gibard (Alstom Transport), K. Abuda, J.M. Vinassa (IXL Bordeaux)), Translhor tramway: presentation of the drive system (L. Verdier, LHOR); 4 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: batteries for electric-powered vehicles (J.F. Fauvarque, CNAM), Li-ion batteries and their application in automotive industry (T. Faugeras, SAFT), optimized drive systems for electric-powered vehicles (J. Saint-Michel, Leroy Somer), the Citroen Xsara Dynactive (S. Derou, PSA), 5 - electric-powered and hybrid vehicles: the electrical car in tomorrows' city (M. Parent, INRIA), the market of electric-powered vehicles in France and Europe (M. Valet, PSA). (J.S.)

  10. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  11. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  13. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  14. Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for reversible Hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

    2010-02-28

    This program was devoted to significantly extending the limits of hydrogen storage technology for practical transportation applications. To meet the hydrogen capacity goals set forth by the DOE, solid-state materials consisting of light elements were developed. Many light element compounds are known that have high capacities. However, most of these materials are thermodynamically too stable, and they release and store hydrogen much too slowly for practical use. In this project we developed new light element chemical systems that have high hydrogen capacities while also having suitable thermodynamic properties. In addition, we developed methods for increasing the rates of hydrogen exchange in these new materials. The program has significantly advanced (1) the application of combined hydride systems for tuning thermodynamic properties and (2) the use of nanoengineering for improving hydrogen exchange. For example, we found that our strategy for thermodynamic tuning allows both entropy and enthalpy to be favorably adjusted. In addition, we demonstrated that using porous supports as scaffolds to confine hydride materials to nanoscale dimensions could improve rates of hydrogen exchange by > 50x. Although a hydrogen storage material meeting the requirements for commercial development was not achieved, this program has provided foundation and direction for future efforts. More broadly, nanoconfinment using scaffolds has application in other energy storage technologies including batteries and supercapacitors. The overall goal of this program was to develop a safe and cost-effective nanostructured light-element hydride material that overcomes the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers to hydrogen reaction and diffusion in current materials and thereby achieve > 6 weight percent hydrogen capacity at temperatures and equilibrium pressures consistent with DOE target values.

  15. Market brief : the hydrogen and fuel cells industry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the Swedish hydrogen industry was presented in this report, which also outlined some of the partnership opportunities available for Canadian hydrogen industry members. Details of research and development in Sweden's hydrogen and fuel cells sector were described. It was noted that in 2006, the Swedish government announced its plan to become the world's first oil-free economy by the year 2020. The development and use of hydrogen and fuel cell energy systems are seen as key to achieving their objectives. The EU's sixth Framework Programme (FP6) has dedicated an estimated $2.5 billion to fuel cells and hydrogen initiatives, and is working towards a target of 5 per cent EC road transport to be hydrogen-powered by 2020. Although Sweden's fuel cell development in a commercial environment had stagnated with the failure of Asea's work in alkaline fuel cells, larger energy utilities are now investing in hydrogen technology and have been responsible for the installation of Sweden's first hydrogen fuelling station in 2003. It was concluded that technological advances in stationary and portable fuel cell systems in Canada may offer good business opportunities for Canadian companies who wish to create partnerships with Sweden and other Nordic countries. Over the last 20 years, the government of Canada has provided more than $200 million in support of emerging Canadian fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. In 2005, the National Research Council's Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation hosted the Nordic-Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Partnership between Canada and Nordic countries. 55 refs

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  17. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  18. A hydrogen utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert S. [National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation and stationary applications is receiving much favorable attention as a technical and policy issue. However, the widespread introduction of this technology is likely also to have negative consequences that are not being actively discussed in broad public forums. Such possibilities include, among others, delayed development of other energy alternatives, hazards of catalyst or hydride metals, disruptive employment shifts, land usage conflicts, and increased vehicle usage. Even though hydrogen is likely to be beneficial in its overall societal and environmental effects, hydrogen technology advocates must understand the range of problematic issues and prepare to address them. (Author)

  19. A Hydrogen Utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Robert Stephen; Reynolds, Bruce Allen

    2004-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation and stationary applications is receiving much favorable attention as a technical and policy issue. However, the widespread introduction of this technology is likely also to have negative consequences that are not being actively discussed in broad public forums. Such possibilities include, among others, delayed development of other energy alternatives, hazards of catalyst or hydride metals, disruptive employment shifts, land usage conflicts, and increased vehicle usage. Even though hydrogen is likely to be beneficial in its overall societal and environmental effects, hydrogen technology advocates must understand the range of problematic issues and prepare to address them.

  20. Photoinduced hydrogen-bonding dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Xu, Jinmei

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen bonding dynamics has received extensive research attention in recent years due to the significant advances in femtolaser spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. Usually, photoexcitation would cause changes in the hydrogen bonding formed through the interaction between hydrogen donor and acceptor molecules on their ground electronic states, and such transient strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonding could be crucial for the photophysical transformations and the subsequent photochemical reactions that occurred on a time scale from tens of femtosecond to a few nanoseconds. In this article, we review the combined experimental and theoretical studies focusing on the ultrafast electronic and vibrational hydrogen bonding dynamics. Through these studies, new mechanisms and proposals and common rules have been put forward to advance our understanding of the hydrogen bondings dynamics in a variety of important photoinduced phenomena like photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer processes, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network including forming and breaking hydrogen bond in water. Graphical Abstract We review the recent advances on exploring the photoinduced hydrogen bonding dynamics in solutions through a joint approach of laser spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The reviewed studies have put forward a new mechanism, new proposal, and new rule for a variety of photoinduced phenomena such as photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, and rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network in water. PMID:27491849

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on International Summer School on Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Collet, P; Métens, S; Neishtadt, A; Zaslavsky, G; Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    2005-01-01

    This book offers a modern updated review on the most important activities in today dynamical systems and statistical mechanics by some of the best experts in the domain. It gives a contemporary and pedagogical view on theories of classical and quantum chaos and complexity in hamiltonian and ergodic systems and their applications to anomalous transport in fluids, plasmas, oceans and atom-optic devices and to control of chaotic transport. The book is issued from lecture notes of the International Summer School on "Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems" held in Cargèse (Corsica) 18th to the 30th August 2003. It reflects the spirit of the School to provide lectures at the post-doctoral level on basic concepts and tools. The first part concerns ergodicity and mixing, complexity and entropy functions, SRB measures, fractal dimensions and bifurcations in hamiltonian systems. Then, models of dynamical evolutions of transport processes in classical and quantum systems have been largely expla...

  2. 75 FR 75641 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... notification to Native American Tribes of transportation of certain types of nuclear waste (64 FR 71331... ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951; May 4, 1994) and... Register (62 FR 46517; Sept. 3, 1997), this proposed rule would be a matter of compatibility between...

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  4. Advances in colloid and biocolloid transport in porous media: particle size-dependent dispersivity and gravity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.

    2014-05-01

    Accurate prediction of colloid and biocolloid transport in porous media relies heavily on usage of suitable dispersion coefficients. The widespread procedure for dispersion coefficient determination consists of conducting conservative tracer experiments and subsequently fitting the collected breakthrough data with a selected advection-dispersion transport model. The fitted dispersion coefficient is assumed to characterize the porous medium and is often used thereafter to analyze experimental results obtained from the same porous medium with other solutes, colloids, and biocolloids. The classical advection-dispersion equation implies that Fick's first law of diffusion adequately describes the dispersion process, or that the dispersive flux is proportional to the concentration gradient. Therefore, the above-described procedure inherently assumes that the dispersive flux of all solutes, colloids and biocolloids under the same flow field conditions is exactly the same. Furthermore, the available mathematical models for colloid and biocoloid transport in porous media do not adequately account for gravity effects. Here an extensive laboratory study was undertaken in order to assess whether the dispersivity, which traditionally has been considered to be a property of the porous medium, is dependent on colloid particle size, interstitial velocity and length scale. The breakthrough curves were successfully simulated with a mathematical model describing colloid and biocolloid transport in homogeneous, water saturated porous media. The results demonstrated that the dispersivity increases very slowly with increasing interstitial velocity, and increases with column length. Furthermore, contrary to earlier results, which were based either on just a few experimental observations or experimental conditions leading to low mass recoveries, dispersivity was positively correlated with colloid particle size. Also, transport experiments were performed with biocolloids (bacteriophages:

  5. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research

  6. Research Development and Commercialization Advances of Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell%氢能与燃料电池的研发及商业化进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘相敏; 林瑞; 李昕; 马建新

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen energy is considered as the most promising clean energy resource for 21 st century. In recent years, hydrogen ener and fuel cell technologies have made great progresses around the world, and start commercial deployments. Based on extensi' investigation, the global Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization involving hydrogen energy and fu cell in past two years are reviewed, and suggestions for hydrogen energy and fuel cell technologies Research, Development (R&D) China are put forward.%氢能被视为21世纪最具发展潜力的清洁能源,近年来以燃料电池技术为代表的氢能开发和利用已在全球各国取得巨大进展,并开始部分实现商业化.本文在广泛调研的基础上,综述了近两年来全球范围内氢能和燃料电池研发、示范和商业化发展的现状与趋势,并提出关于中国氢能与燃料电池技术研究发展的建议.

  7. Advice on the accelerated market implementation of advanced biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Platform for Sustainable Mobility aims to promote the accelerated market introduction of more sustainable motor fuels and vehicle technology. The Platform distinguishes four transition paths: hybridization of the fleet of cars; implementation of biofuels; hydrogen-fuelled driving (driving on natural gas and biogas); intelligent transport systems (ITS). This advice involves part of the transition path for the implementation of biofuels, i.e. accelerated market introduction of advances biofuels. [mk

  8. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best

  9. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  10. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  11. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  12. Hybrid deterministic and stochastic x-ray transport simulation for transmission computed tomography with advanced detector noise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Lucretiu M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a model for simulation of noisy X-ray computed tomography data sets. The model is made of two main components, a photon transport simulation component that generates the noiseless photon field incident on the detector, and a detector response model that takes as input the incident photon field parameters and given the X-ray source intensity and exposure time can generate noisy data sets, accordingly. The photon transport simulation component combines direct ray-tracing of polychromatic X-rays for calculation of transmitted data, with Monte Carlo simulation for calculation of the scattered-photon data. The Monte Carlo scatter simulation is accelerated by implementing particle splitting and importance sampling variance reduction techniques. The detector-incident photon field data are stored as energy expansion coefficients on a refined grid that covers the detector area. From these data the detector response model is able to generate noisy detector data realizations, by reconstituting the main parameters that describe each detector element response in statistical terms, including spatial correlations. The model is able to generate very fast, on the fly, CT data sets corresponding to different radiation doses, as well as detector response characteristics, facilitating data management in extensive optimization studies by reducing the computation time and storage space demands.

  13. Does Model Development Ahead of Data Collection Have Merit? A Case for Advancing Non-Local Fluvial Transport Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, V. R.; Falcini, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V.; Paola, C.; Hill, K. M.; Swenson, J. B.; Longjas, A.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to suggest how experiments might be constructed to provide data to test recently proposed phenomenological non-local model of depositional transport; formulated on the basis of morphological arguments but with limited data. A sound methodology for developing models of geological systems is to first collect significant data and then carefully identify an appropriate model form and parameters. An alternative approach is to construct what might be referred to as a phenomenological model, where limited observation of the system is used to suggest an appropriate mathematical form that matches the critical nature of the physical system behavior. By their nature, phenomenological models are often developed within a fairly narrow range of observations. In this way, interesting findings can occur when the models are modified and exercised across wider physical domains, in particular in domains where there is an absence of hard data to corroborate or invalidate the model predictions. Although this approach might be frown on my some, it is important to recognize the stellar and proven track record of phenomenological models, which despite the original scarcity of data, often pave the way to new perspectives and important findings. The poster child example is the Higgs boson. In the early 60's manipulation of the quantum field equations revealed a critical inconsistency related to the masses of fundamental particles that could only be mathematically resolved by assuming that they operated within a field that would exert drag; this conjecture took almost fifty years and the vast experimental operation of the Large Hadron Collider to physically confirm. In this work we examine a current phenomenological model used to describe non-local transport in fluvial sediment domains. This model has its genesis in attempting to describe the shapes of hill slope profiles, while acknowledging the fact that two points of the landscape with the same local slope are

  14. 产氢产甲烷两相厌氧发酵的研究进展%Research advances in two-phase anaerobic fermentation for hydrogen and methane production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏勃; 刘文辉; 袁林江

    2014-01-01

    产氢/产甲烷的两相厌氧技术在国内外受到普遍关注,如何提高产氢反应器的氢气产率和系统生物能源的高效转化成为两相厌氧研究的关键问题。总结了近年来两相厌氧技术研究和应用的最新成果,介绍了两相厌氧基质利用的运行情况、相分离的优势及两相中的优势菌种。同时,就氢/甲烷两相厌氧发酵的前景提出了建议。%Extensively attention has been paid to the two-phase anaerobic process for hydrogen and methane produc-tion in China and abroad. How to improve the hydrogen productivity of hydrogen producing reactor and efficient con-version of system bio-energy sources have become the key problem of two-phase anaerobic research. Recent ad-vances in the research on two-phase anaerobic technology and application of the newest achievement are summa-rized. The running situation of the two-phase anaerobic substrate utilization ,the superiority of phase separation and the predominant strains in two phases are introduced. Furthermore ,suggestions on the prospect concerning two-phase anaerobic fermentation for hydrogen and methane production have been made.

  15. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  16. On the possibility of determining the radial profile of hydrogen isotope composition of JET plasmas, and of deducing radial transport of the isotope ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of internal hydrogen isotopic composition of plasmas in JET and elsewhere have been lacking. In this report we show that it is feasible to determine the profile of relative hydrogen isotope density, using a neutral particle analyzer. Using detailed modeling of the formation of atomic flux and its measurement, we have quantified sensitivity of the deduced plasma composition to uncertainty of plasma parameters that impact on the measurement. We have tested application of the proposed methodology by experimentally determining the perturbed deuteron density profile in a hydrogen plasma, when the deuteron density at the plasma edge was modulated using a short pulse of deuterium gas. We have also determined the deuteron density diffusivity. The determinations are very crude at present; however this exercise is intended to enable us to design better experiments to determine plasma isotopic composition and the radial isotope ion diffusivities. (author)

  17. An advanced model for grain face diffusion transport in irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel. Part 2: Model implementation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, V.I. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52, B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation); Veshchunov, M.S., E-mail: vms@ibrae.ac.r [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Russian Academy of Sciences, 52, B. Tulskaya, Moscow 115191 (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The advanced model for intergranular diffusion transport in irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel described in Part 1 is numerically realized. The important model parameters are specified and improvement of the model for the irradiation induced re-solution of gas atoms from the intergranular bubbles is carried out. Implementation of the model in the MFPR code and numerical treatment of various available data on gas release from irradiated fuel and grain face microstructure show a satisfactory agreement of the code predictions with experimental observations. In particular, the main model prediction concerning the onset of gas release from fuel at very low grain face bubble coverage, below the saturation value manifested by formation of bubble network on grain faces, was confirmed by calculations.

  18. Shifting renewable energy in transport into the next gear. Developing a methodology for taking into account all electricity, hydrogen and methane from renewable sources in the 10% transport target; Hernieuwbare energie in transport naar een hogere versnelling. Ontwikkeling van een methode dat rekening houdt met alle elektriciteit, waterstof en methaan uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de 10% transportdoelsteling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Leguijt, C.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Wentrup, K.; Dreblow, E.; Gruenig, M. [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, P.; Wurster, R.; Weindorf, W. [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik, Muenchen-Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The European Union has set a 10% target of renewable energy use in the transport sector for 2020 in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED, 2009/28/EC). This directive also defines the associated calculation methodologies, for biofuels and renewable electricity used in transport. Regarding biofuels, only those biofuels can contribute that are actually used in the transport sector. The contribution of electricity from renewable sources is treated somewhat differently, as it is typically taken from the electricity grid, where the exact source of the energy used is not monitored: Member States should use the average share of renewable electricity production in their calculations. The RED required the European Commission to present, if appropriate, a proposal to consider the whole amount of the electricity from renewable sources used to power electric vehicles, as well as a methodology to include the contribution of hydrogen from renewable sources in the transport sector. At the same time, there is the question how biomethane injected into the natural gas grid should be counted towards the transport target if vehicles are filled from that same grid - a similar route to that of electricity use in transport. DG Energy of the Commission needs to be supported in the decision making process related to these three routes: renewable electricity, hydrogen and biomethane use in transport, where distribution is taking place via national grids. The result is a comprehensive report in which different methodological options are designed and assessed, and conclusions are drawn, both for the short to medium term (until 2020) and the longer term (post-2020). In the short term, where the contribution of these routes is still limited, a relatively simple approach will be sufficient, but more sophisticated monitoring methodologies may be needed in the future, depending on the way these routes develop [Dutch] In de Richtlijn Hernieuwbare Energie (RED, 2009/28/EC) heeft de Europese Unie

  19. Shifting renewable energy in transport into the next gear. Developing a methodology for taking into account all electricity, hydrogen and methane from renewable sources in the 10% transport target; Hernieuwbare energie in transport naar een hogere versnelling. Ontwikkeling van een methode dat rekening houdt met alle elektriciteit, waterstof en methaan uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de 10% transportdoelsteling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Leguijt, C.; Bennink, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Wentrup, K.; Dreblow, E.; Gruenig, M. [Ecologic Institute, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, P.; Wurster, R.; Weindorf, W. [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik, Muenchen-Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The European Union has set a 10% target of renewable energy use in the transport sector for 2020 in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED, 2009/28/EC). This directive also defines the associated calculation methodologies, for biofuels and renewable electricity used in transport. Regarding biofuels, only those biofuels can contribute that are actually used in the transport sector. The contribution of electricity from renewable sources is treated somewhat differently, as it is typically taken from the electricity grid, where the exact source of the energy used is not monitored: Member States should use the average share of renewable electricity production in their calculations. The RED required the European Commission to present, if appropriate, a proposal to consider the whole amount of the electricity from renewable sources used to power electric vehicles, as well as a methodology to include the contribution of hydrogen from renewable sources in the transport sector. At the same time, there is the question how biomethane injected into the natural gas grid should be counted towards the transport target if vehicles are filled from that same grid - a similar route to that of electricity use in transport. DG Energy of the Commission needs to be supported in the decision making process related to these three routes: renewable electricity, hydrogen and biomethane use in transport, where distribution is taking place via national grids. The result is a comprehensive report in which different methodological options are designed and assessed, and conclusions are drawn, both for the short to medium term (until 2020) and the longer term (post-2020). In the short term, where the contribution of these routes is still limited, a relatively simple approach will be sufficient, but more sophisticated monitoring methodologies may be needed in the future, depending on the way these routes develop [Dutch] In de Richtlijn Hernieuwbare Energie (RED, 2009/28/EC) heeft de Europese Unie

  20. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study

  1. Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

    1999-12-15

    OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

  2. Advanced Approaches to Greatly Reduce Hydrogen Gas Crossover Losses in PEM Electrolyzers Operating at High Pressures and Low Current Densities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ElectroChem proposes technology advances in its unique PEM IFF water electrolyzer design to meet the NASA requirement for an electrolyzer that will operate very...

  3. Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. Main report; Contribution to IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. In discussions of the advantages and drawbacks of ethanol, the type of application is important. Generalization is not possible, because ethanol can be used in many forms. Furthermore, a wide range of ethanol/gasoline blends has not yet been investigated sufficiently. The most favorable type of application is determined by infrastructural factors, especially vehicle fleet configuration. From a technical point of view, optimal usage involves a high degree of water content in the ethanol, and this excludes low-percentage-ethanol fuels. The benefits seem strongly related to the amount of ethanol in a given blend, that is, the more the better. Both engine efficiencies and emissions improve with more ethanol in the fuel. Wet ethanol constitutes an even cleaner fuel in both the production and application phases. In summary, ethanol application has many possibilities, but with each type of application comes a set of challenges. Nevertheless, technical solutions for each challenge are available. (ln)

  4. Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability.

  5. Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability

  6. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  7. Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  8. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to

  9. Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCV), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen Fuel Cell plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions for 2030. The study includes an analysis of data on distance currently travelled by private car users daily in the UK. Results show that there may be diminishing economic returns for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) with battery sizes above 20 kWh, and the optimum size for a PHEV battery is between 5 and 15 kWh. Differences in behaviour as a function of vehicle size are demonstrated, which decreases the percentage of miles that can be economically driven using electricity for a larger vehicle. Decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation by 80% favours larger optimum battery sizes as long as carbon is priced, and will reduce emissions considerably. However, the model does not take into account reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from hydrogen generation, assuming hydrogen will still be produced from steam reforming methane in 2030. - Research highlights: → Report diminishing returns for plug-in hybrids with battery sizes above 20 kWh. → The optimum size for a PHEV battery is between 5 and 15 kWh. → Current behaviour decreases percentage electric only miles for larger vehicles. → Low carbon electricity favours larger battery sizes as long as carbon is priced. → Reinforces that the FCHEV is a cheaper option than conventional ICE vehicles in 2030.

  10. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  11. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    might look like. A theoretical beam transport system is presented at the end of this dissertation. It shows us that pulse power magnetic optics generating reasonable field strengths can transport a large bandwidth, high kinetic energy proton beam around and into a patient. This gives us insight into the spectrum available per laser pulse at the exit-port of the gantry as well as what types of dose deposition routines and spectral shaping techniques will need to be developed to contour a given dose to a given tumor volume.

  12. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  13. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  14. The role of lock-in mechanisms in transition processes: The case of energy for road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Bolwig, Simon; Hansen, Teis;

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the theoretical concepts of lock-in mechanisms to analyse transition processes in energy production and road transportation in the Nordic countries, focussing on three technology platforms: advanced biofuels, e-mobility and hydrogen and fuel cell electrical vehicles. The paper...

  15. Electrolytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, M. P. S.

    In the role of a secondary energy carrier complementary to electricity in a postfossil-fuel era, hydrogen produced by the elecrolytic splitting of water may be obtained by a variety of methods whose technology development status is presently assessed. Nuclear heat can be converted into hydrogen either directly, via thermal splitting of water, or by means of water electrolysis, which can be of the unipolar tank type or the bipolar filter-press type. An evaluation is made of advanced electrolytic techniques involving exotic materials, as well as solid polymer electrolyte electrolysis and high-temperature water-vapor electrolysis.

  16. Advances in applications of burnup credit to enhance spent fuel transportation, storage, reprocessing and disposition. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given a trend towards higher burnup power reactor fuel, the IAEA began an active programme in burnup credit (BUC) with major meetings in 1997 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013), 2000 (IAEA-TECDOC-1241) and 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC-1378) exploring worldwide interest in using BUC in spent fuel management systems. This publication contains the proceedings of the IAEA's 4th major BUC meeting, held in London. Sixty participants from 18 countries addressed calculation methodology, validation and criticality, safety criteria, procedural compliance with safety criteria, benefits of BUC applications, and regulatory aspects in BUC. This meeting encouraged the IAEA to continue its activities on burnup credit including dissemination of related information, given the number of Member States having to deal with increased spent fuel quantities and extended durations. A 5th major meeting on burnup credit is planned 2008. Burnup credit is a concept that takes credit for the reduced reactivity of fuel discharged from the reactor to improve loading density of irradiated fuel assemblies in storage, transportation, and disposal applications, relative to the assumption of fresh fuel nuclide inventories in loading calculations. This report has described a general four phase approach to be considered in burnup credit implementation. Much if not all of the background research and data acquisition necessary for successful burnup credit development in preparation for licensing has been completed. Many fuel types, facilities, and analysis methods are encompassed in the public knowledge base, such that in many cases this guidance will provide a means for rapid development of a burnup credit program. For newer assembly designs, higher enrichment fuels, and more extensive nuclide credit, additional research and development may be necessary, but even this work can build on the foundation that has been established to date. Those, it is hoped that this report will serve as a starting point with sufficient reference to

  17. Support of a pathway to a hydrogen future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which outline the content of the presentation. Subjects addressed include: hydrogen research program vision; electricity industry restructuring -- opportunities and challenges for hydrogen; transportation sector -- opportunities for hydrogen; near-term and mid-term opportunities for hydrogen; and hydrogen production technologies from water. It is concluded that the global climate change challenge is the potential driver for the development of hydrogen systems.

  18. Hydrogen uptake in vanadium first wall structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, E.P.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Evaluation of hydrogen sources and transport are needed to assess the mechanical integrity of V structures. Two sources include implantation and transmutation. The proposed coatings for the DEMO and ITER first wall strongly influence retention of hydrogen isotopes. Upper limit calculations of hydrogen inventory were based on recycling to the plasma and an impermeable coolant-side coating. Hydrogen isotope concentrations in V approaching 1,000 appm may be activated.

  19. Designed synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes@Cu@MoS2 hybrid as advanced electrocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Jing; Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xinzhe; Fang, Yiyun; Jiao, Lixin; An, Xincai; Fu, Yan; Jin, Jun; Li, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Design and synthesis of non-precious-metal catalyst for efficient electrochemical transformation of water to molecular hydrogen in acid environments is of paramount importance in reducing energy losses during the water splitting process. Here, the hybrid material of MoS2-coated Cu loaded on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs@Cu@MoS2) was synthesized using chemical process and hydrothermal method. It was found that the participation of MWCNTs and Cu nanoparticles not only improved the electrical conductivity of the catalyst, but also further enhanced the catalytic activity by synergistic effect with edge-exposed MoS2-coating. Electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the catalyst exhibited excellent hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with large cathode currents (small overpotential of 184 mV for 10 mA cm-2 current density) and a Tafel slope as small as 62 mV per decade. Furthermore, it was discovered that the current density of this composite catalyst had a little decrease after the continual 1000 cycling, which showed the catalyst had a high stability in the recycling process. These findings confirmed that this catalyst was a useful and earth-abundant material for water splitting.

  20. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  1. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  2. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  3. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. O' Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  4. Hydrogen Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  5. Fluid-particle hybrid simulation on the transports of plasma, recycling neutrals, and carbon impurities in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research divertor region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Kyu; Hong, Sang Hee

    2005-06-01

    A two-dimensional simulation modeling that has been performed in a self-consistent way for analysis on the fully coupled transports of plasma, recycling neutrals, and intrinsic carbon impurities in the divertor domain of tokamaks is presented. The numerical model coupling the three major species transports in the tokamak edge is based on a fluid-particle hybrid approach where the plasma is described as a single magnetohydrodynamic fluid while the neutrals and impurities are treated as kinetic particles using the Monte Carlo technique. This simulation code is applied to the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) tokamak [G. S. Lee, J. Kim, S. M. Hwang et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 575 (2000)] to calculate the peak heat flux on the divertor plate and to explore the divertor plasma behavior depending on the upstream conditions in its base line operation mode for various values of input heating power and separatrix plasma density. The numerical modeling for the KSTAR tokamak shows that its full-powered operation is subject to the peak heat loads on the divertor plate exceeding an engineering limit, and reveals that the recycling zone is formed in front of the divertor by increasing plasma density and by reducing power flow into the scrape-off layer. Compared with other researchers' work, the present hybrid simulation more rigorously reproduces severe electron pressure losses along field lines by the presence of recycling zone accounting for the transitions between the sheath limited and the detached divertor regimes. The substantial profile changes in carbon impurity population and ionic composition also represent the key features of this divertor regime transition.

  6. Hydrogen energy stations: along the roadside to the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen has become more than an international topic of discussion within government and among industry. With the public announcements from the European Union and American governments and an Executive Order from the Governor of California, hydrogen has become a ''paradigm change'' targeted toward changing decades of economic and societal behaviours. The public demand for clean and green energy as well as being ''independent'' or not located in political or societal conflict areas, has become paramount. The key issues are the commitment of governments through public policies along with corporations. Above all, secondly, the advancement of hydrogen is regional as it depends upon infrastructure and fuel resources. Hence, the hydrogen economy, to which the hydrogen highway is the main component, will be regional and creative. New jobs, businesses and opportunities are already emerging. And finally, the costs for the hydrogen economy are critical. The debate as to hydrogen being 5 years away from being commercial and available in the marketplace versus needing more research and development contradicts the historical development and deployment of any new technology be it bio-science, flat panel displays, computers or mobile phones. The market drivers are government regulations and standards soon thereafter matched by market forces and mass production. Hydrogen is no different. What this paper does is describes is how the hydrogen highway is the backbone to the hydrogen economy by becoming, with the next five years, both regional and commercial through supplying stationary power to communities. Soon thereafter, within five to ten years, these same hydrogen stations will be serving hundreds and then thousands of hydrogen fuel powered vehicles. Hydrogen is the fuel for distributed energy generation and hence positively impacts the future of public and private power generators. The paradigm has already changed. (author)

  7. Proceedings of the 1992 DOE/NREL hydrogen program review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Gao, Q.H.; Miller, E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Natural Energy Inst.

    1992-07-01

    These proceedings contain 18 papers presented at the meeting. While the majority of the papers (11) had to do with specific hydrogen production methods, other papers were related to hydrogen storage systems, evaluations of and systems analysis for a hydrogen economy, and environmental transport of hydrogen from a pipeline leak.

  8. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  9. Advanced Nodal P3/SP3 Axial Transport Solvers for the MPACT 2D/1D Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimpson, Shane G [ORNL; Collins, Benjamin S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    As part of its initiative to provide multiphysics simulations of nuclear reactor cores, the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS). The MPACT code, which is the primary neutron transport solver of VERA-CS, employs the two-dimensional/one-dimensional (2D/1D) method to solve 3-dimensional neutron transport problems and provide sub-pin-level resolution of the power distribution. While 2D method of characteristics is used to solve for the transport effects within each plane, 1D-nodal methods are used axially. There have been extensive studies of the 2D/1D method with a variety nodal methods, and the P3/SP3 solver has proved to be an effective method of providing higher-fidelity solutions while maintaining a low computational burden.The current implementation in MPACT wraps a one-node nodal expansion method (NEM) kernel for each moment, iterating between them and performing multiple sweeps to resolve flux distributions. However, it has been observed that this approach is more sensitive to convergence problems. This paper documents the theory and application two new nodal P3/SP3 approaches to be used within the 2D/1D method in MPACT. These two approaches aim to provide enhanced stability compared with the pre-existing one-node approach. Results from the HY-NEM-SP3 solver show that the accuracy is consistent with the one-node formulations and provides improved convergence for some problems; but the solver has issues with cases in thin planes. Although the 2N-SENM-SP3 solver is still under development, it is intended to resolve the issues with HY-NEM-SP3 but it will incur some additional computational burden by necessitating an additional 1D-CMFD-P3 solver to generate the second moment cell-averaged scalar flux.

  10. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  11. CFD analysis for the hydrogen transport in the primary contention of a BWR using the codes OpenFOAM and Gas-Flow; Analisis CFD para el transporte de hidrogeno en la contencion primaria de un reactor BWR usando los codigos OpenFOAM y GasFlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez P, D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The accidents in Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the United States (March 28{sup th}, 1979), the one in Unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl in Ukraine (April 26{sup th}, 1986) and the explosions in some units of Fukushima NPP in Japan (March 11{sup th}, 2011) boosted the investigations on severe accidents with core damage and, in particular, the threat to the ultimate barrier by an eventual explosion from uncontrolled Hydrogen combustion within the containment was considered of particular relevance. Research programs for analyzing Hydrogen behavior and control during this kind of accidents were early initiated by research and regulatory bodies. Assessment on Hydrogen behavior once it has been postulated to be released on the containment system can be divided into two phases, in the first one, transport and the concentrations of the gas mixtures and steam in each volume or area comprised between the structures of the containment are calculated, in the second one, the propagation of the detonation of the Hydrogen is calculated if there are the conditions to occur. Currently, there are computer programs that can be used in one, or both stages of computation, and they are based on one of the two solution methods in current use, one of them are integrated codes (e.g. MELCOR), which consists in assuming the containment as a network composed of hydraulic tanks or nodes on which the balance equations of mass and energy have to be solved, the network is connected by ducts or connections where the momentum balance equation arise. This methodology relies on the use of semi-empirical relationships and the criteria used to define a geometric pattern, are subjective. The second method, which is having relevance due to the large computing power of modern computers, is the numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in complex geometries. This method of solution is known as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and offers the advantage of

  12. Can hydrogen win?: exploring scenarios for hydrogen fuelled vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Muncaster, Katherine Aminta

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the conditions under which hydrogen might succeed in Canada’s transportation sector in a carbon-constrained world. Long-run simulations were created using CIMS, a hybrid energy-economy model that is technologically explicit, behaviourally realistic, and incorporates drivers of technological change. A hydrogen supply submodel was built to simulate economies of scale in infrastructure. Capital costs, technology performance, infrastructure, fuel prices, and other conditions w...

  13. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emission and energy efficiency of hydrogen fuel cell scooters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang [Department of Greenergy, National University of Taiwan, Tainan (China); Chang, Wei Ru [Department of Landscape Architecture, FuJen Catholic University, Taipei (China)

    2010-11-15

    The well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy conservation and greenhouse gas emission of advanced scooters associated with new transportation fuels is studied in the present work. Focus is placed on fuel cell scooter technologies, while the gasoline-powered scooter equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE) serves as a reference technology. The effect of various pathways of hydrogen production on the well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency for energy is examined. Both near-term and long-term hydrogen production options are explored, such as purification of coke oven gas (COG), steam reforming of natural gas, water electrolysis by generation mix and renewable electricity, and gasification of herbaceous biomass. Then, the WTW efficiency of fuel cell scooters for various hydrogen production options is compared with that of the conventional ICE scooters and electric scooters. Results showed that the fuel cell scooters fueled with COG-based hydrogen could achieve the highest reduction benefits in energy consumption and GHG emission. Finally, the potential for hydrogen production from COG resulting from the coking process in steelworks is evaluated, which is anticipated as a near-term hydrogen production for helping transition to a hydrogen energy economy in Taiwan. (author)

  14. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  15. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  16. Hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rozendal, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    cum laude graduation (with distinction) To replace fossil fuels, society is currently considering alternative clean fuels for transportation. Hydrogen could be such a fuel. In theory, large amounts of renewable hydrogen can be produced from organic contaminants in wastewater. During his PhD research René Rozendal has developed a new technology for this purpose: biocatalyzed electrolysis. The innovative step of biocatalyzed electrolysis is the application of electrochemically active microorgan...

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  18. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  19. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from